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Assignment on

(A group assignment that partially fulfill the course Victimology)

Department of Criminology & Police Science


MAWLANA BHASHANI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY
SANTOSH, TANGAIL, 1902.

The Chronological Development of Criminology

Submitted By:
Md. Al Shahriar
Mst. Shahena Yasmin
Md. Ibrahim Khalil
Mst. Sadia Sultana
Abu Bashar Md. Sohel
Md. Afjal Hossain
Najmul Hossain Khan

CP05003
CP05010
CP05013
CP05015
CP05030
CP05031
CP05034

Submitted To:
Md. Omr Faruk
Lecturer
Department of Criminology and Police Science
Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University

Submission Date:

02 October 2007

Department of Criminology & Police Science


MAWLANA BHASHANI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY

SANTOSH, TANGAIL, 1902.

The Chronological Development of Criminology


Primitive Thinking
Time/ Year
1154

Thinker
Work
The Pilgrim's Progress (Part One) in which Christian follows the straight and
narrow path to heaven
1500
a common law for England
1612
Edward Wightman was executed by being burnt alive in the Market Place
1678
John Bunyan
The Pilgrim's Progress (Part One) in which Christian
follows the straight and narrow path to heaven
1756
William Blackstone An Analysis of the Laws of England
Classical Thinking
1764
Cesare Beccaria
Free-will individuals commit crime crime is more
pleasure then pain
1789
Jeremy Bentham
Concern with legal & penal reform rather then crime.
1845
Friedrich Engels
The Condition of the Working Class in England Criminal.
1979
Larry Cohen and
Routine activities theory (crimes to occur a likely offender,
Marcus Felson
a suitable target, the absence of a capable guardian against
crime)
1986
Cornish and Clarke Rational Choice Theory (Maximum profit & minimum
cost)
Biological Positivism
1535-1615

Giambattista Della

1741-1801

Johann Kaspar

1758-1828

Franz Joseph Gall

1772-1853

Charles Caldwell

1776-1832

Johann Kaspar
Spurzheim
Charles Darwin

1809-1882
1835-1909
1841-1883
1852-1934

Cesare Lombroso
(1876)
Richard Dugdale
Raffaele Garofalo

1856-1929
1887-1954
1888-1964
1898-1977
1964

Enrico Ferri
Ernest Hooten
Ernst Cretschmer
William Sheldon
Hans Jrgen

Founder the school of physiognomy, the study of facial


features and their relation to human behaviours.
Espoused a biological approach to crime causation,
developed phrenology.
Espoused a biological approach to crime causation; further
developed phrenology.
Search for evidence that brain tissue and cells regulate
human behavior.
Continued studies of phrenology.
Formulated theory of evolution, changed explanation of
human behavior.
Theory of born criminal.
Related criminal behavior to inherited traits.
Traced roots of criminal behavior to moral-anomalies
rather than physical characteristics.
Produce first penal code based on positivist principles.
Re;ated criminality to hereditary inferiority.
Introduced the somatotype school of criminology.
Related body types to illegal behavior.
In analysing the mechanisms by which genetic

1977

Eysenck
Mednick

1984

Taylor

potentialities are translated into criminal behaviour.


Inherent criminal tendencies (Criminality arise not only
genetic fact but also criminogenic environment)
XYY Super male criminal (The XYY is in extreme risk
of committing more violent crime).

Psychological Thinking
1807-1881
1835-1918
1866-1957
1940
------

Isaac Ray
Henry Maudsley
Henry H. Goddard
Freud
Maslow

1976
1987

Murray
Gordon

Moral insanity responsible for illegal acts.


Pioneered criteria for legal responsibility.
Related criminal behavior to intelligence.
Crime is a symptom of more deep-seated problem.
Crime is a means by which individuals can satisfy there
basic needs.
Delinquency from learning disability.
High IQ adolescent has lower probability to commit crime.

Sociological Thinking
1796-1874
1798-1857

Adolphe Quetelet
Auguste Comte

1802-1866

Andre Michel
Guerry
Gabriel Tarde
Herbert Spencer
Durkheim
Charles Buckman
Goring
Sheldon Glueck
Eleanor Glueck
Talcott Parson

1843-1904
1876
1893
1870-1919
1896-1980
1898-1972
1951

Social Learning
1912
Tared
1939
Sutherland
1960
Cressey
1960
1966b

Richard Cloward
Lloyd Ohlin
Akers & Burgess

Social Control
1951
Reiss
1956
Reckless

Social determination of behavior.


Brought modern scientific methods from physical to social
science.
First repudiate free-will doctrine; related crime statistics to
social factor.
Explained crime as learned behavior.
The utilitarian tradition in industrial society.
Crime is a social problem & it is functional for the society.
Used criminal research to refute Lombrosos theory of
criminal types.
Espoused primary social causes of delinquency, also
psychological and biological explanations.
Description of the sick role as, in important respects,
"deviant"
Criminal behavior involved into direct imitation.
Criminal behavior is learnt from differential association.
Differential association is related to differential social
organization.
Theory of Delinquent Gangs
Criminal behavior is learnt from differential association &
differential reinforcement.
Delinquency is the failure of personal & social control.
Containment theory (Crime is the cause of unfavorable
self-concept& lack of strong inner & reinforcing outer
control).

1957
1958

Toby
Nyel

1969

Hirschi

1990

Gottfredson
Hirschi

Crime is the cause of improper socialization


Three main categories of social control prevent
delinquency, i. Direct control,
ii. Indirect control,
iii. Internal control.
Delinquent act result when an individuals bond to society
is weak or broken.
Low self-control as the cause of criminal behavior.

Chicago School
1921

Robert E. Park &


Ernest W. Burgess
Shaw & Mckay
1936
Robert E. Park's
Anomie or Strain

Delinquency is caused by detachment from the


conventional group which is caused by social
disorganization
Compared human life with plant ecology.

1937
1938

Symbolic interactionist for theories developed from Mead.


Crime is caused by anomie which is the contradiction of
cultural goals & social means.
Social Theory and Social Structure.
Status deprivation & the Delinquent subculture.

Herbert Blumer
R. Merton

1949
Robert K. Merton
1955
Abert Cohen
Labeling Thinking
1951
1967

Lemert
Howard Becker

1989

Braithwaite

Conflict Thinking
1958
Vold
1964

Turk

Labeling as a cause of continuing deviance.


Crime is the consequence of application by others of rules
& sanctions to an offender.
Crime, Shame, & Integration (Theory of reintegrative
shaming)
Crime as the behavior of individuals caught up in cultural
& group conflict.
Crime is caused by relative powerlessness

Marxist Theory of crime


1969
1980

Bonger
Quinney

1993

John Lea

Crime is produced by capitalistic organization of society.


Crime is an inevitable response to the material conditions
of capitalism.
How are ruling and subordinate groups and classes in
society actually deploying criminal law and
criminalization?

Feminist Theory of Crime


1987
1988
1988

Jhon Hagan
Daly & Chesneylind
Adler & Simon

Power control theory of gender & delinquency.


Patriarchy is the cause of crime.
Womens liberation theory.

1989
Chesney-lind
Integrating Criminology

Mothers liberation is the cause of daughters crime.

1975
1985

Kaplan
Elliott

1986
2005

Krohn
John Lea

Self-derogation theory of adolescent theory.


Integrative model of Strain, Bonding & Learning theory of
crime.
Delinquent Network analysis.
Terrorism, Crime and the collapse of Civil Liberties.

Intellectual Development
Time/ Year
Thinker

Work

1920

Maurice Parmalee

First American text book of criminology was written.

1938

Merton

Social structure theory

1939

Sutherland

Offered a social process view of criminology.

1940

--------

1940-1950

-------

Teaching of Criminology started at Jail officer school at


Lucknow in India
Liberal criminology

1955

Walter reckless

Criminology is a science which studies violation of


criminal codes
Crime is caused by relative powerless.

1958

Vold

1960

Cloward and Ohlin

1963

Wolfgang

1964

Durkhim

1965

Principles of criminology ( 6th edn)

1967

Sutherland &
Cressay
Reckless

1969

Hirchis

Crime is a result of improper socialization

1970

Bloch & Geiss

Entire body of knowledge regarding the cause &


prevention of crime, punishment & correction of criminals
Radical criminology

Drew attention to the functioning of social structures in


the caution of crime.
Criminologist is a concern towards a scientific approach,
study & analysis of the phenomena of crime & criminal
behavior.
Crime is a social fact. It is a normal aspect of society.

Crime is a result of improper socialization.

1970

-------

1974
1976

Gibbons &
Garabediaan
Hunt

Identify three major perospective in the growth of


criminology, Conservative, Liberal, and Radical.
Reaction and Social Control is giving rise to deviance.

1977

Gibbons

Embraces etiology of criminals behavior, social response


of crime, control of crimes & correction of criminals.

1978

Hugh Barlow

Faith in efficient police and criminal justice machinery.

1981
1985

Taylor, Walton,
Young
Akers

1988

Chesney-lind

Social theory of deviance ( abolition of inequalities in


wealth and powers).
Crime is committed because it is positively reinforced,
negative reinforced or imitated.
Patriarchy over womens labour and sexuality is the cause
of crime.

Theoretical Criminology
Figure:3
1957

1958

1961

1964

1967

1969

1969

1973

1975

1975

Merton
Vold
Richard Cloward and Lloyd
Ohlin
Emile Durkeim
Reckless
Travis Hirchi,
Bonger
Zimiring and Hawkings
Gibbs
Howard G.Kaplan

1985

Akers
1957

1958

1961

1964

1967

1969

1969

The Chronological Development of Theory

Theoretical Criminology
Figure:4
1987

1988

1990

1992

Terence P.
Thornberry
Kathleen Daly and Meda
Chesney
Gottfredson and Hirchi
Ritzer

1987

1988

1990

1992

1973

1975

1975

1985

Development of Victimology
1937

Meldensohn

Interviewed victims to obtain information.

1941

Hans Von Henting

An article about the victim-criminal interaction.

1940

Mendelsohn

Began to explore the field of victimology.

1947

Mendelsohn

Presented a paper in frence at a congress in Bucharest.;

1948

Von Henting

Studied victims of homicide.

------

Von Henting

1958

Wolfgang

He drew attention to the part played by victims in


precipating crimes of violence.
The role of the victim as co-precipator of the crime.

1959,1963

Nagel

Victimological notion, that is victim offender relationship.

1968

Sachfer

1971

Fattah

The victim and his criminal. A study into functional


responsibility.
Published a book: La victim-Is the victim blame.

1974

Drapkin,
Viano
Luckenbills
situated transaction
model
Benjamin &
Masters Threefold
model.
Cohen & Felsons
Routine Activities
Theory.

1977
------1979

1980
1985

Von Henting
Meldensohn
Elias

The study of victimization as a separate discipline.


The interpersonal level, crime and victimization is a
context of character.
The idea is that support crime can be classified into three
general categories.
Crime occurs when three conditions come together.
i)Suitable targets
ii)Motivated offenders
iii)absence of guardians.
Victim precipitation was vigoriously attacked by feminists.
Gender equality perspective have made mainstream
victimologists more sensitive to gender issue & to power to

inequalities.
1986,1992

Fattah

Can be regarded as belonging to the first generation of


penal victimologist.

The Development of Schools of Criminology:


School
Preclsssical School

Time/ Year
1700-1850

Thinker
Hobbes,Locke and
Rousseau
Cesare Beccaria,
Jeremy Bentham

Classical School

Mid 18th century

The neo-classical
School

1851-1900

Prof. Gillin

Positivist school

19th century

Cesare
Lombroso,Enrico
Ferri, Raffaele
Garofalo

Clinical School

After posttive
School

Prof. Gillin

Geographical
School

1830-1880

D.R. Taft,Quetelet
and
Guerry,Montesque &
Lombroso

Socialist School

1850

Bonger

Criminological Work
Deals with person, group and
behavor of the person
Based on utilitarian
philosophy ie. 1) people have
free will to choose how to act,
ii) Punishment can deter
people from crime, iii) The
more swift and certain the
punishment, the more
effective it is in detering
criminal behavior
Certain situations or mental
disorders deprive a person of
his normal apacety to control
his conduct.
Behaviour is caused by
internal and external factors
outside of the individual's
control. The scientific method
was introduced and applied to
study human behavior
Offender is a product of his
biological inheritance
conditioned in his
development by experiences
of life to wich he has
beenexposed from infancy
upto the time of the
commission of crime
The phenomenon of crime is
closely related with the
geography, climate, altitude of
the place where crime takes
place
Crime is not only the reaction
of poor people but also the
disrecpect of the capitalistic
society.

Typological School

1875

Sociological
School

1915

Chicago School

Early
twentieth century

Note:
1986
2006

Lombroso, Dr,Goring The criminal tyoes have been


classified on the basis of
anthropologecal &
psychological date.
Tarde, Sutherland,
Seeks to locate causation of
Cohen
crime in social environment
Robert Ezra Park,
Ernest Burgess

They identified five


concentric zones that often
exist as cities grow, including
the "zone in transition" which
was identified as most volatile
and subject to disorder. They
also focused on juvenile
delinquents, finding that they
were concentrated in the zone
of transition

Centre for Criminology established at Middlesex Polytechnic (later University) to


develop interdisciplinary research into crime and the criminal justice system.
Crime and Conflict Research Centre developed by sociologists and criminologists
at Middlesex University.