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High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

HSDPA Background & Basics


Principles: Adaptive Modulation, Coding, HARQ
Channels/ UTRAN Architecture
Principles: Fast scheduling, Mobility
Performance Results

Motivation (as of 2000)

Voice, low speed packet data

Medium rate Packet data

GSM/GPRS

UMTS Rel. 99

No Multimedia, Limited QOS

Theoretical 2 Mbps but ~384 kbps


subjected to practical constraints

As the UMTS networks are rolled out, the demand for high
bandwidth services is expected to grow rapidly.
By 2010, 66% of the revenues will come from data services
(source: UMTS forum).
Release 99/4 systems alone will not be capable to meet these
demands. (Realistic outdoor data rates will be limited to
384kbps).
A more spectral efficient way of using DL resources is required.
Competition with CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO/DV
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

HSDPA Background
Initial goals
Establish a more spectral efficient way of using DL resources providing
data rates beyond 2 Mbit/s, (up to a maximum theoretical limit of 14.4
Mbps)
Optimize interactive & background packet data traffic, support streaming
service
Design for low mobility environment, but not restricted
Techniques compatible with advanced multi-antenna and receivers
Standardization started in June 2000
Broad forum of companies
Major feature of Release 5
Enhancements in R7
HSPA+
Advanced transmission to increase data throughput
Signaling enhancements to save resources

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

HSDPA Basics
Evolution from R99/ R4
5MHz BW
Same spreading by OVSF and scrambling codes
Turbo coding
New concepts in R5
Adaptive modulation (QPSK vs. 16QAM), coding and multicodes
(fixed SF = 16)
Fast scheduling in NodeB (TTI = 2ms)
Hybrid ARQ
Enhancements in R7
HSPA+
Signaling enhancements
64QAM
MIMO techniques, increase of the bandwidth

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

Higher Order Modulation


Standard modulation scheme in UMTS networks
QPSK
2 bit per symbol
With HSDPA, modulation can be switched between two schemes
QPSK
2 bit per symbol
16-QAM 4 bit per symbol

Low bitrate

UMTS Networks

robust

High bitrate

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Sensitive to disturbances

Nov. 2011

Key Principles
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
(Mother Turbo code rate = 1/3)
For wireless data, link adaptation through Rate Control is more
effective then Power Control.
Users in favorable channel conditions (based on Channel Quality
indication) are assigned higher code rates and higher order
modulation (16QAM).
This means higher data rates = Reduced latency

But what about when channel is changing at high rate;


Can AMC guarantee reliability?

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

Hybrid ARQ
No. In fast fading conditions, AMC alone is not enough.
H-ARQ automatically adapts to instantaneous channel conditions by:
fast retransmissions at physical layer
adding redundancy only when needed

The retransmitted packets are combined with original packet to


improve the decoding probability.
Simple form of Hybrid ARQ shows
significant gains over link adaptation alone.
Different schemes can be used for
retransmission of original data packet.
Chase combining
Incremental Redundancy

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

Fast Scheduling
Fading is good in multiuser environment!!
Channels are uncorrelated
Multi-user
diversity
Assign the resources to the best user(s) in
time to maximise throughput
Gains increase with number of users
Max C/I
Proportional fair
Round Robin

With HSDPA Scheduling function is moved from RNC to Node-B.


10
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

HS-DSCH Principle I
Channelization codes at a fixed spreading factor of SF = 16
Up to 15 codes in parallel

SF=2
SF=4
SF=8
C16,15
SF=16

C16,0

Physical channels (codes) to which HS-DSCH is mapped

CPICH, etc.

OVSF channelization code tree allocated by CRNC


HSDPA codes autonomously managed by NodeB MAC-hs scheduler
Example: 12 consecutive codes reserved for HS-DSCH, starting at C16,4
Additionally, HS-SCCH codes with SF = 128 (number equal to simult. UE)

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

HS-DSCH Principle II
Resource sharing in code as well as time domain:
Multi-code transmission, UE is assigned to multiple codes in the same TTI
Multiple UEs may be assigned channelization codes in the same TTI

Code

Time (per TTI)


Data to UE #1

Data to UE #2

Data to UE #3

not used

Example: 5 codes are reserved for HSDPA, 1 or 2 UEs are active within one
TTI

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

10

UMTS Channels with HSDPA

Cell 1
= Serving
HS-DSCH cell

Cell 2
UE

R99 DCH (in SHO)

Rel-5 HS-DSCH
DL PS service
(Rel-6: DL DCCH)

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

UL/DL signalling (DCCH)


UL PS service
UL/DL CS voice/ data

Nov. 2011

11

HSDPA Channels
HS-PDSCH
Carries the data traffic
Fixed SF = 16; up to 15 parallel channels
QPSK: 480 kbps/code, 16QAM: 960 kbps/code

HS-SCCH
Signals the configuration to be used next: HS-PDSCH codes, modulation
format, TB information
Fixed SF = 128
Sent two slots (~1.3msec) in advance of HS-PDSCH

HS-DPCCH
Feedbacks ACK/NACK and channel quality information (CQI)
Fixed SF = 256, code multiplexed to UL DPCCH
Feedback sent ~5msec after received data

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

12

Timing Relations (DL)

Tslot (2560 chips)


Downlink DPCH
3
HS-SCCH

ch. code & mod

Tslot (2 msec)
TB size & HARQ Info
HS-DSCH TTI = 3

HS-PDSCH

Tslot (2 msec)

DATA
HS-DSCH-control =

Tslot

NodeB Tx view
Fixed time offset between the HS-SCCH information and the start of the
corresponding HS-DSCH TTI: HS-DSCH-control (2 Tslot= 1.33msec)
HS-DSCH and associated DL DPCH not time-aligned

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

13

Timing Relations (UL)

Tslot (0.67 ms)


Uplink DPCCH

Tslot (2ms)
DATA

HS-PDSCH

UEP

HS-DPCCH

CQI

A/N

CQI

= 7.5

A/N
m

0-255 chips

Tslot (5ms)
CQI

A/N

CQI

A/N

256 chips

UE Rx view
Alignment to m 256 to preserve orthogonality to UL DPCCH
HS-PDSCH and associated UL DPCH not time-aligned
(but quasi synch)

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

14

HSDPA Architecture

Evolution from R99/R4


HSDPA functionality is
intended for transport of
dedicated logical channels

SRNC

RRC

PDCP
RLC

DCCH
DTCH

Logical Channels

Takes into account the


impact on R.99 networks

BCCH

MAC-d

HSDPA in R5

CRNC

Additions in RRC to handle


HSDPA
RLC nearly unchanged
(UM & AM)
Modified MAC-d with link to
MAC-hs entity

w/o MAC-c/sh

DCH

Upper phy

MAC-c/sh

NodeB
MAC-b

MAC-hs
Transport Channels

HS-DSCH

DSCH
FACH

BCH

New MAC-hs entity located


in the Node B

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

15

MAC-hs in NodeB

MAC-d flows
MAC-hs

UE #N
UE #2
UE #1
Priority Queue
distribution

Priority
Queue

Priority
Queue

Priority
Queue

MAC Control

Scheduling

MAC-hs Functions
Priority handling
Flow Control
To RNC
To UE
Scheduling
Select which user/queue
to transmit
Assign TFRC & Tx
power
HARQ handling
Service measurements
e.g. HSDPA provided
bitrate

HS-DSCH

TFRC: Transport Format and Resource Combination


UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

16

MAC-hs in UE

MAC-hs Functions

To MAC-d

MAC Control

MAC-hs

Disassembly

Disassembly

Reordering

Reordering

Re-ordering queue distribution

Reordering buffer handling


Associated to priority
queues

Memory can be shared


with AM RLC

HS-DSCH

UMTS Networks

ACK/ NACK generation

Flow control per


reordering buffer

HARQ

Associated Downlink Signalling


HS-SCCH

HARQ handling

Associated Uplink Signalling


HS-DPCCH

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Disassembly unit

Nov. 2011

17

Data Flow through Layer 2

Reassembly

Segmentation
&
Concatenation

MAC-d
header

MAC-hs
header

Higher Layer PDU

Higher Layer PDU

RLC SDU

RLC SDU

L2 RLC
(non-transparent)

RLC
header

MAC-d SDU

Higher Layer

RLC

header

MAC-d

MAC-d SDU

header

L2 MAC-d
(non-transparent)

MAC-d PDU

MAC-d PDU

MAC-hs SDU

MAC-hs SDU
L2 MAC-hs
(non-transparent)

Transport Block (MAC-hs PDU)

CRC

L1

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

18

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request


HARQ is a stop-and-wait ARQ
Up to 8 HARQ processes per UE
Retransmissions are done at MAC-hs layer, i.e. in the Node B
Triggered by NACKs sent on the HS-DPCCH
The mother code is a R = 1/3 Turbo code
Code rate adaptation done via rate matching, i.e. by puncturing and
repeating bits of the encoded data
Two types of retransmission
Incremental Redundancy
Additional parity bits are sent when decoding errors occured
Gain due to reducing the code rate

Chase Combining
The same bits are retransmitted when decoding errors occured
Gain due to maximum ratio combining

HSDPA uses a mixture of both types


UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

19

HARQ Processes

RTTHARQ
Data
HS-PDSCH

ACK/NACK
HS-DPCCH

HARQ is a simple stop-and-wait ARQ


Example
RTTmin = 5 TTI
Synchronous retransmissions (MAC-hs decides on transmission)
UE support up to 8 HARQ processes (configured by NodeB)
Min. number: to support continuous reception
Max. number: limit of HARQ soft buffer
Number of HARQ processes configured specifically for each UE category
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

20

HSDPA UE Categories

The specification allows some freedom to the UE vendors


12 different UE categories for HSDPA with different capabilities
(Rel.5)
The UE capabilities differ in
Max. transport block size (data rate)
Max. number of codes per HS-DSCH
Modulation alphabet (QPSK only)
Inter TTI distance (no decoding of HS-DSCH in each TTI)
Soft buffer size
The MAC-hs scheduler needs to take these restrictions into account
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

21

HSDPA UE Physical Layer Capabilities


HS-DSCH
Category

Maximum
number of
HS-DSCH
multi-codes

Minimum interTTI interval

Maximum
MAC-hs TB size

Total number of
soft channel
bits

Theoretical
maximum data
rate (Mbit/s)

Category 1

7298

19200

1.2

Category 2

7298

28800

1.2

Category 3

7298

28800

1.8

Category 4

7298

38400

1.8

Category 5

7298

57600

3.6

Category 6

7298

67200

3.6

Category 7

10

14411

115200

7.2

Category 8

10

14411

134400

7.2

Category 9

15

20251

172800

10.1

Category 10

15

27952

172800

14.0

Category 11*

3630

14400

0.9

Category 12*

3630

28800

1.8

Note: UEs of Categories 11 and 12 support QPSK only

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

cf. TS 25.306
Nov. 2011

22

Channel Quality Information (CQI)

Signalled to the Node B in UL each 2ms on HS-DPCCH


Integer number from 0 to 30 corresponds to a Transport Format Resource
Combination (TFRC) given by
Modulation
Number of channelisation codes
Transport block size
For the given conditions the BLER for this TFRC shall not exceed 10%
Mapping defined in TS 25.214 for each UE category

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

23

CQI Mapping Table

Reference power
Number of
Modulation
adjustment
HS-PDSCH

CQI value

Transport
Block Size

N/A

137

QPSK

461

QPSK

650

QPSK

15

3319

QPSK

16

3565

16-QAM

23

9719

16-QAM

24

11418

16-QAM

25

14411

10

16-QAM

26

17237

12

16-QAM

27

21754

15

16-QAM

28

23370

15

16-QAM

29

24222

15

16-QAM

30

25558

15

16-QAM

UMTS Networks

NIR

XRV

Tables specified in TS
25.214

For each UE category


Condition:
BLER 10%

Out of range
28800

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Example for
UE category 10

Nov. 2011

24

HSDPA Fast Scheduling


3G (Rel.99)
with dedicated channels

Note: No fast channel quality feedback

3G with high speed feedback/scheduling


on shared channels

2 TTI
@1.2M

2 TTI
@76k

7 TTI
@614k

1 TTI
@1.2M

64k
64k

64k

CQI
CQI

CQI
C/I

C/I
C/I

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

25

Scheduler Inputs

QoS & Subscriber Profile


QoS: guar. bitrate, max. delay
GoS: gold/ silver/ bronce

Feedback from UL
(CQI, ACK/NACK)

History
How long had
the user been
waiting?

Traffic Model
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
Off peak

UE capability

Scheduler

Radio resources
Power, OVSF codes

Buffer Status

Scheduled Users & Packet Formation Strategy

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

26

Packet Formation Strategy

Scheduler Outputs

Selected User

Adaptive
Transport
Block size

Adaptive
Coding
or redundancy

Adaptive
Modulation
(QPSK, 16 QAM)

# of OVSF
codes

So that
QoS/GoS constraints are satisfied and
Network throughput is maximized, while

Subject to constraints (standards restrictions and service requirements)


Maintain fairness across UEs and traffic streams
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

27

Classical Scheduling Disciplines


HSDPA scheduler runs every TTI (2 msec)
Round Robin: allocate the users consecutively
Advantage:
- Offers fair time allocation
- One of the simplest solutions
Disadvantage: - Low cell and user throughput
Best Effort scheduler: prefer the users with good channel conditions
Advantage:
- Highest system throughput and easy to
implement
Disadvantage: - Starvation to users with low C/I
Proportional Fairness: equalise the channel rate / throughput ratio
Advantage:
- Higher throughput than Round Robin
Disadvantage: - Does not use QoS information
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

28

Comparison of Schedulers

aggregate d cell throughput

user pe rceiv ed throughput


2500

100%

Percentage of users
receiving throughput

80%

average throughput [kbps]

Round Robin
Proportional Fair
QoS aw are
60%

40%

20%

0%

2000

1500

1000

500

100

200
300
400
average throughput [kbps]

500

600

Round Robin

Proportional Fair

QoS aw are

Simple Round Robin doesnt care about actual channel rate


Proportional Fair offers higher cell throughput
QoS aware algorithm offers significantly higher user perceived throughput than
PF with similar cell throughput

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

29

Mobility Procedures I
HS-DSCH for a given UE belongs to only one of the radio links assigned to
the UE (serving HS-DSCH cell)
The UE uses soft handover for the uplink, the downlink DCCH and any
simultaneous CS voice or data
Using existing triggers and procedures for the active set update
(events 1A, 1B, 1C)
Hard handover for the HS-DSCH, i.e.
Change of Serving HS-DSCH Cell within active set
Using RRC procedures, which are triggered by event 1D

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

30

Mobility Procedures II

CRNC

CRNC

Source HSDSCH Node B

Target HSDSCH Node B

MAC-hs
NodeB

MAC-hs
NodeB

NodeB

NodeB

t
Serving
HS-DSCH
radio link

Serving
HS-DSCH
radio link

Inter-Node B serving HS-DSCH cell change


Note: MAC-hs needs to be transferred to new NodeB !
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

31

HS-DSCH Serving Cell Change

Measurement
quantity
CPICH 1

Hysteresis

CPICH 2

CPICH3

Time to
trigger

Reporting
event 1D

Time

Event 1D: change of best cell within the active set


Hysteresis and time to trigger to avoid ping-pong
(HS-DSCH: 12 dB, 0.5 sec)

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

32

Handover Procedure

Target
HS-DSCH cell

UE

Source
HS-DSCH cell

SRNC
=
DRNC
Serving HS-DSCH
cell change decision
i.e. event 1D

RL Reconfiguration Prepare
RL Reconfiguration Ready

If new NodeB

ALCAP Iub HS-DSCH Data Transport Bearer Setup


RL Reconfiguration Prepare
RL Reconfiguration Ready

RL Reconfiguration Commit

Radio Bearer Reconfiguration

RL Reconfiguration Commit

Synchronous
Reconfiguration
with Tactivation
Reset MAChs entity

Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete

DATA
ALCAP Iub HS-DSCH Data
Transport Bearer Release

Example: HS-DSCH hard handover (synchronized serving cell change)


UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

33

HSDPA Managed Resources

a) OVSF Code Tree

Border adjusted by CRNC

SF=2
SF=4
SF=8

C16,15

C16,0

SF=16
Codes reserved for HS-PDSCH/ HS-SCCH

Codes available for DCH/


common channels

b) Transmit Power
Border adjusted by CRNC

Tx power available for HS-PDSCH/ HS-SCCH

Tx power available for DCH/


common channels

Note: CRNC assigns resources to Node B on a cell basis

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

34

Cell and User Throughput vs. Load

36 cells network
UMTS composite channel model
FTP traffic model (2 Mbyte
download, 30 sec thinking time)

Load Impact
2500

Throughput [kbit/sec]

Mean User Throughput


Aggregated Cell Throughput
2000

The user throughput is decreased


when increasing load due to the
reduced service time

1500

1000

500

0
4

10

12

14

16

18

Number of Users/ Cell

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

The cell throughput increases


with the load because overall
more bytes are transferred in the
same time

Nov. 2011

35

HSDPA Performance per Category

36 cells network
UMTS composite channel model
FTP traffic model (2 Mbyte
download, 30 sec thinking time)

Cat 6 - Cat 8 Comparison


2500

Mean User Throughput


Peak User Throughput
Aggregated Cell Throughput

throughput (kbps)

2000

Higher category offers higher


max. throughput limit
Cat.6: 3.6 MBit/sec
Cat.8: 7.2 MBit/sec

1500

1000

500

0
Cat 6/ 10 users

UMTS Networks

Cat 8/ 10 users

Cat 6/ 20 users

Cat 8/ 20 users

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Max. user perceived performance


increased at low loading
Cell performance slightly better

Nov. 2011

36

Coverage Prediction with HSDPA

Example Scenario
15 users/cell
Pedestrian A channel
model
Plot generated with field
prediction tool

HSDPA Throughput
depends on location
UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

37

HSDPA Summary
New downlink transmission concept
Optimised for interactive & background, support of streaming
Design for indoor & urban environment
Improved PHY approach
New DL transport channel: HS-DSCH
Additional signalling channels to support fast adaptation
Advanced architecture
MAC-hs entity located in NodeB
Radio Resource Control procedures similar to DCH
HSDPA Resource Management
Cell resources managed by Controlling-RNC
Re-use of principles for DCH control (handover, state transition)
Significant improved performance

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

38

HSDPA References
Papers:
Arnab Das et al: Evolution of UMTS Toward High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access, Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 47 68, June
2003
A. Toskala et al: High-speed Downlink Packet Access, Chapter 12 in
Holma/ Toskala: WCDMA for UMTS, Wiley 2010
T. Kolding et al: High Speed Downlink Packet Access: WCDMA
Evolution, IEEE Veh. Techn. Society News, pp. 4 10, February 2003
H. Holma/ A. Toskala (Ed.): HSDPA/ HSUPA for UMTS, Wiley 2006

Standards
TS 25.xxx series: RAN Aspects
TR 25.858 HSDPA PHY Aspects
TR 25.308 HSDPA: UTRAN Overall Description (Stage 2)
TR 25.877 Iub/Iur protocol aspects

UMTS Networks

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Nov. 2011

39

Abbreviations
ACK
ALCAP
AM
AMC
CAC
CDMA
CQI
DBC
DCH
DPCCH
FDD
FEC
FIFO
GoS
HARQ
H-RNTI
HSDPA
HS-DPCCH
HS-DSCH
HS-PDSCH
HS-SCCH

UMTS Networks

(positive) Acknowledgement
Access Link Control Application
Protocol
Acknowledged (RLC) Mode
Adaptive Modulation & Coding
Call Admission Control
Code Division Multiple Access
Channel Quality Information
Dynamic Bearer Control
Dedicated Channel
Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Frequency Division Duplex
Forward Error Correction
First In First Out
Grade of Service
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
HSDPA Radio Network Temporary
Identifier
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
High Speed Dedicated Physical Control
Channel
High Speed Downlink Shared Channel
High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channel
High Speed Signaling Control Channel

IE
MAC-d
MAC-hs
Mux
NACK
NBAP
OVSF
PDU
PHY
QoS
QPSK
RB
RL
RLC
RRC
RRM
SDU
SF
TB
TFRC
TFRI
TTI
UM
16QAM

Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mckenheim

Information Element
dedicated Medium Access Control
high-speed Medium Access Control
Multiplexing
Negative Acknowledgement
NodeB Application Part
Orthogonal Variable SF (code)
Protocol Data Unit
Physical Layer
Quality of Service
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
Radio Bearer
Radio Link
Radio Link Control
Radio Resource Control
Radio Resource Management
Service Data Unit
Spreading Factor
Transport Block
Transport Format & Resource
Combination
TFRC Indicator
Transmission Time Interval
Unacknowledged (RLC) Mode
16 (state) Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
Nov. 2011

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