Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

Relationship between tool flank wear area and


component forces in single point turning
Sumit Kanti Sikdar, Mingyuan Chen*
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University,
1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Que., Canada H3G 1M8
Received 30 October 2001; received in revised form 4 April 2002; accepted 26 June 2002

Abstract
This paper describes the relationship between flank wear area and cutting forces for turning operations. A set of experiments were
performed on a CNC lathe without coolant. The CNMG120412N-UJ tool insert was used to cut low alloy steel (AISI 4340). Flank wear
surface area was measured by surface texture instrument (Form TalysurfTM series) using a software package. Cutting forces were measured by
a KistlerTM piezo-electric dynamometer. The experimental results show that there is an increase in the three directional components of the
cutting force with increase in flank wear area. Among the three cutting forces measured, the tangential force is the largest while the radial force
is the smallest. However, when the tool insert begins to fail, all the three cutting forces increase sharply, especially so for the axial and radial
cutting forces. The radial force was also found to be slightly larger than the axial force when tool begins to fail. This paper also presents
mathematical modeling for better understanding of the relationship between flank wear area and cutting forces. The mathematical models
were solved by Matlab.
# 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cutting force; Flank wear surface area

1. Introduction
Tool wear is a complex phenomenon occurring in different ways. Generally, worn tools adversely affect surface
finish of the workpiece; therefore there is a need to develop
tool-monitoring systems. This would alert the operator to the
state of a tool and avoid undesirable consequences. The
quest to develop a continuous monitoring system of tool
wear in a metal cutting operation is of great significance and
importance in underpinning and achieving the desired goal.
Two methods that hold the most promise for tool wear
monitoring are cutting forces and acoustic emission. One
of the most promising techniques for tool wear detection and
breakage involves the measurement of cutting forces. In
turning operations, it is convenient to consider the forces as a
three-component system. These are the tangential component, the axial component and the radial component. The
components of the cutting forces in metal cutting operations
provide a wealth of information on the metal removal
process. Changes in these forces indicate changes in machining parameters, such as depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed
and condition of tool. Thus the accuracy of machining
*

Corresponding author.

operations could be improved through the cutting force feed


back. Many attempts have been made to use cutting forces
for tool wear monitoring. Even though some interesting
results have been obtained using forces for tool wear monitoring, they are not universal and hence commercial systems have to be trained for given operations and
components. Jawahir et al. [1] developed a new methodology for tool wear evaluation in machining with grooved
tools through a parametric approach involving chip-groove
features. They investigated the effects of chip flow, chipgroove features and cutting conditions on progressive tool
wear and the derivation of a new tool life relationship to
include the chip-groove effect and tool coating effect factors. Giusti et al. [2] developed a sensor based on TV image
analysis of a worn tool. The flank wear was measured by the
active cutting part from a proper direction. The crater wear
was visualised by imaging the tool with a laser system. From
the obtained image, it is possible to extract the position and
the dimensions of the crater to obtain a complete mapping.
Andreasen and De Chiffre [3] developed an automatic
system for chip breaking detection in turning for laboratory
use. The system utilises a detection technique based on
frequency analysis of the dynamic feed force component.
The ability to identify chip breaking has been demonstrated

0924-0136/02/$ see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 9 2 4 - 0 1 3 6 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 4 5 3 - 3

S.K. Sikdar, M. Chen / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

using different lathes, cutting tools, workpiece materials and


cutting data. Nair et al. [4] developed a method for identifying chip formation, plowing and sliding forces in turning
from force transients. Wu [5] also developed a comprehensive cutting force model for analysing the dynamic behaviour of machining processes. The model was derived from
the principles of cutting mechanics.
Danai and Ulsoy [6] developed a dynamic state model of
tool wear for the design of an adaptive observer. The
observer was used for on-line tool wear sensing in turning
based on force measurement. Zhou et al. [7] designed and
implemented a real time monitoring system to monitor the
spontaneous failure of a cutting tool in a turning process.
The system includes a high-speed data acquisition subsystem and a graphic presentation subsystem. The strategy for
monitoring is based on the estimation of the stress in a
cutting tool. Elanayar and Shin [8] developed modelling
methods to separate the ploughing component of cutting
forces from the total measured forces. Since edge forces
are affected by the geometry of a cutting edge especially
for flank wear, a model of the ploughing process was
developed. In addition, the proposed model was used to
predict the effect of different tool material on wearforce
relationship. Martin et al. [9] presented a comparison of
different methods for tool wear assessments in turning.
Sensitivity of these methods was investigated and tabulated.
The wear detection methods investigated were vibration,
tool forces (tangential and axial) and power. Lister and
Barrow [10] studied the field of tool wear and tool failure
monitoring systems and discussed the relative merits of the
techniques proposed. Both tool wear and tool failures were
considered and the differences between direct and indirect
methods were highlighted. Jhita and Jain [11] investigated
the wear behaviour of tool operating under accelerated
cutting conditions. Experimentally it has been found that
tool flank wear during face turning follows an exponential
law instead of three stage flank wear normally observed in
conventional turning. Mackinnon et al. [12] studied multicomponent force measurements for the purpose of tool
condition monitoring during adaptively controlled metal
cutting on a turret lathe. A method of wear estimation for
carbide tools using a function of cutting forces was presented. Lim [13] presented the changes that can be detected
in the vibration signatures during machine turning operations. It was found that at various cutting speeds, the
vibration amplitudes consistently produce two peaks
throughout the life of the tool. Lin and Chen [14] studied
various cutting characteristics of a CBN tool in cutting
hardened steel. BZN tool inserts from General ElectricTM
were used to cut 52100 bearing steel (HRc 64) in the cutting
experiments. Based on the experimental results, certain
cutting characteristics, such as tool life, cutting forces,
surface roughness and tool wear were analysed. Du et al.
[15] carried out an investigation to establish a relationship
between cutting force fluctuations and surface formation in
face cutting using a sintered-carbide-cutting tool. Sampath

211

et al. [16] studied tool fracture probability using finite


element analysis for elastic tool stresses. An intensified
maximum tensile fracture against fracture stress in uniaxial
compression was presented. The results showed that the feed
cutting force component tends to zero before fracture occurs.
The tool was repeatedly forced radially into the workpiece
and then completely broke from the contact with the workpiece. Further research was carried out by Sampath et al.
[17]. They showed that fractures associated with workpiece
material adhering to the tool face are due to tensile stress
developed in the tool face. Tool wear was also investigated
by Milovic and Wise [18]. The experiments were done using
leaded 0.11% C free cutting tool with cemented carbide,
uncoated high-speed steel and titanium nitride coated highspeed steel. The results showed that using a higher rake
angle tool for low speed operations creates large built up
edge and poor surface finish. Looney et al. [19] studied the
influence of cutting speed on tool wear, surface finish and
cutting force for various tool materials. It was found that
carbide tools, both coated and uncoated, sustained significant levels of tool wear after a very short period of machining. From the literature survey, it is clear that although
significant research has been carried out on tool wear and
cutting force, there is insufficient research on the relationship between three-dimensional flank wear surface and
cutting forces in turning operations. Thus the main objective
of this study is to perform experimental testing on turning
operations in order to establish a relationship between threedimensional flank wear surface area and cutting force.

2. Experimental procedures
The cutting experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe.
Machining was carried on AISI 4340 steel using coated
carbide tool (Table 1). The tool holder was PCLNR 2525
Table 1
Specification of work material and cutting tool
Work material (AISI 4340 steel)
Typical analysis (%)

Hardness (HB)
Tooling details
Holder type
Tool type

End cutting edge angle c (8)


Side relief angle l (8)
End relief angle f (8)
Back rake angle a (8)
Side rake angle b (8)
Nose radius r (mm)
Side cutting edge angle d (8)

C: 0.380.43, Si: 0.150.35,


Mn: 0.600.80, Cr: 0.700.90,
Mo: 0.200.30, Ni: 1.652.00,
P: 0.035, max S: 0.040
277302
PCLNR 2525 M12
CNMG120412N-UJ
(coated carbide insert,
CVD coating, TiCN, TiC, Al2O3)
5
6
6
6
6
1.2
5

212

S.K. Sikdar, M. Chen / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

M12. No cutting fluid was used during the turning operations.


Experiments were carried out under different cutting speeds
in the ranges of 125145, 155165, and 170175 m/min.
Feed rates employed were 0.250.4 mm/rev and depth of cut
was 2 mm constant. Flank wear of the carbide insert was
measured using a digital microscope. Maximum flank wear
was recorded. The carbide insert was then taken out of the
measuring microscope and flank wear surface area was
measured by surface texture instrument (Form TalysurfTM
series) using a software package (Talymap). After that the
turning operation was resumed. This procedure was continued until the tool failed. The tool shank was attached to a
three-component piezo-electric dynamometer (KistlerTM
type 9121) mounted on the cross slide of the lathe. The
dynamometer was used to determine the cutting forces
exerted during the cutting operation. The three components
of the cutting force, axial, radial and tangential forces (Fig. 1)
were amplified with the charge amplifier (KistlerTM type
5011) and then plotted using Graphtec Multicorder Mc6625
plotter.
The flank wear surface of the cutting tool was measured by
a surface roughness measuring equipment (Form TalysurfTM
series). The entire three-dimensional surface topography
analysis facility is a computer-based system. The equipment
was designed to carry out accurate measurement of threedimensional surface topography at high magnification.
After levelling, the stylus comes in contact with the cutting
tool (mounted on the table). The movement of the stylus
from the initial position (selected) to final position (selected)
was then recorded. Incorporated into the system is a very
precise XY table, which has a step size of 1.25 mm and a
positional accuracy of 0.1 mm, on which the specimen is
located. The X-stage of the table has its axis of motion set
parallel to the motion of the TalysurfTM pick-up. Area data
of the specimen was recorded as a series of parallel traces.
For each trace, the variation in the height of the surface
of the specimen was recorded at a series of points which

Fig. 1. Cutting force components in turning.

are a function of the displacement of the X-stage. Multiple


parallel trace data was achieved by moving the Y-stage
between traces, with its axis of motion set normal to the
direction of the X-stage. The microcomputer co-ordinates
the movement of the XY table recording the deflection of
the TalysurfTM stylus.
To examine the three-dimensional flank wear surface of
a cutting tool, the software (Talymap) was installed in a
PC connected to the surface texture instrument (Form
TalysurfTM series). Talymap is a surface topography software package for use with various instruments such as
surface texture instrument, tunnelling microscopes (AFM
and STM), among others.

3. Experimental results and mathematical modeling


We first present the experimental results and then discuss
the use of polynomial equations to express the relationship
between the cutting forces and the flank wear areas. The
flank wear is caused by the abrasive and adhesive actions
between the cutting tool and the machined surface. It starts at
the cutting tip and then widens as the contact area increases,
thus forming the wear land. The width, shape and growth
rate of the wear land depend on the tool material, workpiece
material and cutting parameters. Figs. 24 show variations
of the three cutting force components with three-dimensional flank wear area for different cutting speeds. It can be
seen from these figures that all cutting forces increase with
the increase in flank wear surface area. Among the three
cutting forces measured, the tangential force (Ft) is the
largest and the radial cutting force (Fr) is the smallest.
When the tool insert begins to fail, all the three cutting
forces increase sharply, especially the axial and radial
forces. Tables 24 show experimental results at stages where
the tool insert begins to fail (i.e. at the final passes): for the
cutting condition (cutting speed v 125 m/min and feed
rate f 0:4 mm/rev) Ft increases by 5%, the axial force (Fa)
increases by 13% and Fr increases by 64%; for the cutting
condition (cutting speed v 165 m/min and feed rate
f 0:3 mm/rev) Ft increases by 8%, Fa increases by 16%

Fig. 2. Cutting force vs. flank wear surface area (v 125 m/min,
f 0:4 mm/rev).

S.K. Sikdar, M. Chen / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

213

Fig. 3. Cutting force vs. flank wear surface area (v 165 m/min,
f 0:3 mm/rev).

Fig. 4. Cutting force vs. flank wear surface area (v 170 m/min,
f 0:25 mm/rev).

and Fr increases by 68%; for the cutting condition (cutting


speed v 170 m/min and feed rate f 0:25 mm/rev) Ft
increases by 8%, Fa increases by 13% and Fr increases by
74%. Polynomial equations can be used to express the

relationship between flank wear surface area (Af) and the


cutting forces based on the experimental results. Since
we obtained six sets of data for each experiment, all in
limited range, polynomials of the fifth order were used.

Table 2
Cutting speed v 125 m/min and feed rate f 0:4 mm/reva
No. of
observations

Cutting
time (min)

Maximum flank
wear VBmax (mm)

Flank wear surface


area Af (mm2)

Tangential cutting
force Ft (N)

Axial cutting
force Fa (N)

Radial cutting
force Fr (N)

1
2
3
4
5
6

15
20
25
30
35
40

0.306
0.424
0.55
0.699
0.859
1.08

0.588
0.773
0.902
1.27
1.64
1.91

1882
1980
2272
2391
2463
2596

1793
1874
1996
2051
2192
2481

1020
1170
1279
1320
1542
2533

(5.2)
(14.7)
(5.3)
(3.1)
(5.4)

(4.5)
(6.5)
(2.8)
(6.8)
(13.2)

(14.7)
(9.3)
(3.2)
(16.8)
(64.3)

Values in parenthesis are in percentage.

Table 3
Cutting speed v 165 m/min and feed rate f 0:3 mm/reva
No. of
observations

Cutting
time (min)

Maximum flank
wear VBmax (mm)

Flank wear surface


area Af (mm2)

Tangential cutting
force Ft (N)

Axial cutting
force Fa (N)

Radial cutting
force Fr (N)

1
2
3
4
5
6

4
8
12
16
20
24

0.332
0.401
0.412
0.493
0.538
0.839

0.637
0.767
0.79
0.943
1.03
1.59

1412
1494
1523
1569
1627
1769

1262
1297
1312
1328
1397
1623

858
913
949
981
1020
1721

(5.8)
(1.9)
(3)
(3.7)
(8.7)

(2.8)
(1.1)
(1.2)
(5.2)
(16.2)

(6.4)
(3.6)
(3.4)
(3.9)
(68.7)

Values in parenthesis are in percentage.

Table 4
cutting speed v 170 m/min and feed rate f 0:25 mm/reva
No. of
observations (mm)

Cutting
time (min)

Maximum flank
wear VBmax

Flank wear surface


area Af (mm2)

Tangential cutting
force Ft (N)

Axial cutting
force Fa (N)

Radial cutting
force Fr (N)

1
2
3
4
5
6

18
24
30
36
42
48

0.322
0.47
0.619
0.79
0.859
1.02

0.629
0.878
1.15
1.52
1.63
2.04

1369
1381
1482
1493
1566
1705

1238
1327
1381
1421
1470
1672

791
821
897
929
973
1695

Values in parenthesis are in percentage.

(0.9)
(7.3)
(0.7)
(4.9)
(8.8)

(7.2)
(4.1)
(2.9)
(3.5)
(13.7)

(3.8)
(9.3)
(3.6)
(4.7)
(74)

214

S.K. Sikdar, M. Chen / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

The polynomial coefficients were found by Matlab. Three


sets of polynomial equations were generated under the
following cutting condition:
(1) Cutting speed v 125 m/min and feed rate f 0:4 mm/
rev
Ft 0:1557A5f 0:9785A4f  2:3622A3f 2:7186A2f
 1:4760Af 0:3210  105
Fa 0:0599A5f 0:376A4f  0:9013A3f 1:0255A2f
 0:5475Af 0:1278  105
Fr 0:2372A5f 1:6843A4f  4:3037A3f 4:9988A2f
 2:6050Af 0:5957  104
(2) Cutting speed v 165 m/min and feed rate f 0:3 mm/
rev
Ft 0:8797A5f 4:3364A4f  8:3114A3f 7:7695A2f
 3:5452Af 0:6464  105
Fa 0:6801A5f 3:2911A4f  6:1813A3f 5:6623A2f
 2:536Af 0:4577  105
Fr 0:2608A5f 1:2894A4f  2:4619A3f 2:2786A2f
 1:0211Af 0:1859  105
(3) Cutting speed v 170 m/min and feed rate f 0:25 mm/
rev
Ft 0:4823A5f 3:1217A4f  7:7768A3f 9:3030A2f
 5:3134Af 1:2925  104
Fa 0:1566A5f 0:9868A4f  2:3536A3f 2:6428A2f
 1:3693Af 0:3862  104
Fr 0:0659A5f 0:5651A4f  1:6894A3f 2:2955A2f
 1:4244Af 0:4053  104
Fig. 5 shows the modeling results for the first set of
equations. It can be seen that the polynomial curves are
very close to the experimental data. Similar results were
obtained for other sets of equation.

4. Discussions
The most commonly used criterion for the evaluation of
tool life is the amount of wear that has taken place in the rake
or flank surfaces of the cutting tool. Of the regular types of
tool wear, only flank wear and the resulting recession of the
cutting edge directly affect the workpiece dimensions and
quality. Thus the single most significant type of wear that
draws constant attention is flank wear. Ways and means of
predicting or measuring it have been the pursuit of researchers for a long time [13]. Table 5 shows the tool life criterion
based on ISO [20]. In this research, we measured maximum
flank wear up to 1mm for all experiments. Coated carbide
inserts were used for all experiments. We did not use a
coolant because dry cutting is ecologically desirable and it
will be considered necessary for manufacturing enterprises
in future. The advantages of dry cutting include: non-pollution of the atmosphere, absence of residue on the swart,
which will be reflected in reduced disposal and cleaning
costs. Dry cutting also reduces thermal shock. Several
researchers have done work in this area. Ravindra et al.
[21] developed a mathematical model to describe weartime
and wearforce relationships for turning operation. Cutting
force components have been found to correlate well with
progressive wear and tool failure. The results show that the
ratio between force components is a better indicator of the
wear process, compared with the estimate obtained using
absolute values of the forces. Oraby and Hayhurst [22] also
developed a mathematical model to describe the weartime
and wearforce relationships for steady centre lathe turning
conditions. The results showed that tool chipping and fracture usually caused a sudden increase in the magnitudes of
both the feed force and radial force components. Barata and
Mesquita [23] investigated the relationship between the
wear of sintered T15 high-speed steel cutting tools and
the associated cutting forces. The equations for the cutting
forces are established taking into account the influence of
both crater wear and flank wear. Lee et al. [24] studied the
efficiency of the dynamic component of cutting force in
providing ample sign of imminent tool failure either by
fracture or chipping.
From the experimental results, we found that the radial
cutting force was slightly (3%) larger than the axial force
when the cutting tool begins to fail. Ft is the main force
Table 5
Tool life criterion based on ISO [20]
Tool life criterion

Application

Catastrophic failure

VB can also be applied

Width of flank wear


VB 0:3 mm
VBmax 0:5 mm
Fig. 5. Cutting force vs. flank wear surface area (v 170 m/min,
f 0:25 mm/rev).

Depth of crater KT 0:06 0:3 f


(f is feed rate in mm/rev)

Cemented carbide and ceramic tools


displaying uniform flank wear
In case uneven flank wear is caused
Cemented carbide tools

S.K. Sikdar, M. Chen / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 128 (2002) 210215

component responsible for material removal while Fa


advances the cutting tool in the direction of the feed. Fr
is the rubbing force. The particular trend of the cutting force
during the machining process is observed to be consistent in
all experiments conducted during the study. Therefore a
good relationship between the cutting forces and the flank
wear surface area can be established from the experimental
results. This study serves as a starting point for a better
understanding and prediction of the effects of the flank wear
area on the cutting forces in turning operations.

5. Conclusions
The study indicates a good correlation between cutting
forces and the three-dimensional flank wear surface area in
turning operations. All cutting forces increase with the
increase of the flank wear surface area. Increasing flank
wear area results in an increasing area of contact between the
tool tip and the workpiece. The greater the value of the flank
wear area, the higher the friction of the tool on the workpiece
and high heat generation will occur, this ultimately causes
the higher value of cutting force.
The rate of increase (the tangential force increases by 6%,
the axial force increases by 13% and the radial force
increases by 64%) of axial and radial cutting force is higher
than the tangential cutting force, when tool insert begins to
fail. The tool damage spreads over the whole contact area
thereby causing a rapid increase in both axial and radial
force. The radial force was also found to be slightly larger
than axial force when tool insert begins to fail.

References
[1] I.S. Jawahir, P.X. Li, R. Gosh, E.L. Exner, A new parametric
approach for the assessment of comprehensive tool wear in coated
grooved tools, Ann. CIRP 44 (1995) 4954.
[2] F. Giusti, M. Santochi, G. Tantussi, On line sensing of flank and
crater wear of cutting tools, Ann. CIRP 36 (1987) 4144.
[3] J.L. Andreasen, L. De Chiffre, Automatic chip breakage detection in
turning by frequency analysis of cutting force, Ann. CIRP 42 (1993)
4548.
[4] R. Nair, K. Danai, S. Malkin, Turning process identification through
force transients, Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. 114 (1992) 17.
[5] D.W. Wu, Comprehensive dynamic cutting force model and its
application to wave removing processes, Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind.
110 (1988) 153161.

215

[6] K. Danai, A.G. Ulsoy, A dynamic state model for on-line tool wear
estimation in turning, Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. 109 (1987) 396
399.
[7] J.M. Zhou, M. Andersson, J.E. Stahl, A system for monitoring
cutting tool spontaneous failure based on stress estimation, J. Mater.
Process. Technol. 48 (1995) 231237.
[8] S. Elanayar, Y.C. Shin, Modeling of tool forces for worn tools: flank
wear effects, J. Manuf. Sci. Technol. 118 (1996) 2434.
[9] K.F. Martin, J.A. Brandon, R.I. Grosvenor, A. Owen, A comparison
of in-process tool wear measurement methods in turning, in:
Proceedings of the International Machine Tool Design and Research
Conference, 1986, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 289296.
[10] P.M. Lister, G. Barrow, Tool condition monitoring systems, in:
Proceedings of the International Machine Tool Design and Research
Conference, 1986, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 271288.
[11] A.S. Jhita, V.K. Jain, On the tool wear during face turning, in:
Proceedings of the International Machine Tool Design and Research
Conference, 1981, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 247253.
[12] R. Mackinnon, G.E. Wilson, A.J. Wilkinson, Tool condition
monitoring using multicomponent force measurements, in: Proceedings of the International Machine Tool Design and Research
Conference, 1986, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 317324.
[13] G.H. Lim, Tool wear monitoring in machine turning, J. Mater.
Process. Technol. 51 (1995) 2527.
[14] Z.-C. Lin, D.-Y. Chen, A study of cutting with a CBN tool, J. Mater.
Process. Technol. 49 (1995) 149164.
[15] J. Du, E.-B. Lee, D.-H. Hyun, A study on the modeling of tool
motion and high-accuracy surface generation by the use of cuttingforce signals, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 47 (1994) 101117.
[16] W.S. Sampath, Y.M. Lee, M.C. Shaw, Tool fracture probability under
steady state cutting conditions, Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. 106 (1984)
161167.
[17] W.S. Sampath, Y.M. Lee, M.C. Shaw, Tool fracture probability of
cutting tools under different existing conditions, Trans. ASME, J.
Eng. Ind. 106 (1984) 168170.
[18] R. Milovic, M.L.H. Wise, Tool wear in the machining of leaded freecutting steel, in: Proceedings of the International Machine Tool
Design and Research Conference, 1985, Macmillan, Basingstoke,
UK, pp. 287293.
[19] L.A. Looney, J.M. Monaghan, P.O. Reily, D.M.R. Tasplin, The
turning of an Al/SiC metalmatrix composite, J. Mater. Process.
Technol. 33 (1992) 453468.
[20] G. Boothroyed, Fundamentals of Machining and Machine Tools,
Second Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989.
[21] H.V. Ravindra, Y.G. Srinivasa, R. Krishnamurthy, Modeling of
tool wear based on cutting forces in turning, Wear 169 (1993)
2532.
[22] S.E. Oraby, D.R. Hayhurst, Developments of models for tool wear
force relationships in metal cutting, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 33 (1991) 125
138.
[23] J.M. Barata, M.D. Mesquita, Monitoring the wear of sintered highspeed steel tools, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 25 (1991) 195313.
[24] L.C. Lee, K.S. Lee, K.G. Kwok, Effects of tool fracture on
machining force dynamics, J. Mech. Work. Technol. 17 (1986)
205212.