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Know microscopes

Light
Brightfield
Electrons
TEM transmission- to study cell organelles. Sees internal
SEM scanning- 3D image
Plant Cell
Eukaryotic
Nucleus
Chloroplasts
Large central vacuole
Cell wall

Animal Cells
Eukaryotic
No chloroplasts
There are vacuoles but not as large
No cell wall
Prokaryotes
Yes cell walls/capsules
Plasmids
No mitochondria
No nucleus
Dna is free floating
No organelles
Yes ribosomes
Cell organelles
Nucleus
Contains dna
Chromosomes make up nucleus
Ribosomes
Carry out protein synthesis
Located in cytosol & rough ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids & steroids
Carbohydrate metabolism
Detoxification
Calcium Storage
Rough ER
Contains Ribosomes so its involed in protein synthesis
Protein modification
Golgi Apparatus
Receives from ER
Modifies products of ER
Lysosomes
Lys means to break

Contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest fats and polysaccharides & nucleic
acids
Fuse with vesicles and deliver 3 kinds of vesicles
3 kinds of vesicles
Endosomes
Engulfed molecules
Phagosomes
Take and destruction of pathogens
Autophagosomes
Recycle damaged organelles
Phagocytosis
Cellular eating
Pinocytosis
Cellular drinking
Endosymbiant Theory
Mitochondria & chloroplasts
Free ribosomes
Circular DNA
Reproduce independently
Double membrane
Mitochondria
Produces energy
Chloroplasts
Have two parts
Thymakoid
stacked
Stroma
Internal fluid
Cytoskeleton (road)
Support the cell
Interacts with motor proteins (cars)
Vesicles travel along cytoskeleton
Components of cytoskel
Microtubules
Made of tubulin
Cilia and flagella
9+2 9 surrounding and 2 in the middle
Found in both euk and proks
Centrasome MTOC
Peroxisomes
Produce hydrogen peroxide and converts to water?
Major fxn is to break down long fatty acids
Vacuole
Provides support to soft structures in the cells
Plants have larger vacuole
ER -> Golgi -> Vesicles, process called exocytosis ?

LECTURE 3
Phospholipid bilayer
Amount of lipid species complexity
Two types of movement
Lateral (side ways)
Flip flop (top to bottom)
Phosphalidylserines
Type of phospholipid
Tags cells for death
If theres a cell that disfunctioned, itll tag it for death
Factors that influence membrane fluidity
Saturated single bonds vs Unsaturated fatty acids double bonds
Which has more room for movement?
Cholesterol
At warm temps, restrains movement
At low temps, it prevents tight packing, [more fluid?]
Membrane proteins
Only permeable to gases and hydrophobic molecules?
Determine membranes specific function
Integral
Transmembrane
Monotopic
Peripheral
Functions of
Enzymatic activity
Single transduction
Cell to cell recognition
Intercellular joining
Attachment to cytoskeleton & EC
Transport
Passive no energy needed, down concentration gradient
Active needs energy
Osmosis diffusion of water
Ion pumps
Electrochemical gradient
Co transport
Bulk transport
Exocytosis going out cell membrane?
Endocytosis going in cell membrane?
Cell signaling
Direct contact plasma d
Local signaling
Synamptic
Involve neruotransmitters?

Long distance signaling


Pathway for cell signaling
Perception
Transduction
Response
Anabolic pathway
Consume energy
Photosynthesis?
Catabolic
Releases energy
Cellular respiration?
Delta G negative
Reaction is spontaneous
Nonspontaneous for delta g positive
Reaction is equilibrium at delta g is 0
Cells are open system, shit going in and out so theres no equilibrium for
something..
Cofactors and coenzymes
Inorganic/organic
Types of inhibitors
Competitive
Bind to active site of enzyme
Noncompetitive
Binds to another part of the enzyme
Not to the active site
Cooperatovoty
Feedback inhibition
Anabolic pathway
End product would stop the reaction bc it would avoid excess of product
Could be competitive or non usually competitive
X ->y -> z -> w
W would stop x or anyone of them saying I dont want more or ws (me) made

Last lecture
Cellular respiration
Heterotrophs
The way they Break down compounds/energy
Catabolic pathway ^
Can be split to 2 categories
Chemoheterotrophs
Animals break down compounds of food?
Photoheterotrophs
Use sunlight as energy in order to break down compounds
Cellular respiration
Glycolysis : cytosol, doesnt need O2
Glucose -> 2 pyruvate

Takes 2 atp (energy investment phase) and generate 4 ATP (energy


payoff phase)
Take 2 nad+ molecules and generates nadh (electron carriers)

Autotrophs
Organisms that fix CO2, takes co2 from environment and makes a longer
carbon chain lets say a fruit?
Photoautotrophs, use sun as energy
Chemoautotrophs, use carbon compounds as energy? Chemical compounds