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Case Study
Modeling of Damaged Structures Using a Hybrid Exact
Stiffness and Finite Element Approach.

1. Introduction
Imperfection or damage in structural element is a common phenomenon.
Depending on the criterion of damage, over all strength of the material
decreases. In some case a little imperfection in a small structural element
can cause failure to the whole structure. Modeling of damaged structures are
relatively complicated in comparison with the modeling of perfect structures.
Modeling of the damaged structure is one of the major research concerns
now days. The aim of the case study is a feasibility study of modeling a
beam embedded with a damage in it which will be helpful for good
approximations for modeling plate structures.
There are different type of damage in structures.

Numerical Methods:
The analyses of complex engineering structures or problems are difficult and
sometimes impossible. Alternatively, if the structure is divided into small
fragments, the analysis of the individual element is easier(Zeinkiewicz et al
2000 pp 1). Thus, necessity of the complex problem solving developed
approximate numerical techniques.
Numerical solutions assumes exact solution at distinct points which are
known as nodes. The first step of any numerical solution is discretization into
number of elements and nodes. For fragmentation of an object, depending
on the shape and characteristic the whole model is divided into a finite
number of discrete elements and each element is associated with
corresponding boundary conditions and corresponding differential equations
associated with the element properties. There two parts of the solution: (1) a
homogeneous part and (2) a particular part. Material inherent properties
such as modulus of elasticity and section properties such as second moment
of area, Poissons ratio are considered as homogeneous properties. On the
other hand, particular part comprises of disturbances such as external
forces, moments, temperature differences and pressure differences in fluid
flow(Moaveni1999 p2 pdf).
There are two common classes of numerical methods. There are two
common classes of numerical methods : (1) finite difference methods and
(2)finite element methods. The finite difference method is used for simple
problems where each node is associated with a differential equation and the

## derivatives are replaced by difference equations.

element method is

problems which

use integral

## formulations to create a system of algebraic equations. In addition, an

approximate continuous shape function is assumed for each element for
solution. For complete solution each elemental solution is assembled to form
a global matrix according to the node number to maintain continuity at the
interelemental boundaries(Moaveni 1999 pp2-5 pdf) .

## Finite Element Method:

Finite Element Method (FEM) is a widely used numerical procedure now days
for solving different problems. In structural engineering-stress analysis,
deflection an, in mechanical engineering heat transfer, in electrical
engineering- computation of losses and resistance and in water resource
engineering modeling of open channel flow are common examples.
There are three approaches of solving finite element problems: (1)Direct
formulation, (2)The Minimum Total Potential Energy Formulation, (3)
Weighted Total Potential Energy Formulation (Moaveni 1999 pp 6 pdf). Here
only direct formulation approach is used for solution. A simple example is
presented here for general understanding the FEM steps.
Example of FEM:
A uniform bar is fixed at one end and loaded P at the other end. Its length is
L, area A and modulus of elasticity is E.

## Figure1: Subdividing the bar into elements and nodes

Preprocessing phase :
1. Discretize the solution domain into finite elements:
The bar is divided into three elements and noted with four nodes as
shown in the figure. The bar can be subdivided into n- number of
elements

## 2. Assuming an approximate solution that expresses the behavior of t the

element:
For analyzing each element we can assume that every element is
associated with force F and elongation l .
Average stress in the member is
F
=
A
and the strain is
=

l
l

(1.1)

(1.2)

=E

(1.3)

( AEl )

F=

(1.4)

We can rewrite ,
kb =

AE
l

(1.5)

## From static equilibrium requirement, sum of total forces in any element

is zero. Expressions for each element
Node:1

R1

k 1 ( u2u 1)

=0

(1.6)

Node:2

k 1 ( u2u 1)

k 2 ( u3u 2 )

=0

Node:3

k 2 ( u3u 2 )

k 3 ( u4 u3 )

=0

Node:4

k 3 ( u4 u3 )

P =0

k 1 u1

k 1 u 2

k 1 u1

= R1

+ k 1 u2

+ k 2 u2

k 2 u 3

=0

(1.7)
k 2 u 2
=0

+k 2 u3

+k 3 u3

k 3 u 4

k 3 u 3

k 3 u4

=P

## Presenting the equilibrium equation into matrix form, we get

k1
k 1
0
0
k 1 k 1 ++k 2 k 2
0
0
k 2
k 2 + k 3 k 3
0
0
k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }
u1
R1
u2
= 0
u3
0
P
u4

(1.8)

## Equation (1.8) can be written as

follows

{ }[

k1
k 1
0
0
R1
0
0 = k 1 k 1 ++k 2 k 2
0
0
k 2
k 2 + k 3 k 3
0
0
0
k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }
u1
0
u2
0
0
u3
P
u4

(1.9)

{ R } = [ K ] {u } { F }
Or
Reaction
displacement

Stiffness

## The final global stiffness matrix can be expressed as

[K]

(G )

(1 G)

= [K]

+ [K]

( 2 G)

+[ K ]

(3 G )

k 1 k 1 0
0
0
0
( )
k +k 1 + k 2 k 2 0
0
[K]G= 1
0
0 k 2 +k 2 +k 3 k 3
0
0
0
0 k 3 + k 3

(1.10)

In equation 1.10

[K]

(G )

(nG)

[K]

where, n=1,

## 2, 3 is elements position in the global stiffness matrix.

3. Applying boundary conditions and loads at each nodes
Boundary conditions are known as constrains in degrees of freedom at
certain node. At fixed end displacement

u1 is zero ,

## elements will be zero, by applying boundary condition the matrix

transforms in to

1
0
0
0
k 1 k 1 +k 2 k 2
0
0
k 2 k 2 + k 3 k 3
0
0
k 3 +k 3

]{ } { }
u1
0
u2
= 0
0
u3
P
u4

(1.11)

## Form equation (1.11) we get he general relationship of stiffness,

Stiffness

displacement

4. Solution Phase
From the element property we can derive the values of

[ K ] and for

## given load we will have the same number of equation as unknown.

After having the nodal displacements we can determine stresses and
reactions. For simple problems we can solve by hand, but when the
problem is more complex computer is necessary for calculations.

Calculations:

ld

[ K 1]

QT DQdx C1

## Write the expressions from the note book

Finite element stiffness:

[ ]

12
6
3
ld
l d2
6
4
2
ld
ld
[ K FE ]=EI 12
6
3
ld
l d2
6
2
2
ld
ld

Mass matrix:

12
l d3
6
l d2
12
l d3
6
l d2

6
ld 2
2
ld
6
ld 2
4
ld

12

ld
12 l d
2
4 ld
l d2
ld
l d
3
3
[ K M ]=P/10 L 12 l 12 l
d
d
l d 2
4 ld 2
ld
l d
3
3

12 EI
l d3
6 EI
l d2
[ K 1 ]= 12 EI
l d3
6 EI
l d2

[ K 1 ]=

6 EI
l d2
4 EI
ld
6 EI
l d2
2 EI
ld

12 EI 12 P
+
10 l d
l d3
6 EI l d P
+
l d2 10 l d
12 EI 12 P

10 l d
l d3
6 EI P l d
+
l d2 10 l d

12 EI
ld 3
6 EI
l d2
12 EI
ld 3
6 EI
l d2

][

6 EI
12
l d 12 l d
l d2
2 EI
4 ld 2
l d 2
ld
l d
ld
3
3
+P/10l d
12 l d
12 l d
6 EI
2
2
ld
l d
4 l d2
ld
l d
4 EI
3
3
ld

6 EI l d P
+
l d 2 10 l d
2
4 EI 4 l d P
+
ld
30 l d
6 EI l d P

10 l d
ld 2
2
2 EI Pl d
+
l d 30l d

12 EI 12 P

10 l d
ld 3
6 EI l d P

10 l d
l d2
12 EI 12 P
+
10 l d
l d3
6 EI l d P

10 l d
l d2

6 EI l d P
+
l d2 10l d
2
2 EI l d P

ld
30l d
6 EI l d P

10l d
l d2
2
4 EI 4 l d P
+
ld
30 l d

12 EI 12 P
+
10 l d
l d3
6 EI P
+
l d2 10
e
[ K ]=
12 EI 12 P

10 l d
ld 3
6 EI P
+
l d2 10

6 EI P
+
l d 2 10
4 EI 4 l d P
+
ld
30
6 EI P

10
l d2
2 EI P l d
+
ld
30

12 EI 12 P

10 l d
ld 3
6 EI P

10
ld 2
12 EI 12 P
+
10 l d
ld 3
6 EI P

10
ld 2

6 EI P
+
l d2 10
2 EI l d P

ld
30
6 EI P

10
l d2
4 EI 4 l d P
+
ld
30

## EXACT STIFFNESSOF BEAM:

] [

a 0 0
e 0 0
[ k 11 ]= 0 b d ; [ k 12 ]= 0 f h
0 d c'
0 h g

] [

e 0 0
a 0
0
; [ k 21 ] = 0 f h ; [ k 22 ] = 0 b d
0 h g
0 d c '

In vibration problem:

a=

( EAl )

b=

( )

cot ;

e=

EA
( sin cosh +cos sinh )
3
l

c=

d=

( )

EA 2
sin sinh / Z ;
l2

( )

In Buckling Problem:
a=e=

EA
;
l

( )

f=

/Z ;
EA
( sin cosh cos sinh ) /Z
l

( EAl )cosec

g=

h=

EA
( sin +sinh ) /Z ;
3
l

/Z

EA 2
( cosh cos ) /Z
l2

( )

b=f=

( EAl ) s
3

(1- c

);

c=sEI/l ;
g=sc EI/l ;

d=h=

( EAl ) s (1+ c)
2

## where s and c are the usual stability functions defined by :

2
s(1+c)=(P l /2EI)/(1- cot )

and
s(1-c)= 2 cot ;
with
1 /2
=(/2)

; =P/

Pe

## Global Stiffness Matrix (considering boundary Conditions ):

3
4
5
6
3

8 EA 2 (
12 EI 12 P
s 1c2 ) + 3 +
3
10 l d
ld
( lld )

ll d

6 EI P
( 2) s ( 1+c ) + 2 +
10
ld
4 EA 12 EI 12 P
l 3 10 l d
d

6 EI P
+
l d2 10

ll d

6 EI P
( 2) s ( 1+c ) + 2 +
10
ld
4 EA 2 sEI 4 EI 4 l d P
+
+
ll d
ld
30

6 EI P

10
ld 2

2 EI P l d
+
ld
30

12 EI 12 P

10 l d
l d3

6 EI P

10
ld 2

8 EA 2
12 EI 12 P
s ( 1c2 ) + 3 +
3
10 l d
ld
( lld )

6 EI P
ll d
( 2) s ( 1+c ) 2
10
ld
4 EA

Project Proposal:
The exact stiffness of beam is already defined, but for plates it is not known.
Especially in damaged composite plate there is lots of research going on to
define the exact stiffness. The aim of the project is to define quick exact
solution for delaminated composite plates for aerospace industry. The hybrid
of exact and FEM is a feasibility study of the beam which will can be used
for defining stiffness matrices of any frame structures or composite plates .
Finite element analysis widely used for analyzing and modeling of different
structures. FEA

## .Especially in the aerospace industry there is a calculation time is an

important factor where FEA is not a good option. In contrast, VICONOPT is
the solution which gives quick results.
In VICONOPT the anisotropic flat plates are analyzed for fixed length and
consider line support which is very handful for modeling perfect structures. If
the there is presence of delamination, the software is no longer useful
because it is no longer prismatic. So, a hybrid of exact and finite element
analysis will be very helpful to perform structural analysis and design.
Currently in VICONOPT code the part of FE is not included, but later it can be
modified to add FE part of coding to incorporate with exact strip analysis
which will not elongate the analyzing time.

Aircraft Structures:
Globalization made human being to travel around the globe. So,
Airways became one most preferable mode of transport for long distance
travel. According to the statistical information of Civil Aviation Authority
(CAA), in the year 2009 total 218 million passengers

used all UK

## airports(CAA 2010). Due to extensive use of airways the structure of aircrafts

requires durable and high performance materials. A commercial aircraft use
to fly 60,000 h. over its 30 years life time, with more than 20,000 flights and
taxi more than 100,000 miles.(Peel, C.J et al 1995, cited in Campbell 2006, p.
2 ).
Cost Efficiency and environmental pollution are two of the most
important factors in aircraft operations. So, for increasing the performance
continuous researches are going on for developing lighter but stronger

materials. Using light material for airframe structure is the most efficient
solution for improving performance. From research result it is been derived
that, application of reduced density material is 3-5 times more efficient than
increasing high performance materials such as Youngs modulus, yield
strength or damage tolerance(Ekvall, J.C. et al 1982 cited in Campbell 2006,
p. 2).Besides, use of functionally graded materials in jet engines increases
thermal efficiency a lot.
Table 1.1 Objective of Composite Materials for Aerospace
Application (Baker , 2004)

Weight Reduction
Increased flying range

Improved Performance
Smoother more aerodynamic

Fuel efficiency

form
Special aeroelastic properties
Increased
temperature

Increased maneuverability
Reduced Acquisition Cost
Reduced fabrication cost

capability
Improved damage tolerance
Reduced detectability
Reduced Through Support

Cost
Resistance

## Reduced assembly cost

corrosion
Resistance

to
to

fatigue

and

mechanical

damage
Early 1920s aircrafts were largely made of metal especially steel and
aluminum. First composites of boron in mid 1960s in F-14 and later in early
1970s carbon fiber in F-15 were developed for military aircrafts, resulted in
significant weight savings. However, use composite materials increased from
2% on F-15 to 27% on AV-8B Harrier by 1980s. Most military aircrafts use
more than 20% composite materials (Campbell 2006, p. 2).
Identical trend have been followed for commercial aircrafts. Airbus
were more aggressive than Boeing in using composite materials for different
parts of on A3XX aircrafts models, but recently Boeing is committed to use

## up to 50% composite materials on its upcoming 787, including composite

wing and fuselage as illustrated in the figure 1 and 2 (FAA,2009).

## Figure1: Boeing 787 Material Distribution, figure reproduced from SAGA

( 2010)

Figure2: Airbus A380 Material Distribution figure reproduced from FAA( 2009)

## High Performance Fiber Composite Concept:

The objective of using high performance fiber reinforcement in
comparatively weak matrix is to provide significant improvement over
conventional metal alloys. In carbon fiber/ epoxy composites, carbon fibers
are arranged during manufacture of the component in various directions and
concentrations to provide required sufficient stiffness. In contrast, it has been
derived that, carbon/epoxy is more competent than Ti-6Al-4V, and 7075-T6
aluminum which is described in the given figure.

## Figure3: Relative Structural Efficiency of Aircraft Materials figure

reproduced from Campbell 2004, cited in Campbell, 2006, p.274
The toughness of the composite is much higher than the toughness of
each component. The reason is the strength of fiber-matrix interface which is
greater than the individual strength. For example brittle material glass fiber
and polyester resin is used to make fiberglass which is tough and strong
composite.
plies of unidirectional or bidirectional or bi-directional oriented fibers.
Besides, the fatigue strength and corrosion resistance of composites are
higher than other high strength metals. The comparisons of fatigue property
of different materials are described in the figure 4.
On the other hand, composites also have some disadvantages. Raw
material costs of composites are costly. Again, it is highly affected by
temperature and moisture. Though the in-plane load bearing capacity is
high, but in the out of plane direction, load bearing capacity is significantly
low, where the matrix carries the primary load. Moreover, composites are
vulnerable to impact damage. Delaminations or ply separations are also
important defects in composites because the repair work is more difficult
than other metallic structure.

## Figure4: Fatigue Properties of Aerospace Materials, figure reproduced from

Campbell 2004, cited in Campbell, 2006, p.275)

Composite Materials :
Composite materials can be divided into four categories depending on
geometry and material properties. Those are:
1) Fiber composites
2) Particulate composites
3) Laminated composites

Fiber Composites
Fiber composites are combination of reinforcement material fiber and base
material known as matrix. Stiff, strong fibers can be made from light
elements such as carbon, boron etc. coupoubds like silicon oxide( silicon and
silica based glasses), silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Moreover, long
chain organic molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen can be used for
making fibers such as aramid (Kevlar). Carbon fibers, made from pyrolysis of

## a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer with a 8m and available in bundles with

4
up to 2.5 10 Filaments. (Baker 2004, pp. 18-20a)

## Carbon nano tubes are comparatively latest concept which is discovered in

early 1990s. Sheets of hexagonal graphite basal plane are rolled up into a
tube and the geometry depends in the way of sheet rolling. (Baker 2004, pp.
18-30b)
The matrix are base materials can be polymer, metal or ceramic. Shape of
the components depends on the matrix. Besides, matrix transfers load into
and out of the fibers and detaches the the fibers from failure of the adjoining
damaged fibers and finally it perform as a shield to prevent any damage.
(Baker 2004, pp. 18-30c)
Particulate Composites
Particulate composites are of two types:
1)metal- matrix- composites(MMC)
2) ceramic matrix composites(CMC).
MMC are widely used in aerospace structure, most common are aluminum or
titanium alloy- matrices which are reinforced with ceramic(silicon carbide /
alumina) particles in the micron range .Unlike fiber composites the
reinforcement is not directional rather they are dispersed to form an isotropic
environment.
Similarly, CMC are also useful in aerospace structure where high temperature
is involved such as gas turbine engine. To perform efficiently in temperate
environment the reinforcement of ceramic matrices must be high oxidation
resistance at high temperature to prevent microcracking and the fibers must
be chemically compatible . . (Baker 2004, pp. 18-30d)
Laminated Composites:

Laminated composites are continuous fiber layers which are known as ply
or lamina and oriented in different directions to develop strength in primary
90o . Laminates with the orientation of

0o

0o

to

are

## Figure: Laminated composites, figure reproduced from Campbell 2004, cited

in Campbell, 2006, p.276)
o
much stronger and stiff in the unidirection ( 0 ), but weak in the

90o

## direction as load is carried by much weaker polymeric matrix. For example,

the tensile strength of a fiber can be 500ksi whether a typical polymeric
matrix normally has a tensile strength of only 1%~2% of tensile strength
(Campbell, 2006, p.276).

## [Airportwatch, 2010.CAA statistics shows last years fall in passenger

numbers was biggest since the second world war.[Online]Available at
http:www.airportwatch.org.uk/news/detail.php?
art_id=3894&art_AIRPORTWATCH=Y, accessed on 27/04/2010[Accessed: 27
April 2010]

## [Campbell. F.C.2004, Manufacturing Processes for Advanced Composites,UK,

Elsevier Ltd figure reproduced in . F.C. 2006 Manufacturing Technology for
Aerospace Structural Materials,UK, Elsevier Ltd, p. 276 .

## [Campbell. F.C. 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural

Materials, p. 2]
[Campbell. F.C. 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural
Materials, p. 2 cited in Peel, C.J., Gregson, P.J.1995 Design Requirements for
Aerospace Structural Materials in High Performance Materials in Aerospace,
Chapman & Hall, pp1-48]
[Ekvall, J.C., Rhodes, J.E., Wald, G.G., 1982 Methodology of Evaluating Weight
Savings From Basic Material Properties in Design of Fatigue and Fracture
Resistant Structures, ASTM STP761, American Society for Testing and
Materials, pp.328-341 ]
[University of Oslo, SAGA GD, SIAM Activity Group on Geometric Design.
Surface modeling of Composite Materials[Online]Available at
http://www.ifi.uio.no/siag/problems/grandine/ [Accessed: 27 April 2010]]

[FAA 2009, New Large Aircraft Composite Fire Fighting report of Airport
Technology Research And Development Branch [Online] Available at
http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/safety/patterson2.asp [Accessed : 27 April 2010]]

## [Baker. A et al. 2004 Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures, Virginia:

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc]
[Campbell, F.C., Manufacturing Process for Advanced Composites, Elsvier LTd
cited in Campbell. F.C, 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace
Structural Materials, p.274]
[Campbell, F.C., Manufacturing Process for Advanced Composites, Elsvier LTd
cited in Campbell. F.C, 2006 Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace
Structural Materials, p.275]
[Howson, W.P. 1979 A Compact Method of Computing the eigenvalues and
Eigenvectors of Plane Frames.]

## Exact Stiffness of Beam (Howson, 1979):

When a uniform member of a structure is subjected to vibration or axial
force the correlation of the member stiffness, deflection and load can is :
KD=P

(1)

Where K is the load factor dependent stiffness matrix of the structure which
is circular frequency in vibration problem and load factor in buckling
problem. D and P are the consequent displacement and force vectors,
respectively.
Member equation of the plane frame member is
k ii d i+ k ij d j= pi
And

(2)

k ji d i +k jj d j= p j
Stiffnesses (k) of corresponding points are 33 load factor dependent
matrices and d, p are associated dispalacements.
The solution of eigenvalue problem of vibration or buckling is
KD=0

(4)

The values of load factor of natural frequency or critical load factor for
which the equation (4 ) is satisfied are known as eigenvalues.

The eigenvalues of the system are which satisfy equation (4) and
corresponding natural frequencies in vibration problems and critical load
factors when beam-column theory is used. The eigenvectors are the modal
displacements, D, Corresponding to each eigenvalue and amplitudes of
quantities with a sinusoidal time dependence in vibration problems.