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Hitachi NAS Platform Storage Subsystem

Administration Guide
Release 11.0

MK-92HNAS012-00

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ii

Hitachi NAS Platform

Notice
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Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

iii

Document Revision Level


Revision

Date

Description

MK92HNAS01200

August2012

Firstpublication

Contact
HitachiDataSystems
750CentralExpressway
SantaClara,California950502627
https://portal.hds.com

NorthAmerica:18004460744

iv

Hitachi NAS Platform

About this document


Hitachi and BlueArc branding equivalents
ThisdocumentincludesinformationforbothHitachiNASPlatforms,andtheirBlueArc
brandedequivalents.Seethefollowingtabletomaptheproductnamesandfeatures.

Hitachi branded

BlueArc branded

NASPlatform3080G2

Mercury50server

NASPlatform3080G2

Mercury55server

NASPlatform3090G1

Mercury100server

NASPlatform3090G2

Mercury110server

NASOS

BlueArcOS(BOS)

Related Documents
Other publications available on the System Management Unit (SMU) are:

System Access Guide (MK-92HNAS014): In PDF format, explains how system


administrators can access the system through Web Manager (the graphical user
interface) and the command line interface (CLI), and provides information about
administrator's documentation.

explains user management, including the different types of system administrator,


their roles, and how to create and manage these users.provides information about
the Data Migrator feature, including how to set up migration policies and
schedules.

File Services Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS006): explains about file system


formats, and provides information about creating and managing file systems, and
enabling and configuring file services (file service protocols).

NDMP Backup Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS007): In PDF format, provides


information about the configuring the server to work with NDMP, and making and
managing NDMP backups.

Network Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS008): In PDF format, provides


information about the servers network usage, and explains how to configure
network interfaces, IP addressing, name and directory services.

Replication and Disaster Recovery Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS009): In PDF


format, provides information about the replicating data using file based replication
and object based replication, provides information on setting up replication
policies and schedules, and using replication features for disaster recovery
purposes.

Server and Cluster Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS010): In PDF format,


provides information about administering servers, clusters, and server farms.
Provides information about licensing, name spaces, upgrading firmware,
monitoring servers and clusters, the backing up and restoring configurations.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide Y

YL

Snapshot Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS011): In PDF format, provides


information about the configuring the server to take and manage snapshots.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide (MK-92HNAS012): In PDF format,


provides information about managing the supported storage subsystems (RAID
arrays) attached the server/cluster. Includes information about tiered storage,
storage pools, system drives (SDs), SD groups, and other storage device related
configuration and management features and functions.

System Installation Guide (MK-92HNAS015): In PDF format, provides information


about installing hardware, software, and firmware, and instructions on how to
upgrade and downgrade the storage server and the SMU.

G1 Hardware Reference (MK-92HNAS016): In PDF format, provides an overview of


the hardware, and describes how to replace faulty components.

Command Line Reference: In HTML format, describes how to administer the


system by typing commands at a command prompt.

Release Notes: Gives late-breaking news about the system software, and provides
any corrections or additions to the included documentation.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Table of Contents
1 Storage Management
Storage Management Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
System Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
System Drive Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Storage Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Tiered Storage Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Using System Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Using a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Creating a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Adding the User Data Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Deleting Storage Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Expanding a Storage Pool or a Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Reducing the Size of a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Denying Access to a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Allowing Access to a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Renaming a Storage Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Configuring Automatic File System Expansion for an Entire Storage Pool . . . . . 24

2 The Hitachi Data Systems NAS Storage System


Understanding Tiered Storage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Tiered and Untiered Storage Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


Tiered and Untiered File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Fibre Channel Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


About FC Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Load Balancing and Failure Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Fibre Channel Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Supported Storage Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

vii

Table of Contents

3 Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays


Storage Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
RAID Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Hot Spare Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Managing the Storage Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


Discovering and Adding Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Partially Discovered RAID Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Listing Installed RAID Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Performing a Media Scan on a System Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Monitoring Active Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Reviewing Events Logged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Monitoring Physical Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4 Configuring the SA48 Storage Array


SA48 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
RAID Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Hot Spare Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Managing the Storage Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45


Discovering and Adding Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Partially Discovered RAID Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Listing Installed RAID Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Creating RAID Arrays and LUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Monitoring Active Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Reviewing Events Logged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Reviewing Events Using Web Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Reviewing Events in the StorView Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Monitoring Physical Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


Adding an Expansion Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Powering the SA48C and Expansion Enclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

viii

Hitachi NAS Platform

Table of Contents

5 System Drives and System Drive Groups


System Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
System Drive Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SD Groups and Read Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
System Drive Groups and Dynamic Write Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Creating System Drives on HDS Storage Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . 65


Managing System Drive Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Creating SD Groups Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Creating SD Groups Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Backing up or Restoring SD Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Modifying System Drive Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

ix

Table of Contents

Hitachi NAS Platform

Storage Management

Storage Management Components


Thestorageserverarchitectureincludessystemdrives,storagepools,file
systemsandVirtualServers(EVSs),supplementedbyaflexiblequota
managementsystemformanagingutilization,andtheDataMigrator,which
optimizesavailablestorage.Thissectiondescribeseachofthesestorage
componentsandfunctionsindetail.
Thefollowingdiagramillustratesasimplifiedviewofthearchitecture:

System Drives
Systemdrives(SDs)arethebasic(logical)storageelementusedbytheserver.
StoragesubsystemsuseRAIDcontrollerstoaggregatemultiplephysicaldisks
intoSDs.FormoreinformationaboutconfiguringandusingSDs,seeSystem
DrivesandSystemDriveGroups.

System Drive
Groups

Withmanystoragesubsystems,systemdrives(SDs)arelimitedto2TB
each.However,withtodayslargephysicaldisks,RAIDarraysmustbe
considerablylargerthan2TBinordertomakeefficientuseofspace.System
administratorsoftenbuildlargeRAIDarrays(oftencalledRAIDgroupsor
volumegroups)andthendividethemintosystemdrives(SDs)of2TBor
less.NotethateachSDinaRAIDgrouptypicallyusessomespaceoneach
diskintheRAIDgroup.SDsaretheunitsofstoragethattheserverseesand
manages(theserverorganizesSDsintostoragepools,whichthencontainthe
filesystems).
Whenperformingwriteoperations,iftheserverweretowritesimultaneously
tomultipleSDsinthesameRAIDgroup,itwouldincreaseheadmovement,
reducingbothperformanceandtheexpectedlifeofthedisks.TheNASserver
hasamechanismtoallowittowritetoonlyoneSDinaRAIDgroupatany
onetime.BydefiningSDgroups,youtelltheserverwhichSDsareineach

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Storage Management

RAIDgroupandgiveittheinformationitneedstooptimizewrite
performance.
ForHighperformanceNASPlatform/clusters,systemdrivegroupsare
supportedonSeries2000andSeries3000storageservers,butonlySeries3000
HighperformanceNASPlatforms/clusterstakeadvantageofthis
functionality.AllHitachiNASPlatforms/clusterstakeadvantageofsystem
drivegroups.
Asystemdrivethatisnotinanygroupistreatedasifitwereinagroupofits
own.
FormoreinformationaboutSDgroups,seeSystemDrivesandSystemDrive
Groups.

Storage Pools
Astoragepool(knownasaspaninthecommandlineinterface)isthelogical
containerforacollectionofoneormoresystemdrives(SDs).Therearetwo
typesofstoragepools:

Anuntieredstoragepool:Anuntieredstoragepoolismadeupsystem
drives(SDs)createdononeormorestoragesubsystemswithinthesame
tierofstorage(storagesubsystemswithinthesametierofstorage(storage
subsystemswithcomparableperformancecharacteristics).Tocreatean
untieredstoragepool,theremustbeatleastoneavailableandunused
systemdriveonthestoragesubsystemfromwhichtheSDsinthestorage
poolwillbetaken.

Atieredstoragepool:Atieredstoragepoolismadeupsystemdrives
(SDs)createdonstoragesubsystems(RAIDarrays)withdifferent
performancecharacteristics.Typically,atieredstoragepoolismadeupof
SDsfromhighperformancestoragesuchasflashmemory,andSDsfrom
lowerperformancestoragesuchasFibreChannelorSATA.Youcan,
however,createatieredstoragepoolfromSDsonstoragesubsystems
usinganystoragetechnology.Formoreinformationabouttieredstorage
pools,seeTieredStoragePools,onpage3.

TieredstoragepoolsaresupportedonlyonHitachiNASPlatforms/Clusters.
Formoreinformationaboutstoragetiers,andthetechnologiesthatmakeup
eachtier,seeUnderstandingTieredStorage.
Storagepools:

CanbeexpandedasadditionalSDsarecreatedinthestoragesubsystem,
andanSDcangrowtoamaximumof1PBor256SDs.
Expandingastoragepooldoesnotinterruptnetworkclientaccessto
storageresources.Byallocatingasharedpoolofstorageformultipleusers
andallocatingspacedynamically(thinprovisioning),aserver/cluster
supportsoversubscription,sharingspacethataccommodatesthepeak
requirementsofindividualclientswhilesavingtheoverheadassociated

Hitachi NAS Platform

Storage Pools

withsustainingunnecessarystorage.RefertotheFileServices
AdministrationGuideformoreinformationonthinprovisioning.

Containasinglestripesetwhencreated.Eachtimethestoragepoolis
expandedanotherstripesetisadded,uptoamaximumof64stripesets
(meaningthat,aftercreation,astoragepoolcanbeexpandedamaximum
of63times).

Canholdupto128filesystems,centralizingandsimplifyingmanagement
ofitscomponentfilesystems.Forexample,thesettingsappliedtoa
storagepoolcaneitheralloworconstraintheexpansionofallfilesystems
inthestoragepool.

Storagepoolsaremadeupofmultiplesmallallocationsofstoragecalled
chunks.Thesizeofthechunksinastoragepoolisdefinedwhenthestorage
pooliscreated.Astoragepoolcancontainuptoamaximumof16,384chunks.
Inturn,anindividualfilesystemcancontainuptoamaximumof1023
chunks.Planningthechunksizeisanimportantconsiderationwhencreating
storagepools,fortworeasons:

Tiered Storage
Pools

Chunksdefinetheincrementbywhichfilesystemswillgrowwhenthey
expand.

Asafilesystemcontainsafinitenumberofchunks,thechunksizeplacesa
limitonthefuturegrowthoffilesystemsinastoragepool.

Currently,atieredstoragepoolmusthavetwotiers:

Tier0isusedformetadata,andthebestperformingstorageshouldbe
designatedasTier0.

Tier1isusedforuserdata.

Formoreinformationaboutstoragetiers,andthetechnologiesthatmakeup
eachtier,seeUnderstandingTieredStorage.
TieredstoragepoolsaresupportedonlyonHitachiNASPlatforms/Clusters.
Tocreateatieredstoragepool,theremustbeatleastoneavailableandunused
SDoneachofthestoragesubsystemsfromwhichthestoragepooltierswillbe
made.Whencreatingatieredstoragepool:

UsingWebManager,thefirsttiercreatedisthemetadatatier(Tier0).The
userdatatier(Tier1)canbecreatedlater,butcannotbecreatedbeforethe
metadatatier.

UsingtheCLI(CommandLineInterface),however,tierscanbecreatedin
anyorder.

Duringnormaloperation,onetierofatieredstoragepoolmaybecomefilled
beforetheothertier.Insuchacase,onetierofthestoragepoolcanbe
expanded(byaddingatleastoneSD)withoutexpandingtheothertier.Note
that,whenexpandingatier,youmustmakecertainthattheSDbeingadded
tothetierhasthesameperformancecharacteristicsastheSDsalreadyinthe
tier.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Storage Management

Using System Drives


Creationandmanagementofsystemdrives(SDs)occursatthestorage
subsystemlevelandsubsystemspecificproceduresareprovidedinthe
CreatingSystemDrivesonHDSStorageSubsystemsandCreatingSystem
DrivesonBlueArcArrays.

Using a Storage Pool


Storagepoolscontainoneormorefilesystems,whichconsumespacefromthe
storagepooluponcreationorexpansion.Astoragepoolcanalsobeusedto
controltheautoexpansionpolicyforallofthefilesystemscreatedinthe
storagepool.Thefollowingproceduresdescribehowtocreate,delete,
expand,removefromservice,andrenameastoragepool.
Note:Onceaccessisallowedtoonesystemdrive(SD)inastoragepool,that
storagepoolbecomesvisibleintheWebManager.IfaccessisdeniedtoallSDs
inastoragepool,thestoragepoolisnotvisibleintheWebManager.

Creating a
Storage Pool

GivenavailabilityofSDs,administratorscancreateastoragepoolatanytime.
Atthetimeofcreation,astoragepoolcancontainupto32SDs;later,storage
poolscanexpandbyaddingmoreSDsuntilthetotalsizeofthepoolhas
reachedupto1PB.Forinstructions,seeExpandingaStoragePooloraTier,
onpage16.
Whencreatingatieredstoragepool,toattainoptimalperformance,makesure
thattheSDsofthemetadatatier(Tier0)areonthehighestperformance
storage.
Note:IfDynamicWriteBalancingisnotenabled,orifyoursystemdoesnot
supportDynamicWriteBalancing,aftercreatinganewstoragepool,useas
manydiskdrivesaspossibleandkeepSDsaslargeaspossibletoattainoptimal
performance.Afterthestoragepoolhasbeencreated,smallerfilesystemscan
becreatedinthepoolformoregranularstorageprovisioning.Formore
informationonDynamicWriteBalancing,seeSystemDriveGroupsand
DynamicWriteBalancing.
Tocreateastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

FromtheStorageManagementheading,clickStoragePoolstodisplay
theStoragePoolspage:

ClickcreatetostarttheStoragePoolWizard.
2. Selectthetypeofstoragepooltocreate:
Selectwhichtypeofstoragepoolyouwanttocreate.

Tocreate:

Anuntieredstoragepool,clickAnUntieredStoragePool.

Atieredstoragepool,clickATieredStoragePool.

TheStoragePoolWizardpageopens,andyoucanselecttheSDsforeither
thestoragepool(foranuntieredstoragepool)orthemetadatatier(Tier0)
ofatieredstoragepool.
3. SelecttheSDsforthestoragepool/tier.
UsingtheStoragePoolWizardpage,fromthelistofavailableSDsonthe
page,selecttheSDsforthestoragepool/tier,andspecifyboththestorage
poollabelandtheguidelinechunksize.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Storage Management

Thefollowingtabledescribesthefieldsinthispage:

Item/Field

Description

ID(Label)

SDnumberassignedbytheserverandtheSDlabel.Appearsinthe
eventlog.

FirstSDinSD
Group

ListstheSDlabelofthefirstSDoftheSDGroup.

Capacity

SDssize.

Manufacturer

ManufactureroftheRAIDarraycontainingthedisksonwhichtheSD
wascreated.ForinformationaboutthesupportedRAIDArrays,refer
totheSupportedStorageSubsystems.

Comment/
RackName

Racknameandanyadditionalinformation.

DiskType

TypeofSD;forexample,Fibre,SATA,orSAS.

DiskSize

Size(usable)ofthedisksmakinguptheSD.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Item/Field

Description

Superflush
Settings

Thesesettingscontrolthesuperflushsettingsusedforthestorage
pool.Superflushisatechniquethattheserverusestooptimizewriting
toRAID5systemdrives(SDs).Bywritingawholestripelineatatime,
theserverallowstheRAIDcontrollertogenerateparitymore
efficiently.

Width:NumberofphysicaldisksintheSD.Tellstheserverhow
manydata(nonparity)diskstheSDhas.IftheSDusesmultiple
stripesets,indicatesthenumberofdatadisksinasinglestripeset.

StripeSize:DataformatsizeusedforwritingtoaSD.Tellsthe
servertheSDsstripesize,inkilobytes.Thestripesizeisthe
amountofdatathattheRAIDcontrollerwritestoasingledisk
beforemovingontothenextdisk.

ForBlueArcstoragearrays,StripeSize*Widthmustbelessthanor
equalto4064KB.
StoragePool
Label

Thenameofthenewstoragepool.Storagepoollabelsarenotcase
sensitive,buttheydopreservecase(labelswillbekeptasentered,in
anycombinationofupperandlowercasecharacters).Also,storage
poollabelsmaynotcontainspacesoranyofthefollowingspecial
characters:"&*/;:<>?\|.
Note:Storagepoollabelsmustbeuniquewithinaserverorcluster.
Also,astoragepoolcannothavethesamelabelasafilesystem.
Youshouldlabelstoragepoolsforthedatatheywillcontain.Also,
makesureyourstoragepoollabelsareuniqueacrossyourentiresite,
incaseyouneedtomovethestoragepool.

Guideline
ChunkSize

Thechunksizethatwillbeusedforstoragepoolexpansion.Youcan
usethedefaultchunksizesuggestedbythesystem,oryoucanchoose
acustomchunksize.

Toselectthedefaultchunksize,clickDefault.Thedefaultchunksize
willbeshownintheadjacenttextbox,andisautomaticallybe
calculatedtoequal[storagepoolsize]/256.

Tosetacustomchunksize,clickCustomandenterasizebetween
512MBand1TB.HitachiDataSystemsSupportCenterdoesnot
recommendchunksizeslessthan5GB.

SelectoneormoreSDsforuseinbuildingthenewstoragepool/tier.To
selectanSD,fillthecheckboxnexttotheID(Label).
AnuntieredstoragepoolcannotcontainSDsonRAIDarrayswith
differentmanufacturers,disktypes,orRAIDlevels.Anyattempttocreate
astoragepoolfromsuchdissimilarSDswillberefused.
AtieredstoragepoolcancontainSDsonRAIDarrayswithdifferent
manufacturers,ordisktypes,aslongastheyareindifferenttiers.Atiered
storagepoolcannot,however,containSDswithdifferentRAIDlevels.
AnyattempttocreateastoragepoolwithSDsthathavedifferentRAID
levelswillberefused.
Forthehighestlevelofperformanceandresiliencyinanuntieredstorage
poolorinatierofatieredstoragepool,HitachiDataSystemsSupport

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Storage Management

CenterstronglyrecommendsthatallSDsbeofthesamecapacity,width,
andstripesize,anddiskssize;however,afterfirstacknowledginga
warningprompt,youcancreateastoragepoolwithSDsthatarenot
identicallyconfigured.
4. Applysettings.
Verifyyoursettings,thenclicknexttodisplayasummarypage.The
summarypagedisplaysthesettingsthatwillbeusedtocreatethestorage
pool/tier.

IfyouhavemirroredSDs,fordisasterpreparednessorreplication
purposes,andyouwanttheservertotrytoreestablishthemirror
relationship,filltheLookForMirroredSystemDrivescheckbox.
Onceyouhavereviewedtheinformation,clickcreatetocreatethestorage
pool/tier.
Note:Afterthestoragepoolhasbeencreated,itcanbefilledwithfile
systems.Formoreinformation,refertotheFileServicesAdministration
Guide.
5. Completethecreationofthestoragepoolortier.
Afterclickingcreateinthelaststep,youwillseeoneofthedialogsshown
below.Ifyouarecreating:

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Anuntieredfilesystem,thefollowingdialogwillappear:

Youcannowclickyestocreatefilesystems,orclicknoreturntothe
StoragePoolspage.

Thefirsttierofatieredfilesystem,thefollowingdialogwillappear:

Youcannowclickyestocreatethesecondtierfilesystems,orclickno
returntotheStoragePoolspage.
Ifyouchoosenottocreatethesecondtiernow,youcanadditatalater
time,butyoucannotcreatefilesystemsinthisstoragepooluntilthe
secondtierhasbeenadded.Forinformationonaddingthesecondtier,
seeAddingtheUserDataTier,onpage11.
Ifyouchoosetocreatethesecondtierofatieredstoragepool,seethe
step

SelecttheSDsforthesecondtierofastoragepool.

Thesecondtierofatieredfilesystem,thefollowingdialogwill
appear:

Youcannowclickyestocreatefilesystems,orclicknoreturntothe
StoragePoolspage.
6. SelecttheSDsforthesecondtierofastoragepool.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Storage Management

UsingtheStoragePoolWizardpage,fromthelistofavailableSDsonthe
page,selecttheSDsforthesecond(userdata)tier.ToselectanSDforthe
tier,fillthecheckboxnexttotheSDlabel.

Foradescriptionofthefieldsinthispage,see

,onpage5.

SelecttheSDsforthestoragepool/tier.

Verifyyoursettings,thenclicknexttodisplayasummarypage.
7. Reviewandapplysettings.
Thesummarypagedisplaysthesettingsthatwillbeusedtocreatethe
storagepool/tier.

IfyouhavemirroredSDs,fordisasterpreparednessorreplication
purposes,andyouwanttheservertotrytoreestablishthemirror
relationship,filltheLookForMirroredSystemDrivescheckbox.

10

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Onceyouhavereviewedtheinformation,clickaddtocreatethesecond
tierofthestoragepool.
Note:Afterthestoragepoolhasbeencreated,itcanbefilledwithfile
systems.Formoreinformation,refertotheFileServicesAdministration
Guide.
8. Completethecreationofthestoragepoolortier.
Afterclickingaddinthelaststep,youwillseethefollowingdialog:

Youcannowclickyestocreatefilesystems,orclicknoreturntothe
StoragePoolspage.

Adding the User


Data Tier

Ifyoucreatedatieredstoragepool,butonlydefinedtheSDsforonetier,you
havedefinedthemetadatatier(Tier0),butnottheuserdatatier(Tier1).Until
theuserdatatierhasbeencreated,youcannotcreatefilesystemsinthis
storagepool.
Note:Youcannotaddatiertoastoragepoolthatwascreatedasanuntiered
storagepool.
Toaddatiertoastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

11

Storage Management

FromtheStorageManagementheading,clickStoragePoolstodisplay
theStoragePoolspage:

2. Selectthestoragepooltowhichyouwanttoaddthetier.
ClickdetailstodisplaytheStoragePoolDetailspageforthestoragepool
towhichyouwantaddtheuserdatatier.
3. Selectthestoragepooltowhichyouwanttoaddthetier.

12

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Clickdetailstodisplaythedetailsofthestoragepooltowhichyouwant
addtheuserdatatier.

4. DisplaytheStoragePoolWizard.
TodisplaytheStoragePoolWizardpage,sothatyoucancreatetheuser
datatier,clicktheAddaTierlink.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

13

Storage Management

Foradescriptionofthefieldsonthispage,see

SelecttheSDsforthestoragepool/tier.

,onpage5.

5. SelecttheSDstomakeuptheuserdatatier.
UsingtheStoragePoolWizardpage,fromthelistofavailableSDsonthe
page,selecttheSDsforthesecond(userdata)tier.ToselectanSDforthe
tier,fillthecheckboxnexttotheSDlabel.

Foradescriptionofthefieldsinthispage,see

,onpage5.

SelecttheSDsforthestoragepool/tier.

Verifyyoursettings,thenclicknexttodisplayasummarypage.
6. Reviewandapplysettings.
Thesummarypagedisplaysthesettingsthatwillbeusedtocreatethe
storagepool/tier.

14

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

IfyouhavemirroredSDs,fordisasterpreparednessorreplication
purposes,andyouwanttheservertotrytoreestablishthemirror
relationship,filltheLookForMirroredSystemDrivescheckbox.
Onceyouhavereviewedtheinformation,clickaddtocreatethesecond
tierofthestoragepool.
Note:Afterthestoragepoolhasbeencreated,itcanbefilledwithfile
systems.Formoreinformation,refertotheFileServicesAdministration
Guide.
7. Completethecreationofthestoragepoolortier.
Afterclickingaddinthelaststep,youwillseethefollowingdialog:

Youcannowclickyestocreateafilesystem,orclicknoreturntothe
StoragePoolspage.Ifyouchoosetocreateafilesystem,theCreateFile
Systempagewillappear.

Deleting Storage
Pools

Astoragepoolthatdoesnotcontainfilesystemscanbedeletedatanytime;
otherwise,deletethefilesystemsfirst.Afterthepoolhasbeendeleted,itsSDs
becomefreeandavailableforusebyneworexistingstoragepools.
Todeleteastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

15

Storage Management

FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickStoragePoolstodisplaythe
StoragePoolspage.

2. Selectastoragepool.
Fortheselectedstoragepoolclickdetails.
3. Deletethestoragepool.
Clickdelete,thenOKtoconfirm.

Expanding a
Storage Pool or a
Tier

ExpandastoragepooloratierofatieredstoragepoolbyaddingmoreSDsto
thepool/tier.Anuntieredstoragepoolcanbeexpandedtoprovidemore
usablestorageforfilesystems.Eithertierofatieredstoragepoolcanbe
expandedtoprovidemoreusablestorage;expandTier0toprovidemore
spaceformetadataorexpandTier1toprovidemorespaceforuserdata.A
storagepooloratiercanbeexpandedatanytimeandwithoutinterrupting
servicetoclients.Astoragepoolcanbeexpandeduntilitreachesanyofthe
followinglimits:

Atotalsizeof1PB.

Amaximumof16,384chunks.

Amaximumof256SDs.

Amaximumof64stripesets.Anewlycreatedstoragepoolcontainsone
stripeset,andonestripesetisaddedeverytimethestoragepoolis
expanded(meaningthatastoragepoolcanbeexpandedupto63times).

Note:IfDynamicWriteBalancingisnotenabled,orifyoursystemdoesnot
supportDynamicWriteBalancing,whenexpandingthestoragepool,useas
manydiskdrivesaspossibleandkeepSDsaslargeaspossibletoattainoptimal
performance.Afterthestoragepoolhasbeencreated,smallerfilesystemscan
becreatedinthepoolformoregranularstorageprovisioning.Formore
informationonDynamicWriteBalancing,refertotheSystemDriveGroups

16

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

andDynamicWriteBalancing.
Toexpandastoragepool/tier:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.
FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickStoragePoolstodisplaythe
StoragePoolspage:

2. Selectthestoragepoolorthestoragepoolthathasthetieryouwantto
expand.
Fillthecheckboxnexttothelabelofthestoragepoolyouwanttoexpand,
andclickdetailstodisplaytheStoragePoolDetailspage.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

17

Storage Management

Ifthestoragepoolisanuntieredstoragepool,theStoragePool
Detailspagelookslikethefollowing:

Todisplaytheavailablesystemdrivestoaddtothestoragepool,click
expand.TheStoragePoolWizardpageisdisplayed.SeeDisplaythe
availablesystemdrive(s)toaddtothestoragepool.,onpage19for
moreinformation.

18

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Ifthestoragepoolisatieredstoragepool,theStoragePoolDetails
pagelookslikethefollowing:

Todisplaytheavailablesystemdrivestoaddtoatier,selectthetier
youwanttoexpand,andclickexpand.TheStoragePoolWizardpage
isdisplayed.
3. Displaytheavailablesystemdrive(s)toaddtothestoragepool.
Todisplaytheavailablesystemdrivestoaddtothestoragepool,click
expand.TheStoragePoolWizardpageisdisplayed.

Ifyouareexpandinganuntieredstoragepool,theStoragePool
Wizardpagelookslikethefollowing:

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

19

Storage Management

Ifyouareexpandingatieredstoragepool,theStoragePoolWizard
pagelookslikethefollowing:

4. Selectthesystemdrive(s)toaddtothestoragepool.

20

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

Fillthecheckboxnexttothelabelofthesystemdriveyouwanttoadd,
thenclicknexttodisplaythenextStoragePoolWizardpage.

5. AddtheSDstothestoragepool/tier.
Clickexpand.

Reducing the
Size of a Storage
Pool
Denying Access
to a Storage Pool

Thesizeofastoragepoolcannotbereduced.

Denyingaccesstoastoragepool:

Removestheassociationbetweenthefilesystemshostedbythepooland
theirVirtualServer(EVS).Onceaccesstothepoolisallowed,filesystems
mustbereassociatedwithanEVS.Accesstoastoragepoolshouldonlybe
deniedduringaplannedmaintenancewindowandonlyatthedirection
ofHitachiDataSystemsSupportCenter.

Removesthestoragepoolanditsfilesystemsfrommemory,meaningthat
thosefilesystemsarenolongervisibleusingWebManager.

DeniesaccesstotheSDsthathostthestoragepool,withtheeffectthatthe
poolisnotreloadedthenexttimetheclusternode/serverboots.

IrrevocablydeletesalldataassociatedwithfilesystemsintheNVRAM
buffer,withtheeffectofdestroyingdataunlessallfilesystemshostedby
thestoragepoolwereunmountedsuccessfullybeforeaccesstothestorage
poolwasdenied.

Note:Thetechniqueofdenyingaccesstoastoragepoolcanbeusedtoprepare
astoragearrayforphysicalrelocation.Thestoragepoolanditscontentsarenot
Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

21

Storage Management

lostordeleted,andaccesscanbereturnedwhenneeded.
Theprocedurefordenyingaccesstoastoragepoolinvolvesunmountingeach
filesysteminthepool,thenchangingthepoolsaccessmode.Forinstructions
onunmountingfilesystems,refertotheFileServicesAdministrationGuide.
Todenyaccesstoastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheFileSystemspage.
FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickFileSystemstodisplaythe
FileSystemspage:

2. Unmounteveryfilesysteminthestoragepool.
Selectallthefilesystemsinthestoragepooltowhichyouwanttodeny
access,thenclickunmount;intheconfirmationdialog,clickOK.
3. Selectastoragepoolanddenyaccess.
ClicktheStoragePoolsshortcuttodisplayalistofallpools,thenselecta
particularstoragepoolandclickDenyAccess;intheconfirmationdialog,
clickOK.
Thiswillalsoremovethepoolfromthestoragepoolslist,butitwillnotbe
deleted.

Allowing Access
to a Storage Pool

Thisprocedurerestoresaccesstoastoragepool,butcanalsobeusedwhena
storagearraypreviouslyownedbyanotherserverhasbeenphysically
relocatedtobeservedbyanotherserver.Theprocessrestoresaccesstothe
SDsthatbelongtothestoragepool,thenrestoresaccesstothepoolitself.
Toallowaccesstoastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheSystemDrivespage.

22

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickSystemDrivestodisplaythe
SystemDrivespage:
2. ModifySDaccess.
SelectoneoftheSDsbelongingtothestoragepool,thenclickAllow
Access.
3. Modifystoragepoolaccess.
Selectapoolandclickdetails.IntheDetailspageforthatstoragepool,
clickAllowAccess;then,intheconfirmationpage,clickOK.
Note:Tobecomeaccessible,eachfilesysteminthestoragepoolmustbe
associatedwithanEVS.Todothis,navigatetotheDetailspageforeachfile
systeminthestoragepoolandassignittoanEVS.

Renaming a
Storage Pool

Thenameforastoragepoolcanbechangedatanytime,andwithoutaffecting
anyclients.
Torenameastoragepool:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.
FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickStoragePoolstodisplaythe
StoragePoolspage:

2. Renamethestoragepool.
Selectastoragepoolandclickdetails.IntheDetailspage,enteranew
nameintheLabeltextbox,thenclickrename.
Storagepoollabelsarenotcasesensitive,buttheydopreservecase(labels
willbekeptasentered,inanycombinationofupperandlowercase
characters).Also,storagepoollabelsmaynotcontainspacesoranyofthe
followingspecialcharacters:"&*/;:<>?\|.
Note:Storagepoollabelsmustbeuniquewithinaserverorcluster.Also,a

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

23

Storage Management

storagepoolcannothavethesamelabelasafilesystem.

Configuring
Automatic File
System
Expansion for an
Entire Storage
Pool

Usethisproceduretoalloworprohibitautomaticexpansionofallfilesystems
inthespecifiedstoragepool.Thissettingonlyaffectsautoexpansion;manual
expansionoffilesystemsinthestoragepoolisnotaffectedbythissetting.
Toconfigureautomaticfilesystemexpansionforallfilesystemsinanentire
storagepool:
1. NavigatetotheStoragePoolspage.
FromtheStorageManagementpage,clickStoragePoolstodisplaythe
StoragePoolspage:

2. NavigatetotheStoragePoolDetailspage.
SelectastoragepoolandclickdetailstodisplaytheStoragePoolsDetails
page.

24

Hitachi NAS Platform

Using a Storage Pool

3. Configureautoexpansion.
Youcanconfigurefilesystemautoexpansionatthestoragepoollevelin
oneoftwoways:

Enableautoexpansion
Evenifthestoragepoolisconfiguredtoallowitsfilesystemsto
automaticallyexpand,thefilesystemsmustalsobeconfiguredto
supportautomaticexpansion.Formoreinformation,refertotheFile
ServicesAdministrationGuide.
Note:Afterafilesystemhasexpanded,itssizecannotbereduced.
Iffilesystemautoexpansioniscurrentlydisabled,youcanenableit
byclickingenableautoexpansionintheFSAutoExpansionoption
box.

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25

Storage Management

Disableautoexpansion
Whenautomaticexpansionofafilesystemisdisabled,manual
expansionoffilesystemsinthestoragepoolisstillpossible.Formore
informationaboutmanualexpansionoffilesystems,refertotheFile
ServicesAdministrationGuide.
Iffilesystemautoexpansioniscurrentlyenabled,youcandisableit
byclickingdisableautoexpansionintheFSAutoExpansionoption
box.

26

Hitachi NAS Platform

The Hitachi Data Systems NAS


Storage System

Understanding Tiered Storage


Tieredstorageallowsyoutoconnectmultiplediversestoragesubsystems
behindasingleserver(orcluster).Usingtieredstorage,youcanmatch
applicationstoragerequirements(intermsofperformanceandscaling)to
yourstoragesubsystems.Thissectiondescribestheconceptoftieredstorage,
andexplainshowtoconfigurethestorageservertoworkwithyourstorage
subsystemstocreateatieredstoragearchitecture.
EachserversupportsuptoeightFCports,independentlyconfigurablefor
either1,2or4gigabitoperation.Independentconfigurationallowsyouto
connecttoarangeofstoragesubsystems,whichallowsyoutochoosethe
configurationthatwillbestmeetapplicationrequirements.Theserver
managesallbackendstorageasasinglesystem,throughanintegrated
networkmanagementinterface.

Basedonastoragesubsystemsperformancecharacteristics,itisclassifiedas
belongingtoacertaintier,andeachtierisuseddifferentlyintheenterprise
storagearchitecture.Thecurrentlysupportedstoragesubsystemsarefitinto
thetieredstoragemodelasfollows:
Tier

Performance

DiskType

DiskRPM

Veryhigh

DualportedFC

15,000

SAS

15,000

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

27

The Hitachi Data Systems NAS Storage System


Tier

Performance

DiskType

DiskRPM

High

DualportedFC

10,000

Nearline

SATAorNLSAS

7,200

Archival

SATAorNLSAS

7,200

Longtermstorage

N/A(Tape)

NA

Thestorageserversupportstiersofstorage,whereeachtierismadeupof
deviceswithdifferentperformancecharacteristicsortechnologies.Whenused
withHitachiDataSystemsstoragesubsystems,thestorageserveralso
supportsstoragevirtualizationthroughHitachiUniversalStoragePlatform
VSP,USPV,andUSPVMtechnology.
TiersofstorageandstoragevirtualizationarefullysupportedbyData
Migrator,anoptionalfeaturewhichallowsyoutooptimizetheusageoftiered
storageandremoteNFSv3servers(note,howeverthatDataMigratordoesnot
supportmigrationtoorfromtapestoragedevicesortapelibrarysystems).
DataMigratorautomaticallymigratesdataamongstoragesubsystemsof
primaryandsecondarystoragebasedonuserdefinedpolicies.DataMigrator
monitorsfilemetadatasuchassize,type,durationofinactivity,accesshistory,
andsoon.Whenthecriteriaofapolicyaremet,DataMigratormigratesfiles
accordingtorulesspecifiedinthepolicyasbackgroundtaskswithminimal
impactonserverperformance.Fromtheperspectiveoftheclientworkstation,
primaryversussecondaryfilelocationistransparent.Fordetailed
informationaboutDataMigrator,refertotheDataMigratorAdministration
Guide.

Tiered and
Untiered Storage
Pools

28

Astoragepool(knownasaspaninthecommandlineinterface)isthelogical
containerforacollectionofoneormoresystemdrives(SDs).
Therearetwotypesofstoragepools:

Anuntieredstoragepool:Anuntieredstoragepoolismadeupsystem
drives(SDs)createdononeormorestoragesubsystemswithinthesame
tierofstorage(storagesubsystemswithcomparablyperformance
characteristics).Tocreateanuntieredstoragepool,theremustbeatleast
oneavailableandunusedsystemdriveonthestoragesubsystemfrom
whichtheSDsinthestoragepoolwillbetaken.

Atieredstoragepool:Atieredstoragepoolismadeupsystemdrives
(SDs)createdonstoragesubsystems(RAIDarrays)withdifferent
performancecharacteristics.Typically,atieredstoragegroupismadeup
ofSDsfromhighperformancestoragesuchasflashmemory,andSDs
fromlowerperformancestoragesuchasfibrechannelorSATA.Youcan,
however,createatieredstoragegroupfromSDsfromstoragesubsystems
usinganystoragetechnology.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Fibre Channel Fabric

Note:TieredstoragepoolsaresupportedonlytheHitachiNASPlatformserv

ers/clusters.

Tiered and
Untiered File
Systems

Afilesystemtypicallyconsistsoffilesanddirectories.Dataaboutthefilesand
directories(aswellasmanyotherattributes)iskept;thisinformationisthe
metadata.Thedatawithinthefilesystem(bothuserdataandmetadata)is
storedinastoragepool.
Storagepoolscanbecreatedusingstoragefromdifferenttiers(uptotwotiers
arecurrentlysupported).Thesestoragepoolsarecalledtieredstoragepools.
Forinformationabouttieredstoragepools,seeTieredandUntieredStorage
Pools,onpage28.
Likestoragepools,filesystemdata(metadataanduserdata)maybestoredin
asingletier,orinmultipletiers.

Whenfilesystemdataisstoredonstoragesubsystemsonmultipletiers,
thefilesystemiscalledatieredfilesystem.
Inatieredfilesystem,metadataisstoredonthehighestperformancetier
ofstorage,anduserdataisstoredonalowerperformancetier.Storing
metadataonthehigherperformancetierprovidessystemperformance
benefitsoverstoringboththemetadataanduserdataonthesametierof
storage.

Whenfilesystemdataisstoredonstoragesubsystemsonasingletier,the
filesystemiscalledanuntieredfilesystem.

Fibre Channel Fabric


TheserversupportsfabricFCswitches,andwhenconnectingtoaFCswitch,
theservermustbeconfiguredforN_Portoperation.SeveralFCSwitch
optionsareavailable,contactyourHitachiDataSystemsrepresentativefor
moreinformation.
YoucanmanagetheFCinterfaceontheserver/clusterthroughthecommand
lineinterface(CLI),usingthefollowingcommands:

fc-linktoenable/disabletheFClink.

fc-link-typetochangetheFClinktype.

fc-link-speedtochangetheFCinterfacespeed.

Formoreinformationaboutthesecommands,refertotheCommandLine
Reference.

About FC Paths

TheNASserveraccessesthestoragesubsystemthroughaminimumoftwo
FCpaths(atleastonefromeachoftheFibreChannelswitches).AnFCpathis

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

29

The Hitachi Data Systems NAS Storage System

madeupoftheservershostportID,thestoragesubsystemportWWN
(worldwidename),andtheSDidentifier(ID).Thefollowingillustration
showsacompletepathfromtheservertoeachoftheSDsonthestorage
subsystem:

YoucanviewinformationabouttheFCpathsontheserver/clusterthrough
thecommandlineinterface(CLI),usingthefc-host-port-load,fctarget-port-load,andthesdpathcommands.

Load Balancing
and Failure
Recovery

Loadbalancingonastorageserverisamatterofbalancingtheloadstothe
systemdrives(SDs)onthestoragesubsystems(RAIDarrays)towhichthe
storageserverisconnected.LUNsarealogicaldivisionofagroupofthe
physicaldisksofthestoragesubsystem,andLUNsthatarevisibletothe
storageserverareknownasSDs,whicharethebasicstorageunitofthe
storagesubsystem.
TheserverroutesFCtraffictoindividualSDsoverasingleFCpath,
distributingtheloadacrosstwoFCswitchesand,whenpossible,acrossdual
active/activeormultiportRAIDcontrollers.
Followingthefailureofapreferredpath,diskI/Oisredistributedamong
other(nonpreferred)paths.Whentheserverdetectsreactivationofthe
preferredFCpath,itonceagainredistributesdiskI/OtousethepreferredFC
path.
Defaultloadbalancing(loadbalancingautomaticallyperformedbythe
storageserver)isperformedbasedonthefollowingcriteria:

30

LoadisdefinedasthenumberofopenSDs,regardlessofthelevelofI/O
oneachSD.SDscounttowardsloadatthetargetiftheyareopentoatleast
Hitachi NAS Platform

Supported Storage Subsystems

oneclusternode;thenumberofnodes(normallyallnodesinacluster,
afterboot)isnotconsidered.

BalancingloadonRAIDcontrollertargetportstakesprecedenceover
balancingloadonserverFChostports.

BalancingloadamongasubsystemsRAIDcontrollerstakesprecedence
overbalancingamongportsonthosecontrollers.

Inacluster,choiceofRAIDcontrollertargetportiscoordinatedbetween
clusternodes,sothatI/OrequestsforagivenSDdonotsimultaneouslygo
tomultipletargetportsonthesameRAIDcontroller.

YoucanmanuallyconfigureloaddistributionfromtheCLI(overridingthe
defaultloadbalancingperformedbytheserver),usingthesdpathcommand.
Whenmanuallyconfiguringloadbalancingusingtheusingthesdpath
command:

Youcanconfigureapreferredserverhostportand/oraRAIDcontroller
targetportforanSD.Ifbothareset,theRAIDcontrollertargetport
preferencetakesprecedenceovertheserverhostportpreference.Whena
specifiedportpreferencecannotbesatisfied,portselectionfallsbackto
automaticselection.

FortheSDsvisibleonthesametargetportofaRAIDcontroller,you
shouldeithersetapreferredRAIDcontrollertargetportforall SDsorfor
none of the SDs.SettingthepreferredRAIDcontrollertargetportforonly
someoftheSDsvisibleonanygivenRAIDcontrollertargetportmay
createasituationwhereloaddistributionissuboptimal.

ThesdpathcommandcanalsobeusedtoquerythecurrentFCpathbeing
usedtocommunicatewitheachSD.Formoreinformationonthesdpath
command,runtheman sdpathcommand.

Fibre Channel
Statistics

Theserverprovidesperportandoverallstatistics,inrealtime,at10second
intervals.Historicalstatisticscovertheperiodsincepreviousserverstartor
statisticsreset.TheFibreChannelStatisticspageoftheWebManager
displaysahistogramshowingthenumberofbytes/secondreceivedand
transmittedduringthepastfewminutes.

Supported Storage Subsystems


TheNASstorageserversupportsthefollowingstoragearrays:

Currentofferings:AMS2100,AMS2300,AMS2500,DF850,VSP,USPV,
andUSPVM

Discontinued,butstillsupported:WMS100,AMS200,AMS500,AMS
1000,AMS2000family,USP100,USP600,andUSP1100

Manyarrayshaveseveralconfigurations,andmaybesuitableforusein
severaltiersinthetieredstoragemodel,basedonconfigurationofthe
individualstoragearray.Duetothespecificcapacityandperformance

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

31

The Hitachi Data Systems NAS Storage System

characteristicsofeachstoragesubsystem,arrayswilltypicallybeusedinthe
storagemodeltiersasfollows:

Manufacturer

Array

TypicallyusedinTier(s)

HDS

AMS500,AMS1000,and
AMS2000family

Tier1,Tier2,andTier3

AMS200

Tier2andTier3

DF850

Tier1,Tier2,andTier3

USP100,USP600,and
USP1100

Tier1andTier2

USPV

Tier1,Tier2,andTier3

USPVM

Tier1andTier3

VSP

Tier1

WMS100

Tier3

ThefollowingtabledescribestheRAIDlevelssupportedbyeachofthe
currentlysupportedstoragesubsystems:

32

Manufacturer

Array

RAIDLevel(s)Supported

HDS

USP100,USP600,USP1100,USPV,
USPVM,andVSP

1/5/6

AMS2000,AMS1000,AMS500,
AMS200,DF850,andWMS100

1/5/6/10

Hitachi NAS Platform

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

Storage Characteristics
BlueArcstoragearraycontrollerenclosuresusehardwareRAIDcontrollers,
whichprovidecompleteRAIDfunctionalityandenhanceddiskfailure
management.
TheRC12EandtheRC16EXParedriveshelfexpansionenclosuresthatattach
totheRAIDcontrollersinordertoexpandtheamountofstorageavailable.

RAID Controllers

TheRAIDcontrollersoperateasanActive/Active(A/A)pairwithinthesame
rack.BothRAIDcontrollerscanactivelyprocessdiskI/Orequests.Shouldone
ofthetwoRAIDcontrollersfail,thestorageserverreroutestheI/O
transparentlytotheothercontroller,whichstartsprocessingdiskI/Orequests
forbothcontrollers.

Hot Spare Disk


Whenthefaileddiskisreplaced,theRAIDcontrollersCopyBackprocesswill
automaticallymovethereconstructeddatafromthediskthatwasthehot
sparetothereplacementdisk.Thehotsparediskwillthenbemadeavailable
forfutureuse.
Ifitisnecessarytoremoveandreplacefaileddisks,itispossibletoperform
hotswapoperations.Inahotswap,anofflineorfaileddiskisremovedand
areplacementdiskisinsertedwhilethepowerisonandthesystemis
operating.
Note:Whenreplacingdiskdrives,allowatleastaoneminuteintervalbetween
diskremovalanddiskreplacement.ThisintervalallowstheRAIDcontrollerto
recognizethechangeintheRAIDracksconfiguration.

Managing the Storage Subsystem


BlueArcstoragearrayscanbemanagedusingWebManager.Common
operationsare:

Changingtherackname,password,ormediascanperiod.

Checkingthestatusofmediascanandotheroperations.

ReviewingeventsloggedbytheRAIDrack.

Determiningthestatusofphysicaldisks.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

33

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

Discovering and
Adding Racks

Beforecreatingsystemdrives,RAIDracksmustbediscoveredandaddedto
thelistofRAIDracksforthecurrentlyselectedmanagedserver.
ToAddaRAIDrack:
1. NavigatetotheStorageManagementpage(Home>Storage
Management>RAIDRacks).
2. IntheRAIDRackspage,clickDiscoverRacks.

3. Selectarack.
IntheChooseRackstoMonitorarea,checkthecheckboxesintheRack
Namecolumntobeaddedtothecurrentlymanagedserver.UsetheRack
Passwordfieldforrackswithconfiguredpasswords.Then,clickOK.

Ifnoracksappear,theSMUwasunabletofindanysupportedracksonits
network.Inthiscase,verifythattheRAIDrackshavetheirnetwork
settingsproperlyconfigured.
Note:RAIDracksthathavealreadybeenaddedtothecurrentlymanaged
serverwillnotbepresentinthelistofdiscoveredRAIDracks.
Oncearackisadded,thefollowingeventsoccur:

34

TheselectedRAIDracksappearontheRAIDRackslistpageandon
theSystemMonitor(forthecurrentlyselectedmanagedserver).

TheSMUbeginsloggingrackevents,whichcanbeviewedthrough
theEventLoglinkontheRAIDRackDetailspage.

RAIDracksevereeventswillbeforwardedtoeachmanagedserver
thathasdiscoveredtherackandincludedinitseventlog.Thistriggers
Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

theserversalertmechanism,possiblyresultinginalertemailsand
SNMPtraps.

RAIDracktimeissynchronizeddailywithSMUtime.

IfsystemdrivesarepresentontheRAIDrack,therackcacheblock
sizewillbesetto16KB.

Partially Discovered RAID Racks


WhendiscoveringRAIDracks,itispossiblethatonlyoneofthecontrollersIP
addressesmightbediscovered(forinstance,ifonlyonecontrollerisonline).
Inthisinstance,theRAIDrackisconsideredonlypartiallydiscovered.The
RAIDrackcanstillbeadded;however,itwillappearontheRAIDRacklist
pagewithanamberstatusandwillhavereducedfunctionality,becausethe
SMUcancommunicatewithonlyonecontroller.Ifarackispartially
discovered,youshouldidentifyandremedytheproblemassoonaspossible.
Whenbothcontrollersarebackonline,theRAIDrackshouldberemovedand
rediscovered.RediscoverywillalloweachcontrollersIPaddresstobefully
discovered.HavingbothIPaddressesallowstheSMUtomaintaincontact
withtheRAIDrackevenifoneofthecontrollersfails.
Note:DeletingaRAIDrackonlyremovesitasadevicemanagedbytheSMU.
Itwillnotaffectanyconfiguredsystemdrivesorfilesystems.

Listing Installed
RAID Racks

TolistinstalledRAIDracks:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(StorageManagement>RAIDRacks).

Thefollowingactionsareavailableandapplytoracksselectedbyfilling
thecheckboxfortheRAIDrack:

DeleteremovestheRAIDrackfromthelist.Deletingtherackjust
removestherackasamanagedrack,itdoesnotaffectthesystem
drivesconfiguredonthestorageenclosuresintherack.

DiscoverRacksallowstheservertocheckforadditionalRAIDracks.
Itsearchesforsupportedstoragedevicesconnectedtoboththepublic
andprivatemanagementnetworks.OnceaRAIDrackhasbeenfound,
thenitcanbemanaged.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

35

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

ViewPhysicalDisksshowsthestatusofthephysicaldisksassociated
withaRAIDrack.

ViewActiveTasksshowsthestatusofoperations,suchasmedia
scans,whichareinprogressforaRAIDrack.

TheshortcutforSystemDrivesbringsuptheSystemDrivespagein
whichasystemdrivecanbemanaged.

Inanyindividualrow,clickingthedetailsbuttonbringsupaRAIDRack
Detailspage.ThispageprovidesinformationontheRAIDrack.

36

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

Thefollowingtabledescribesfieldsandcolumnsinthispage:
Area

Field

Identification

Description
Thisareadisplaysidentificationinformation,
including:

RackStatus
Summary

Name.ThenameoftheRAIDrack.Youcan
changethisnametomakeiteasiertoidentify
theRAIDrack.

RackWWN.WorldwidenamefortheRAID
rack,setbythemanufacturer.

Theindicatorlightprovidesstatusinformation
abouttheRAIDrack:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

WhenyouclicktheViewIssueslink,theRack
Issuespageisdisplayed.
Configuration

MediaScan
Period

Controllers

Physical
Disks

Thenumberofdaysoverwhichacompletescanof
thesystemdriveswilloccur.
Thename,IPaddress(ifavailable),andstatus
informationforeachRAIDcontroller:

Status.ThestatusoftheRAIDcontroller.

Mode.ThemodereportstheRAIDcontrolleras
runningineitheractiveorpassivemode.By
default,bothcontrollersareactive.

Firmware.Thefirmwareversioninstalledon
theRAIDcontroller.

Thesummaryoftheoverallstatusofthephysical
diskswithintheRAIDrack:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Clicktheindicatorlightorthestatustodisplaythe
physicaldisksontheRAIDRackpage.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

37

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays


Area

Field

Batteries

Description
BatteriesmaintaindataheldintheRAIDcontrollers
cache,preservingdataintheeventofapower
failure.
TheinformationforeachbatterywithintheRAID
rack:

Status.Thestatusofthebatteries:

Power
Supplies

AmberWarning
RedSevere

Location.Thelocationofthebatterieswithin
theRAIDrack.

Age.Thenumberofdaysthatthebatterieshave
beenintheRAIDrack.

LifeRemaining.Thenumberofdaysuntilthe
batteriesshouldbereplaced.

Thestatusofeachpowersupplyunit(PSU)inthe
RAIDrack.

Status.ThestatusofthePSU:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthePSUintheRAID
rack.

Thestatusandlocationoftheenvironmental
servicesmodule(ESM)temperaturesensorinthe
RAIDrack.

Fans

ESM
Temperature
Sensors

GreenOK

Status.Thestatusofthesensor:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthesensorintheRAID
rack.

ThestatusofthefanswithintheRAIDrack.

Status.Thestatusofthefan:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthefanintheRAID
rack.

Thefollowingactionsareavailable:

38

ClickApplytosaveanychangestotheRAIDrackidentificationor
configuration.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

ClickChangePasswordtodisplaytheRAIDRackPasswordpage.

Thefollowingshortcutsareavailable:

Performing a
Media Scan on a
System Drive

PhysicalDiskStatus.ClickthePhysicalDiskStatuslinktodisplay
thePhysicalDisksonRAIDRackpagefortheRAIDrack.

ActiveTasks.ClicktheActiveTaskslinktodisplaytheActiveTasks
pagefortheRAIDrack.

EventLog.ClicktheEventLoglinktodisplaytheRackEventLog
page.

SystemDrives.ClicktheSystemDriveslinktodisplaytheSystem
Drivespage.

MediaScanprovidesearlywarningofsystemdrivefailureandreducesthe
possibilityofencounteringamediaerrorduringhostoperations.Atypicalfile
systemcomprisesfrequentlyusedfiles,rarelyusedfiles,andfreespace.When
adiskdevelopsbadspotsinseldomaccessedsectors,failuresinthose
locationscanremainundetected.MediaScancandetectsuchdrivemedia
errorsbeforetheyarefoundduringanormalreadorwritetothesystem
drive.
MediaScanisperformedasabackgroundtask,scanningandcomparingall
dataandparityinformationontheconfiguredsystemdrives.MediaScanruns
onallsystemdrivesthatareoptimal(thatis,operatingwithoutknown
failures)andhavenomodificationoperationsinprogress.Errorsdetected
duringascanarereportedintheeventlog.

Monitoring Active
Tasks

Youcanviewthestatusofongoingactivity(MediaScan,CopyBack,
initializing,andsoon)withintheRAIDrackontheActiveTaskspage.
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>
RAIDRacks).
2. SelectaRAIDrack.
IntheRAIDRackspage,checkthecheckboxnexttotheRAIDrackon
whichtoviewtheActiveTasks,thenclickViewActiveTasks.

AllongoingactivityontheRAIDrackaredisplayedonthispage.This
pagewillautomaticallyrefreshevery60seconds.
Thefollowingchoicesareavailable:
RefreshupdatesthestatusofActiveTasks.
Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

39

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

BackbringsuptheRAIDRackslistpage.
Note:SometaskswillreportaPercentageCompletebutnotaTimeRe
maining.Inthiscase,TimeRemainingwillbeshownasNotKnown.

Reviewing Events
Logged

TheSMUmonitorsevents,suchasfailureconditions,loggedbytheRAID
rack.TheSMUisconnectedtothestoragesubsystemthroughanoutof
bandEthernetlink(theprivatemanagementnetworkistypicallyusedfor
thispurpose).Severeeventsareimmediatelyforwardedtotheserversevent
log.Thiswilltriggeralertnotifications(forexample,emailorSNMPtraps)if
theserverisconfiguredtodoso.Inaddition,iftheSMUisunabletoconnect
totheRAIDracks,aseverealertwillbetriggeredontheserver.
TorevieweventsloggedbytheRAIDrack:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackDetailspage(Home>StorageManagement
>RAIDRacks).
ClickthedetailsbuttoncorrespondingtotheRAIDrackonwhichtoview
theRAIDRackDetailspage.
2. Displaytheeventlog.
FromtheRAIDRackDetailspage,clickEventLog.

Theeventlogisupdatedeverythreeminutesorwhenasevereevent
occursontheRAIDrack.Itdisplaysamaximumof1,000events(infoor
40

Hitachi NAS Platform

Monitoring Physical Disks

severe).Upto3,000eventsarearchivedontheSMUandareavailablefor
downloadusingthedownloadbutton.
Thistablecanalsobefilteredtoviewtheeventlogbasedonseveritylevel:
All,Info,orSevere.
Item/Field

Description

Severity

Thelevelofseverityisdisplayedforeachevent.Severitymightbeeither
Info(informational),orsevere(error).

Date/Time

Thedateandtimeatwhichtheeventwaslogged.

Component
Location

Thecomponent(controller,battery,volume,channel,andsoforth)and
locationoftheevent,ifknown.

ID/Message

TheeventIDandthedetailsabouttheevent.

TheDetailssectionprovidestheracknameandthecurrent(RAID)
controllersdateandtime.
Thefollowingactionsareavailable:

RefreshupdatestheEventLogpage.TheEventLogpage
automaticallyrefreshesevery60seconds.

Downloadallowsthearchivedeventstobedownloadedinacomma
separatedvalues(.csv)providedinaZIPfile.EventhoughtheSMU
displaysonlythemostrecent1,000events,manymorearearchivedon
theSMUharddrive.Approximately2MB(about4,000)ofthemost
recenteventsarearchived.

ClearAllpermanentlydeletesalltheeventsintheSMUeventlogand
theRAIDracklog.

Monitoring Physical Disks


ThestatusofthephysicaldisksassociatedwithinaRAIDrackcanbe
determinedbyusingWebManager.Also,thestatusofthephysicaldiskscan
bechangedifaphysicaldiskneedstoberemovedoranewhotsparediskhas
beenadded.
Tocheckandchangethestatusofphysicaldisks:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>RAID
Racks).
2. Displaystatusforselectedphysicaldisks.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

41

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

CheckthecheckboxfortheRAIDrackwithphysicaldisksofinterestand
clickViewPhysicalDisks.

Thefollowingtabledescribesthecolumnsinthispage:

42

Item/Field

Description

Enclosure

TheIDoftheenclosurehousingthedisk.

Slot

Theslotnumberinthestorageenclosureinwhichthephysicaldisk
resides.

Capacity

Thestoragecapacityofthedisk.

Type

Thetypeofphysicaldiskintheenclosure,typicallyeitherFibre
ChannelorSATA.

StoragePool

ThelabeloftheStoragePool,ifthephysicaldiskisinusewithina
StoragePool.

Status

ThecurrentstatusofthephysicaldiskswithintheRAIDrack.

HotSpare

Theboxischeckedifitisassignedasahotspare.

Available

Theboxischeckedifthephysicaldiskisavailable.

Offline

Theboxischeckedifthephysicaldiskisoffline.

Manufacturer

Thenameofthediskmanufacturer.

Firmware

Thefirmwareversiononthephysicaldisk.

Hitachi NAS Platform

Monitoring Physical Disks

WithinthePhysicalDiskpage,physicaldiskswhichareshownas
availablecanbeassignedorunassignedashotspares.
Note:HitachiDataSystemsrequiresthatatleastonediskbemarkedasa
hotsparebythetimethefirstsystemdriveiscreated.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

43

Configuring BlueArc Storage Arrays

44

Hitachi NAS Platform

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

SA48 Specifications
TheSA48CstoragesubsystemsprovidehighdensityTier3(nearline)storage
usingSATAdisks.
TheSA48Cstoragesubsystemsincludethefollowingelements:

Storagecontrollerenclosure,whichconsistsofthe4USA48Cstorage
controllerenclosure,housing48SATAdisks(SASdisksarenotsupported)
anddualRAIDHA(HighAvailability)controllers.EachRAIDcontroller
hasdualRAIDhostports,andconnectstoasingleexpansionunitthrough
acable.TheRAIDcontrollersinanSA48Cstorageenclosuresupporta
maximumofoneexpansionenclosure.

Optionally,oneSA48expansionenclosurecanbeconnectedtoanSA48C
storagecontrollerenclosure.

RAID Controllers
TheRAIDcontrollersoperateasanActive/Active(A/A)pairwithinthesame
rack.BothRAIDcontrollerscanactivelyprocessdiskI/Orequests.Shouldone
ofthetwoRAIDcontrollersfail,thestorageserverreroutestheI/O
transparentlytotheothercontroller,whichstartsprocessingdiskI/Orequests
forbothcontrollers.

Hot Spare Disk

Whenadiskfails,theRAIDcontrollerautomaticallyreconstructsdatafrom
thefaileddiskonahotspareandbeginsusingthediskinnormaloperations.
Thefaileddiskcanthenbereplacedanddesignatedasahotspare,whichwill
thenbeavailableforfutureuse.
Ifitisnecessarytoremoveandreplacefaileddisks,itispossibletoperform
hotswapoperations.Inahotswap,anofflineorfaileddiskisremovedand
areplacementdiskisinsertedwhilethepowerisonandthesystemis
operating.
Note:Whenreplacingdiskdrives,allowatleastaoneminuteintervalbetween
diskremovalanddiskreplacement.ThisintervalallowstheRAIDcontrollerto
recognizethechangeintheRAIDracksconfiguration.

Managing the Storage Subsystem


SA48CRAIDrackscanbemanagedusingWebManager.Commonoperations
are:
Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

45

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

Changingtherackname.

Checkingthehardwarestatus(controllers,disks,batteries,PSUs,and
fans)andtemperaturesensorreadings.

Reviewingactivetasksandrackevents.

Additionally,youcanlaunchtheintegratedStorViewmanagement
application.ThisapplicationisusedtocreateLUs,Arrays,andmanagehot
spares.

Discovering and
Adding Racks

Beforecreatingsystemdrives,RAIDracksmustbediscoveredandaddedto
thelistofRAIDracksforthecurrentlyselectedmanagedserver.Forthe
SA48C,thisdiscoveryoccursautomatically.Oncethediscoveryprocessis
completetheRAIDrackwillappearintheSystemMonitorwithitsdefault
name,youcanthengototheSystemMonitorandrenametheRAIDrack.

Partially Discovered RAID Racks


WhendiscoveringRAIDracks,itispossiblethatonlyoneofthecontrollersIP
addressesmightbediscovered(forinstance,ifonlyonecontrollerisonline).
Inthisinstance,theRAIDrackisconsideredonlypartiallydiscovered.The
RAIDrackcanstillbeadded;however,itwillappearontheRAIDRacklist
pagewithanamberstatusandwillhavereducedfunctionality,becausethe
SMUcancommunicatewithonlyonecontroller.Ifarackispartially
discovered,youshouldidentifyandremedytheproblemassoonaspossible.
Whenbothcontrollersarebackonline,theRAIDrackshouldberemovedand
rediscovered.RediscoverywillalloweachcontrollersIPaddresstobefully
discovered.HavingbothIPaddressesallowstheSMUtomaintaincontact
withtheRAIDrackevenifoneofthecontrollersfails.
Note:DeletingaRAIDrackonlyremovesitasadevicemanagedbytheSMU.
Itwillnotaffectanyconfiguredsystemdrivesorfilesystems.

Listing Installed
RAID Racks

46

TolistinstalledRAIDracks:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(StorageManagement>RAIDRacks).

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

Thefollowingactionsareavailableandapplytoracksselectedbyfilling
thecheckboxfortheRAIDrack:

DeleteremovestheRAIDrackfromthelist.Deletingtherackjust
removestherackasamanagedrack,itdoesnotaffectthesystem
drivesconfiguredonthestorageenclosuresintherack.

DiscoverRacksallowstheservertocheckforadditionalRAIDracks.
Itsearchesforsupportedstoragedevicesconnectedtoboththepublic
andprivatemanagementnetworks.OnceaRAIDrackhasbeenfound,
thenitcanbemanaged.

ViewPhysicalDisksshowsthestatusofthephysicaldisksassociated
withaRAIDrack.

ViewActiveTasksshowsthestatusofoperations,suchasmedia
scans,whichareinprogressforaRAIDrack.

TheshortcutforSystemDrivesbringsuptheSystemDrivespagein
whichasystemdrivecanbemanaged.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

47

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

Inanyindividualrow,clickingthedetailsbuttonbringsupaRAIDRack
Detailspage.ThispageprovidesinformationontheRAIDrack.

48

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

Thefollowingtabledescribesfieldsandcolumnsinthispage:
Area

Description

Identification

Thisareadisplaysidentificationinformation,including:

Name.ThenameoftheRAIDrack.Youcanchangethisnameto
makeiteasiertoidentifytheRAIDrack.

RackWWN.WorldwidenamefortheRAIDrack,setbythe
manufacturer.

Ifyouhavechangedtherackname,clickapplytosavethechange.
RackStatus
Summary

Controllers

TheindicatorlightprovidesstatusinformationabouttheRAIDrack:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Thename,IPaddress(ifavailable),andstatusinformationforeach
RAIDcontroller:

TolaunchtheintegratedStorViewapplication,clickLaunch
GUI.

IPAddress.ThisfieldisusedtosendtheIPAddressofaRAID
controller(orbothRAIDcontrollers)tothemanagedserver/
clusterandtheSMU.Becausetheserver/clusterandtheSMU
cannotdeterminecontrollerIPaddressvaluesforthemselves,
entertheIPaddressforoneRAIDcontroller(orbothRAID
controllers),andclickapply.
Note:EnteringRAIDcontrollerIPaddressvaluesdoesnotaffect
thenetworksettingsofthecontrollers;itmerelyprovidesthis
informationtothemanagedserverandtheSMU.

Physical
Disks

Status.ThestatusoftheRAIDcontroller.

Mode.ThemodereportstheRAIDcontrollerasrunningin
eitheractiveorpassivemode.Bydefault,bothcontrollersare
active.

Firmware.ThefirmwareversioninstalledontheRAID
controller.

Thesummaryoftheoverallstatusofthephysicaldiskswithinthe
RAIDrack:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Clicktheindicatorlightorthestatustodisplaythephysicaldiskson
theRAIDRackpage.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

49

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array


Area

Description

Batteries

BatteriesmaintaindataheldintheRAIDcontrollerscache,
preservingdataintheeventofapowerfailure.
TheinformationforeachbatterywithintheRAIDrack:

Power
Supplies

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Charged.Thepercentageofchargeremaininginthebattery.

StandbyTime.Anestimateoftheamountoftimethatthe
batterycanmaintaindataintheRAIDcontrollerintheeventofa
powerloss.

Thestatusofeachpowersupplyunit(PSU)intheRAIDrack.

Status.ThestatusofthePSU:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthePSUintheRAIDrack.

ThestatusandlocationofthetemperaturesensorsintheRAIDrack.

Fans

Temperature
Sensors

Status.Thestatusofthebatteries:

Status.Thestatusofthesensor:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthesensorintheRAIDrack.

ThestatusofthefanswithintheRAIDrack.

Status.Thestatusofthefan:

GreenOK

AmberWarning

RedSevere

Location.ThelocationofthefanintheRAIDrack.

Thefollowingshortcutsareavailable:

Creating RAID
Arrays and LUs
50

PhysicalDisks.ClickthePhysicalDiskslinktodisplaythePhysical
DisksonRAIDRackpagefortheRAIDrack.

ActiveTasks.ClicktheActiveTaskslinktodisplaytheActiveTasks
pagefortheRAIDrack.

SystemDrives.ClicktheSystemDriveslinktodisplaytheSystem
Drivespage.

RAIDArrays(oftencalledRAIDgroupsorvolumegroups)arecreatedon
theSA48C,andarethendividedintosystemdrives(SDs).RAIDArraysare
groupsofdisksthatareorganizedintoasinglelogicalunit,whichcontains
Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

datadisksandhotsparedisks,whichreplacedisksthatfailduring
operation.Whenadatadiskfails,ahotsparediskisrebuilt(loaded)with
thedatafromthefaileddatadisk.DependingonthesizeoftheRAIDlevel
ofthearraybeingcreated,andthesizeoftheLUstobecreatedonthearray,
youmayhavetouseadifferentnumberofdataandhotsparedisksinyour
arrayconfiguration.
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>
RAIDRacks).
2. LaunchtheStorViewapplication.
OntheRAIDRackspage,selectoneofthecontrollersintheRAIDRack
thathastheeventsyouwanttosee,andclickLaunchGUItostartthe
StorViewapplication.
3. GototheCreateArraypage.
TodisplaytheCreateArraypage,clickontheCreateArrayiconunderthe
Configurationheading.
4. Selectavailabledrivesforthearray.
DrivesthatareonlineandreadyforselectionaremarkedasAvailable.
Toselectthedrive,simplyclickonit.Whenselected,thedrivescolorwill
change,andifislabelledselected.
Ifpossible,selectthedrivesforthearrayinahorizontalpatternacrossthe
enclosure.
Onceyouhaveselectedallthedrivesforthearray,proceedtothenext
step.
5. Specifythearrayconfigurationsettings.
UndertheNewArraySettingsheading,chooseappropriatesettingsfor
theRAIDlevelyouwantthearraytouse.Supportedconfigurations
include:
RAIDLevel

SupportedConfigurations
(DataDisks+HotSpares)

2+1

Note:4+2(forhigherperformance),7+2,9+2,or13+2(largest
LUs)

Note:RAID6ismandatoryforLUsgreaterthan2TB.
Thefollowingarrayconfigurationsettingsarerecommended:
SettingName

Value

RAIDLevel

5or6

ChunkSize

32KB

Initialize/Trust

Initialize

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

51

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array


SettingName

Value

Backoffpercent

1%

Readaheadcache

Automatic

Writebackcache

MaxMB

Mirrorcache(disablewhenpartnercontrollermissingoroffline)

Checkboxfilled

DisableWBcacheifcontrollerbatteryislow,missingorfailed

Checkboxfilled

DisableWBcacheifarraybecomescritical

Checkboxempty

BlockSize

512bytes

Disablewritecache

Checkboxfilled

NotethattheName(item3)isauserfriendlyname,suchasArrayx,
thatwillbeassignedtothearray.
6. Createthearray.
ClickCREATEtocreateandinitializethearray.
7. ClosetheCreateArraypage.
ClickCLOSEtoclosetheCreateArraypageandreturntothemainpage
oftheStorViewapplication.
8. Createadditionalarraysifnecessary.
Tocreateadditionalarrays,repeatsteps3through7foreachadditional
array.
9. GototheAdvancedSettingspage.
TodisplaytheAdvancedSettingspage,clickontheAdvancedSettings
iconundertheConfigurationheading.
10. Whenthearrayisinitialized,createLUs.
TocreateLUs(logicalunits):
a. GototheCreateLogicalDrivepageofStorView.
TodisplaytheCreateLogicalDrivepage,clickontheCreateLogical
DriveiconundertheConfigurationheading.
b. SelectthearraystobeusedfortheLU.
SelectthearraystousefortheLU,startingwitharray0.Thetotal
capacityoftheLUisdisplayedintheSizefield.
Note:TheentirecapacityofaRAIDarrayshouldbeconfiguredasasingle
LU.

52

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

c. SpecifytheLUconfigurationsettings.
ThefollowingadvancedLUconfigurationsettingsarerecommended:
SettingName

Value

Name

Userset

Mappedto

(Acceptthedefault)

Availability

(Acceptthedefault)

d. CreatetheLU.
ClickCREATEtoacceptallthedefaultsettingsandcreatetheLU.
11. SpecifytheLUconfigurationsettings.
ThefollowingadvancedLUconfigurationsettingsarerecommended:
SettingName

Value

DifferentNodeNames

Checkboxfilled

ControllerLUN

Disabled

AutoSpare

Checkboxfilled

AutoRebuild

Checkboxfilled

SingleControllerMode

Notsupported(shouldbegrayedoutand
notavailable)

BackgroundDriveVerify

Checkboxempty

InitializationPriority

50%

RebuildPriority

50%

12. ReturntoWebManager.
ReturntoWebManagerbyclickingthebackbuttononyourbrowser
twice.

Monitoring Active
Tasks

Youcanviewthestatusofongoingactivity(initializing,rebuilding,parity
checking,andsoon)withintheRAIDrackontheActiveTaskspage.
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>
RAIDRacks).
2. SelectaRAIDrack.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

53

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

IntheRAIDRackspage,checkthecheckboxnexttotheRAIDrackon
whichtoviewtheActiveTasks,thenclickViewActiveTasks.

AllongoingactivityontheRAIDrackaredisplayedonthispage.This
pagewillautomaticallyrefreshevery60seconds.
Thefollowingchoicesareavailable:
RefreshupdatesthestatusofActiveTasks.
BackbringsuptheRAIDRackslistpage.
Note:SometaskswillreportaPercentageCompletebutnotaTimeRe
maining.Inthiscase,TimeRemainingwillbeshownasNotKnown.

Reviewing Events
Logged

Boththeserver/clusterEventLogontheSMU(availablethroughWeb
Manager)andtheembeddeduserinterface(StorView)monitorevents,such
asfailureconditions,loggedbytheRAIDrack.

TheSMUisconnectedtothestoragesubsystemthroughanEthernetlink
(theprivatemanagementnetworkistypicallyusedforthispurpose).
Severeeventsareimmediatelyforwardedtotheserverseventlog.This
willtriggeralertnotifications(forexample,emailorSNMPtraps)ifthe
serverisconfiguredtodoso.Inaddition,iftheSMUisunabletoconnect
totheRAIDracks,aseverealertwillbetriggeredontheserver.

ThelogintheStorViewmanagementinterfacelistsmanyeventsthatare
notrecordedintheserver/clusterEventLog.
Note:IftheRAIDrackandtheserver/clusterhavebeenconfiguredtouse
SNMP,alleventsintheStorViewmanagementinterfacelogwillalsoap
pearintheserver/clustereventlog.

Dependingonthetypeofeventyouwanttosee,youmayuseeitherthe
server/clusterEventLog,ortheStorViewlog.

Reviewing Events Using Web Manager


TouseWebManagerrevieweventsRAIDrackeventsloggedintheserver/
clustereventlog:
1. NavigatetotheEventLogpage.

54

Hitachi NAS Platform

Managing the Storage Subsystem

FromtheHomepage,selectStatus&Monitoring,thenclickEventLogto
displaytheEventLogpage.

Reviewing Events in the StorView Log


TorevieweventsintheStorViewlog:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>
RAIDRacks).
2. LaunchtheStorViewapplication.
OntheRAIDRackspage,selectoneofthecontrollersintheRAIDRack
thathastheeventsyouwanttosee,andclickLaunchGUI.Thiswillstart
theStorViewapplication.
3. Displaytheeventlog.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

55

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

OnthefirstpageofStorView,clickLOGS.Anewwindowwillappear,
displayingtheStorViewLog.

Note:IftheRAIDrackandtheserver/clusterhavebeenconfiguredtouse
SNMP,alleventsintheStorViewmanagementinterfacelogwillalsoap
pearintheserver/clustereventlog.
4. ReturntoWebManager.
Onceyouhavereviewedthelog,closethewindowandreturntoWeb
Managerbyclickingthebackbuttononyourbrowsertwice.

Monitoring Physical Disks


ThestatusofthephysicaldisksassociatedwithinaRAIDrackcanbe
determinedbyusingWebManager.Also,thestatusofthephysicaldiskscan
bechangedifaphysicaldiskneedstoberemovedoranewhotsparediskhas
beenadded.
Tocheckandchangethestatusofphysicaldisks:
1. NavigatetotheRAIDRackspage(Home>StorageManagement>
RAIDRacks).
2. Displaystatusforselectedphysicaldisks.

56

Hitachi NAS Platform

Monitoring Physical Disks

CheckthecheckboxfortheRAIDrackwithphysicaldisksofinterestand
clickViewPhysicalDisks.

Thefollowingtabledescribesthecolumnsinthispage:
Item/Field

Description

Enclosure

TheIDoftheenclosurehousingthedisk.

Slot

Theslotnumberinthestorageenclosureinwhichthephysicaldisk
resides.

Capacity

Thestoragecapacityofthedisk.

Type

Thetypeofphysicaldiskintheenclosure,typicallyeitherFibre
ChannelorSATA.

StoragePool

ThelabeloftheStoragePool,ifthephysicaldiskisinusewithina
StoragePool.

Status

ThecurrentstatusofthephysicaldiskswithintheRAIDrack.

HotSpare

Theboxischeckedifitisassignedasahotspare.

Available

Theboxischeckedifthephysicaldiskisavailable.

Offline

Theboxischeckedifthephysicaldiskisoffline.

Manufacturer

Thenameofthediskmanufacturer.

Firmware

Thefirmwareversiononthephysicaldisk.

Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

57

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

WithinthePhysicalDiskpage,physicaldiskswhichareshownas
availablecanbeassignedorunassignedashotspares.
Note:HitachiDataSystemsrequiresthatatleastonediskbemarkedasahot
sparebythetimethefirstsystemdriveiscreated.

Adding an Expansion Enclosure


WhenaddinganSA48driveshelfexpansionenclosuretoanalready
operationalSA48CRAIDcontrollerenclosure,youwillneed:

TostopI/OontheSA48CRAIDsystemthatisbeingexpanded.

TwoSAScables(bothendsofeachcablemustbeoftheSFF8470format).

TheStorViewusernameandpasswordfortheSA48expansionenclosure
beingadded.

TomakesurethattheSA48CRAIDsystemthatisbeingexpandedmustbe
runningfirmwareversionv2.5orlater.ContacttheHitachiDataSystems
SupportCenterifitisnecessarytoupgradethefirmwarepriortoadding
anexpansion.

Tomakesurethatthereisnoarrayconfigurationpresentonanyofthe
diskdrivesintheexpansionenclosuretobeattachedtoanalready
configuredSA48CRAIDsystem.Thismeansthatyoumustconfigurethe
arraysontheexpansionenclosureafteraddingit;configuringan
expansionbeforeaddingittotheexistingSA48Csystemisnotsupported.
Forinformationoncreatingthearrays,seeCreatingRAIDArraysand
LUs,onpage50.

Tohavetheexpansionphysicallyplacedinthelocationwhereitisdesired
(forexample,mountedinarack),andthattheexpansionenclosureis
populatedwiththedesireddiskdrives.
Note:AfullypopulatedSA48enclosureisheavy!Youshouldinstallthe
rackstabilizerplatebeforemountingtheSA48enclosureinarack.

ToaddanexpansionenclosuretoanexistingSA48Cstoragesubsystem,use
thefollowingprocedure:
1. UnpackandmounttheSA48Crackstabilizationplate.
BeforemountingtheSA48enclosureinarack,installtherackstabilizer
plate.MounttheSA48enclosureusingonlytheincludedmountingrails.
Also,asaprecautionagainsttippingtherack,theSA48enclosureshould
bemountedaslowaspossibleintherack.
2. UnpackandmounttheSA48Cexpansionenclosure.
TheexpansionenclosuremustbemountedneartheSA48Cbeing
expanded,sothattheSAScablescanbeattachedwithoutstrain.
3. ConnecttheSA48expansionenclosuretotheSA48CRAIDcontroller
enclosure.

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Adding an Expansion Enclosure

UsingtheSAScables,connecttheSA48expansionenclosuretotheSA48C
RAIDcontrollerenclosureasshownbelow.

Note:IntheeventofaRAIDcontrollerfailure,ifbothRAIDcontrollersare
notconnectedtotheexpansionenclosureasillustratedabove,alossof
accesstothedrivesintheexpansionenclosurewilloccur.
4. ConnectthepowercablestotheSA48expansionenclosure.
5. StopI/OontheSA48CRAIDcontrollerenclosurebeingexpanded.
ThesafestwaytostopI/Oistounmountallthefilesystemsusingthe
SA48C.
6. Poweruptheexpansionenclosure.
NowthattheRAIDchassishasbeenconnectedtotheexpansionenclosure
withSAScables,andthepowercablesareconnected,turnthepoweronto
theexpansionenclosure.
7. Waitfortheexpansionenclosuretobootandfordrivestospinup.
Itshouldtakeapproximatelyoneminutefortheexpansionenclosureto
bootup,andforalldrivestofullyspinup.
8. Verifythattheexpansionenclosurehasbeenrecognized.
OpenuptheStorViewGUIandmonitorthemainpage(thisiswhereall
theenclosures/diskdrivescanbeviewedononescreen).
Withinaboutaminute,asecondenclosureshouldappearunderneaththe
mainRAIDchassis.Ifasecondenclosuredoesnotappear,waitanother

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59

Configuring the SA48 Storage Array

minuteorsotogivetheRAIDcontrollerachancetodiscoverthe
expansionenclosure.
Ifthreeminuteshavepassed,andtheexpansionenclosureisnotdisplayed
onthemainpageofStorView,doublechecktheSAScablesthatwere
connectedinstep3.
Whentheexpansionenclosureappears,noticethatallthedrivesareofthe
Availablestatus(greenbackgroundwithscrollingtext).
TheexpansionenclosureisnowreadytoaddnewarraysandLUNstothe
existingconfiguration.
9. AddarraysandLUstotheexpansionenclosure.
ThestepstoaddarraysandLUNswouldbeidenticaltohowtheSA48C
RAIDcontrollerenclosurewasconfigured.SeeCreatingRAIDArraysand
LUs,onpage50formoreinformationoncreatingarraysandLUs.
10. ResumeI/OontheSA48CRAIDcontrollerenclosure.
Afterconfiguringtheexpansionenclosure,normalI/Oloadmaybe
resumed.
ToresumeI/O,mountthefilesystemsusingtheSA48systemandrestart
anyapplicationsthatreadfromorwritetothosefilesystems.

Powering the
SA48C and
Expansion
Enclosures

WhenshuttingdownorstartingSA48RAIDcontrollerandexpansion
enclosures,thefollowingconsiderationsapply:

WhenpoweringoffSA48RAIDcontrollerandexpansionenclosure,
powerofftheRAIDcontrollerenclosurefirst.
ThisensuresthattheRAIDsystemdoesnotseeanyofthedrivesinthe
expansionenclosuredisappear.Failuretodothismayresultinthe
RAIDcontrollerfailingthearraysandLUNsthathaddrivesinthe
expansionenclosure.

WhenpoweringonSA48RAIDcontrollerenclosureandexpansion
enclosure,poweruptheexpansionenclosurebeforepoweringonthe
RAIDcontrollerenclosure.
Afterpoweringuptheexpansionenclosure,youshouldwaitoneminute
beforestartingtheSA48CRAIDcontrollerenclosure.Thisensuresthatthe
drivesintheexpansionenclosureareavailablewhentheSA48CRAID
controllerloadstheconfiguration.Failuretostarttheexpansionenclosure
beforetheRAIDcontrollerenclosuremayresultintheRAIDcontroller
failingthearraysandLUsthathavedrivesintheexpansionenclosure.

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System Drives and System Drive


Groups

System Drives
Logically,systemdrives(SDs)arethebasicstorageelementusedbythe
storageserver.Theserverassignseachsystemdriveauniqueidentifying
number(ID)and,onceassigned,theSDisreferencedbythatIDnumber,and
theIDnumbermaynotbechanged.
Physically,eachSDismadeupofaLUNinaRAIDgroup.Thesizeofthe
systemdrivedependsonfactorssuchastheRAIDlevel,thenumberofdisks,
andtheircapacity.SeeSupportedStorageSubsystems,onpage31for
informationontheRAIDlevel(s)supportedbyyourstoragesubsystem(s).
OnallHitachiNASPlatform/clusters,andallSeries3000Highperformance
NASPlatforms/clusters,systemdrivescanbeorganizedintosystemdrive
groups,whichcanimprovetheperformanceofastorageserverorclusterby
optimizingreadsandwrites.

System Drive
Groups

Withmoststoragesubsystems,systemdrives(SDs)arelimitedto2TB
each.However,withtodayslargephysicaldisks,RAIDarraysmustbe
considerablylargerthan2TBinordertomakeefficientuseofspace.Soitis
commonforsystemadministratorstobuildlargeRAIDarrays(oftencalled
RAIDgroupsorvolumegroups)andthendividethemintoLUNsof2TB
orless.NotethateachLUNinaRAIDgrouptypicallyusessomespaceon
eachdiskintheRAIDgroup.LUNsthatarevisibletotheserver/clusterare
knownasSDs,whicharetheunitsofstoragethattheserverseesandmanages
(theserverorganizesSDsintostoragepools,whichthencontainthefile
systems).
Whenperformingwriteoperations,iftheserverweretowritesimultaneously
tomultipleSDsinthesameRAIDgroup,itwouldincreaseheadmovement,
reducingbothperformanceandtheexpectedlifeofthedisks.Sotheserver
hasamechanismtoallowittowritetoonlyoneSDinaRAIDgroupatany
onetime.BydefiningSDgroups,youtelltheserverwhichSDsareineach
RAIDgroupandgiveittheinformationitneedstooptimizewrite
performance.
Note:ForHighperformanceNASPlatform/clusters,systemdrivegroupsare
supportedonSeries2000andSeries3000storageservers,butonlySeries3000
HighperformanceNASPlatforms/clusterstakeadvantageofthis
functionality.AllHitachiNASPlatforms/clusterstakeadvantageofsystem
drivegroups.

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System Drives and System Drive Groups

Asystemdrivethatisnotinanygroupistreatedasifitwereinagroupofits
own.
Systemdrivesthatareusedinopenstoragepoolscannotbegroupedor
ungrouped.Astoragepoolisopenifithasanyfilesystemthatismountedor
isbeingcheckedorfixedanywhereonthecluster.
DuringEVSmigration,theSMUautomaticallycopiesthegroupsfromthe
sourcestorageserverorclusterandaddsthemtothetargetstorageserveror
cluster.
SeeManagingSystemDriveGroups,onpage65forinformationoncreating
andmodifyingsystemdrivegroups.

SD Groups and Read Balancing


Whenperformingreadoperations,theserverreadsfilesystemdatathathas
beendistributedacrosstheSDgroups,makingreadoperationsmoreefficient
andreducingdiskheadmovement.Thesebenefitsoccurbecausethedatais
distributedacrossdifferentphysicaldisksintheLUNsmakinguptheSD
groupinsteadofbeingonthesamephysicaldisksmakinguptheSDsofthe
SDgroup.
Typically,filesystemdataisdistributedacrosstheSDsinastoragepool
duringnormalwriteoperationsduetodynamicwritebalancing.However,
afteraddingSDstoanSDgrouporextendingastoragepoolbyaddingSDs
thatresideonanew/differentphysicalstoragesubsystem,youmaywantto
manuallyinitiateadataredistributionsothatthefilesystemsdataisevenly
spreadamongallSDsintheSDgroup.
Duringsuchadataredistribution,theserversfileservingperformancemay
bereduced,becausetheserverisreadingandwritingdatafromthedata
distributionaswellasdatafromexternalrequests.
Thefilesystemdataredistributionutilityiscontrolledusingthefs-readbalancercommand,andaseparatecommand,fs-sdg-utilization,isused
toseeareportonhowafilesystemisutilizingeachSDgroupinthe
underlyingstoragepool.Formoreinformationaboutthesecommands,refer
totheCommandLineReference.
Note:Afterafilesystemhasbeenexpandedtousenewstorage,youcanspread
thefilesystemsdataintothenewstoragebyrunningthefilesystemdata
redistributionutility.Spreadingthedataintothenewstoragespreadstheread
loadacrossallofthefilesystemsphysicaldisks,whichimprovesread
performance.
ReadBalancingUtilityConsiderations
Runningthefilesystemdataredistributionutilitycausesdatatoberewritten
toanewlocation,whichwillbetheleastutilizedSDgroups(thenewstorage)
resultinginmorebalancedutilizationofSDgroups.
Note:Thefilesystemdataredistributionutilitycanberunonlyafter
expandingthefilesystemintothenewstorage,butitshouldberun
immediatelyanditmayberunonlyonce.Ifyourunthedataredistribution
utilitymorethanonce,orafteranapplicationhaswrittenasignificantamount
62

Hitachi NAS Platform

System Drives

ofdataintotherecentlyaddedstorage,theutilitywilleitherrefusetorunor
produceunpredictableresults.
Thefilesystemdataredistributionutilityisdesignedtooperatewhenafile
systemisexpandedintonewstorageafterSDshavebeenaddedtoastorage
poolwhenthefilesystemisnearlyfull.However,storagemayalsobeadded
toastoragepoolforotherreasons:

Toincreaseperformance.

Topreventthefilesystemfrombecoming100%full.

Toachievethedesiredresultsineitherofthesesituations,youcanusethe
followingprocessafteraddingthestorage(afteraddingtheSDstothestorage
pool):
1. Createadummyfilesystem,usingallavailablespace.
2. ExpandthestoragepoolintothenewSDs.
3. Expandthealmostfulltargetfilesystemtousesome(orall)ofthespace
addedtothestoragepool.Notethattheexpansionshouldbeatleast50%
oftheaddedstoragecapacity.
4. Runthefilesystemdataredistributionutility.
5. Deletethedummyfilesystem.
SnapshotsandtheFileSystemDataRedistributionUtility
Whenthefilesystemdataredistributionutilityisrunandsnapshotsare
enabled,theolddataispreserved.Asaresult,snapshotswillgrow,
consumingalotofdiskspace.Thespaceusedbythesesnapshotsisnotfreed
untilallsnapshotspresentwhenthefilesystemdataredistributionutilitywas
startedhavebeendeleted.
Therearefouroptionsavailabletorecoverthespaceusedbysnapshots:
1. Allowthesnapshotstobedeletedaccordingtothesnapshot
configuration.
Thisistheslowestoptionforrecoveringspace,butitcanbeusedin
scenarioswherethespacewontberequiredimmediatelyafterthefile
systemdataredistributionutilitycompletes.
2. Manuallydeletesnapshotsafterrunningthefilesystemdata
redistributionutility.
Thisoptionrecoversspacemorequicklythanoption1.
3. Manuallykillsnapshotsafterrunningthefilesystemdataredistribution
utility.
Thisoptionalsorecoversspacemorequicklythanoptions1or2,butit
requiresthatthefilesystemistakenoffline.
4. Disablesnapshots(andthereforebackups)andkill/deleteexistent
snapshotsbeforerunningthefilesystemdataredistributionutility.
Thisoptionavoidsthesnapshotspaceusageproblemaltogether.
Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

63

System Drives and System Drive Groups

System Drive Groups and Dynamic Write Balancing


Dynamicwritebalancing(DWB)maximizesperformancebyensuringthatthe
NASserverwritestoasmanySDsaspossible.Dynamicwritebalancingalso
improvesflexibilitybylettingtheserverreflectthephysicalcharacteristicsof
thestoragewithouttheneedtoreconfigurespans.
DynamicwritebalancingrequiresaSeries2000HitachiHighperformance
NASPlatformormorerecentplatform(includingtheHitachiNASPlatform).
IfyouhaveaNASserverthatsupportsit,Dynamicwritebalancingisenabled
bydefault.
Inpreviousreleases,duringawriteoperation,thewritingtheNASserver
couldwritetoasinglestripesetatanytime.Thestripesetbeingwrittentomay
containonlyasmallfractionofalltheSDsinthestoragepool.Thisproduced
threeperformanceproblemsduringwriteoperations:

Astoragebottleneckiscreatedbecauseallwritesaregoingtoasingle
stripeset,regardlessofthenumberofSDsinthestoragepool.

Ifthestripesetsvaryinperformance(forexample,someSDsmaybeon
higherperformancestorageormaycontainmoreSDs),thewrite
performanceofthefilesystemwillvaryovertime,dependingonthe
stripesetcharacteristics.

Ifmorestorageisaddedtothestoragepool,thefilesystemswrite
performancedoesnotimmediatelyimprove;itwillimproveonlyafter
newchunkshavebeenaddedtothefilesystem.However,write
performancewillfallagainwhenwritingtoolderchunks.

DynamicWriteBalancing(DWB)solvestheseproblemsbywritingtoallSDs
inparallel.
ToimplementDynamicWriteBalancing,theNASserverrequiressome
knowledgeofthephysicalconfigurationofthestorage.SDsmustbeassigned
toSDgroups,witheachSDgrouptypicallycorrespondingtooneRAID
group.OnceSDgroupshavebeenconfigured,writeoperationsareassociated
withSDgroupsratherthanwithSDs;withineachSDgroup,theNASserver
willscanthewholeofoneSDforfreespacebeforemovingontothenextSD.
Forsomestoragesubsystems,SDgroupsmustbemanuallyconfiguredbyan
administrator.Forotherstoragesubsystems,theSMUwillautomatically
configureSDgroups,andtheseSDgroupswillbeperiodicallychecked.See
SystemDriveGroups,onpage61formoreinformationonSDgroups.
OptimizingDynamicWriteBalancingPerformance
Althoughdynamicwritebalancingremovesmanyoftherestrictionsof
previousallocationschemes,afewimportantguidelinesstillapply:
1. MakeSDsaslargeaspossible,anduseasfewSDsaspossible.
NeverdividestorageintodozensoftinySDs,andthencreateastorage
poolfromthemanysmallSDs.

All the SDs in a RAID group should be used in the same storage pool.

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Creating System Drives on HDS Storage Subsystems

IfmultipleSDsinanSDgrouparesharedbetweenstoragepools,theSD
groupmechanismwillnotpreventtheserverfromwritingtoseveralof
thesharedSDsatonce.

Creating System Drives on HDS Storage Subsystems


Theserverssystemdrives(SDs)areequivalenttotheLUsontheHDSstorage
subsystems.SDs(LUs)arecreatedusingtheHDSStorageNavigatorsoftware,
whichissuppliedwiththeHDSstoragesubsystem.TheLUsontheHDS
storagesubsystemarethenassignedtoaportontheHDSstoragesubsystem
RAIDcontroller,alsothroughtheHDSStorageNavigatorsoftware.
AftertheSDs(LUs)arecreatedandassignedtoaRAIDcontrollerportonthe
HDSstoragesubsystem,theyareautomaticallydetectedbythestorageserver
(iftheSDsarenotdetectedautomatically,runthescsi-refreshcommand).
Oncedetected,theybecomeavailableforuse(asSDs)bythestorageserver.
UsingtheSystemDrivespageofWebManager,youthenallowordeny
accesstotheSDsontheHDSstoragesubsystem.TheCLIcommandtoallow
accessissd-allow-access,andtheCLIcommandtodenyaccessissddeny-access.
Note:WhenconnectingtoanHDSstoragesubsystem,makesuretheFClink
typeandlinkspeedaresetidenticallyontheHDSstoragesubsystemandon
thestorageserver.
ForinformationongroupingSDsandmanagingSDgroups,seeManaging
SystemDriveGroups,onpage65.

Managing System Drive Groups


Aftersystemdrives(SDs)arecreated,theyshouldbeplacedintosystemdrive
groupstooptimizesystemperformance.IfyourSDislargeenoughtouseall
thespaceintheRAIDgroup,youcannothavemultipleSDsinthatRAID
group,andyoumustcreateasystemdrivegroupcontainingjusttheoneSD.
Youcancreateasystemdrivegroupeitherautomaticallyormanually.(See
CreatingSDGroupsAutomatically,onpage65orCreatingSDGroups
Manually,onpage67.)
Caution:Whencreatingasystemdrivegroup,youmustensurethattheSDs
beinggroupedarelocatedonthesamephysicaldevices(orinthesameRAID
group).Also,allSDsontheonthesamephysicaldevicemustbeinthesame
SDgroup.Ifeitheroftheserulesarenotfollowed,systemperformancecanbe
adverselyaffected.

Creating SD
Groups
Automatically

Thefollowingstepsdescribehowtocreatesystemdrivegroupsautomatically.
1. NavigatetotheSystemDrivesGrouppage(Home>Storage
Management>SystemDriveGroups).
TheSystemDriveGroupspageindicatesthenumberofSDsnotin
groupsandliststheSDgroupsthathavealreadybeencreated.

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System Drives and System Drive Groups

2. Startautogroupingthesystemdrives.
IntheSystemDrivesGrouppage,clicktheauto_grouplink(ifthe
NumberofSystemDrivesNotInGroupsiszero,theauto_grouplinkis
unavailablebecausenogroupscanbecreated).
TheAutoGroupSystemDrivespageopens,allowingyouto
automaticallygroupsystemdrives.

GroupingsystemdrivesautomaticallycanbeperformedonlywhentheSMU
candeterminethephysicallocationofthesystemdrivesalongwiththeRAID
configuration.Currently,theSMUcandeterminethephysicallocationofthe
systemdrivesonlyforsomestoragesubsystems.Withoutsuchinformation,
youwillneedtogroupsystemdrivesmanually(seeCreatingSDGroups
Manually,onpage67).ThestorageservercannotautomaticallygroupSDson
HDScertainstoragesubsystems,becausethoseSDsarenotdirectlymanaged
bythestorageserver.Becauseofthis,whenyouusetheautogroupfeatureof
thestorageserver,eachSDonthesestoragesubsystemswillbeplacedintoa
separategroup.

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1. ClickOKtoautomaticallycreatetheSDgroups.

Creating SD
Groups Manually

BeforecreatingSDgroupsmanually,youmustfirstdeterminethephysical
locationofthesystemdrivesalongwiththeRAIDconfiguration.This
informationcanbeobtainedusingvariousthirdpartyapplications.Withthis
information,youcandeterminetheSDsthatareinthesameRAIDgroup,and
groupthemtogether.
Thefollowingstepsdescribehowtocreatesystemdrivegroupsmanually.
1. NavigatetotheSystemDriveGrouppage(Home>Storage
Management>SystemDriveGroups).
TheSystemDriveGroupspageindicatesthenumberofSDsnotin
groupsandliststheSDgroupsthathavealreadybeencreated.

2. CreatetheSystemDriveGroup.
IntheSystemDriveGrouppage,clickcreate(iftheNumberofSystem
DrivesNotInGroupsiszero,thecreatebuttonisunavailablebecauseno
groupscanbecreated).TheCreateSystemDriveGrouppageopens,
allowingyoutomanuallygroupsystemdrives.

TheAvailableSystemDriveslistshowsallsystemdrivesinthestorage
serverorclusterthatarenotalreadyinagroup.
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System Drives and System Drive Groups

SelecttheSDsyouwanttogrouptogetherfromtheAvailableSystem
DriveslistandclicktherightarrowtomovethemtotheSelectedSystem
Driveslist.
3. CreatethenewSystemDriveGroup.
IntheCreate System Drives Grouppage,clickOKtocreateanewgroup
containingtheSDsintheselectedlist.Repeatthesestepsasneededto
createthedesiredSDgroups.

Backing up or
Restoring SD
Groups

BackingupandrestoringSDgroupsisasimple,quick,anderrorfreemethod
oftransferringSDgroupdefinitionsamongclustersorserversthatshare
storageorwhenmovingstoragebetweenservers/clusters.SDgroupsare
backedupasapartofthenormalserver/clusterconfigurationbackupprocess,
sobackingupSDgroupsisnotnecessaryforfailurerecovery.
BackingupSDgroupsimposesaveryslightmanagementoverhead,andmay
causeothermanagementfunctionstoslowdownslightlyduringtheshort
timethebackupisbeingmade.Thereshouldbenonoticeableeffectonfile
servingthroughput.
AswithbackingupSDgroups,restoringsavedSDgroupswillnotcausea
significantoverhead,buttherearerulesaboutwhenyoucanandcannot
importgroups.Forexample,youcannotimportagroupthatincludesSDs
thatareusedinastoragepoolthathascurrentlymountedfilesystems.For
moreinformationontheserestrictions,seethesd-groupcommandinthe
CommandLineReference.
Note:Whenmovingstoragebetweenstandaloneserversorclusters,beaware
thatSDdeviceIDsusuallychange,whichmaymakeitseemasifgroupshave
beenimportedincorrectly.
TobackuporrestoreSDGroups:
1. NavigatetotheSystemDriveGroupsBackup&Restorepage.
FromtheStorageManagementpage,selectSystemDriveGroups,then
clickBackup&RestoretodisplaytheSystemDriveGroupsBackup&
Restorepage.

2. Backuporrestore:
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Managing System Drive Groups

Tobackup:Clickbackup.Inthebrowser,specifythenameand
locationofthebackupfile,thenclickOK/Save(thebuttonsdisplayed
andthemethodyouusetosavethebackupfiledependonthebrowser
youuse).
Abackupfilenameissuggested,butyoucancustomizeit.The
suggestedfilenameusesthesyntax:
SD_GROUPSyyyy-mm-dd_time-UTC-offset.txt,wherethefollowing
exampleillustratestheappropriatesyntax:SD_GROUPS2008-0430_1729-0700.txt

Torestore:ClickBrowsetodisplayadialogyoucanusetochoosethe
backupfile,navigatetothedirectorywherethebackupfileisstored,
selectthebackuptextfile(SD_GROUPS2008-04-30_1729-0700.txt)
forthespecificexport(s)youwanttorestore,thenclickOpen.
WhentheSystemDriveGroupsBackup&Restorepagedisplaysthe
nameandlocationoftheselectedfile,clickrestore.

Modifying System
Drive Groups

Aftersystemdrivegroupsarecreated,youcanmodifyagroupbyaddingor
removingsystemdrives.BeforemodifyingSDgroups,youmustfirst
determinethephysicallocationofthesystemdrivesalongwiththeRAID
configuration.Thisinformationcanbeobtainedusingvariousthirdparty
applications,suchasStorageNavigator.ContactyourHitachiDataSystems
representativeforinformationaboutwhichthirdpartyapplicationsare
supported.
Caution:Whenmodifyingasystemdrivegroup,youmustensurethatthesys
temdrivesbeingaddedtoagrouparelocatedonthesamephysicaldevices(or
RAIDgroup)asthesystemdrivesalreadyinthegroup.Otherwisesystemper
formancecanbeadverselyaffected.
Thefollowingstepsdescribehowtomodifysystemdrivegroupsmanually.
1. NavigatetotheSystemDrivesGrouppage(Home>Storage
Management>SystemDriveGroups).

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System Drives and System Drive Groups

TheSystemDriveGroupspageindicatesthenumberofSDsnotin
groupsandliststheSDgroupsthathavealreadybeencreated.

2. Selectthesystemdrivegroupyouwanttomodify.
IntheSystemDrivesGrouppage,clickdetailsforthesystemdrivegroup
youwanttomodify.TheModifySystemDriveGrouppageopens,
displayingthesystemdrivesthatareavailabletobegroupedandtheSDs
intheselectedgroup.

TheAvailableSystemDriveslistshowsallSDsinthestorageserveror
clusterthatarenotalreadyinagroup.TheSelectedSystemDriveslist
showstheSDsthatarealreadyincludedintheselectedgroup.
3. ModifytheSDgroup.
YoucanaddSDstotheSDgroupbyselectingthemintheAvailable
SystemDriveslistandclickingtherightarrowtomovetheSDstothe
SelectedSystemDriveslist.
YoucanremoveSDsfromtheSDgroupbyselectingthemintheSelected
SystemDriveslistandclickingtheleftarrowtomovetheSDstothe
AvailableSystemDriveslist.
4. Reviewandsaveyourchanges.

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Managing System Drive Groups

IntheModify System Drives Grouppage,ensurethatyouhavethe


desiredSDsintheSelected System Driveslist,andclickapplytosavethe
SDgroupwiththemodifiedcontent.Repeatthesestepsasneededto
modifythedesiredSDgroups.

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System Drives and System Drive Groups

72

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Storage Subsystem Administration Guide

Hitachi Data Systems


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