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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0
2.0
3.0

SCOPE
GENERAL
POWER CABLE TYPES AND APPLICATION
3.1
3.2
3.3

4.0
5.0

AMPACITIES - USE AND CALCULATIONS


VOLTAGE REGULATION
5.1

6.0

Three Conductors Versus Single Conductor Cables


Selection of Cable Insulation Levels
Conductor and Shield Size Selection

General

IEC STANDARDS

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 2 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

1.0

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

SCOPE
This standard covers the selection of a specific type and size of power cable based on
particular applications and conditions in the system of Saudi Electricity Co. (SEC)
Saudi Arabia..

2.0

GENERAL
2.1

2.2

The selection of the specific type and size of power cable will be based on the
following:
a)

Technical requirements; such as voltage level, current loading,


ambient temperature, voltage regulation, fault current, etc.

b)

Installation requirements of existing or planned facilities; such as


ducts, direct burial, conduit, thrust boaring, directional drilling and
thermal resistivity of soil & backfill material.

c)

Economic requirements based on the selection of a suitable cable and


required accessories (splices, terminations, and connectors).

d)

Existing power cable circuits.

Guide to the Selection of High-Voltage Cables


To determine the appropriate design of a cable for a particular project, the
following information, with regard to service conditions, is required.
2.2.1

TESP10403R0/YM

Operating Conditions:
a.

Nominal Voltage of the System, U. (See 3.2 for definition.)

b.

Highest Voltage of the System, Um. (See 3.2 for definition.)

c.

Switching Impulse Level for EHV Cables.

d.

Lightning Over Voltages.

e.

System frequency.

f.

Type of earthing and, where the neutral is not effectively


earthed, the maximum permitted duration of earth fault
conditions on any one occasion.

g.

Electrical characteristics of surge diverters (if any).

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 3 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

2.3

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

h.

Where outdoor terminals are specified. the altitude above sea


level, if above 1000m and whether excessive atmospheric
pollution is expected.

i.

Maximum rated current for continuous operation.

j.

Cyclic loading requirements. (Note: A load curve is essential if


cyclic loading has to be considered when determining
conductor size.)

k.

Emergency or Over Load Condition.

l.

Maximum currents which may flow during short circuits, both


between phases and to earth.

m.

Maximum time for which short-circuit current may flow.

The process used in selecting and sizing a power cable shall be as follows:
a)

Selection of a cable construction based on its planned application and


installation.

b)

Selection of the conductor size based on ampacity.

c)

Increasing, if necessary, the conductor size selected in (b) based on


voltage regulation.

d)

Increasing, if necessary, the conductor size selected in (b) and (c)


based on fault currents.

e)

Selection of a metallic shield size for HV shielded cables based on


ground fault currents and its duration.

2.3.1

Installation Data:

2.3.1A

a.

Length and profile of route.

b.

Details of the laying arrangement (e.g flat or trefoil


arrangement) and how the metallic coverings are connected to
each other and to earth (Sheath Bonding Arrangement).

Underground Cables
a)

TESP10403R0/YM

Details of installation conditions (e.g. direct burial, in ducts, in


trenches covered with chequred plates or pre-cast concrete
covers etc.) to enable decisions to be taken on composition of
metallic sheath, type of armor (if required) and type of overall
jacket, e.g. anti-corrosion, flame-retarding or antitermite.

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 4 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

2.3.1B

2.3.1C

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

b)

Depth of laying.

c)

Thermal resistivities and kinds of soil along the route (e.g.


sand. clay, made-up ground), and whether this information is
based on measurement and inspection or only assumed
parameters.

d)

Minimum, maximum and average ground temperature at the


depth of burial.

e)

Proximity of other load-carrying cables, or of other heat


sources, with details.

f)

Lengths of troughs, ducts or pipelines. with spacing of


manholes, if any.

g)

Number of ducts or pipes.

h)

Internal diameter of ducts or pipes.

i)

Spacing between individual ducts or pipes, if more than one.

j)

Material of ducts or pipes.

Cables in Air
a)

Minimum, maximum and average ambient air temperatures to


be assured.

b)

Details of ventilation (for cables indoors or in tunnels).

c)

Whether exposed to direct sunlight.

Cables in Water
Individual installations require special consideration.

2.4

3.0

It is the responsibility of the Design Engineer to evaluate the economics of a


given power cable installation with the goal of providing the least expensive
installation within the limits of this standard.

POWER CABLE TYPES AND APPLICATION


3.1

Three Conductors Versus Single Conductor Cables


3.1.1

TESP10403R0/YM

Single conductor cables are easy to handle, splice, terminate and are
supplied in longer lengths than three conductor cables.
Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 5 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

Their reactance is higher than three conductor cables and the use of a
metallic sheath for mechanical protection would be more expensive
and result in higher losses than with a three conductor cable.
3.1.2

3.2

In general, the ampacity and voltage drop will be higher for three
single conductor cables when compared with a similar size of three
conductor cable.

Selection of Cable Insulation Levels


The following is a guide to the determination of the appropriate values of Uo,
U, Um, and Up, where
Uo -

The rated power-frequency voltage between each conductor and screen


or sheath for which the cable and its accessories are designed or
manufactured.

U-

The rated power-frequency voltage between any two conductors for


which the cable and its accessories are designed or manufactured.

Note: This quantity is only of interest for non-radial-field cables.


Um - The maximum rms power-frequency voltage between any two
conductors for which cables and accessories are designed. It is the
highest voltage that can be sustained under normal operating conditions
at any time and at any point in a system. It excludes temporary voltage
variations due to fault conditions and the sudden disconnection of large
loads.
Up -

The peak value of the impulse withstand voltage between each


conductor and screen or sheath for which the cable and its accessories
are designed.

It is realized that normally the insulation thickness of the cable will be


determined either by Uo, U, Um or by Up. These voltages should be chosen
based entirely on the characteristics and requirements of the system, (U, Uo,
Um, Up) , and the insulation thickness should be chosen to meet the most
severe requirement. When selecting the cable for the system, be sure that the
cable manufacturer will supply a cable with a Up value equal to or greater than
that required by SEC.
3.2.1

Selection of Uo and U:
The selection of Uo depends on the type of system and on the system
earthing arrangements. For this purpose, systems have been divided
into followinf categories:

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 6 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

Category A:
Where earth faults are cleared as rapidly as possible but in any case
with in 1 min.
Category B:
This category comprises those systems, which, under fault conditions,
are operated for a short time only with one phase earthed. This
period should, in general, not exceed one hour, but a longer period
can be tolerated for radial-feed cables, and in special circumstances.
Under no circumstances, however, shall the period exceed eight
hours.
NOTE:

It should be realized that in a system where an earth


fault is not automatically and promptly eliminated, the
extra stresses on the insulation of cables during the
earth fault reduce the life of the cables to a certain
degree. If the system is expected to be operated fairly
often with a permanent earth fault, it may be
economical to classify the system into the next category
C.

Category C:
This category comprises all systems which do not fall into Category
A&B.
For both categories, U should not be less than 0.85 Um.
NOTE:

3.2.2

See IEC Publication 60038 (IEC Standard Voltages),


60183 (Guide to the selection of high-voltage cables)
and Standard System Voltages.

Selection of Up
The value of Up to be adopted should be one of the values associated
with the selected highest voltage (Um) and is divided in to following
3 levels

Notes

Level 1 is below the "reduced insulation level" given


in IEC Publication 60071, Recommendations for
Insulation Coordination.
Level 2 coincides with the "reduced insulation level"
given in IEC Publication 60071.
Level 3 coincides with the "full insulation level"
given in IEC Publication 60071.

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 7 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

The decision as to which of the three levels should be used in particular


case is dictated by the degree of exposure to overvoltages. This matter is
dealt with in Sub-clause 3.2.3.
3.2.3

Exposure to Over-Voltages
Installations can be classified as follows:

3.3

a.

Electrically non-exposed, if the cable system is not exposed to


over-voltages of atmospheric origin. Level 1 or Level 2 is
applicable to this condition, the choice depending upon the
anticipated internal over-voltages.

b.

Electrically exposed, if the cable system may be subjected to


over-voltages of atmospheric origin, i.e. if it is connected
directly to an overhead transmission line which may be
subjected to lightning strikes, etc. All three levels should be
considered for this condition, but the impulse withstand level
of the cable system should always be coordinated with the
protective level of the surge protective device, if any.
Guidance on this coordination is, given in IEC Publication
71A, Supplement to Publication 71,
Recommendations for Insulation Coordination, Application
Guide. The choice of levels depends upon the amplitude of the
anticipated impluse over-voltages, the evaluation of which is a
complex problem involving among other factors, the length of
the cable and its capacitance per unit length. The solution of
this problem cannot be the subject of general
recommendations, and each case should be considered
individually.

Conductor and Shield Size Selection


3.3.1

Proper sizing of a conductor involves three factors:


a)

Ampacity

b)

Voltage Drop Restrictions

c)

Short Circuit Current and its duration

3.3.2

Ampacity will determine the minimum size of conductor that can be


used for a given type of installation.

3.3.3

Voltage drop restrictions will determine a maximum length that a


conductor selected can be used before an increase in size is necessary
to maintain the voltage at the load above a desired minimum value.

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 8 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.0

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

3.3.4

Short circuit current will require an increase in the conductor size


selected if it is not already of sufficient size to safely dissipate the
heat generated under fault conditions.

3.3.5

Metallic shield sizing involves consideration of short circuit currents


that may flow in the shield if a fault to ground occurs. In the case of
concentric neutral cable, the shield will also carry neutral current and
must be sized on an ampacity basis.

AMPACITIES - USE AND CALCULATIONS


4.1.a

It is the responsibility of Design Engineer to use the basic parameters and


factors, detailed in the following paragraphs so that non-standard applications
can be calculated from the referenced publications.

4.1.b

It is mandatory that the Design Engineer have full knowledge of the system
route limitations, circuitry and environment temperatures of the application
under consideration. He should consider the worst conditions of operation plus
future growth requirements of the circuit.

4.2

Since most applications of cable installation on the SEC system involve direct
buried cable, additional replacement cost for undersized cables must be
considered. Duct installed cables can be replaced within the limitations of the
duct size.
4.2.1

The following basic parameters will assist the Design Engineer to


further evaluate the ampacities and objectively calculate alternative
ampacities for a cable to fulfill any load requirements:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

4.3

Load - MVA.
Load Factor (LF).
Thermal Resistivity of the Soil (RHO).
Ambient Temperature - mean temperature of the soil or riser
temperature at above ground (in air) terminals.
Short circuit values with finite information on time duration
(affects sizing of copper in cable shield).
Derating factors for circuity (multiplicity of circuits and tie
formations).
Route location that might affect placement of splice bays/
manholes and terminations.

Ampacity Derating
4.3.1

TESP10403R0/YM

The ampacity shall be calculated from the reference ICEA


Specifications P-46-426 and P-53-426 plus other data from
manufacturers quotations and handbooks.

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 9 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.4

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

For other factors, temperature with resistivity (RHO), number of circuits,, the
following conversions should be utilized:
4.4.1

Temprature Correction Factor

Tc Ta
Tc - Ta

Where

4.5

T
Ta
Ta
Tc

=
=
=
=

ambient temperature correction factor


expected new temperature
temperature utilized in specification tables
thermal rating of insulation

Earth Thermal Resistivity


For installation of underground cables on the SEC system, actual value of
thermal resistivity shall be utilized. This figure also includes the resistivity
of the bedding and backfill on underground cable installations and should
be specifically indicated on any ampacity calculations when using the
referenced tables.

4.6

Load Factor
All ampacities shall be calculated on the basis of 100% load factor.

4.7

Circuitry
4.7.1

For the calculation of desired ampacity for the load required, it may
be necessary to consider additional circuits also (installed in the same
trench or in parallal).

4.7.2

The number of circuits required is also predicated upon the


availability of conductor sizes for the insulation level under
consideration. However, it is considered essential that we utilize
standard SEC cable sizes as indicated in Table 04-1.

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 10 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

TABLE 04-1
STANDARD SEC CABLE SIZES
SIZE
mm
35
70
120
185
300
400
500
630
800
1000
1200
1600
2000
2500

4.8

7.7
10.7
14.2
17.6
22.5
25.6
28.8
32.7
37.0
41.6
45.0
48.1
54.3
62.7

EQUIVALENT NEAREST U.S.


kcmil
AWG/kcmil
69
138
237
369
592
789
986
1233
1579
1974
2368
3158
3948
4935

2
2/0
4/0
350
600
750
1000
1250
1750
2000
-

Ampacity
4.8.1

4.9

DIAMETER
mm

Another source of information about power cable & ampacities is


IPCEA Publication No. P-46-426 and IEEE S-135.

Cable Calculation
This is for guidance on how to select an adequate cable for a particular
application and should not be considered as a standard method to solve all
problems.
4.9.1

TESP10403R0/YM

Information Required
a)

Voltage supplied or to be used.

b)

Magnitude of power to be transmitted (MVA) or full load


current (nominal amperes).

c)

Type of load (transformers, motors, lighting, etc.).

d)

Type of installation (direct buried, conduit, duct banks, trays,


etc.).

e)

Type of cable (XLPE, oil-filled, gas-filled, etc.).


Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 11 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.9.2

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

Type of Cable Selection


The factors that play roles in the selection of power cable are:
a)
b)
c)

Voltage to be used.
Required reliability of the power supply.
Cost of material, installation and mintenance.

The decision on the type of cable to be used should be made at the


beginning of the planning.
The Cost Engineer shall provide Tables with up-to-date costs for each
item.
4.9.3

Type of Installation
The system requirements and area conditions will determine the type
of installation to be used, which could be:
a)
b)
c)

Direct buried underground.


In conduits, underground duct banks or in air.
In trays, in the air or in tunnels.

Each of these types of installations will be affected by different


derating factors, which must be considered and calculated in each
case.
4.9.4

Derating Factors Calculation


These factors will depend upon the system parameters and
environment where the cable will be laid and also upon the
characteristics of the materials used by the manufacturer to build the
cable. For these reasons, it is imperative to acquire correct data from
responsible sources. Manufacturer's cable data and recommendations
should be available, and this may vary from one manufacturer to
another for the same type of cable.

4.9.4.a

For Cables Laid in the Ground


When the cables are laid in ground the derating factors depend upon
the following
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

TESP10403R0/YM

Variation in ground temperature


Variation in thermal resistivity of soil
Variation in depth of laying
Group derating factor for multi core cables in flat formation
Group derating factor for multi core cables in trefoil formation
Group derating factor for single core cables in duct banks
Group derating factor for multi core cables in duct banks
Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 12 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.9.4.b

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

For Cables Laid in Pipes or Conduits


The current carrying capacity of the cables laid in the ground shall be
reduced by a derating factor if the cables are laid in an unfilled pipe
of PVC or PE in the ground. Normally the pipe diameter is 2 to 5
times that of the cable. It is however possible to eliminate this rating
reduction by filling the pipe, after the cable has been pulled in, with a
material which is thermally equal to the ambient ground.
For parallel pipes each containing a 3-core cable or a group of three
single core cables and with the cables equally loaded the derating of
the cable is calculated by using the derating factor mentioned above.

4.9.4.c

For Cables Laid Above the Ground


When the cables are laid above the ground the derating factors
depend upon the following
i.
ii.

4.9.5

Variation in ground temperature


Group derating factor for cables installed above ground

Short Circuit Current Rating for Conductor


The maximum short circuit current ratings for copper and aluminum
conductors are:
The calculation formula is:

Q.S
K.R.t

Ln

where

maximum allowable conductor short circuit current (A).

Specific thermal capacity of conductor (J/C cm).

Conductor cross-sectional area (cm)

Temperature coefficient of conductor resistance.

Conductor resistance of 20C (ohm/cm).

T2

Maximum conductor temperature at short circuit


(250C for XLPE).
Maximum conductor temperature before short circuit
(90C for XLPE).
Short circuit duration time (seconds).

T1
t

TESP10403R0/YM

1/K - 20 + T2
l/K - 20 + T1

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 13 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

By putting the values of Q, K, R, T2 and T1 into the formula, it can


be simplified as follows.
For copper conductor

: I =

For aluminum conductor : I =

142 x S (mm) (for XLPE only)


t
92 x S (mm)
t

(for XLPE only)

The cross-sectional area of the cable selected should be verified for


the short circuit current calculated for the place of application, versus
the time duration until the fault is cleared by the protective system.
4.9.6

Electrical Data Calculation


The electrical data (conductor resistance, capacitance and reactance)
for XLPE cables can be calculated using the following formula:
a)
R

where,

A.C. Resistance of Conductor (R)


= Ro (1 + ys + yp) [1 + K (Tc - 20)] (ohm/km)

Ro : Maximum D.C. resistance of conductor at 20C (ohm/km)


ys : Skin effect factor.
yp : Proximity effect factor.
K : Temperature coefficient (1/C):
0.00393
for copper
0.00403
for aluminum
Tc : Conductor temperature (C).
b)
C =

where,

Capacitance (C)
______ _____
18 Ln (Di/dc)

(F/km)

: Relative permittivity of XLPE insulation.


Di : Diamter of XLPE insulation.
dc : Diameter of conductor screen.

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 14 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

c)

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

Star Reactance (X)


X = 2f (0.2 Ln 2S + 0.05) x 10 (ohm/km)
d

where,

: 3.1416
f

: Frequency (Hz)

S : Spacing between phases.


D : Diamter of conductor.
5.0

VOLTAGE REGULATION
5.1

General
While the heat generated in a cable conductor determines the maximum current
it can carry without deterioration, it is often necessary to limit the current to an
even lower value because of excessive voltage drop. This problem is usually
confined to the high current, low voltage secondary of distribution circuits. For
this reason, it is advantageous to carry the primary circuit as close to the load
as possible before transforming so the secondary runs, where most of voltage
drop occurs, will be small. The voltage drop of a cable may be calculated with
the following formula:
U = 100 (VS-VL)
VL
Where:

voltage drop in percent

Vs

voltage at source

VL

voltage at load

Vs

(VLcos+RI) +(VLsin+XI)

Where:

angle by which the current lags the voltage across the


load

total AC resistance of cable

total reactance of cable

load current

Cos
TESP10403R0/YM

power factor of load

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 15 OF 16

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-104.03, Rev. 0

For 3-phase circuits, use the voltage resistance and reactance to neutral.
6.0

IEC STANDARDS
i
ii
iii
iv

IEC 60287 (Calculation of Continuous Current Rating of Cables 100% Load


Factor)
IEC 60853 (Calculation of the Cyclic and Emergency Current Rating of
Cables)
IEC 61059 (Economic Optimization of Cable Size)
IEC 60183 (Guide to the Selection of High Voltage Cable)

TESP10403R0/YM

Date of Approval: December 16, 2006

PAGE NO. 16 OF 16