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Water Loss:

transpiration

Stomatal movement

Direct response to increases or decreases


in the osmotic potential of guard cells

Changes in water potential between guard


cells and neighboring cells
-if water moves in guard cells turgid
(stoma
open)
-if water moves out- guard cells flaccid
(stoma closed)

Anatomy and cytology of stoma

Unusual features of guard cell walls:


The

cellulose microfibrils making up the


wall of a guard cell are arranged radially

Guard

cell wall adjacent to the pore is


thicker than the outer wall

Shape of guard cells differs

Guard cell with chloroplastids

Anatomy and cytology of stoma

Control of stomatal movement


Potassium, chloride, hydrogen and organic
acids
K+ accumulates in the guard cells in the
presence of light

K+ accumulation is due to active exchange


process in which H+ are pumped out of
guard cells

K+ accumulation is accompanied by Cl- (in


some) in response to the electrical
differential created by the K+ uptake into
the guard cells

Control of stomatal movement


Potassium, chloride, hydrogen and organic
acids

Organic acids (mostly malate) build up in


the guard cells as H+ leaves the guard
cells; neutralized by K+ influx

Osmotic and water potentials become


negative in the presence of K+ , Cl- ,
organic acids

Water movement towards the guard cells


results in increased in turgidity and
stomatal movement

Factors affecting stomatal movement


CO2 concentration
Stomata will open when CO2 in leaf
intercellular spaces is low
Stomata will close when CO2 in leaf
intercellular spaces is high

Factors affecting stomatal movement


Light
Generally opens in the presence of light
Blue light receptor in the plasma
membrane of the guard cells perceives the
stimulus
Activation of receptors stimulates the
activity of ATP-powered proton pumps
which promotes uptake of K+

Factors affecting stomatal movement


Water deficit and ABA
If guard cells lose water more than the
entry from surrounding epidermal cellshydropassive closure
If transpiration exceeds water
absorption,water deficit is created in the
plant- hydroactive closure

ABA produced in the mesophyll of water


stressed plants, signals guard cells to
close stomates

ABA is the primary regulator of the


stomatal apparatus in water-stressed
plants

Factors affecting stomatal movement


Circadian rhythms- cycles that have intervals
of 24 hours
Rhythmic opening and closing of the
stomata
Presence of internal clock located in the
guard cells

TRANSPIRATION

Transpiration
Loss of water in vapor form
types :
1. stomatal transpiration
2. cuticular transpiration
3. lenticular transpiration
Stomatal transpiration has the most
significant contribution to loss of water in
plants

Driving force of transpiration


Transpiration is a 2 stage process:
1. Evaporation of water from the moist
cell walls into the substomatal air
space
2. The diffusion of water vapor from the
substomatal space into the
atmosphere
Driving force:
Difference in water potential between the
substomatal air space and the external
atmosphere

Driving force of transpiration


Movement of water vapor from a region of
higher vapor density to lower vapor
density
Movement of water vapor from a region of
higher vapor pressure to lower vapor
pressure

Vapor pressure on a closed container. Initially (A), more molecules escape from the
water surface than condense, filling the air space with water vapor molecules. The
vaporous molecules exert pressure-vapor pressure- against the walls of the chamber
and the water surface. At equilibrium (B), the rate of condensation equals evaporation
and the air is saturated with water vapor. The vapor pressure when the air is saturated
is known as the saturation vapor pressure. At higher temperature (C), a higher
proportion of water molecules have sufficient energy to escape. Both the concentration
of water molecules in the vapor phase and the saturation vapor pressure are
correspondingly higher.

External Factors affecting rate of


transpiration
Light
Increases transpiration because of its effect on
stomatal movement
Humidity of the air
Humidity actual water content of the air
Relative humidity- ratio of the actual water
content of the air to the maximum amount of
water that can be held by air at that temperature
-is the ratio of the actual vapor
pressure to the saturation vapor pressure
Relative humidity is most commonly expressed
as RH x 100, percent relative humidity

External Factors affecting rate of


transpiration
Humidity of the air

The internal atmosphere is considered


saturated with water vapor.
Water vapor will diffuse from an area of
higher vapor pressure to low vapor
pressure
The steeper the gradient, the more rapidly
transpiration will proceed.

External Factors affecting rate of


transpiration
Temperature
rise in temperature increases vapor
pressure by increasing molecular motion
will increase rate of transpiration
effect

of temperature on water potential


gradient

External factors affecting rate of


transpiration
Effect of Wind is complex
Air in the immediate vicinity of a transpiring leaf
becomes saturated with water vapor (lowers
vapor pressure gradient and transpiration)
Presence of wind(low speed) disperses water
vapor (increase rate of transpiration)
Cooling effect on an evaporating surface (lowers
vapor pressure gradient and transpiration)