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TPTL and Power Management in Legacy and Metro Cells NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

TPTL and Power Management in Legacy and Metro Cells

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Transmit Power Tracking Loop

TPTL works to stabilise BTS transmit power against temperature and component aging effects.

TPTL functions as follows:

Assess all the digital gain settings for overhead channels and current traffic channels

From these, calculate an expected power output.

Using the power detector, measure the actual power output.

If there is a difference, adjust the gain of the transmit chain to compensate.

Power Sensor

Power Sensor • Physically located just after the power amplifier but readings are offset to allow

Physically located just after the power amplifier but readings are offset to allow for components beyond the PA

The list of components included in this offset are different between Legacy and Metro Cell so any comparison measurements need to allow for this.

For both types of BTS, commissioning procedures include a confirmation of sensor performance.

BTS Power Management Block Diagram

CE (pilot) CE (sync) TxAttenNormal CE HPA Dup (paging) CE (WiltBloss)/BBWStepSize (traffic)
CE
(pilot)
CE
(sync)
TxAttenNormal
CE
HPA
Dup
(paging)
CE
(WiltBloss)/BBWStepSize
(traffic)
WiltBlossStepPeriod
(TxPowerMax)/PowerTooHighThreshold
Power
Limiting
Algorithm
CE
TPTL
(traffic)
Algorithm
TPEFilterDecayExponential
TPTLEnabled
TPTLTargetPowerOffset
Feed to:
SectorTxPower
Feed to calculations for:

ForwardPowerEstimationEnabled

ExcessForwardLinkCapacity Call and Handoff Blocking BTSPerformanceData (CallBlockingThreshold HandoffBlockingThreshold MinPilotToTotalPwrRatio)

BTSPerformanceData

PilotGain

SyncGain

PagingGain

Traffic Gain

from SBS

TXPilotGain

PTXupper

PTXstart

PTXlower

PrTXerror

Traffic Gain

from SBS

TxPwrFilterDecayConst

BTS Commissioning

BTS Commissioning • TPTL was designed to operate in a specific range to avoid attempts to

TPTL was designed to operate in a specific range to avoid attempts to compensate for genuine hardware defects

In Legacy BTSs, wider tolerances on the RF components and power sensor means that the TPTL range needs to be “centered” to avoid running out of range.

Achieved by disabling TPTL and choosing a TXAttenNormal value to achieve certain conditions Not required on Metro Cells

As soon as TPTL is re-activated, the output power is adjusted based on the power sensor measurements.

This can be confirmed on an active Legacy BTS (TPTL running)

Make a small change to TXAttenNormal and allow the slow TPTL loop to settle – the BTS output power will come back to its original value

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

4

BTS Power Control NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

BTS Power Control

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

BTS “Domains”

The BTS forward link has two “domains”; the digital domain and the analog domain. The digital domain refers to algorithms involving the digital “gains” that control the output level of each Channel Element. The analog domain refers to the total BTS output power controlled by an attenuator in the up converter and reported at the following locations:

Metro Cell

DPM output (NBSS7.x and NBSS8.0)

PAM Output (NBSS 9.0)

1st generation BTSs (Legacy)

RFFE Antenna 0 on the 1900MHz Mini BTS

The Digital Domain and Forward Power Control

The power output of any channel element is controlled by a digital gain.

The overhead channels are fixed values datafilled at the BTS on a per-sector basis.

The traffic channels vary within a defined range as required by forward link power control. The range for the traffic channel gains is datafilled relative to pilot power.

For example, with a pilot gain of 216, an upper limit of -1dB pilot (PTxUpper) and a lower limit of -15dB pilot (PTxLower), the selector will send digital gains in the range 192 to 38.

Note that the pilot gain is datafilled both per-sector at the BTS PilotGain) and as a global parameter at the SBS (TXPilotGain) as a forward power control reference value.

It is the SBS TXPilotGain value that is used to calculate the digital gains for the traffic channel. Therefore, even if the pilot gain at one sector of a BTS is lowered by, say, 1dB to 192, the SBS will continue to send digital gains in the range 192 to 38. I.e., for this sector alone, the traffic channels are now effectively 0dB pilot to -14dB pilot.

The Digital Domain:

ExcessForwardLinkCapacity

The forward link Call and HandoffBlockingThresholds are datafilled in terms of ExcessForwardLinkCapacity which is a “bits-squared” value.

ExcessForwardLinkCapacity is calculated as follows:

1. Square the pilot gain (e.g. 216 2 is 46656)

2. Divide by MinPilotToTotalPowerRatio (e.g. 46656 divided by -7.5dB (in linear terms) is 262365). This number is referred to as the “digital reference”.

3. Sum up the bits-squared over all channel elements

4. Subtract item 3. from item 2. The result is the ExcessForwardLinkCapacity.

If the ExcessForwardLinkCapacity is less than the CallBlockingThreshold, then block new calls (pre-NBSS8: just send BTS Ack. NBSS8: send reorder).

If the ExcessForwardLinkCapacity is less than the HandoffBlockingThreshold, then block handoffs (send Handoff Direction without the new sector - mobile will ask again with a new PSMM).

Note that there is no action if the “digital reference” is crossed although EFLC will never be reported as a negative number.

The Analog Domain:

Power Sensor

Immediately following the High Power Amplifier (HPA), there is a power sensor that is calibrated to report the total power in units of 1/16th dBm at the following locations:

1st generation:

RFFE Antenna 0 on the 1900MHz Mini BTS

Metro Cell:

DPM Output

PAM Output

The Analog Domain: Power Limiting

The sensor reading is compared against a datafillable upper limit TxPowerMax/PowerTooHighThreshold. If this threshold is exceeded, the BTS will wilt the sector by one step and re-compare the reading with TxPowerMax /PowerTooHighThreshold. This is the Power Limiting algorithm and it repeats until the power no longer exceeds TxPowerMax /PowerTooHighThreshold. This limits the output power to TxPowerMax /PowerTooHighThreshold. However, forward link power control will act in opposition to the power limiting, possibly causing an unstable situation. For this reason, this algorithm should be viewed as an HPA protection mechanism only and the blocking thresholds should be set such that Power Limiting is a rare occurrence. The FwdHandoffBlockingThreshold should be at a higher power than the FwdCallBlockingThreshold to give priority to existing calls.

Transmit Power Tracking Loop

The two domains are “linked” by TPTL according to the relationship:

254 2 = 36dBm + (TPTLTargetPowerOffset/16)

Once this relationship has been established, we can calculate the power equivalent to any gain or combination of gains.

Example; what is the output power for a) the pilot and b) the pilot + sync + paging if the digital gains are pilot = 216, sync = 68, (half-rate) paging = 182 and TPTLTargetPowerOffset = 0.

Answer; Since the digital gains are voltage gains, most calculations are in terms of “bits squared” to convert to power. Therefore, if 254 2 = 4 Watts, the power corresponding to 216 is:

power = (216 2 /254 2 ) x 4 = 2.89 Watts

and the power for all three channels is:

power = ((216 2 + 68 2 + (0.5 * 182 2 ))/254 2 ) x 4 = 4.21 Watts

BTS Power Management Block Diagram

CE (pilot) CE (sync) TxAttenNormal CE HPA Dup (paging) CE (WiltBloss)/BBWStepSize (traffic)
CE
(pilot)
CE
(sync)
TxAttenNormal
CE
HPA
Dup
(paging)
CE
(WiltBloss)/BBWStepSize
(traffic)
WiltBlossStepPeriod
(TxPowerMax)/PowerTooHighThreshold
Power
Limiting
Algorithm
CE
TPTL
(traffic)
Algorithm
TPEFilterDecayExponential
TPTLEnabled
TPTLTargetPowerOffset
Feed to:
SectorTxPower
Feed to calculations for:

ForwardPowerEstimationEnabled

ExcessForwardLinkCapacity Call and Handoff Blocking BTSPerformanceData (CallBlockingThreshold HandoffBlockingThreshold MinPilotToTotalPwrRatio)

BTSPerformanceData

PilotGain

SyncGain

PagingGain

Traffic Gain

from SBS

TXPilotGain

PTXupper

PTXstart

PTXlower

PrTXerror

Traffic Gain

from SBS

TxPwrFilterDecayConst

CallBlockingThreshold =257000 bits 2

HandoffBlockingThreshold = 0 bits 2

ExcessForwardLinkCapacity = (Digital Reference - Traffic - Overhead) bits 2

10 (-MinPilotToTotalPwrRatio/160) = 18.3

BTS “ Power Domain” Diagram

6 0 ) = 1 8 . 3 BTS “ Power Domain” Diagram Digital Domain (bits2,

Digital Domain (bits2, 1/16dB, 1/16dBm)

Analog Domain

254 2 = 4000 mW = 36dBm (+ TPTLTargetPowerOffset/16)

29050 13120 560 250
29050
13120
560
250
= 36dBm (+ TPTLTargetPowerOffset/16) 29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm =
= 36dBm (+ TPTLTargetPowerOffset/16) 29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm =

Digital Reference=468532 bits 2

29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm = 200% Handoff Blocking =
29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm = 200% Handoff Blocking =
29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm = 200% Handoff Blocking =
29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm = 200% Handoff Blocking =
29050 13120 560 250 Digital Reference=468532 bits 2 mW = 44.63dBm = 200% Handoff Blocking =

mW = 44.63dBm = 200%

Handoff Blocking = 468532 bits 2

TxPowerMax/PowerTooHighThreshold = 666 dBm*16

41.63dBm = 14540 mW = 100%

Call Blocking = 211532 bits 2

mW = 41.18dBm = 90%

Current Traffic in bits 2

Total O’Head = 38674 bits 2

2400 mW = 33.8dBm = 16.5%

Example for:

Pilot/Sync/PagingGain = 160/64/134 (half-rate paging) MinPilotToTotalPwrRatio = -202 CallBlockingThreshold = 257000 HandoffBlockingThreshold = 0 TxPowerMax/PowerTooHighThreshold = 666 TPTLTargetPowerOffset = 0

PilotGain = 25600 bits 2

1590 mW = 32.0 dBm = 11%

PagingGain = 8978 bits 2

mW = 27.5dBm = 3.8%

SyncGain = 4096 bits 2

mW = 24.0dBm = 1.7%

Power Management Changes in NBSS8.2/9.0

Major change in digital gain to analog power mapping for the Metro Cell

254 2 no longer mapped to 4W + TPTLTargetPowerOffset instead, 254 2 = (0.2 * TotalTxPowerAvailable * PercentTxPowerAvailable) + TPTLTargetPowerOffset

i.e. gain is mapped to a percentage of HPA power, not an absolute value

for case of different HPA powers on same BSC, traffic channel gains will automatically be scaled to same percentage

same Pilot/Sync/PagingGains on BTSs with different HPA powers will automatically be scaled to same percentage

Power Management Attribute Changes

Attributes in PowerManagement MO

TotalTxPowerAvailable

Attributes in PowerManagement MO • TotalTxPowerAvailable – Units: 1/16 dBm – “Gettable only” (defined at

Units: 1/16 dBm

“Gettable only” (defined at factory)

PercentTxPowerAvailable

Units: 1/10 percent

Scales entire BTS output including power limiting point (cf TPTLTargetPowerOffset which leaves power limiting point unchanged)

Would normally be set to 1000 (100%)

PercentTxPowerTooLow

Units: 1/10 percent

Sets low power alarm threshold

Power Management Datafill Changes

To maintain same output power for traffic and overhead channels, TPTLTargetPowerOffset can be adjusted to bring mapping back to 4W.

can be adjusted to bring mapping back to 4W. – 1900MHz: Mapping changes to 2.9W so

1900MHz: Mapping changes to 2.9W so add +23 (+1.4dB) to any existing TPTLTargetPowerOffset settings.

Going forward, can choose to standardise on one set of Pilot/Sync/Paging/TXPilotGain settings for all 1900MHz BTSs.