Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Constantin Dumitrescu Florentin Smarandache
METHODS OF SOLVING
CALCULUS PROBLEMS
The Educational Publisher
Columbus, 2015
1
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache Methods of Solving Calculus
Problems
Theory and Exercises
Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
First imprint: Metode de calcul n analiza matematic
(in Romanian), INFOMED Publishing House,
Craiova, Romania, 1995
Translation to English by ANA MARIA BUZOIANU
(AdSumus Cultural and Scientific Society)
The Educational Publisher
Zip Publishing
1313 Chesapeake Ave.
Columbus, Ohio 43212, USA
Email: info@edupublisher.com
Editura Ferestre
13 Cantemir str.
410473 Oradea, Romania
ISBN 9781599733555
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Constantin Dumitrescu Florentin Smarandache
Methods of Solving Calculus
Problems
Theory and Exercises
The Educational Publisher
Columbus, 2015
Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Motto:
Love is the purpose, the sacred command of existence.
Driven by it, eagles search each other in spaces,
Female dolphins brace the sea looking for their grooms
Even the stars in the skies cluster in constellations.
(Vasile Voiculescu)
Constantin Dumitrescu, Florentin Smarandache,
and the Publisher, 2015.
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Contents
Foreword ..................................................................................................... 9
I.
Sets Theory ...................................................................................... 11
Operations with sets ........................................................................... 11
1. The Intersection ......................................................................... 12
2. The Union ................................................................................... 12
3. The Difference............................................................................ 13
4. The Complement ....................................................................... 13
5. The Symmetrical Difference .................................................... 14
6. The Cartesian Product............................................................... 14
Methods for Proving the Equality of Two Sets ............................. 15
Properties of the Characteristic Function ....................................... 16
Exercises ............................................................................................... 17
II.
Functions ......................................................................................... 31
Function definition ............................................................................. 31
Examples.......................................................................................... 34
The inverse of a function................................................................... 35
Examples.......................................................................................... 37
Observation ..................................................................................... 38
The Graphic of the Inverse Function ............................................. 38
Methods to show that a function is bijective ................................. 39
1. Using the definition ................................................................... 39
2. The graphical method................................................................ 39
3. Using the theorem...................................................................... 40
4. Using the proposition 1 ............................................................ 41
5. Using the proposition 2 ............................................................ 41
Exercises ............................................................................................... 42
Monotony and boundaries for sequences and functions ............. 48
Example ........................................................................................... 50
Methods for the study of monotony and bounding ..................... 53
Exercises .......................................................................................... 54
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
III.
The limits of sequences and functions .................................. 61
The limits of functions ....................................................................... 61
Exercises .......................................................................................... 66
The limits of sequences ...................................................................... 71
Examples.......................................................................................... 72
Calculation methods for the limits of functions and sequences . 73
Joint methods for sequences and functions ............................... 73
Specific methods for sequences ................................................. 108
IV.
Continuity and derivability..................................................... 146
Continuity ........................................................................................... 146
(A) Methods for the study of continuity .................................. 146
(B) Types of discontinuity points .............................................. 149
(C) The extension through continuity....................................... 149
(D) The continuity of composite functions ............................. 150
Derivability ......................................................................................... 154
(A) Definition. Geometric interpretation. Consequences ..... 154
(B) The derivation of composite functions .............................. 155
(C) Derivatives of order ........................................................... 158
(D) The study of derivability ...................................................... 158
(E) Applications of the derivative in economics ..................... 162
V.
Fermat, Rolle, Lagrange, Cauchy Theorems ............................ 169
(A) Fermats theorem ....................................................................... 169
1. Enunciation ............................................................................... 169
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation ................................ 169
(B) Rolles theorem ........................................................................... 172
1. Enunciation ............................................................................... 172
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation ................................ 172
3. Consequences ........................................................................... 173
Methods for the study of an equations roots.............................. 177
1. Using Rolless theorem (its algebraic interpretation) ......... 177
2. Using Darbouxs properties ................................................... 177
3. Using Rolles sequence ............................................................ 177
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
4. The graphical method.............................................................. 178
5. Viettes relations ....................................................................... 178
6. Using the theorem of the average ......................................... 179
(C) Lagranges Theorem .................................................................. 181
1. Enunciation ............................................................................... 181
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation ................................ 181
3. The corollary of Lagranges Theorem .................................. 181
(D) Cauchys Theorem ..................................................................... 186
1.Enunciation ................................................................................ 186
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation ................................ 186
VI.
Equalities and Inequalities ..................................................... 189
Equalities ............................................................................................ 189
Inequalities ......................................................................................... 190
Method 1. Using Lagranges or Cauchys theorem. ................ 190
Method 2: The method of the minimum ................................. 192
Method 3: (Inequalities for integrals, without the calculation of
the integrals) .................................................................................. 193
Method 4: Using the inequality from the definition of convex
(concave) functions ...................................................................... 195
VII.
Primitives .................................................................................. 204
Connections with other notions specific to functions................ 204
(A) Methods to show that a function has primitives .................. 209
(B) Methods to show that a function doesnt have primitives .. 210
Logical Scheme for Solving Problems ...................................... 221
VIII. Integration ................................................................................ 222
Connections between integration and other notions specific to
functions ............................................................................................. 227
Methods to show that a function is integrable ............................. 229
Methods to show that a function is not integrable .................... 229
Examples........................................................................................ 229
Exercises ........................................................................................ 235
References ............................................................................................... 240
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Foreword
We rejoice expressing our gratitude towards all those who,
better or less known, along the years, have helped us to get to
this particular book. And they are many, many indeed whom
have helped us! Some provided suggestions, others, ideas; at
times, we have struggled together to decipher a certain elusive
detail; other times we learned from the perceptive or sometime
nave questions of our interlocutors.
The coming into being of this book represents a very
good example of altruism, kindness and selflessly giving, of the
journey, made together, on the road to discovering lifes beauty.
He who thinks not only of his mother or father, of
himself or his family, will discover an even bigger family, will
discover life everywhere, which he will start to love more and
more in all its manifestations.
Mathematics can help us in our journey, stimulating and
enriching not just our mental capacity, our reasoning, logic and
the decision algorithms, but also contributing in many ways to
our spiritual betterment. It helps shed light in places we
considered, at first, fit only for an empirical evolution our own
selves.
We offer this succession of methods encountered in the
study of high school calculus to students and teachers, to higher
education entry examination candidates, to all those interested, in
order to allow them to reduce as many diverse problems as
possible to already known work schemes.
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We tried to present in a methodical manner, advantageous
for the reader, the most frequent calculation methods
encountered in the study of the calculus at this level.
In this book, one can find:
methods for proving the equality of sets,
methods for proving the bijectivity of functions,
methods for the study of the monotonic sequences
and functions,
mutual methods for the calculation of the limits of
sequences and functions,
specific methods for the calculation of the limits of
sequences,
methods for the study of continuity and
differentiation,
methods to determine the existence of an equations
root,
applications of Fermats, Rolles, Lagranges and
Cauchys theorems,
methods for proving equalities and inequalities,
methods to show that a function has primitives,
methods to show that a function does not have
primitives,
methods to show that a function is integrable,
methods to show that a function is not integrable.
We welcome your suggestions and observations for the
improvement of this presentation.
C. Dumitrescu, F. Smarandache
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
I. Sets Theory
A set is determined with the help of one or more properties
that we demand of its elements to fulfill.
Using this definition might trick us into considering that any
totality of objects constitutes a set. Nevertheless it is not so.
If we imagine, against all reason, that any totality of objects is
a set, then the totality of sets would form, in its own turn, a set that
we can, for example, note with . Then the family () of its
parts would form a set. We would thus have () .
Noting with card the number of elements belonging to ,
we will have:
() .
However, a theorem owed to Cantor shows that we always
have
< ().
Therefore, surprisingly maybe, not any totality of objects
can be considered a set.
Operations with sets
DEFINITION: The set of mathematical objects that we
work with at some point is called a total set, notated with .
For example,
drawing sets on a sheet of paper in the notebook, the
total set is the sheet of paper;
drawing sets on the blackboard, the total set is the set
of all the points on the blackboard.
It follows that the total set is not unique, it depends on the
type of mathematical objects that we work with at some given point
in time.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
In the following diagrams we will represent the total set
using a rectangle, and the subsets of by the inner surfaces of this
rectangle. This sort of diagram is called an EulerVenn diagram.
We take into consideration the following operations with
sets:
1. The Intersection
= { }
Because at a given point we work only with elements
belonging to , the condition is already implied, so we can
write:
= { }
More generally,
Lets observe that:
<===>
2. The Union
= { }
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
As in the case of the intersection, we can consider:
We see that:
<===>
3. The Difference
= { }
We retain that:
<===>
4. The Complement
The complement of a set is the difference between the
total set and .
= {  } = {  }
The complement of a set is noted with or with .
Lets observe that
<===>
More generally, we can talk about the complement of a set to
another, random set. Thus,
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
= {  }
is the complement of set to set .
5. The Symmetrical Difference
= ( ) ( )
We have <===> and .
6. The Cartesian Product
= {(, ) }
The Cartesian product of two sets is a set of an ordered
pairs of elements, the first element belonging to the first set and the
second element belonging to the second set.
For example, = {(, ) , } , and an
intuitive representation of this set is provided in Figure 1.1.
By way of analogy, the Cartesian product of three sets is a
set of triplets:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
= {(, , ) , , }.
An intuitive image of 3 = is given in the figure
below.
More generally,
= {(1 , 2 , , )
1, }.
=1
Methods for Proving the Equality
of Two Sets
The difficulties and surprises met on the process of trying to
rigorously define the notion of sets are not the only ones we
encounter in the theory of sets.
Another surprise is that the wellknown (and the obvious, by
intuition) method to prove the equality of two sets using the
double inclusion is at the level of a rigorous definition of sets
just an axiom.
= <===>
(1.1)
By accepting this axiom, we will further exemplify two
methods to prove the equality of sets:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(A) THE DOUBLE INCLUSION [expressed through the
equivalence (1.1)];
(B) UTILIZING THE CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION
OF A SET.
We will first provide a few details of this second method that
is much faster in practice, hence more convenient to use than the
first method.
DEFINITION. We call a characteristic function of the set
the function : {0,1} defined through:
1
() = {
0
As we can observe, the numbers 0 and 1 are used to divide
the elements of the total set in two categories:
(1) one category contains those elements in which the
value of is 1 (the elements that belong to );
(2) all the elements in which the value of is 0 (elements
that do not belong to ) belong to the second category.
Method (B) of proving the equality of two sets is based on
the fact that any set is uniquely determined by its characteristic
function, in the sense that: there exists a bijection from set()
of the subsets of to the set () of the characteristic
functions defined on (see Exercise VII).
Hence,
= <===> = .
(1.2)
Properties of the Characteristic
Function
1 ) () = (). ()
2 ) () = () + () ()
3 ) () = () ()
4 ) () = 1 ()
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
5 ) () = () + () 2. ()
6 ) (, ) = () ()
7 ) 2 () = ()
8 ) () 0, () 1
9 ) <===> () () for any .
Lets prove, for example 1 ). For this, lets observe that the
total set is divided by sets and in four regions, at most:
1) for the points that do belong to neither , nor , we
have () = () = 0 and () = 0.
2) for the points that are in but are not in , we have
() = 1, () = 0 () = 0 .
3) if ,
the equalities follow analogously.
4) if
Exercises
I. Using methods (A) and (B) show that:
SOLUTIONS:
(A) (the double inclusion)
Lets notice that solving a mathematical problem requires we
successively answer two groups of questions:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(q) WHAT DO WE HAVE TO PROVE?
(Q) HOW DO WE PROVE?
Answering question (Q) leads us to a new (q) question. Thus,
for exercise 1, the answer to the question (q) is:
(r1): We have to prove an equality of sets,
and the answer to the question (Q) is:
(R1): We can prove this equality using two methods: using
the double inclusions or using the properties of the characteristic
function.
We choose the first method and end up again at (q). This
time the answer is:
(r2): We have to prove two inclusions,
and the answer to the corresponding question (Q) is:
(R2): We prove each inclusion, one at a time.
Then,
(r3): We have to prove one inclusion;
(R3): We prove that an arbitrary element belonging to the
included set belongs to the set that includes.
It is obvious that this entire reasoning is mental, the solution
starts with:
a) Let ( ), irrespective [to continue we will read the
final operation (the difference)], <===> and [we will
read the operation that became the last (the union)] <===>
and { <===> {
(1.3)
From this point on we have no more operations to explain
and we can regroup the enunciation we have reached in several
ways (many implications flow from (1.3), but we are only interested
in one  the conclusion of the exercise), that is why we have to
update the conclusion:
( ) ( ) <===> .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
We observe from (1.3) that this conclusion follows
immediately, so the inclusion is proven.
For the second inclusion: Let ( ) ( ), [we
will read the final operation (the reunion)] <===>
{
<===> [we will read the operation that became the last]
<===>
{
<===>
and
{
(1.4)
We have no more operations to explain, so we will describe
in detail the conclusion we want to reach: ( ), i.e.
and , an affirmation that immediately issues from (1.4).
5. (r1): We have to prove an equality of sets;
(R1): We prove two inclusions;
(r2): We have to prove an inclusion;
(R2): We prove that each element belonging to the included
set is in the set that includes.
Let ( ) , irrespective [we will read the final
operation (the difference)], <===> and [we will
read the operation that became the last] <===>
and {
(1.5)
.
We have no more operations to explain, so we update the
conclusion:
. . .
We observe that (1.5) is equivalent to:
{
.
The first affirmation is false, and the second one proves
that .
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We will solve the same exercises using the properties of the
characteristic function and the equivalence (1.2).
1. We have to prove that () = ()() ;
(r1): We have to prove an equality of functions;
(R1): As the domain and codomain of the two functions
coincide, we have to further prove that their values coincide, i.e.
(r2): () () = ()() () for any .
The answer to the corresponding (Q) question is
(R2): We explain both members of the previous equality.
() () = [we will read the final operation (the
difference) and we will apply property 3 ] = ()
() () = [we will read the operation that became the last and
we will apply property1] =
() (). (). ()
(1.6)
The second member of the equality becomes successive:
5. In order to prove the equality () () ()
we notice that:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
II. Prove that:
SOLUTIONS.
Method (A) (the double inclusion)
1. Let ( ) ( ) , irrespective [we explain the
final operation (the scalar product)] <===> = (, ), with
and <===>[we explain the operations that became the last
ones] <===> = (, ) with , and ,
[we have no more operations to explain so we update the conclusion: (
) ( ), so belongs to an intersection (the last operation)] <===
> = (, ) with , and , <===>
and .
3. Let ( ) , irrespective <===> (, )
with and <===> (, ) with and
and [by detailing the conclusion we deduce the following steps]
<===> = (, ), , and = (, ), ,
===> and .
Reciprocally, let ( ) ( ) , irrespective
<===> = (, ) with (, ) and <===> =
(, ), and and
21
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
{
<===> {
()
===> (, ) ( ) .
Method (B) (using the characteristic function)
Explaining () (), in an analogue manner, we obtain
the desired equality. If we observe that the explanation
of () () from above is symmetrical, by utilizing the
commutativity of addition and multiplication, the required equality
follows easily.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Equalities 4)5) were easy to prove using the characteristic
function; they are, however, more difficult to prove using the first
method. The characteristic function is usually preferred, due to the
ease of use and the rapidity of reaching the result.
III. Prove the following equivalences:
SOLUTIONS:
1. r1: We have to prove an equivalence;
R1: We prove two implications;
r2: =>
R2: We prove that (two inclusions).
Let irrespective [we have no more operations to
explain, therefore we will update the conclusion: ; but this is
not evident from , but only with the help of the hypothesis]
=> =
> [ ] =
>
Let irrespective => => .
Reciprocally (the second implication):
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
r1: We have to prove that (an inclusion)
R1: Let irrespective (we explain the last
operation):
=> ( )
=> {
=> ( )
5. r1: We have to prove an equivalence;
R1: We prove two implications;
r2: ( ) = => ;
R2: We prove the conclusion (an inclusion), using the
hypothesis.
Let irrespective => ( ) =>
r3: We have to prove the implication: => ( )
= ;
R3: We prove an equality of sets (two inclusions).
For the first inclusion, let ( ) irrespective [we
explain the last operation] =>
()
=> {
=>
{
()
[We have no more operation to explain, so we update the
conclusion]. We thus observe that from (a) it follows that ,
and from (b), with the help of the hypothesis, , we also
obtain .
Method 2:
We have to prove two inequalities among functions.
Through the hypothesis, < and, moreover <
(indeed, < <=> < + <=> (1
) > 0 true, because the characteristic functions take two
values: 0 and 1).
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
It follows that < < and, analogously <
< .
Reciprocally, for the inverse implication, we have to prove
that: < , i.e.
() + () () < (x)
(1.7)
in the hypothesis:
< and <
(1.8)
But , , can take only two values: 0 and 1. From
the eight possible cases in which (1.7) must be checked, due to (1.8),
there remain only four possibilities:
In each of these cases (1.7) checks out.
5. We have to prove that
But
For the direct implication, through the hypothesis, we
have:
25
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Consequently:
() = 0 => () < () ( 0 1 )
{
1 () = 0 => () = 1 () < ()
Reciprocally, if () < (), we cannot have () =
1 and () = 0, and from (1.9) we deduce:
 equality that is true for the three remaining cases:
IV. Using the properties of the characteristic function, solve
the following equations and systems of equations with sets:
SOLUTION:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
We have to analyze the following cases:
a) if and , we have:
() () = 1 and () = 1 , so for (1.10) to be
accomplished we must have () = 0. So, any point that doesnt
belong to or , doesnt belong to either.
b) if and , we have:
() () = 1 and () = 1 , so for (1.10) to be
accomplished we must have () = 1. Therefore, any point from
is in .
c) if and and for (1.10) to be accomplished, we
must have () = 0, consequently no point from is not in
.
d) if and we can have () = 0 or () =
1.
So any point from can or cannot be in . Therefore
= (\) , where , arbitrarily.
We have to analyze four cases, as can be seen from the
following table:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
So = ( ) .
V. Determine the following sets:
7. Let () a degree polynomial and .
Knowing that () = , determine the set:
INDICATIONS:
1. An integer maximal part is highlighted. This is obtained
making the divisions:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
10 is dividable by 2 + 1 <=> {0, 1, 2}
so <=> 27 is dividable by 2 + 1 and 4 2 2 11 +
27
2+1
is a multiple of 8 <=> {14, 5, 2, 1, 0,1, 4, 13}.
so and are integer solutions of systems the shape of:
3 1 =
{
with and as divisors of 32.
3 + + 1 =
()
So <=> 15 is dividable by .
8. Method 1: For 1 we have
so, we must have 2 + 6 3 > 0. As 1,2 = 3 23, we
deduce:
Method 2: We consider the function () =
2 +1
+1
and =
(), with = {1} the domain of . is obtained from the
variation table of .
VI. Determine the following sets, when , :
29
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
where [] is the integer part of .
SOLUTIONS: We use the inequalities: [] < < [] + 1, so:
VII. The application : () defined through
() = is a bijection from the family of the parts belonging to
to the family of the characteristic functions defined on .
SOLUTION: To demonstrate the injectivity, let , ()
with . From we deduce that there exists 0 so
that:
a) 0 and 0 or b) 0 and 0
In the first case (0) = 1, case (0 ) = 0, so
. In the second case, also, .
The surjectivity comes back to:
Let then irrespective. Then for = {() = 1}
we have = .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
II. Functions
Function definition
A function is determined by three elements , and , with
the following significations: and are sets, named the domain
and the codomain, respectively, of the function, and is a
correspondence law from to that causes:
each element to have one,
and only one corresponding element . (F)
So we can say a function is a triplet (, , ), the elements of
this triplet having the signification stated above.
We usually note this triplet with : . Two functions
are equal if they are equal also as triplets, i.e. when their three
constitutive elements are respectively equal (not just the
correspondence laws).
To highlight the importance the domain and codomain have
in the definition of functions, we will give some examples below, in
which, keeping the correspondence law unchanged and modifying
just the domain or (and) the codomain, we can encounter all
possible situations, ranging from those where the triplet is a
function to those where it is a bijective function.
In order to do this, we have to first write in detail condition
() that characterizes a function.
We can consider this condition as being made up of two sub
conditions, namely:
(1 )
each element from the domain has a corresponding element, in the
sense of at least one element, in the codomain.
Using a diagram as the one drawn below, the proposition can
be stated like this:
31
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(At least) one arrow can be drawn from each point of
the domain.
More rigorously, this condition is expressed by:
The second sub condition regarding in the definition of a
function is:
(2 )
the element from the codomain that corresponds to is unique.
For the type of diagram in fig. 2.1, this means that the arrow
that is drawn from one point is unique.
This condition has the equivalent formulation:
If two arrows have the same starting point then they
also have the same arrival point.
Namely,
.
Conditions (1 ) and (2 ) are necessary and sufficient for any
correspondence law to be a function. These conditions are easy to
use in practice.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
In Figure 2.1, the correspondence law from a) satisfies (1 )
and doesnt satisfy (2 ); in b) the correspondence law doesnt satisfy
(1 ), but satisfies (2 ). In diagram c), neither(1 ), nor (2 ) are
satisfied, and in d) the correspondence law satisfies both (1 ) and
(2 ), so it is the (only) function.
A function is therefore a triplet ( , , ), in which the
correspondence law satisfies (1 ) and (2 ).
Lets observe that these two condition only refer to the
domain of the function:
(1 ) from each point of the domain stems at least one arrow;
(2 ) the arrow that stems from one point of the domain is
unique.
It is known that the graphic of a function is made up of the
set of pairs of points (, ()), when covers the domain of the
function.
HOW CAN WE RECOGNIZE ON A GRAPHIC IF A
CORRESPONDANCE LAW IS A FUNCTION [if it satisfies (1 )
and (2 )] ?
In order to answer this question we will firstly remember (for
the case , ) the answer to two other questions:
1. Given , how do we obtain using the graphic ()
[namely, the image of (or images, if more than one, and in this case
the correspondence law is, of course, not a function)] ?
Answer: We trace a parallel from to 0 to the point it
touches the graphic, and from the intersection point (points) we
then trace a parallel (parallels) to 0. The intersection points of
these parallels with 0 are the images () of .
2. Reciprocally, given , to obtain the point (points) having
the property () = , we trace a parallel to 0 through , and
33
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
from the point (points) of intersection with the graphic, we then
trace a parallel (parallels) to 0.
Examples
1. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is not the graphic of a function : , because it does not
satisfy condition (1 ) (there are points in the domain that do not have any
image, namely, all the points through which the parallel 0 doesnt
intersect the graphic) or (2 ), because there are points in the domain that
have more than one image (all the points (, ) have two images).
2. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is not the graphic of a function : [, ] , because it does not
satisfy condition (2 )(this time there are no more points in the
domain that do not have an image, but there are points that have two
images).
3. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is not the graphic of a function : [0, ), because it does not
satisfy condition (1 ). With the codomain [0, ), the points have
one image at most. There are points, however that dont have an image.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
4. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is the graphic of a function : [, ] [0,1], because all the points
in the domain have one, and only one image.
5. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is the graphic of a function : [, ] [0,1].
In all these examples, the correspondence law has remained
unchanged (a circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
, having therefore the equation 2 + 2 = 2 , which yields =
1/2
( 2 2 ).
By modifying just the domain and (or) the codomain, we
highlighted all possible situations, starting from the situation where
none of the required conditions that define a function were fulfilled,
to the situation where both conditions were fulfilled.
WITH THE HELP OF THE PARALLELS TO THE
COORDINATES
AXES,
WE
RECOGNIZE
THE
FULFILLMENT OF THE CONDITIONS (1 ) and (2 ), THUS:
a) A graphic satisfies the condition (1 ) if and only if any parallel to
0 traced through the points of the domain touches the graphic in at least one
point.
b) A graphic satisfies the condition (2 ) if and only if any parallel to
0 traced through the points of the domain touches the graphic in one point at
most.
The inverse of a function
We dont always obtain a function by inverting the
correspondence law (inverting the arrow direction) for a randomly
given function : . Hence, in the Figure 2.3, is a function,
but 1 (obtained by inverting the correspondence law ) is not a
function, because it does not satisfy (2 ) (there are points that have
more than an image).
35
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
With the help of this diagram, we observe that the inverse
doesnt satisfy (2 ) every time there are points in the codomain of
that are the image of at least two points from the domain of .
In other words, 1 doesnt satisfy (2 ) every time there are
different points that have the same image through .
Therefore, as by inverting the correspondence law, the
condition still be satisfied, it is necessary and sufficient for
the different points through the direct function have different
images, namely
A second situation where 1 is not a function is when it
does not satisfy condition (1 ) :
We observe this happens every time there are points in the
codomain through the direct function that are not the images of any
point in the domain.
So as by inverting the correspondence law, the condition
(1 ) still be satisfied, it is necessary and sufficient for all the points in
the codomain be consummated through the direct function, namely
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
In conclusion,
1 satisfies (2 ) if and only if satisfies (3 )
1 satisfies (1 ) if and only if satisfies (4)
1 is a function if and only if satisfies (3 ) + (4).
As it is known, a function that satisfies (3 ) is called an
injective function, a function that satisfies (4 ) is called a
surjective function, and a function that satisfies (3 ) + (4 ) is
called a bijective function.
We see then that the affirmation: A function has an inverse
if and only if it is bijective, has the meaning that the inverse 1
(that always exists, as a correspondence law, even if is not
bijective) is a function if and only if is bijective.
With the help of the parallels to the axes of coordinates, we
recognize if a graphic is the graphic of an injective or surjective
function; thus:
c) a graphic is the graphic of an injective function if and only if any
parallel to 0 traced through the points of the codomain touches the graphic in
one point, at most [namely 1 satisfies (2 )].
d) a graphic is the graphic of a surjective function if and only if any
parallel to 0 traced through the points of the codomain touches the graphic in
at least one point [namely 1 satisfies (1 )].
Examples
1. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is the graphic of a function : [0, ] [0, ) that is injective but
not surjective.
2. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is the graphic of a function : [, ] [0, ) that is surjective
but not injective.
3. A circle with the center at the origin and with the radius
is the graphic of a bijective function : [0, ] [0, ).
37
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
So, by only modifying the domain and the codomain, using a
circle with the center at the origin and with the radius , all
situations can be obtained, starting from the situation where none
of the two required conditions that define a function were fulfilled,
to a bijective function.
Observation
1 is obtained by inverting the correspondence law , namely
in other words
In the case of the exponential function, for example, the
equivalence (2.1) becomes:
because the inverse of the exponential function is noted by
1 () = . The relation (2.2) defines the logarithm:
The logarithm of a number in a given base, , is the exponent to
which the base has to be raised to obtain .
The Graphic of the Inverse Function
If and are subsets of and the domain of (so the
codomain of 1 ) is represented on the axis 0, and on the axis
0, the codomain (so the domain of 1 ), then the graphic of
and 1 coincides, because 1 only inverses the correspondence
law (it inverses the direction of the arrows).
But if we represent for 1 the domain, horizontally, and the
codomain vertically, so we represent on 0 and on 0, then
any random point on the initial graphic (that, without the
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
aforementioned convention is the graphic for both and 1 ),
such a point (, ()) becomes ((), ).
The points (, ()) and ((), ) are symmetrical in
relation to the first bisector, so we obtain another graphic
besides if the domain of is on .
Agreeing to represent the domains of all the functions on
0 it follows that is a graphic of 1.
With this convention, the graphics of and 1 are
symmetrical in relation to the first bisector.
Methods to show that a function
is bijective
1. Using the definition

to study the injectivity, we verify if the function
fulfills the condition (3 );
to study the surjectivity, we verify if the condition
(4 ) is fulfilled.
2. The graphical method

to study the injectivity we use proposition c);
to study the surjectivity we use proposition d).
Important observation
If we use the graphical method, it is essential, for functions
defined on branches, to trace as accurately as possible the graphic
around the point (points) of connection among branches.
39
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Examples
2 + 1 1
1. The function : , () = {
is
+ 3 > 1
injective, but is not surjective. The graphic is represented in Figure
2.5 a).
3 1 2
2. The function : , () = {
is
2 1 > 2
surjective, but is not injective. The graphic is in Figure 2.5 b).
2 + 1 1
3. The function : , () = {
is
+ 2 > 1
bijective. The graphic is represented in Figure 2.5 c).
3. Using the theorem
A strictly monotonic function is injective.
To study the surjectivity, we verify if the function is
continuous and, in case it is, we calculate the limits at the
extremities of the domain.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Example
Lets show that () = , : ( , ) is bijective.
2 2
(i) injectivity: because () = 2 is strictly positive, we
deduce that the function is strictly ascending, so, it is injective.
(ii) surjectivity: the function is continuous on all the definition
domain, so it has Darbouxs property and
from where it follows that it is surjective.
4. Using the proposition 1
The function , : is bijective if and only if
the equation () = has an unique solution
(see the Algebra workbook grade XII)
Example
Let = and the matrix = (34 12). Then the function
is bijective (Algebra, grade XII).
Lets observe that in the proposition used at this point, the
affirmation the equation () = has a solution ensures the
surjectivity of the function and the affirmation the solution is
unique ensures the injectivity.
5. Using the proposition 2
If , : and . = 1 then is injective and is
surjective (Algebra, grade XII).
Example
2 3
Let = and = (1
) . Then the function
2
: defined through
41
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
satisfies = 1 , so it is bijective ( algebra, grade XII).
Lets observe that the used proposition can be generalized, at
this point, thus:
Let : , : , so that is bijective. Then
is injective and is surjective.
Exercises
I. Trace the graphics of the following functions and specify,
in each case, if the respective function is injective, surjective or
bijective.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
SOLUTIONS.
It is known that:
In order to more easily explain the conditions from the
inequalities over , we will proceed as follows:
1. we draw the table with the signs of the functions
, and
2. using the table we can easily explain the inequalities,
because for example () () <===> () 0.
1. For () = + 1 , () = 2 + 2 and () = 3 we
have the following table:
So:
43
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Therefore,
5. To explain we proceed as follows:
(1) we draw the variation table of the function () = 2
(2) considering in the first monotonic interval (deduced
from the table), at the right of 1 (because we are only interested in
the values 1 ), we calculate the minimum of () on the
interval [1, ] etc.
a) for the first monotonic interval, (1,0), the function
() = 2 has a single minimum point on the interval [1, ] ,
situated in = ; its values is () = 2. Being a single minimum
point it is also the global minimum (absolute) of () on the
interval [1, ], so, the value of is () = 2 for (1,0].
b) for the second monotonic interval, (0, ) , the
function () = 2 has a single minimum point on the interval
[1, ], in = 0; its value is (0) = 0. Being a single minimum
point, we have () = 0 for (0, ), so
Lets observe that using the same variation table we can
2
explain the function () = 11
. Hence:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
a) for (1,0] , the function () = 2 , has only one
maximum, namely [1, ] in = 1; its value is = (1) = 1.
So () = 1, for (1,0].
b) for (0, +), () = 2 has two maximum points, in
1 = 1 and 2 = ; their values are 1 = (1) = 1 and 2 =
() = 2 . The values of is the global maximum, so:
() = max(1, ) for (0, +).
1
[1,0]
It follows that () = {
2)
max(1,
> 0
9. From the variation table of () = (+7)3
1. for (2, ] , () has a single minimum on the
4
interval [2, ], in = ; its value is = () = (+7)3
2. for > 0, () has a single minimum, namely [2, ], in
= 0; its value is = (0) = 0. So
45
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Analogously, for
10. From the variation table of () = 2 in
we deduce:
(a) if (0,
] , the function () = 2 in has, for
(0, ], a single supremum = () = 0 .
>0
1
(b) ( , ], the function () has two supreme values:
1 = 0 and 1 = () = 2 1 .
So:
II. Study the bijectivity of:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
2. () = (), being an uneven degree polynomial.
III. Study the irreversibility of the hyperbolic functions:
and show their inverses.
IV. 1. Show that the functions () = 2 + 1 ,
1
: [ , ) and
2
47
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
are inverse one to the other.
1
2. Show that () = 1+ coincides with its inverse.
3. Determine the parameters , , , so that () =
coincides with its inverse.
4. Show that the
through() =
4
3
+
+
function : (0,1] defined
, if [
3 31
] is bijective.
1
5. On what subinterval is the function : [ 2 , )
() = 2 1 bijective?
INDICATIONS.
4. To simplify the reasoning, sketch the graphic of function
.
5. Use the superposed radical decomposition formula:
where = 2 .
Monotony and boundaries
for sequences and functions
A sequence is a function defined on the natural numbers set.
The domain of such a function is, therefore, the set of natural
numbers . The codomain and the correspondence law can
randomly vary.
Hereinafter, we will consider just natural numbers
sequences, i.e. sequences with the codomain represented by the set
of real numbers, .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
:
REAL NUMBERS SEQUENCE
For this kind of function, with the same domain and
codomain each time, only the correspondence law should be
added, which comes down to specifying the set of its values:
(0), (1), (2), , (),
For the ease of notation, we write, for example:
So, to determine a sequence, it is necessary and sufficient to know
the set of its values: 0 , 1 , , , . This set is abbreviated by
( ) .
Consequently, a sequence is a particular case of function.
The transition from a function to a sequence is made in this
manner:
(1 ) by replacing the domain with
(2 ) by replacing the codomain with
(3 ) by replacing the variable with (or , or , etc)
(4 ) by replacing () with
49
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
DOMAIN
CODOMAIN
VARIABLE
CORRESP.
LAW
x
n
()
Function
Sequence
Hereinafter we will use this transition method, from a
function to a sequence, in order to obtain the notations for
monotony, bounding and limit of a sequence as particular cases
of the same notations for functions.
We can frequently attach a function to a sequence ( ) ,
obtained by replacing with in the expression of (
becomes ()).
Example
We can attach the function () =
+3
2+1
to the sequence
+3
= 2+1.
However, there are sequences that we cannot attach a
function to by using this method. For example:
It is easier to solve problems of monotony, bounding and
convergence of sequences by using the function attached to a
sequence, as we shall discover shortly.
Using functions to study the monotony, the bounding and
the limits of a sequence offers the advantage of using the derivative
and the table of variation.
On the other hand, it is useful to observe that the monotony,
as well as the bounding and the limit of a sequence are particular
cases of the same notion defined for functions. This
particularization is obtained in the four mentioned steps ( 1 )
(4 ) .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Here is how we can obtain the particularization, first for the
monotony and bounding, then for the limit.
MONOTONIC FUNCTIONS MONOTONIC SEQUENCES
a) the function : , a) the sequence : is
is monotonically increasing if: monotonically increasing if:
1 . 2 , 1 2 (1) 1 , 2 , 1 2
1 2
(1)
(2 )
If condition (1) is fulfilled,
taking, particularly 1 = and
2 = + 1, we deduce
+1 for any
(2)
In conclusion (1) (2)
The reciprocal implication also
stands true. Its demonstration
can be deduced from the
following example:
If (2) is fulfilled and we take
1 = 7, 2 = 11 , we have
1 2 and step by step
and 7 11 .
Consequently, (1) (2).
Because conditions (1) and (2)
are equivalent, and (2) is more
convenient, we will use this
condition to define the
monotonically
increasing
sequence. But we must loose
from sight the fact that it is
equivalent to that particular
condition that is obtained from
the definition of monotonic
functions,
through
the
particularizations ( 1 ) (4 ) ,
that define the transition from
function to sequence.
51
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
b) the function : ,
is monotonically decreasing if:
1 , 2 , 1 2 (1)
(2 )
b) the sequence : is
monotonically decreasing if:
1 , 2 , 1 2 1
2
It can be shown that this
condition is equivalent to:
+1 for any (4)
LIMITED FUNCTIONS
a) : , is of
inferiorly bounded if it doesnt
have values towards , i.e.
, , ()
b) : , is of
superiorly bounded if it doesnt
have values towards +
i.e. , , ()
c) : , is
bounded, if it is inferiorly and
superiorly bounded, i.e.
, , ()
.
In other words, there exists an
interval [, ] that contains all
the values of the function. This
interval is not, generally,
symmetrical relative to the origin,
but we can consider it so, by
enlarging one of the extremities
wide enough. In this case [, ]
becomes [, ] and the
limiting condition is:
> 0, ,
() i.e.
> 0, , ()
LIMITED SEQUENCES
a) the sequence : is of
inferiorly bounded if it
doesnt have values towards
, i.e.
, ,
b) the sequence : is of
superiorly bounded if it
doesnt have values towards
+ , i.e.
, ,
c) the sequence : is
bounded if it is inferiorly and
superiorly bounded, i.e
, ,
OR
> 0,  
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Methods for the study of monotony
and bounding
METHODS FOR
METHODS FOR
FUNCTIONS
SEQUENCES
The study of monotony
1. Using the definition:
1. Using the definition:
We compare the difference
We consider 1 2 and we
compare the difference (1 ) = +1 to zero, and for
(2) to zero. This can be done sequences with positive terms
we can compare the quotient
through successive minorings
+1 / to one. We can make
and majorings or by applying
Lagranges theorem to function successive minorings and
majorings or by applying
on the interval [1 , 2 ].
Lagranges theorem to the
2. Using the variation table (in attached considered sequence.
2. Using the variation table
the case of differentiable
for the attached function
functions)
We study the monotony of the
As it is known, the variation
given sequence and, using the
table of a differentiable
sequences criterion, we
function offers precise
information on monotonic and deduce that the monotony of
the sequence is given by the
bounding functions.
monotony of this function, on
the interval [0, ), (see
Method 10 point c)
3. Using Lagranges theorem
3. Using Lagranges theorem
It allows the replacement of the for the attached function.
difference (2 ) (1 ) with
() that is then compared to
zero.
The study of bounding
1. Using the definition
1.. Using the definition
2. Using the variation table
2. Using the variation table
for the attached function
3. If the sequence
53
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
decomposes in a finite
number of bounded
subsequences, it is bounded.
4. Using the monotony.
If a sequence is monotonic, at
least half of the bounding
problem is solved, namely:
a) if the sequence is
monotonically increasing, it is
inferiorly bounded by the first
term and only the superior
bound has to be found.
b) if the sequence is
monotonically decreasing, it
is superiorly bounded by the
first term, and only the inferior
bound must be found.
c) IF THE SEQUENCE IS
MONOTONICALLY
DECREASING AND HAS
POSITIVE TERMS, IT IS
BOUNDED.
Exercises
I. Study the monotony and the bounding of the functions:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
ANSWERS:
3. We can write () = ln(ln ) and we have the
variation table:
so the function is decreasing on the interval (1, 1/ ) and increasing
on ( 1/ , ). It is inferiorly bounded, its minimum being =
1/ and it is not superiorly bounded.
5. We use the superposed radicals decomposition formula:
6. Let 1 < 2. In order to obtain the sign of the difference
(1 ) (2 ) we can apply Lagranges theorem to the given
function, on the interval [1 , 2 ] (the conditions of the theorem are
fulfilled): exists, so that:
so the function is increasing.
II. Study the monotony and the bounding of the sequences:
55
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
also determine the smallest term of the sequence.
also determine the smallest term of the sequence.
being the intermediary value that is obtained by applying
Lagranges theorem to the function () = ln on the intervals
[, + 1].
ANSWERS:
2. The function attached to the sequence is () = 1/ .
From the variation table:
we deduce, according to the sequence criterion (Heines criterion,
see Method 10, point c), the type of monotony of the studied
sequence. The sequence has the same monotony as the attached
function, so it is decreasing for 3. Because the sequence is
decreasing if 3, in order to discover the biggest term, we have
to compare 2 and 3 . We deduce that the biggest term of the
sequence is:
3. The function attached to the sequence is () = .
From the variation table for (0,1):
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
using point c) from Method 10, we deduce that the given sequence
is increasing for , smaller or equal to the integer part of ( ln )1
and is decreasing for [( ln )1] + 1.
Because
we deduce that the interval [1, [( ln )1 ]], in which the sequence
is increasing, can be no matter how big or small.
6. The sequence of the general term is increasing, the
sequence of the general term is decreasing, and the sequence
is increasing if [0, ] and is decreasing for [,
, 1].
III. Using Lagranges theorem.
1. Prove the inequality  sin   for any real , then
show that the sequence 1 = sin , 2 = sin sin , , =
sin sin sin , is monotonic and bounded, irrespective of , and
its limit is zero.
2. Study the monotony and the bounding of the sequences:
ANSWERS:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
From Lagranges theorem applied to the function () = on
the interval [, 0] or [0, ], depending on being either negative or
sin
positive, we obtain 
 =  cos  1. The sequence satisfies the
recurrence relation: +1 = sin , so if sin > 0, we deduce that
the sequence is decreasing, and if sin < 0 the sequence is
increasing. It is evidently bounded by 1 and 1. Noting with its
limit and passing to the limit in the recurrence relation, we obtain
= sin , so = 0.
where () = (1 + ) defines the function attached to the
sequence.
b) Applying Lagranges theorem to the function attached to
the sequence, on the interval [, + 1], we deduce+1 =
( ). We have to further determine the sign of the derivation:
namely, the sign of
From the table below we deduce () > 0 for > 0, so +1
> 0.
IV. 1. Let I be a random interval and : a function.
Show that the sequence defined through the recurrence relation
+1 = ( ), with being given, is:
a) increasing, if () > 0 on
b) decreasing if () < 0 on .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
2. If the sequence ( ) is increasing, and the sequence
( ) is decreasing and for any , then:
a) the two sequences are bounded, and so convergent.
( ) = 0 then they have the same limit.
b) if
c) apply these results to the sequences given by the
recurrence formulas:
with and being given.
SOLUTIONS:
1. +1 = ( ) > 0 in the first case.
2. the two sequences are bounded between 1 and 1 , so the
sequences are convergent, because they are also monotonic. Let 1
and 2 represent their limits. From the hypothesis from (b) it
follows that 1 = 2 .
(c) the sequences have positive terms and:
V. Study the bounding of the sequences:
59
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
ANSWER: Each sequence is decomposed in two bounded
subsequences (convergent even, having the same limit), so they are
bounded (convergent).
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
III. The limits of sequences
and functions
The definition of monotony and bounding of sequences has
been deduced from the corresponding definitions of functions,
using the method shown, in which is replaced with and () is
replaced with . We will use the same method to obtain the
definition of the limit of a sequence from the definition of the limit
of a function. This method of particularization of a definition of
functions with the purpose of obtaining the analogous definition for
sequences highlights the connection between sequences and
functions. Considering that sequences are particular cases of
functions, it is natural that the definitions of monotony, bounding
and the limit of a sequence are particular cases of the corresponding
definitions of functions.
The limits of functions
The definition of a functions limit is based on the notion of
vicinity of a point.
Intuitively, the set is in the vicinity of point ,
if (1) , and, moreover, (2) also contains points that are in
the vicinity of (at its left and right).
Obviously, if there is any open interval (, ), so that
(, ) , then the two conditions are met.
Particularly, any open interval (, ) that contains
satisfies both conditions, so it represents a vicinity for .
For finite points, we will consider as vicinities open intervals
with the center in those points, of the type:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
and sets that contain such intervals.
For (+), = ( , + ) doesnt make sense, so we
have to find a different form for the vicinities of +. In order to
accomplish this, we observe that to the right of + we cannot
consider any points, so + has to be replaced with + .
Furthermore, because = , we replace with . So, we
will consider the vicinities of + with the form:
= (, )
and sets that contain such intervals.
Analogously, the vicinities of have the form:
= ( , )
The definition of a functions limit in a point expresses the
condition according to which when approaches , () will
approach the value of the limit.
With the help of vicinities, this condition is described by:
As we have shown, for the vicinities and from the
definition (), there exist three essential forms, corresponding to
the finite points and to + and respectively.
CONVENTION:
We use the letter to write the vicinities of , and the letter
designates the vicinities of .
We thus have the following cases:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
and condition and becomes >
and condition and becomes <
All these cases are illustrated in Table 3.1.
Considering each corresponding situation to and , in the
definition (), we have 9 total forms for the definition of a
function. we have the following 9 situations:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
65
C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Exercises
I. Using the definition, prove that:
ANSWERS:
In all cases, we have .
2. We go through the following stages:
a) we particularize the definition of limit
(taking into account the form of the vicinity).
b) we consider > 0, irrespective; we therefore search for
.
c) we make calculation in the expression ()  ,
highlighting the module  .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
d) we increase (decrease) the obtained expression, keeping in
mind we are ony interested in those values of for which 
 < .
So:
e) if the expression that depends on is bounded
(continuous) in a vicinity of , we can further increase, to eliminate
. We have:
because in the interval [0,2], for example, that is a vicinity of =
1 , the function () =
1
3+2
is continuous, and therefore
1 1
bounded: () [5 , 2], if [0,2].
f) we determine , setting the condition that the expression
we have reached (and that doesnt depend on , just on ) be
smaller than :
Any that fulfills this condition is satisfactory. We can, for
3
example, choose 2 or = etc.
In order to use the increase made to function , we must
3
also have 1, so, actually = min(1, ) (for example).
2
It follows that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
b) let > 0; we search for
because in the interval [1,3], for example, the function:
is bounded by:
f) we determine from the condition:
< . We obtain
< 3, so we can, for example, take = . But in order for the
increase we have made to function to be valid, we must also have
1, so, actually = min(1, ).
It follows that:
so the condition from the definition of the limit is in this case, also,
fulfilled.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
b) let any (not necessarily positive, because = +, so
= (, +)only makes sense for any , not just for positive).
so we can take =
1
2
Then:
II. Using the definition, prove that:
ANSWERS:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
b) let > 0 any; we search for .
c) because isnt finite anymore, we cannot highlight 
. We will proceed differently: we consider the inequality
()  < as an inequation in the unknown (using also the
fact that , so, we can consider 2 + 1 = 2 + 1 ). We
have:
b) let > 0 any; we determine .
c) we express from the
70
inequality () > :
Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
If 1 and 2 are the roots of the attached second degree equation
and we assume 1 < 2, we have () > > max(100, 2 ).
So we can take = max(100, 2 ).
The limits of sequences
The definition of a sequences limit is deduced from the
definition of a functions limit, making the mentioned
particularizations:
(1) is replaced with ,
(2) () is replaced with ,
(3) is replaced with .
Moreover, we have to observe that = and finite
dont make sense (for example 3 doesnt make sense, because
, being a natural number, cannot come no matter how close to 3).
So, from the nine forms of a functions limit, only 3 are
particularized: the ones corresponding to = +.
We therefore have:
(10 ) (we transpose the definition (2 ))
Because in the inequality > , is a natural number, we
can consider as a natural number also. To highlight this, we will
write instead of . We thus have:
(11 ) = + (we transpose the definition (5 ))
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(12 ) = (we transpose the definition (8 ))
Examples
I. Using the definition, prove that:
ANSWERS:
1. We adapt the corresponding stages for functions limits, in
the case of = +.
b) let > 0 any; we determine .
c) we consider the inequality:   < as an inequation
with the unknown :
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
so, = [
]+1
b) let > 0 any; we determine as follows:
Let 1 and 2 represent the solutions to this second degree
equation (1 < 2 ). Then, for 1 > 2 , the required inequality is
satisfied. So, = [2 ] + 1.
Calculation methods for the limits of
functions and sequences
Lets now look at the most common (for the high school
workbook level) calculation methods of the limits of functions and
sequences.
Joint methods for sequences and functions
1. Definition
In the first chapter, we have shown how to use the definition
to demonstrate the limits of both functions and sequences. We will
add to what has already been said, the following set of exercises:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
I. Using the definition, find out if there limits to the
following sequences and functions:
2. Giving the forced common factor
The
method
is
indeterminations of type:
frequently
used
to
eliminate
the
, , 0 . By removing the forced
common factor we aim at obtaining as many expressions as possible
that tend towards zero. For this, we commonly employ the
following three limits:
In order to have expressions that tend towards zero we aim
therefore to:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
obtain as many terms as possible with the form , with
< 0, if .
obtain as many terms as possible with the form , with
> 0, if 0.
Examples
I. Calculate:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
ANSWERS:
2. Given the common factor 9 we obtain terms that have
the form , with sub unitary .
expression that tends to when tends to infinity.
5
II. Trace the graphics of the functions:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
8. For any rational function, nonnull, with real
coefficients, we have:
3. Amplification with the conjugate
It is used to eliminate the indeterminations that contain
radicals. If the indetermination comes from an expression with the
form:
than we amplify with:
with the purpose of eliminating the radicals from the initial
expression. The sum from (3.1) is called a conjugate of order .
If the indetermination comes from an expression with the
form:
with uneven number, the conjugate is:
An example of application for this formula is exercise 5,
below.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Exercises
ANSWERS:
7. We replace, for example 0 = 1 2 , in the
given sequence and we calculate limits of the form:
4. Using fundamental limits
Hereinafter, we will name fundamental limits the following
limits:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
OBSERVATION:
From (a) we deduce that:
From (b) we deduce that:
From (c) we deduce that:
Exercises
I. Calculate:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
ANSWERS:
12. Noting with = arcsin , we observe that
tends to zero when tends to zero, so we aim to obtain sin . To
accomplish this we amplify with:
Noting with:
it follows:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
II. Calculate:
ANSWERS:
6. In the limits where there are indeterminations with
logarithms, we aim to permute the limit with the logarithm:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
= (we permute again the limit with the logarithm) =
III. Calculate:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
ANSWERS:
and noting = , we obtain:
4. We consider the function:
obtained from , by replacing with . We calculate:
According to the criterion with sequences (see Method 10,
point c), we also have:
= ln 2.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
5. Something that is bounded multiplied with
something that tends to zero, tends to zero
(A) If ( ) is bounded and
= 0, then:
. = 0
(B) If is bounded in a vicinity of 0 and
then
() = 0,
0
(). () = 0.
0
Examples
1
because (1) is bounded by 1 and 1 and tends to zero;
because 1 cos is bounded by 0 and 2 and 2 tends to zero;
where is the nth decimal fraction of the number ;
where is the approximation with exact decimal fractions of the
number .
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
INDICATIONS:
4. ( ) is bounded by 0 and 9 , being composed of
numbers;
5. ( ) is bounded by 2 and 3;
6. The majoring and minoring method
have:
(A) If functions and exist, so that in a vicinity of we
then:
Schematically:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(B) If the sequences () and ( ) exist so that:
, starting from the rank 0 and
=
= ,
then:
= .
Schematically:
OBSERVATION:
If = + , we can eliminate ( ( ) ) ,
and if = , we can eliminate (( ) ).
This method is harder to apply, due to the majorings and
minorings it presupposes. These have to lead to expressions, as least
different as the initial form as possible, not to modify the limit.
We mention a few methods, among the most frequently
used, to obtain the sequences ( ) and ( ) .
Examples
1. We put the smallest (biggest) term of the sequence
( ) , instead of all the terms.
ANSWERS:
a) In the sum that expresses the sequence ( ) , there are:
the smallest term
1
2 +
and the biggest term
Method 1, we have:
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1
2 +1
. By applying
Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
2. We minorate (majorate) the terms that make up the
sequence with the same quantity.
ANSWERS:
a) This time there isnt a smallest (biggest) term in the sum
that makes up the sequence . This is due to the fact that the
function () = sin isnt monotonic. Keeping into consideration
that we have: 1 sin 1, we can majorate, replacing sin
with 1, all over. We obtain:
Analogously, we can minorate, replacing sin with 1 ,
then, by applying the first method it follows that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
3. We minorate (majorate), eliminating the last terms that
make up the sequence .
ANSWERS:
Exercises
I. Calculate the limits of the sequences:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
ANSWERS:
We majorate using the smallest and the biggest denominator.
Thus, we obtain common denominators for the sum.
and we make majorings and minorings using the biggest and the
smallest denominator.
7. Exercises that feature the integer part
The most common methods to solve them is:
(A) The minoring and majoring method using the double inequality:
that helps to encase the function (the sequence) whose limit we
have to calculate, between two functions (sequences) that do not
contain the integer part.
Using this method when dealing with functions, most of the
times, we dont obtain the limit directly, instead we use the lateral
limits.
Example: For the calculation of the limit:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
we proceed as follows:
(a) We use the inequalities (3.2) to obtain expressions that
do not contain the integer part:
(b) To obtain the function whose limit is required, we
amplify the previous inequalities with
2 +2
7
, keeping into
consideration that:

on the left of 2 we have:
on the right of 2 we have:
2 +2
7
2 +2
7
> 0, so:
< 0, so:
(c) Moving on to the limit in these inequalities(the majoring
and minoring method), we obtain the limit to the left: (2) =
2
2
7
and the limit to the right: (2) = 7, so = 7.
(B) If the double inequality cannot be used (3.2), for
() , with , we calculate the lateral limits directly,
keeping into consideration that:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
(1[] )/( 1) we cannot use (3.2)
because the expressions obtained for the calculation of the lateral
limits dont have the same limit. That is why we use the fact that an
the left of 1 we have [] = 0, and on the right of 1 we have [] =
1, so:
Example: For
It follows that =
(C) If , we can replace [], keeping into consideration
that for [, + 1) , we have: [] = (obviously,
implies ).
Example:
The variable that tends to infinity is certainly between two
consecutive numbers: + 1, so:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Exercises
8. Using the definition of the derivative
As it is known, the derivative of a function is:
if this limit exists and is finite. It can be used to (A) eliminate the
0
indeterminations 0 for limits of functions that can be written in the
form:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
being a point in which is differentiable.
Example:
We notice that by noting () = , we have () =
and the limit becomes:
This limit has the value , () because is a function
differentiable in .
We have thus reduced the calculation of the given limit to
the calculation of the value of , (), calculation that can be made
by deriving :
Observation: this method can be used like this: let () =
. We have , () = ln . , () = ln = . We dont
recommend this synthetic method for the elaboration of the
solution at exams because it can misguide the examiners. That is
why the elaboration: We observe that by noting () = , we
have () = and the limit becomes = , () because is
differentiable in is much more advisable.
(B) The calculation of the limits of sequences, using attached
functions. The function attached to the sequence is not obtained,
this time, by replacing with , in the expression of , because for
we cant calculate the derivative, but by replacing with
(which leads to the calculation of the derivative in zero).
Example: For
( 2 1) we consider the function
2 1
1
() =
obtained by replacing with in the expression of
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
. We calculate
() = 2
(). For this we observe that by noting
0
we
have () = 1 and
the
limit
,
()()
becomes:
= , (0) , because is a differentiable
0 0
function in zero. We have: , () = 2 ln 2, so , (0) = ln 2. Then ,
according to the criterion with sequences, we obtain
=
ln 2.
Exercises
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
II. For > 0 calculate:
ANSWER:
4. We divide the numerator and the denominator with .
III. Show that we cannot use the definition of the derivative
for the calculation of the limits:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
ANSWERS:
2 1
2. We consider the function () = 3 1 , obtained by
().
0
To use the definition of the derivative, we divide the numerator and
the denominator with , so:
1
replacing the sequence on with . We calculate
We observe that by noting () = 2 , we have (0) = 1
()(0)
and the limit from the numerator becomes:
=
0
, () because is differentiable in zero.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
, () = 2 ln 2 , so, according to the criterion with
sequences 1 = , (0) = ln 2. Analogously, by noting () = 3 ,
()(0)
the limit from the numerator becomes:
= , (0),
0
because is differentiable in zero.
() = 3 ln 3 , so, according to the criterion with
ln 2
sequences2 = , (0) = ln 3, and = ln 3.
5. The limit contains an indetermination with the form 1 ,
so we will first apply method 4.
We now consider the function () =
obtained by replacing with
(1 + 2 2)
in the expression above. We
(). For this, we observe that by noting () =
0
1 + 2 we have (0) = 2 and the limit can be written:
()(0)
= , (0) because is differentiable in zero.
0
calculate
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Now , () = 1 ln 1 + 2 ln 2 , so , (0) = ln 1 + ln 2
According to the criterion with sequences:
and the initial limit is 1 . 2 .
9. Using LHospitals theorem
The theorem. [lHospital (16611704)] If the functions and
fulfill the conditions:
1. are continuous on [, ] and differentiable on (, ){ }
2. ( ) = ( ) = 0
3. , is not annulled in a vicinity of
, ()
4. there exists
= , finite or infinite,
, ()
()
then there exists
= .
()
This theorem can be used for:
()
(A) The calculation of limits such as
when these
()
0
contain an indetermination of the form or .
(). ()
when these contain an indetermination of the form . 0.
This indetermination can be brought to form (A) like this:
(B) The calculation of limits such as
(indetermination with the form )
(indetermination with the form 0)
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Observation: sometimes it is essential if we write the
0
indetermination 0 or .
Example:
If we write:
(indetermination 0) and we derive, we obtain:
(indetermination with the form 0 with a higher numerator degree).
If we highlight the indetermination :
and we derive, we obtain = 0.
(C) The calculation of limits such as
(() ()),
with indetermination .
This indetermination can be brought to form (B) giving ()
or () as forced common factor.
We have, for example:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
and because
we distinguish two cases:
(namely,
()
()
doesnt tend to 1), we have:
the indetermination is of the form (B).
(D) The calculation of limits such as
()() , with
indeterminations 1 , 00 , 0.
These indeterminations can be brought to the form (C),
using the formula:
that for = , for example, becomes = ln , so:
The last limit contains an indetermination of the form (C).
For sequences, this method is applied only through one of
the two functions attached to the sequence (obtained by replacing
1
with or by replacing with in the expression of ). According
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
to the criterion with sequences it follows that the limit of the
sequence is equal to the limit of the attached function.
Attention: by replacing with we calculate the limit in ,
1
and by replacing with , we calculate the limit in 0.
Exercises
I. Calculate:
(a polynomial increases faster to infinity than a logarithm)
(a polynomial increases slower to infinity than an exponential)
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
II. Show that lHospitals rule cannot be applied for:
ANSWER:
1
1. For () = 2 and () = sin we have:
 doesnt exist, so the condition 4 from the theorem isnt
met. Still, the limit can be calculated observing that:
10. Using the criterion with sequences (the Heine
Criterion)
The criterion enunciation:
with the properties:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Observation: If 0 = , condition ) doesnt make sense
anymore.
This criterion cannot be used to eliminate indeterminations
because the sequence ( ) from the enunciation is random, so,
by modifying the sequences (an infinite number of sequences), we
cannot eliminate the indetermination. Still, the criterion can be used
at:
(A) The calculation of limits that dont contain indeterminations.
Example: Using the criterion with sequences, show that:
Solution: (a) we have to show that:
( ) , with the properties:
(b) let ( ) be any sequence with the
properties ), ), )
(c) in
( ) we use the properties of the
operations of limits of sequences to highlight
(it is
possible because there are no indeterminations), then we use the
fact that
= 0 :
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(B) To show that a function doesnt have a limit in a point.
To accomplish this we can proceed as follows:
1 . we find two sequences: ( ) and ( ) with the
properties ), ), ) so that:
or:
2 . we find a single sequence with the properties ), ), )
so that
( ) doesnt exist.
sin doesnt exist
1 . let = 2 and = 2 + 2. We have:
Example:
So the limit doesnt exist.
2 . let =
. We have:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
(C) The criterion with sequences can be used in the calculation of the
limits of sequences as follows:
(a) let () be the function attached to the sequence, by the
replacement of, for example, with in the expression of ( or
1
of with , but then we calculate
())
0
(b) we calculate
() = (
(), respectively).
0
(c) according to the criterion with sequences lim () =
means: for any sequence ( ) with the properties:
( ) =
We observe that the sequence = fulfills the conditions
) and ) and, moreover, for this sequence we have:
we have
Exercises
I. Using the criterion with sequences, calculate:
II. Show that the following dont exist:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
7. If has a limit to its left (right) in 0 , then:
() = , then
() = , but not the
other way around.
9.
() doesnt exist if : is a periodic, non
constant function. Consequences: the following do not exist:
8. If
Answer: 9. This exercise is the generalization of exercises 1.6.
For the solution, we explain the hypothesis:
We now use method 1 . The following sequences fulfill
conditions ) and ):
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
and:
III. Determine the limit points of the functions: , ,
, , for:
Answer: let 0 = randonm. We check if has a limit
in 0 . For this we observe it is essential if ( ) is rational or
irrational. We firstly consider the situation where the sequence
( ) is made up only of rational points (or only of irrational
points).
Let ( ) be a sequence of rational points with the
properties ), ), ). We have:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
So the function doesnt have a limit in any point 0 for
which 02 2, i.e. 0 and 2. For 0 = 2 we consider a random
sequence ( ) with the properties ), ), ). 1decomposes in
two subsequences: (, ) made up of solely rational terms and
(, ) made up of irrational terms. Because:
we deduce that:
The same goes for = 2.
Specific methods for sequences
11. Any bounded and monotonic sequence
is convergent
Applying this method comes back to the study of monotony
and bounding, and for the determination of the limit we pass over
to the limit in the recurrence relation of the given sequence. If such
a relation is not initially provided, it can be obtained at the study of
the monotony.
!
Example: =
(a) For the study of monotony and bounding we cannot
!
apply the method of the attached function (() = doesnt make
sense). We employ the method of the report (we begin by studying
the monotony because (1) if the sequence is monotonic, at least
half of the bounding problem is solved, as it has been already
proven; (2) if the sequence isnt monotonic, we cant apply the
method so we wont study the bounding.
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We therefore have:
So the sequence is decreasing.
(b) The bounding. The sequence is bounded between 0 and
1 , being decreasing and with positive terms. Therefore
exists.
(c) For the calculation of we observe that studying the
monotony we have obtained the recurrence relation:
Moving on to the limit in this equality, we obtain:
EXERCISES:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
where ( ) fulfills conditions:
ANSWERS:
3. We observe the recurrence relation:
a) The monotony:
In order to compare this difference to zero, we make a
choice, for example +1 , that we then transform through
equivalences:
So +1 (1,2).
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We have thus reached the conclusion that the sequence is
increasing if and only if it is bounded between and . We
obviously have > 0 > 1 so we still have to prove that < 2.
This inequality can be proven by induction:
Verification:
So we have proven the monotony and the bounding.
Therefore =
exists. To determine we move on to the
limit in the recurrence relation (this time this type of relation is
given initially):
As = 1 is impossible, because > 0, we deduce = 2.
6. We decompose the fraction
2+3
5
consecutive terms:
To determine the four parameters:
a) we use the identification method and
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
b) we state the condition that the terms from the right
member in (3.4) be consecutive.
c) the denominators are consecutive, so we state the
condition that the numerators be in the same relation as
consecutives; the denominator of the first fraction is obtained from
the denominator of the second one, by replacing with 1, so
we must have the same relation between the numerators:
We have thus obtained the system:
with the solution:
It follows that:
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consequently:
7. We have:
so:
8. We apply the conclusion from 7.
II. Study the convergence of the sequences defined through:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Indications:
4. sequence with positive terms (induction) and decreasing.
Let 1 and 2 be the limits of the subsequences of even and
uneven value. Show that 1 = 2.
12. Using the CesaroStolz and Rizzoli Lemmas
Lemma: (CesaroStolz) Let ( ) be a random sequence and
( ) a strictly increasing sequence, having the limit
+1
infinite. If
= exists finite or infinite,
+1
then:
= .
This lemma can be used to calculate the limits of sequences
that can be expressed as a fraction:
and of the limits of the form:
presupposing that this limit exists and ( ) is strictly
monotonic.
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CONSEQUENCES:
Indeed,
Example:
because for = , we have:
(B) The limits of the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic
averages of the first terms of a sequence having the limit , have
the value also:
Observation: a variant for the CesaroStolz lemma for the case
when , 0 has been proven by I.Rizzoli [Mathematic Gazette,
no 101112, 1992, p. 281284]:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Lemma: (I.Rizzoli) If ( ) , ( ) are two sequences
of natural numbers that fulfill the conditions:
(ii) the sequence ( ) is strictly monotonic
(increasing or decreasing)
(iii) there exists:
Then:
= .
EXERCISES:
8. =
12 .+23(+1)++(+1)(+2)
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(Indications: amplification with the conjugate, the
minoring/majoring method, the CesaroStolz lemma).
5. Let +1 = ln(1 + ), 0 > 0. Using the CesaroStolz
lemma show that
. = 2.
(Indications: = 1 )
III. Calculate the limits of the following sequences,
presupposing they exist:
knowing that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
where > 0 and is Eulers constant.
Answers:
1. We apply the CesaroStolz lemma for:
We have:
and through the hypothesis it follows that:
6. We consider:
We have:
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and keeping into account that:
(we can use the attached function), we obtain:
13. Utilization of Lagranges theorem
Theorem: (Lagrange, (17361813)). If : [, ] is
continuous on [, ] and differentiable on
(, ),
then: (, ). .
()()
= , ().
This theorem can be used for:
(A) The calculation of the limits of sequences in which we
can highlight an expression with the form:
for the attached function.
Example:
Solution:
a) we highlight an expression of the form (3.6), considering:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
b) we apply Lagranges theorem on function on the
interval [, + 1]:
c) we replace in the expression
()()
with , ( ). We
obtain:
d) we use the inequalities: < < + 1 to obtain
convenient majorings (minorings). In our case, we have:
It follows that:
(B) The calculation of the limits of sequences that can be put
under one of the formulas:
being a function that is subject to Lagranges theorem on the
intervals: [, + 1], .
Observation: the sequences of the form are always
monotonic and bounded (so convergent) if is a function
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differentiable on and so that and , have different
monotonies.
Demonstration: to make a choice, lets assume is increasing
and , is decreasing:
1. the monotony:
2. we apply Lagranges theorem to function on the interval
[, + 1]:
so:
( ,  decreasing), wherefrom we deduce the sequence is decreasing.
3. the bounding: being decreasing, the sequence is superiorily
bounded by 1 . We have only to find the inferior bound. For this,
we write (3.8) starting with = 1 and we thus obtain the
possibility of minoring (majoring) the sequence .
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We obtain a convenient replacement for the sum:
We write the relation (3.7) starting = 1 and we add the
obtained equalities:
it follows that:
consequently, the sequence is inferiorly bounded. It is thus
convergent. Its limit is a number between (1) and 1 .
Exercises
I. Using Lagranges theorem, calculate the limits of the
sequences:
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II. Study the convergence of the sequences:
(the limit of this sequence is called Eulers constant
(0,1))
1
(the partial sums of the harmonic sequence
=1 )
(the partial sums of the generalized harmonic sequence)
Indication: 4. In order to have one of the forms 1 or 2 , we
determine , keeping into account that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We apply for this function the steps from the demonstration
at the beginning of this paragraph.
III. Show that:
Indication: 1. we must show that:
for:
The harmonic sequence
1
The sequence 1 + 2 + 3 + + is called a harmonic
sequence because it has the property: any three consecutive terms
1
are in a harmonic progression. Indeed, if we note = , we have:
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For a long time, it was believed that this sequence has a
defined sum . In antiquity they sought to obtain the approximate
value of , by calculating the sum of as many terms of the sequence
as possible. Today it is a fact that = (the harmonic sequence is
divergent). We mention a few of the methods that help prove this,
methods that use exercises from high school manuals, or exercises
of high school level:
1. Lagranges theorem (exercise I.2)
2. The inequality:
that is proven by induction in the X grade. Indeed, if had a finite
value:
then, by noting:
we would have:
and because =
But:
, we deduce
= 0.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
so doesnt tend to zero. Therefore, isnt finite either.
3. Using the limit studied in the XII grade:
4. Using the inequality:
5. Using the definition of the integral (Riemann sums) (see
method 16, exercise II).
14. Sequences given by recurrence relations
(A) The linear Recurrence
1. The first degree linear recurrence
Is of the form:
The expression of the general term follows from the
observation that:
so:
Example:
We have:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
2. Second degree linear recurrence
Is of the form:
In order to find the expression of the general term, in this
case, we will use the expression of the general term from the first
order recurrence. We saw that for this recurrence we have: =
0 . For the second order recurrence, we search for the general
term with the same form:
= , being an undetermined constant.
By replacing in the recurrence relation, we obtain:
from where, dividing by 1 , we obtain the characteristic
equation:
We consider the following cases:
a) > 0 (the characteristic equation has real and distinct
roots 1 and 2 )
In this case, having no reason to neglect one of the roots, we
modify the expression , considering it of the form:
and we determine the constants 1 and 2 so that the first two
terms of the sequence have the initially given values.
Example:
(Fibonaccis sequence). The characteristic equation is:
with the roots:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Considering of the form:
from the system:
we obtain:
so:
Observation: 2 =
1+5
2
is known from antiquity as the golden
ratio. It is the limit of the sequence:
( radical) (method 11 applies). This number is often found in
nature (the arrangement of branches on trees, the proportion of the
human body etc. (For details, see, for example Matila Ghika:
Esthetics and art theory, Encyclopedic and Scientific Press, Bucharest,
1981).
b) = 0 (the characteristic equation has equal roots 1 =
2 ). In this case we consider of the form:
(namely = 1 1 (), with 1 first degree polynomial) and we
determine 1 and 2 , stating the same condition, that the first two
terms have the same initially given values.
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Example:
Taking = , we obtain the characteristic equation:
Considering:
from the system:
we obtain: 1 = 4, 2 = 6, so:
c) ) < 0 (the characteristic equation has complex roots)
Let these be:
We have:
but, in order to use only natural numbers, we show that we can
replace 1 and respectively with:
Then we can write:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
3. Linear recurrence of degree h (bigger than 2)
Is of the form:
with the first terms given.
Proceeding as with the second order recurrence, we combine
= and we state the condition that the recurrence relation
be met. We obtain the characteristic equation:
We distinguish the following cases:
a) if the characteristic equation has all the roots real and
distinct: 1 , 2 , , , we will consider of the form:
and we determine the constants , 1,
, stating the condition
that the first terms of the sequence have the initially given values.
b) if a root, for example, 1 is multiple of order , (1 =
2 = = ), we replace the sum:
from the expression of with:
1 being a polynomial of degree 2 , whose coefficient is
revealed by stating the condition that the first terms have the
initially given values.
c) if a root, for example, 1 , is complex, then its conjugate is
also a root of the characteristic equation (let for example, 2 = ).
1
In this case, we replace in the expression of the sum:
with:
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and if the root 1 is a multiple of order (1 = 2 = and
we replace in the expression of the terms that contain the
complex root with:
EXERCISES:
I. Determine the expression of the general term and calculate
the limit for:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
II. 1. Determine so that the sequence given by the
recurrence relation:
has a limit and calculate that limit.
2. Write the recurrence relations and the general terms of the
sequences for which: 1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , and the roots of the
characteristic equation are:
3. Let : = + , with , , , and
, 0,   . Determine so that:
a) the sequence ( ) is convergent;
b)
=
c)
=
4. Let = + , 1, with , , ,
and , 0 . Determine so that the sequence is
convergent.
(B) Nonlinear recurrence
1. Recurrence of the form +1 = + ,
with 0 given
The expression of the general term is obtained by observing
that if is a root for the equation = l + (obtained by
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replacing an+1 and an with in the recurrence relation), then the
sequence (an ) is a geometric progression.
Example:
From the equation =
+1
2
we deduce = .
Then the sequence (an ) is a geometric progression.
Let = 1. We have:
The ratio of the geometric progression is, consequently: =
1
. We obtain:
2. Recurrence of the form +1 = + () ( being
a random function)
The general term is found based on the observation that, if
() is a sequence that verifies the same recurrence relation,
then any sequence () verifies the given relation of the form:
In practice we chose of the form:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
the coefficients of being undetermined. We determine these
coefficients by stating the condition that ( ) verifies the
recurrence relation.
Particular case: a recurrence with the form:
with a polynomial of degree .
Example:
We search for the sequence with the form:
We state the condition that ( ) verifies the given
recurrence relation:
We obtain:
By identification, it follows that:
so:
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3. Recurrence of the form +1 = ( ) (with : [, ]
continuous function)
Theorem: 1. If the function : [, ] is
continuous and increasing on [, ], then:
a) if 1 > 0, the sequence ( ) is increasing,
b) if 1 < 0, the sequence ( ) is decreasing.
The limit of the sequence is a fixed point of , i.e. a
characteristic equation () = .
2. If is decreasing on [, ], then the subsequences of
even and uneven value, respectively, of ( ) are
monotonic and of different monotonies. If these two
subsequences have limits, then they are equal.
Example:
We have:
from the variation table we deduce that is decreasing on (0, 2)
and increasing on (2, ). By way of induction, we prove that
> 2 , and, because 2 = 5,1 < 1 , then the sequence is
decreasing.
The bounding can be deduced from the property of
continuous functions defined on closed intervals and bounded of
being bounded.
The characteristic equation () = has the roots 1,2 =
2, so = 2.
Particular case: the homographic recurrence:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We have:
called a homographic function and:
so the monotony of depends on the sign of the expression
.
If 1 2 are the roots of the characteristic equation
() = , by noting:
it can be shown that the general term of the sequence is given by
the relation:
Example:
Prove that:
From here it follows that the sequence is convergent (it
decomposes in two convergent sequences). It is deduced that the
limit of the sequence is 1.
Exercises
I. Determine the general term and study the convergence of
the sequences:
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Determine coefficients and so that the sequence has a
finite limit. Calculate this limit.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
15. Any Cauchy sequence of natural numbers
is convergent
One of the recapitulative exercises from the XI grade
analysis manual requires to be shown that if a sequence ( ) of
real numbers is convergent, then:
A sequence that satisfies condition (3.8) is called a Cauchy
sequence or a fundamental sequence. It is proven that a natural
numbers sequence is convergent if and only if it is a Cauchy
sequence. This propositions enables the demonstration of the
convergence of sequences, showing that they are Cauchy sequences.
In this type of exercises the following condition is used:
which is equivalent to (3.9) but easier to use.
Example:
It has to be proven that:
(b) let > 0. We check to see if exists so that property
() takes place.
(c) we have:
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(d) we state the condition: < and we obtain > : , so
2
we can take: = [ ] + 1.
Exercises
I. Show that the following sequences are fundamental:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Show that +  < +1 for any , . Deduce
from this that the sequence is a Cauchy sequence.
INDICATIONS:
and we decompose in simple fractions.
If is uneven, we deduce:
and if it is even:
So:
From the condition: +1 < , we obtain: = [ 1] + 1.
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9. We proceed as we did in the previous exercise, where we
had:
16. Using the definition of the integral
It is known that the Riemann sum attached to the function
: [, ] , corresponding to a division:
and to the intermediate points:
is:
If the points are equidistant, then:
and we have:
A function is integrable if:
exists and is finite. The value of the limit is called the integral of
function on the interval [, ]:
To use the definition of the integral in the calculation of the
limits of sequences, we observe that for divisions formed with
equidistant points, we have:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
So we can proceed as follows:
a) we show that the general term can be written in the
form:
with as a continuous function on [, ], and being the points
of an equidistant division.
b) , being continuous, it is also integrable, and:
Example:
a) we write in the form:
highlighting the common factor . We have:
b) in:
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we make the equidistant points:
()
appear:
and we deduce the function . We have:
c) we arrange the equidistant points on a straight line:
and we deduce the division:
and the interval [, ].
d) we observe that is the Riemann sum corresponding to
function (continuous, thus integrable) and to the deduced division
, on interval [, ]. As the points of are equidistant, we have:
Exercises:
I. Using the definition of the integral, calculate the limits of
the following sequences:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Indications:
6. By making logarithms, we obtain:
II. a) Write the Riemann sum
corresponding to the function:
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the division:
and the intermediate points:
b) Calculate:
c) Calculate:
and deduce that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
IV. Continuity and derivability
Continuity
DEFINITION: the function : is continuous in 0
if:
1. it has a limit in 0 ,
2. the limit is equal to (0 ),
i.e.
THE CONSEQUENCE: Any continuous function in a
point has a limit in that point.
(A) Methods for the study of continuity
1. Using the definition
Example:
is continuous in = 1.
Indeed, lets show that:
Let there be any > 0. We must determine . We have:
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because on the interval [0,2], for example, [2 + 3] is bounded
between 3 and 7. We determine from the condition:
We can take, for example = 2. Then:
therefore is continuous in = 1.
2. Using the criterion with the lateral limits
is continuous in:
where
are the left and right limit, respectively in 0 .
EXAMPLE: Lets study the continuity of the function:
for [0, 2].
SOLUTION: Because we are required to study the
continuity, with a certain point being specified, we must make the
study on the whole definition domain. The points of the domain
appear to belong to two categories:
1. Connection points between branches, in which continuity
can be studied using the lateral limits.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
2. The other points, in which the function is continuous,
being expressed by continuous functions (elementary) (but this
must be specified each time).
In our case:
(a) in any point 0 1, the function is continuous being
expressed through continuous functions.
(b) we study the continuity in 0 1. We have:
The value of the function in the point is (1) = 2 , so is
continuous in:
To explain the module we use the table with the sign of the
1
function sin :
2
1. if [0, ] [
2. if ( 6 ,
, 2], the equation becomes:
), we obtain sin = 1, so = 2 .
For this four values of the function is continuous also in
point = 1, so it is continuous on .
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3. Using the criterion with sequences
This criterion is obtained from the criterion with sequences
for the limits of functions, by replacing with (0 ) and
eliminating the condition 0 (which is essential in the case of
limits, because we can study the limit of a function in a point where
() doesnt exist).
EXAMPLE:
Proceeding as we did with Method 10, with the two
adaptations mentioned just above, it follows that is continuous in
the points 0 for which:
(B) Types of discontinuity points
The point 0 in which is not continuous is said to be
a first order discontinuity point if the lateral limits in 0 exist and
are finite.
Any other discontinuity point is said to be of a second order.
(C) The extension through continuity
To extend the function : means to add new points
to the domain , where we define the correspondence law willingly.
If is the set of added points and is the correspondence
law on , the extension will be:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
For example:
can be extended to the entire set by putting:
There are many extensions to a function. Nevertheless, if
is continuous on and has a finite limit in a point 0 , there is
only one extension:
that is continuous, named the extension through continuity of in
point 0 .
sin
So, for our example, because
= 1, the function:
0
is the only extension of sin / that is continuous on .
(D) The continuity of composite functions
If is continuous in 0 and is continuous in (0 ), then
is continuous in 0 .
So the composition of two continuous functions is a
continuous function. Reciprocally it isnt true: it is possible that
and are not continuous and is.
For example:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
isnt continuous in any point, but the function () = ( )()
is the identically equal function to 1, so it is continuous in any point
from .
Exercises
I. Study, on the maximum definition domain, the continuity
of the functions defined by:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
II. Specify the type of discontinuity points for the functions:
Determine the extensions using the continuity, where
possible.
III. Study the continuity of the functions, , , ,
for:
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IV. 1. Let , : be a continuous function so that
() = () for any . Show that = . (Manual)
2. Let : , be a function with Darbouxs
property. If has lateral limits in any point , then is continuous
on . (Manual)
3. : so that:
for any , . Prove that > 0 exists so that for any with
 we have () < . Deduce the existence of a fixed point
for . (0 is a fixed point for if (0 ) = 0 ). (Manual)
4. Let : [, ] , continuous. Then:
(Manual)
A function with the property (4.1) is called an uniform
continuously function on [, ].
The uniform continuity is therefore defined on an interval,
while continuity can be defined in a point.
Taking = 0 in (4.1) it is deduced that any uniform
continuous function on an interval is continuous on that interval.
Exercise 4 from above affirms the reciprocal of this
proposition, which is true if the interval is closed and bounded.
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Derivability
(A) Definition. Geometric interpretation.
Consequences
Definition
The function : is differentiable in 0 if the
following limit exists and is finite:
The value of this limit is noted by , (0 ) and it is called the
derivative of in 0 .
Geometric interpretation
The derivative of a function in a point 0 is the slope of the
tangent to the graphic of in the abscissa point .
When tends to 0 , the chord tends towards the
tangent in to the graphic, so the slope of the chord
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
tends to the slope of the tangent. Therefore, , (0 ) is the slope of
the tangent in the abscissa point 0 to the graphic.
The geometric interpretation of the derivative thus follows
from the next sequence of implications:
Consequences
1. Any function differentiable in a point is continuous in that
point.
2. The equation of the tangent to the graphic of a
differentiable function.
It is known that equation of a straight line that passes
through the point (0 , (0 )) is:
3. The equation of the normal (the perpendicular on the
tangent) is deduced from the condition of perpendicularity of two
straight lines (1 2 = 1) and it is:
(B) The derivation of composite functions
From formula (4.2) it is deduced that:
So, in order to derive a composite function we will proceed
as follows:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(a) we derive the last function that is composed (in our case
3 ) and we replace in this function the variable with the
expression issuing from the composition of the other function (in
our case 2 1 ).
(b) by neglecting the derived function in the previous step (in
our case 3 ), we derive the function that became last (for us 2 ) and
we also replace the variable with the expression that resulted from
the composition of the functions that have no yet been derived (in
this step we only have 1 ().
(c) we continue this procedure until all the functions are
derived.
EXAMPLE:
1. By applying formula (4.2) we have:
We can obtain the same results much faster, using the
generalization of formula (4.2) presented above.
Therefore, the composite functions are:
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CONSEQUENCES:
1. The derivative of the inverse function.
From 1(()) = , by applying formula (4.2), it follows
that:
or by noting = ():
EXAMPLE: For () = ln , : (0, ) we have:
and as = ln => = we obtain:
2. High order derivatives of composite functions.
From ((()) = , (()). , () , deriving again in
relation to it follows that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We have therefore obtained the second order derivative of
the composite function and the procedure can go on.
EXAMPLE: Lets calculate ,, () if () = ( ) ,
being a function two times differentiable on .
We have:
and
(C) Derivatives of order
For the calculation of the derivative () () we can use one
of the following methods:
1. We calculate a few derivatives ( , , ,, , ,,, , ) in order to
deduce the expression of () , which we then demonstrate by way
of induction.
2. We use Leibniz formula for the derivation of the product
of two functions:
The formula can be applied to a random quotient, because:
(D) The study of derivability
In order to study the derivability of a function:
(a) we distinguish two categories of points that the domain
has: points in which we know that the function is differentiable
(being expressed by differentiable functions) and points in which we
pursue the study of derivability (generally connection points
between branches).
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(b) for the study of derivability in this second category of
points, we use one of the following methods:
(1) we calculate the lateral derivatives using the
definition
(2) we calculate the lateral derivatives using the
Corollary of Lagranges theorem: If is
differentiable in a vicinity of 0 and if it
continues in 0 and if there exists:
then, has a derivative on the left (on the right,
respectively) in 0 and:
The continuity condition in that is required in the
hypothesis of the corollary is essential for its application, but it
doesnt constitute a restriction in the study of derivability,
because if isnt continuous in 0 , it isnt differentiable either.
EXAMPLE: Lets determine the parameters , so
that the function:
is differentiable. What is the geometric interpretation of the result?
Answer: Method 1. (using the lateral derivatives)
a) in any point , the function is differentiable, being
expressed through differentiable functions.
b) we study the derivability in = .
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Because of the proposition: non continuous ==> non
differentiable, we study the continuity first.
so: continuous in <=> + = 1.
(4.3)
If the continuity condition in = isnt met, the function is
also not differentiable in this point, so we study the derivability
assuming the continuity condition is fulfilled.
For the calculation of this limit we can:
(1) apply the definition of the derivative,
(2) permute the limit with the logarithm,
(3) use lHospitals rule.
(1) We observe that by noting () = 2 , we have
() = 1 and the limit becomes:
(because is differentiable in )
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Therefore, is differentiable in:
and from the continuity condition we obtain = 1. We thus
have:
The geometric interpretation of the result: the straight
2
line = 1 is tangent to the curve = ln 2 .
If the branch of a function is expressed through a
straight line ( = + ) , the function is
differentiable in the point of connection
between the branches, if and only if the
respective straight line is tangent in the point of
abscissa to the graphic of the other branch.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Method 2: (Using the corollary of Lagranges theorem)
(a) In any point , the function is differentiable, being
expressed by differentiable function and we have:
(b) We study the derivability in = . We first state the
continuity condition:
In order to use the corollary of Lagranges theorem we
calculate the lateral limits of the derivative:
From the corollary we deduce , () = . Analogously:
If is differentiable in = if and only if = . From the
continuity condition we deduce = 1.
(E) Applications of the derivative
in economics
(See the Calculus manual, IXth grade)
1. Let () be the benefit obtained for an expenditure of
lei. For any additional expenditure of lei, the supplementary
benefit on any spent leu is:
If is sufficiently small, this relation gives an indication of
the variation of the benefit corresponding to the sum of lei.
If this limit exists:
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it is called the bound benefit corresponding to the sum of lei.
2. Let () be the total cost for the production of units of
a particular product. Then, the cost per each supplementary unit of
product is:
and the limit of this relation, when tends to zero, if it exists, is
called a bound cost of production for units of the considered
product.
EXAMPLE: The benefit obtained for an expenditure of
lei is:
For any additional expenditure of lei, calculate the
supplementary benefit per spent leu and the bound benefit
corresponding to the sum of 1000 lei.
Answer: The supplementary benefit per spent leu is:
For = 1000 this is equal to 1997 + and
Exercises
I. The following are required:
1. The equation of the tangent to the graphic () =
ln 1 + 2 in the abscissa point 0 = 1.
2. The equation of the tangent to the curve () =
2 2, that is parallel to 0.
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3. The equation of the tangent to the curve () = 3 ,
parallel to the first bisector.
4. The equation of the tangent to the curve =
3+2
, that is
2+6
parallel to the chord that unites the abscissae points = 1 and =
3.
5. Determine and so that = + and =
are
tangent in = 1. Write down their common tangent.
6. Show that the straight line = 7 2 is tangent to the
curve = 2 + 4. (Manual)
II. 1. Calculate the derivative of the function:
2. Let : (, 0) , () = 2 3 . Determine a
subinterval , so that : (, 0) is bijective. Let be its
inverse. Calculate , (1) and ,, (1). (Manual)
3. If:
with > 0 for any , , the function is constant on .
4. If has a limit in point , then the function:
is differentiable in .
5. If is bounded in a vicinity of 0 , then () =
( 0 )2() is differentiable in 0 . Particular case:
Indications:
1. Let be a primitive of the function:
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We have:
3. For the inequality from the enunciation is
equivalent to:
from where, for we obtain () = 0, so is constant on .
III. Calculate the derivatives of order for:
10. () = + from the expression of the derivative
of order , deduce Newton's binomial formula.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
IV. 1. Show that:
2. Applying Leibnizs formula for:
show that:
Find similar formulas, using the functions:
3. Let = (0,1) and the functions , : , () =
() =
( )2 , () == ( )2 . Study the
derivability of the functions and and calculate
() ,
(). (Manual)
4. If () is a sequence of differentiable function, having a
limit in any point , then:
V. Study the derivability of the functions:
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is indefinitely differentiable on and:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
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V. Fermat, Rolle, Lagrange,
Cauchy Theorems
(A) Fermats theorem
1. Enunciation
If : [, ] is continuous on [, ] and differentiable
on (, ), then in any point of extremum from (, ) (from
the interior of the interval), the derivative is annulled.
(Fermat, 16011665)
Observation: 0 (, ) point of extremum ==> , (0 ) =
0. If 0 is a point of extremum at the ends of the interval, it is
possible that the derivative isnt annulled in 0 .
Example:
has two points of extremum: in 1 = 1 and in 2 = 2, and:
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation
a) The geometric interpretation results from the
geometrical interpretation of the derivative: if the conditions of
Fermats theorem are fulfilled in any point from the interior of the
interval, the tangent to the functions graphic is parallel to the axis
0.
b) The algebraic interpretation:
if the conditions of
Fermats theorem are fulfilled on [, ], any point of extremum
from (, ) is a root to the equation , () = 0.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Exercises
1. If 1 , 2 , are positive numbers, so that:
for any , then we have:
2. Let 1 , 2 , , 1 , 2 , be positive real numbers, so
that:
for any . Then :
(generalization of the previous exercise)
3. If is continuous on [, ] and differentiable on (, ),
and () = () = 0, then:
(i) if , is increasing, it follows that () 0 on [, ];
(ii) ) if ,, is decreasing, it follows that () 0 on [, ].
4. If for any > 0, then = .
5.
< if 0 < < < .
SOLUTIONS:
1. The exercise is a particular case of exercise 2.
2. We highlight a function that has a point of extremum
(global) on , observing that the inequality from the hypothesis can
be written:
Because this inequality is true for any real , it follows that = 0 is
a global point of minimum for . According to Fermats theorem,
in this point the derivative is annulled, so , (0) = 0. We have:
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3. (i) Lets assume there exists (, ) so that () > 0.
We can even assume that is a point of maximum, because such a
point exists, according to Rolles theorem, so we have , () = 0.
Between and at least one point exists in which
, ()
< 0, because, if, lets say , () 0 for any (, ) , it
follows that is increasing on (, ) and so () < () = 0
implies () = 0. Then, from , () = 0 = , () we deduce the
contradiction:
4. <=> . ln . ln <=>
ln
ln
(for any
> 0). So is the abscissa of the maximum of the function:
We have:
It is sufficient to prove that () =
,
() > 0.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(B) Rolles theorem
1. Enunciation
If : [, ] is continuous on [, ], differentiable
on (, ) and () = (), then there exists
(, ) so that , () = 0. (Rolle, 16521719)
Fermats theorem states that in a point of extremum from
the interior of an interval the derivative is annulled, but it doesnt
mention when such a point exists.
Rolles theorem provides a sufficient condition for the
existence of at least one such point, adding to the hypothesis from
Fermats theorem the condition: () = ().
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation
a) The geometric interpretation:
if the conditions of
Rolles theorem are met, there exists at least one point in the
interval (, )in which the tangent to the graphic is parallel to 0.
b) The algebraic interpretation:
if the conditions of
Rolles theorem are met, the equation , () = has at least one
root in the interval (, ).
The algebraic interpretation of the theorem highlights a
method used to prove that the equation () = 0 has at least one
root in the interval (, ). For this, it is sufficient to consider a
primitive of , for which the conditions of Rolles theorem are
fulfilled on [, ]. It results that the equation , () = 0 has at least
one root in the interval (, ), i.e. () has a root in the interval
(, ).
A second method to show that the equation () = 0 has
at least one root in the interval (, ) is to show just that is
continuous and (). () < 0.
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3. Consequences
1. Between two roots of a differentiable function on an
interval, there exists at least one root of the derivative.
2. Between two roots of a functions derivative on an
interval, there exists, at most a root of the function.
Consequence 2. allows us to determine the number of roots of
a function on an interval with the help of its derivatives roots
(Rolles sequence):
Let 1 , 2 , , be the derivatives roots.
Then has as many real, simple roots as there are variations
of sign in the sequence:
(if we have ( ) = 0, then is a multiple root)
Exercises
I. Study the applicability of Rolles Theorem for the
functions:
What is the geometric interpretation of the result?
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Indication: 1. We obtain [4,5] . In any point from the
interval [4,5], the graphic coincides with the tangent to the graphic.
II. Given:
Show that the equation:
has at least one solution in the interval (0, 2). (Manual)
2. If:
then the equation:
has at least one root in the interval (0,1).
3. (i) If:
then the equation:
has at least one root in the interval (0,1).
(ii) in what conditions the same equation has at least one
root in the interval (1,0)?
(iii) The same question for the equations:
on the interval (1,1).
4. Let : be differentiable and 1 < 2 < < ,
roots of . Show that , has at least 1 roots.
(Manual)
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Consequences:
a) A polynomial function of degree has, at most, real,
distinct zeros.
b) If all the roots of a polynomial are real and distinct, its
derivative has the same property.
c) If all the roots of a polynomial are real, then its derivative
has the same property.
5. Given:
Show that the equation () = 0 has distinct roots in
the interval (1,1).
6. If is times differentiable on and it has + 1 distinct
roots on , then () has at least one root on .
7. Let , : [, ] , continuous on [, ], differentiable
on (, ) with () 0 and , () 0 on [a,b], and
()
()
()
()
Show that (, ) exists, so that:
8. Let: [, ] , continuous on (, ), differentiable on
(, ). Then between two roots of there exists at least a root of
. + ,.
9. If the differentiable functions and have the property:
on an interval, then between two of its roots there is a root of and
vice versa.
Consequence: If , (). cos + (). sin 0 , in any
length interval bigger than there is at least one root of .
10. If , : [, ] , continuous on [, ], differentiable
on (, ) , () 0, , () 0 and () = () = 0, then
(, ) so that:
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SOLUTIONS:
7. The required equality can also been written:
This equality appears in points that are roots of the
derivative of () =
()
()
, so it is sufficient to demonstrate that the
function fulfills the conditions of Rolles theorem on [, ].
8. The equation . () + , () = 0 comes from the
equalizing with zero the derivative of the function () =
(), so it is sufficient to show that satisfies the conditions of
Rolles theorem.
9. Let 1 , 2 be roots of . By hypothesis, we have(1 )
0 and (2 ) 0. If, for example, there can be found a root of
between 1 , 2 , this means that the function () =
()
()
satisfies
the conditions of Rolles theorem and so , () is annulled in at least
one point between 1 and 2 , which contradicts the hypothesis.
has at least one root in (, ) <=> , () = 0 has at least one root
in (, ), where () =
()
()
We will present next, two methods for the study of an
equations roots. The first of these uses Rolles Theorem and the
other is a consequence of the fact that any continuous function has
Darbouxs property.
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Methods for the study of an equations
roots
1. Using Rolless theorem (its algebraic
interpretation)
2. Using Darbouxs properties (if has Darbouxs
property (particularly if it is continuous) on [, ] and:
(). () 0, then has a root in [, ]).
Examples:
1) If : [, ] [, ] is a continuous function, then ,
[, ] exists so that () = and () = . (Manual)
2) Let : [0, 2] be a continuous function so that
(0) = (2). Show that [0, ] exists so that () = ( +
). (Manual)
Consequences: If a traveler leaves in the morning from spot
and arrives, in the evening in spot , and the next day he leaves
and reaches again spot , show that there is a point between and
where the traveler has been, at the same hour, in both days.
Indication: If () is the space covered by the traveler, we
have: (0) = (24) and so 0 [0,12] exists, so that: (0 ) =
(0 + 12).
By formulating the problem like this, the result might seem
surprising, but it is equal to saying that two travelers that leave, one
from spot heading to spot , and the other from to , meet on
the way.
3. Using Rolles sequence
Example: Lets study the nature of the equations roots:
being a real parameter.
Answer: The derivatives roots are:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
and we have:
The results are illustrated in the following table:
4. The graphical method. The equation (, ) = 0 is
reduced to the form () = . The number of roots is equal to the
number of intersection points between the graphics: = () and
= .
Example:
The number of roots of the given equation is equal to the
number of intersection points between the graphics:
5. Viettes relations
Example: Show that the equation:
with , , has, at most, two real roots.
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Answer: we have:
so the equation has at least two complex roots.
6. Using the theorem of the average
Theorem: If : [, ] is a Riemann integral (so it is
bounded), [, ] exists, so that:
Example: Let : [0,1] be continuous, so that:
Show that the equation () = has a root 0 (0,1).
Answer: () = <=> () = 0 , so by noting:
() = () we have to show that the equation () = 0 has
a root in the interval (0,1). We have:
But: 02 () = 0, according to the theorem of the average,
with (, ). The function , being continuous, has Darbouxs
property, so, for there exists 0 (0,1)so that = (0 ).
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Exercises
1. The equations:
cant all have real roots if , , .
Indication:
2. If : [0,1] is continuous and with the property:
then, the equation () sin = 0 has one root in (0,1).
3. If : [0,1] is continuous and with the property:
then, the equation () 2 = 0 has one root in
(0,1).
4. If : [0,1] is continuous and > 1 exists for which:
the equation: (1 )() = 1 has one root in (0,1).
Indication: We apply the theorem of the average to the
function:
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(C) Lagranges Theorem
1. Enunciation:
Let : [, ] be a continuous function
on [, ] and differentiable on (, ) . Then
(, ) exists, so that:
(Lagrange, 1736 1813)
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation
a) Geometric interpretation:
If the conditions of the theorem are met, there exists a point
(, ) in which the tangent to the graphic is parallel to the
chord that unites the graphics extremities.
b) Algebraic interpretation
If the conditions of the theorem are met, the equation:
has at least one root in the interval (, ).
3. The corollary of Lagranges Theorem
If is continuous on an interval and differentiable on
\{0 } and in 0 there exists the derivatives limit:
then is differentiable in 0 and:
This corollary facilitates the study of a functions derivability
in a point in an easier manner that by using the lateral derivatives.
Examples:
1. Study the derivability of the function:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Solution: In any point 1, the function is differentiable,
being expressed by differentiable functions. We study the
derivability in = 1 using the corollary of Lagranges theorem.
 the continuity in = 1:
(1) = ln 1 = 0 , so is continuous on (and
differentiable on {1}).
 derivability. For the study of derivability in = 1, we have:
(we know that , exists just on (1)).
Exercises
I. Study the applicability of Lagranges theorem and
determine the intermediary points for:
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Indication:
2. The continuity condition in =
is:
and the derivability condition (the corollary to Lagranges theorem)
is:
Point is the solution of the equation:
II. 1. Let () = 2 + + . Apply the theorem of the
finite increases on the interval [1 , 2 ], finding the intermediary
point . Deduce from this a way to build the tangent to the
parabola, in one of its given points.
2. We have , () for any , if and only if:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
3. (The generalization of Rolles theorem). If is continuous
on [, ]and differentiable on (, ), then (, ) exists so that:
4. Supposing is twice differentiable in a vicinity of point
, show that for , small enough, there exists , so that:
(Manual)
5. Let : [0, ) be a differentiable function so that:
and let > 0 be fixed. Applying the Lagrange theorem on each
interval:
show there exists a sequence ( ) , having the limit infinite and
so that:
6. The theorem of finite increases can also be written:
Apply this formula to the functions:
and study the values corresponding to the real point .
SOLUTIONS:
1. =
1 +2
2
, so, the abscissa point being given, in order to
build the tangent in point (, ()) of the graphic, we consider two
points, symmetrical to :
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The tangent passes through (, ()) and is parallel to the
chord determined by the points:
2. The necessity: For = (1) is verified, and for ,
we have:
inequalities which are true due to the hypothesis.
Reciprocally, let , randomly. Making tend to , for:
we have:
3. We distinguish three cases:
In this case we must prove that (, )exists, so that:
() > 0. If we had, lets say, , () 0 on (, ), it would follow
that is decreasing, so () > ().
,
We are situated within the conditions of Rolles theorem.
(3) The case () > () is analogous to (1).
4. a) We apply Lagranges theorem to on [ , + ].
b) We apply Lagranges theorem twice to the function
() = ( + ) () on the interval [ , ].
6. a) = 1/2 , c) is obtained = , so cannot be
determined.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(D) Cauchys Theorem
1.Enunciation
Let If , : [, ] be continuous on[, ] and
differentiable on (, ) so that:
Then (, ) exists, so that:
(Cauchy, 17891857)
2. Geometric and algebraic interpretation
a) The geometric interpretation: in the conditions of
the
theorem, there exists a point in which the relation of the tangents
slopes to the two graphics is equal to the relation of the chords
slopes that unite the extremities of the graphics.
b) The algebraic interpretation:
in the conditions of the
theorem, the equation:
has at least one root in (, ).
Exercises
I. Study the applicability of Cauchys theorem and determine
the intermediary point for:
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II. If has derivatives of any order on [, ], by applying
Cauchys formula to the functions:
a) () = (), () = , show that (, ) exists,
so that:
show that (, ) exists, so that:
show that (, ) exists, so that:
show that (, ) exists, so that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
2. Applying the conclusion from point ) show that there
exists no functions : twice differentiable, so that:
() 0 and ,, () < 0
(there are no nonnegative and strictly concave functions on the
entire real axis).
SOLUTION:
2. From ,, () < 0 for any , we deduce that , is
strictly increasing and so we cannot have , () = 0 for any .
Therefore, for any 0 exists, so that , () 0.
But then, from the relation:
it follows that:
We have two situations:
(1) if , (0 ) > 0, making tend to in (1), we have:
consequently:
2. If , (0 ) < 0, we obtain the same contradiction if we
make tend to +.
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VI. Equalities and Inequalities
Equalities
It is known that if the derivative of a function is equal to
zero on an interval, the respective function is constant on that
interval. This observation allows us to prove certain equalities of
the form:
() = () + .
or, in particular,
() = () and () = = .
Indeed:
and in order to prove this equality it is sufficient to prove that:
(() ()) = 0.
Observation: If the derivative is equal to zero on a reunion of
disjunctive intervals, the constant may vary from one interval to the
next.
To determine the constant , we can use two methods:
1. We calculate the expression () () in a
conveniently chosen point from the considered interval.
2. It the previous method cannot be applied, we can
calculate:
0 also being a conveniently chosen point (one end of the interval).
Example: Show that we have:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Solution: For:
we have , () = 0 for any (1), domain that is a reunion of
disjunctive intervals. We calculate the value of the constant on each
interval.
(1) For > 1, we choose the point = 0 where we can
easily make the calculations:
(2) For < 1, we cant find a point in which to easily
calculate the value of , but we observe that we can calculate:
Inequalities
Method 1. Using Lagranges or Cauchys
theorem.
In some inequalities, we can highlight an expression of the
form:
and the points , being conveniently chosen. In this case, we can
use Lagranges theorem to prove the respective inequality, by
replacing the expression:
from the inequality, with , (). The new form of the inequality can
be proven taking into account the fact that < < and the
monotony of , .
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A similar method can be used if in the inequality an
expression of the following form is highlighted:
using Cauchys theorem.
EXAMPLES:
1. Using Lagranges theorem, show that:
if 0 < < .
Solution: We go through these steps:
(a) We highlight an expression of the form:
observing that:
and dividing by . The inequality becomes:
(b) we apply Lagranges theorem to the function () = ln
on the interval [, ]. (, ) exists so that:
(c) the inequality becomes:
This new form of the inequality is proven considering the
1
fact that < < and that , () = is decreasing.
2. Using Lagranges theorem, show that > 1 + for any
0.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Solution:
To use Lagranges theorem, we search for an interval [, ]
and a function so that we can highlight the relation
()()
in our
inequality. For this we observe that, if 0 , we have two
situations:
(1) > 0. In this case we can consider the interval [, ].
a) We highlight, in the given inequality, an expression of the
form:
()()
0
, observing that, if > 0, we have:
(b) We apply Lagranges theorem to the function:
on the interval [0, ]. (0, ) exists so that:
(c) The inequality becomes:
This form of the inequality is proven considering the fact
that 0 < < and the derivative , () = is increasing (so 0 <
).
(2) If < 0 the demonstration is done analogously.
Method 2: The method of the minimum
This method is based on the observation that if 0 is a global
point of minimum (the smallest minimum) for a function on a
domain and if (0 ) 0 (the smallest value of is nonnegative), then () 0 for any (all the values of are
nonnegative). We can demonstrate therefore inequalities of the
form () (), i.e. () () 0, in other words, of the
form: () 0.
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Example: Using the method of the minimum, show that >
1 + for any 0.
Solution: In order to use this method, we proceed as follows:
(a) We write the inequality under the form: () 0:
(b) Let () = 1 . Using the variation table, we
calculate the global minimum (the smallest minimum) of :
From the table it can be observed that has a single
minimum, in = 0, so this is also the global minimum. Its value is
(0) = 0. So, for 0, we have () > 0.
Method 3: (Inequalities for integrals, without
the calculation of the integrals)
To prove an inequality of the form:
without calculating the integral, we use the observation that if , or
respectively, are values of the global minimum and maximum of
on the interval [, ], we have:
and so, by integrating, we obtain:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
so, in order to prove the required inequalities, the following
inequalities (numerical) still have to be proven:
Example: Show that:
Solution: (a) The inequality can be written under the form:
(b) Using the variation table, we calculate the
2
global minimum and maximum of the function () = +
2
1 on the interval [0,1]:
We thus have = 2 and = 1 +
(c) We integrate the inequalities ()
on the interval [, ] and we obtain:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Method 4: Using the inequality from the
definition of convex (concave) functions
Let be an interval on a real axis.
Definition:
The function : is convex on if between any
two points 1 , 2 , the graphic of is situated
underneath the chord that unites the abscissae points
1 and 2.
With the notations from the adjacent graphic, this condition
is expressed through the inequality:() .
In order to explain and , we observe that:
1. is in the interval [1 , 2 ] if and only if it can be written
in the form:
Indeed, if [1 , 2 ], it is sufficient that we take = (
2 )/1 2) to meet the required equality.
Reciprocally, if has the expression from (. . 1), in order
to show that [1 , 2 ], the inequality system must be checked:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
The first inequality is equivalent to 1, and the second
inequality is equivalent to 0.
Observation: The condition [0,1] from (. . 1) is
therefore essential.
The inequality from the convexity becomes:
2. To express , we observe that:
so:
from which it follows:
By replacing and , we obtain:
: is convex <=>
: is said to be concave if, for any 1 , 2 , between
the abscissae points 1 and 2 , the graphic of the function is
above the chord that unites these points, namely:
It is known that we can verify the convexity and concavity of
a function twice differentiable on an interval with the use of the
second derivative:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Using the two ways of expressing convexity, we can
formulate and prove certain inequalities.
Example: Show that for any 1 and 2 from , we have:
Solution: The function () = is convex on ( ,, () >
0), so:
from where, for = 2 we obtain the inequality from the
enunciation.
Exercises
I. Show that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
5. For the intervals 1 , 2 lets consider the continuous
and injective functions:
and the constant in the interior of (1 ) . From the
condition: (()) = + () it follows that () = 1 ( +
() for any that fulfills the condition + () (1 ). Using
this observation, construct equalities of the form () = for:
Answer: (a) We have:
We determine function from the condition (()) =
+ () that becomes:
For = , for example, we have:
4
and from the condition:
we deduce:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
and so we have:
II. Using Lagranges theorem, prove the inequalities:
6. Using Cauchys theorem applied to the functions:
show that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
III. Using the method of the minimum, demonstrate the
inequalities:
IV. Without calculating the integrals, show that:
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V. Without calculating the integral, show which one of the
following integrals has the highest value:
Indication: Using the method of the minimum, we prove
inequalities of the form 1 () < 2 () or 1 () > 2 () on the
considered intervals. We then integrate the obtained inequality.
VI. 1. If : is convex, then for any 1 , 2 , , ,
we have the inequality (Jensens inequality):
(Manual)
2. Using Jensens inequality applied to the convex function
() = , prove the inequalities of the averages:
3. Show that for any 1 , 2 , , [, 2 ], we have:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
What are the maximum domains that contain zero and in
which these inequalities take place? Give examples of other
domains, that dont contain the origin and that host inequalities like
those illustrated above. In what domains do inverse inequalities take
place?
4. Using the concavity of the logarithmic function, prove that
for any 1 , 2 , , > 0 we have:
5. Show that the function () = , > 1 , > 0 is
convex. Using this property show that for any nonnegative
numbers 1 , 2 , , , the following inequality takes place:
6. Applying Jensens inequality to the function () = 2 ,
show that for any 1 , 2 , , , we have:
What analogous inequality can be deduced from the convex
function () = 3 , for > 0? And from the concave function
() = 3 , for 0?
7. Applying Jensens inequality for the convex function
1
() = , for > 0, show that, if:
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is a polynomial with all real and positive roots, we have:
What can be said if the polynomial has all the roots real and
negative?
SOLUTIONS:
By comparing the right member of the required inequality
with the right member of Jensens inequality, we deduce that the
points 1 , 2 , , are deduced from the conditions:
We have:
With these points, Jensens inequality, for () = , becomes:
Making the calculations in the left member we obtain the inequality
of the averages.
3. On the interval [0, ], the functions sin and cos are
2
concave. The biggest interval that contains the origin and in which
sin is concave, is the interval [0, ]. On [, 2], for example, the
same function is convex, so the inequality from the enunciation is
changing.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
VII. Primitives
Connections with other notions
specific to functions
Definition :
The function : has primitives on the interval
if there exists a function : , differentiable
and , () = () on .
It is known that two primitives differ through a constant:
The set of all primitives is called an undefined integral of the
function and is noted by:
In order to enunciate the method employed to show that
a function has primitives and the method to show that a
function doesnt have primitives, we recall some of the
connections that exist between the main notions of calculus studied
in high school, relative to functions:
1. THE LIMIT
2. THE CONTINUITY
3. THE DERIVABILITY
4. DARBOUXS PROPERTY
5. THE PRIMTIVE
6. THE INTEGRAL
The connections between these notions are given by the
following properties:
1 ) Any continuous function in a point
0 has a limit in this point:
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2 ) Any differentiable
0 is continuous in this point:
function
in
point
3 ) Any continuous function on [, ] has Darbouxs
property on [, ]:
4 ) Any continuous function on [, ] has primitives on
[, ]:
5 ) Any continuous function on [, ] is integrable on
[, ]:
6) Any function that has primitives on [, ] has Darbouxs
property on [, ]:
7) If a function has Darbouxs property on [, ], then in
any point 0 in which the limit (the lateral limit) exists, it is equal to
(0).
Consequences: 1. A function with Darbouxs property (so a
function that admits primitives) cant have an infinite limit (lateral
limit) in a point 0 .
The functions for which at least one lateral limit is
infinite or different from ( ) doesnt have primitives.
2. If has Darbouxs property on [, ] and 0 is a
discontinuity point, AT LEAST ONE LATERAL LIMIT
DOESNT EXIST.
Due to the implications stated above, we can form the Table:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
OBSERVATION: If 0 is a discontinuity point for , one of
the following situations is possible:
(1) the lateral limits exist and they are finite
(2) a lateral limit is finite, the other is infinite
(3) both lateral limits are infinite
(4) one lateral limit is infinite, the other doesnt exist
(5) one lateral limit is finite, the other doesnt exist
(6) both lateral limits dont exist
FROM ALL THE FUNCTIONS DISCONTINUED IN
AT LEAST ONE POINT, THE ONLY ONES THAT CAN
HAVE PRIMITIVES ARE THOSE FOR WHICH AT LEAST
ONE LATERAL LIMIT DOESNT EXIST (AND THE OTHER,
IF IT IS EXISTS, IS FINITE).
Also, lets observe that, although in case (1) the function
doesnt have primitives on [, ] (doesnt have Darbouxs
property), still, if, moreover, the lateral limits are equal, then has
primitives on [, ]\{0 } through the function the extension
through continuity of restriction to the domain [, ]\{0 }.
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Example:
has Darbouxs property for any [1,1] , but doesnt have
primitives if 0.
Indeed, assuming ad absurdum that has primitives, let be
one of its primitives. Then must be of the form:
In order to calculate sin , we observe that sin comes
1
from the derivation of the function 2 cos . Indeed,
so:
The function () = cos
has primitives on (0, )
because it is continuous on this interval, but doesnt have primitives
on [0, ) (we aim for the interval to be closed at zero in order to
study the continuity and derivability od ).
We observe that, because 0() = 0, we can consider
>0
its extension through continuity:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
This function, being continuous on [0, ), has primitives on
this interval. Let be one of these primitives. Then:
We state the condition that be continuous in 0 = 0. We
have:
so we must have 1 = 2 + 2. (0) and so, for the primitive, we
obtain the following formula:
We state the condition that be differentiable in zero:
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because is differentiable in zero. We have , (0) = (0) = 0 (
is a primitive of ), so , (0) = 0 . Consequently, is not
differentiable in zero if 0.
Observation: For the study of derivability we have mentioned
two methods: using the definition and using the corollary of
Lagranges theorem. Lets observe that in the example from above,
we cant use the corollary of Lagranges theorem because
0 , () doesnt exist.
>0
The table at page 193 allows us to formulate methods to
show that a function has primitives and methods to show that a
function doesnt have primitives.
We will enunciate and exemplify these methods, firstly with
exercises from the calculus manual, XII grade, in order to highlight
the necessity of familiarizing oneself with the different notions
frequently used in high school manuals.
(A) Methods to show that a function
has primitives
The first three methods are deduced from the table, using
implications of the form :
(1) We show that the function is differentiable.
(2) We show that the function is continuous.
(3) We construct the primitive.
(4) We show that the function is a sum of functions that
admit primitives.
Keep in mind that method 2 is preferred over 1
because derivability is easier to prove that continuity, and the
method 3 is used only if the function doesnt have a limit in a
discontinuity point (this is the only situation where it can still have
primitives).
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(B) Methods to show that a function
doesnt have primitives
The first three methods are deduced from the table, using
the equivalence: .
We therefore have:
This way, we deduce the following methods to show that a
function doesnt have primitives:
(1) We show that in a discontinuity point, both lateral
limits exist and are finite or at least one lateral limit is infinite..
(2 ) We show that the function doesnt have Darbouxs
property..
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(3) We assume ad absurdum that has primitives and we
obtain a contradiction.
(4 ) If is the sum of two function, one of them
admitting primitives, the other not admitting primitives, it follows
that doesnt have primitives.
Examples:
has primitives because is continuous.
Solution: We observe that 2. comes from the
1
derivation of the function 2 , so, a primitive of must have
the form:
We state the condition that be continuous in zero:
so = and we have:
We state the condition that be differentiable in zero:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
(something bounded multiplied with something that tends to zero,
tends to zero), so is differentiable in zero. But we must also have
, (0) = (0), equality which is also met, so has primitives.
We have:
where () = 2 and:
and the functions and are primitives.
(1 ) a) () = [] doesnt have primitives on
because in points 0 = is discontinuous and both lateral limits are
finite.
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doesnt have primitives because 0() = .
>0
(2) The functions in which this method is used in the
manual are of the form:
with and , continuous functions, . We will prove on this
general case that doesnt have Darbouxs property. The
demonstration can be adapted to any particular case.
We must prove there exists an interval whose image through
isnt an interval. We use the two conditions from the hypothesis.
Solving the exercise: We must prove there exists an interval
whose image through isnt an interval, using the two conditions
from the hypothesis.
From the condition we deduce there exists at least
one point 0 in which (0 ) (0 ). Then, for small enough,
the intervals ((0 ) , (0 ) + ) and ((0 ) , (0 ) + )
are disjunctive (see the Figure below).
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
From the conditions and continuous in 0 we deduce:
Considering, as we said small enough for the intervals
((0 ) , (0 ) + ) and ((0 ) , (0 ) + ) to be
disjunctive, and = min{1 , 2 }, it follows that the image through
the function of the interval (0 , 0 + ) isnt an interval,
because:
(3) This method presupposes the same steps as in
method 3.
(a) we look for primitives for branches and we obtain a
first expression of ;
(b) we state the condition that be continuous in the
connection point (points) between the branches;
(c) we state the condition that be differentiable in these
points:
 if is differentiable and , (0 ) = (0 ),
we have covered method 3.
 if isnt differentiable in 0 or , (0 )
(0 ), we have covered method (3).
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
doesnt have primitives on .
Indeed, we have () = () + () with:
and is continuous so it has primitives and has lateral limits,
finite in zero, so it doesnt have primitives. If, lets say by absurd,
had primitives, it would follow that () = () () has
primitives.
Exercises
I. Using the method (2) , show that the following
functions have primitives in :
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
II. Using methods (3 ) (3), study if the following
functions have primitives:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
if : and if it satisfies: () = 0 <=> = 0.
10. The product from a function that admits primitives
and a function differentiable with the continuous derivative is a
function that admits primitives.
Indications: If is the primitive of , then . , is continuous,
so it admits primitives. Let be one of its primitives. We have
(. ), = . .
being a differentiable function with a continuous derivative on .
III. Using method (1 ), show that the following functions
dont have primitives:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
IV. Using method (2 ), show that the following functions
dont have primitives:
Answer:
1. The functions () = 3 and () = 2 2 + 1 are
continuous on and . We will show that doesnt have
Darbouxs property. Let 0 be a point in which we have (0 ) =
(0 ), for example 0 = 2. We have (2) = 6, (2) = 9.
0 = 2 <=>
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
0 = 2 <=>
Let there be so that the intervals:
are disjunctive. For example = 1 and let there be =
min(1 , 2 ). Then the image of the interval (2 , 2 + ) through
isnt an interval because for:
we have () = 3 (5,7) and for:
we have () = 2 2 + 1 (8,10).
V. Using methods (4) (4), study if the following
functions admit primitives:
Indication:
so () = () + (), with:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
Indication:
We obtain = 0.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Logical Scheme for Solving Problems
Solving problems that require studying if a function has
primitives can be done according to the following logical scheme:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
VIII. Integration
An integral is defined with the help of a limit. It is much
easier to understand the theoretical aspects regarding the integral if
one has understood why it is necessary to renounce the two broad
categories of limits considered up to this point:
1. the limit when tends to 0 ,
2. the limit when tends to infinity,
and a new category of limits is introduced:
3. the limit when the divisions norm tends to zero.
The specifications that follow are aimed exactly at clarifying
this aspect.
The theory of the integral has appeared out of a practical
necessity, in order to calculate the area that lays between the graphic
of a function and the axis 0.
Given a bounded function and (for now) nonnegative
: [, ] we can approximate the desired area with the help of
certain rectangles having the base on 0.
For this, we consider the points:
The set of these points form a division of the interval [, ]
and they are noted with :
The vertical strips made using the points have an area as
hard to calculate as the initial area, because of the superior outline.
We obtain rectangles if we replace the superior outlines with
horizontal segments.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
In order that the obtained approximation be reasonable, it is
only natural that these horizontal segments meet the graphic of the
function. We observe that such a horizontal is uniquely determined
by a point situated between 1 and . In this way, we have
obtained the rectangles with which we aimed to approximate the
desired area.
The areas of the rectangles are:
The sum of these areas is called the Riemann sum attached
to the function , to the division and to the intermediary points
. This sum:
approximates the desired area.
The necessity of introducing the third category of limits is
due to the necessity that the approximation be as accurate as
possible.
And now, a question: Is the approximation better when:
(a) the rectangles increase in number, or when
(b) the rectangles are narrower and narrower?
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
We observe that the rectangles increase in number if and
only if tends to infinity, but making tend to infinity we do not
obtain a better approximation. Indeed, if we leave the first
rectangle unchanged, for example, and raising the number of points
from its location to its right as much as we want (making tend to
infinity), the approximation remains coarse. The approximation becomes
much better if the rectangles are thinner and thinner.
In order to concretize this intuitive intuition, we observe that
the rectangles are thinner and thinner if the thickest of them
becomes thinner and thinner.
The biggest thickness of the rectangles determined by a
division is called the norm of the division .
Therefore, better approximations <=> thinner and
thinner rectangles <=> the biggest thickness tends to zero <=>
the norm of tends to zero <=>  0.
The area of the stretch situated between the graphic of the
function and the axis 0 is, therefore:
This limit is noted with () and it is called the
integral of function on the interval [, ].
For functions that are not necessarily nonnegative on [, ],
the integral is represented by the difference between the area
situated above the axis 0 and the area situated below the axis 0.
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Consequently, in order to obtain the area of the stretch
situated between the graphic and the axis 0, in such a case, we
have to take into consideration the module of :
Coming back to the affirmations () and () from above,
we observe that: the rectangles are thinner and thinner => the
rectangles increase in number, namely () => ().
In other words,  0 = .
Reciprocally, this statement isnt always true. That is why we
cannot renounce  in favor of . Nevertheless,
there is a case where the reciprocal implication is true: when the
points of the division are equidistant.
=>  0 for equidistant points.
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
In this case, the rectangles have the same dimension of the
base, namely 1 =
for any = 1,2, , , and the
Riemann sum becomes:
For divisions such as these, the following equivalence takes
place:
 0 <=>
that allows, as it was revealed by Method 16 for the calculation of
limits, for the utilization of the definition of the integral for the
calculation of sequences limits.
Before we enumerate and exemplify the methods for the
study of integration, lets observe that, if the function is
continuous, among the Riemann sums (, ) that can be
obtained by modifying just the heights of the rectangles (modifying
just the intermediary points ), there exists a biggest and smallest
Riemann sum, namely the Riemann sum having the highest value is
obtained by choosing the points [1 , ] for which:
and the Riemann sum having the smallest value is obtained by
choosing the points for which:
By noting with () and (), respectively, these sums (called
the superior Darboux sum, the inferior Darboux sum, respectively),
we have:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
The points that realizes the supreme, respectively, the
infimum of on the intervals [1 , ] exists because it is known
that a continuous function, on a closed and bounded interval is
bounded and it touches its bounds. It is known (see Theorem 37
from the Calculus manual, grade XI) that a function is integrable if and
only if:
Connections between integration and
other notions specific to functions
In order to formulate such connections, we fill the list of the
propositions 1 7 enunciated in the previous chapter, with the
following:
8 ) any function integrable on [, ] is bounded,
9 ) any function monotonous on [, ] is integrable,
10 ) any function continuous on [, ] is integrable,
11 ) any function that has on [, ] a finite number of
discontinuity points of first order is integrable.
The demonstration of 10 follows from the fact that if we
modify the values of a function integrable on [, ], in a finite
number of points, we obtain also an integrable function and from
the property of additivity in relation to the interval of the integral:
Using the proposition stated above, we can make the
following table:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
and the table containing implications between all the notions that
we have dealt with is the following (1 and 2 being one of the
lateral limits):
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
Methods to show that a function is
integrable (Riemann) on [, ]
(1 ) using the definition;
(2 ) we show that it is continuous;
(3 ) we show that it has a finite number of discontinuity
points of first order;
(4 ) we show it is monotonic;
(5 ) we show that the function is a sum of integrable
functions.
Methods to show that a function is not
integrable (Riemann) on [, ]
(1 ) using the definition (we show that (, ) doesnt
have a finite limit for  0);
(2 ) we show that the function is not bounded;
(3 ) we show that the function is the sum of an integrable
function and a nonintegrable function.
Examples
(1 ) (a) Using the definition of the integral, show that any
differentiable function with the derivative bounded on [, ] is
integrable on [, ].
Solution: Let : [, ] be differentiable. We have to
show that (, ) has a finite limit when  0. The given
function being differentiable, it is continuous, so it has primitives.
Let be one of its primitives. We can apply Lagranges theorem to
function , on any interval [1 , ]. There exists therefore
[1 , ] so that:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
It follows that:
We calculate the two sums separately:
We show that the second sum tends to zero when  0.
For this, we take into consideration that , is bounded, in other
words, > 0 exists, so that  , () <  for any from [, ] and
we apply the theorem of Lagrange to the function , but on the
intervals of extremities and . There exists between and
so that:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
It follows therefore that:
For the second sum, we therefore have:
The condition from this exercises hypothesis is very strong.
As it is known, it can be shown that a function that fulfills only the
continuity condition is also integrable. Still, the method used in this
exercise can be easily adapted to most exercises that require
showing that a function is integrable.
(1 ) (b) Show that ) =sin is integrable on any interval
[, ]. (Manual).
Solution: We will adapt the previous demonstration. The
given function is differentiable and has the derivative , () = cos
bounded. Being differentiable, it is continuous and it has primitives.
Let be one of its primitives, () = cos and let:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
be a division of [, ] . We apply Langranges theorem to the
function on each interval [1 , ]. There exists therefore
[1 , ] so that:
The function has a bounded derivative:  cos  < 1 for
any from , so for any from [, ]. We have to show that
(, ) has a finite limit when  0. We will show that this
limit is (as it is known) () () = cos + cos .
We have:
Applying the theorem of Lagrange to the function () =
sin , on the interval determined by the points and , we deduce
there exists between and so that:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
(2 ) The function : [0,3] defined by:
is integrable. Indeed, it is continuous in any point 2 from the
definition domain, being expressed through continuous functions.
We study the continuity in = 2:
The function is continuous on the interval [0,3], so it is integrable.
(3 ) () = [], : [0, 23] can be discontinuous
just in the points where [] is discontinuous. These are of the form
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
= , . From these, only points 0,1,2,3, are in the functions
domain. We study the limit in these points. We have:
so the function has a finite number of discontinuity points of first
order and is therefore integrable.
(4 ) For the function () = [] we can say it is integrable
either by using the previous criterium, either using the fact that it is
monotonic on any interval [, ].
(5 ) The function : [1,1] through () = +
 + [] is integrable because it is the sum of three integrable
functions: 1 () = is integrable because it has a finite
number of discontinuity points (a single point, = 0 ) and the
discontinuity is of the first order; the function 2 () =  is
integrable because it is continuous, and the function 3 () = [] is
integrable because it is monotonic (or because it has a single f
discontinuity point, of the first order).
isnt integrable because, by choosing in the Riemann sum:
the intermediary points , rational, we have: ( ) = 0, so in this
case:
and if are irrational, we have:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
isnt integrable (Riemann) on [0,1] because it is not bounded.
is the sum of the functions:
If would be integrable, from = 1 + 2 it would follow
that 2 = 1 so 2 would be integrable on [0,1], as the sum of
two integrable functions.
Exercises
I. Using the definition, show that the following functions are
integrable:
II. Study the integration of the functions:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
8. The characteristic function of the set [0,1] .
III. For which values of the parameters and are the
functions below integrable? For which values of the parameters do
they have primitives?
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
INDICATIONS:
1. (0) = , so for any value of the parameter, the
2
function has only one discontinuity, of first order on [0,1].
2. For any value of (0,1) the function has a limited
number of discontinuity points of first order.
4. The function
2
comes from the derivation of
sin .
IV. 1. Show that any continuous function on an interval
[, ] is integrable.
2. Adapt the demonstration from the previous point to show
that the following functions are integrable on the interval [0,1]:
ANSWERS:
1. We will show that:
We have:
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
where:
We now use two properties of continuous functions on a
closed and bounded interval:
(1) a continuous function on a closed, bounded interval is
bounded and it touches its bounds; so, there exists , [, ] so
that = ( ), = ( ).
Therefore:
In order to evaluate the difference ( ) ( ), we use
the property:
(2) a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval is
uniformly continuous (see Chapter ), namely:
In order to replace 1 with and 2 with , we have to
consider a division having a smaller norm than (which is
possible because we are making the limit for  0). Therefore,
assuming  < we have:
i.e. < and so:
Because is arbitrary (small), we deduce that:
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
so the function is integrable.
2. We show that () () tends to zero when 
tends to zero. We have:
where:
because on the interval [0,1] the function () = 2 is increasing.
So:
The function () = 2 is continuous on [0,1] so it is
uniformly continuous, namely:
Considering the division so that  < (possibly
2
because  0), we have 2 1
< , so:
Because is arbitrarily small, we deduce that:
i.e. () = 2 is integrable on [0,1].
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C. Dumitrescu F. Smarandache
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Methods of Solving Calculus Problems
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242
In this book, we discuss a succession of methods encountered in
the study of high school calculus to students and teachers, to higher
education entry examination candidates, to all those interested, in
order to allow them to reduce as many diverse problems as possible
to already known work schemes.
We tried to present in a methodical manner, advantageous for the
reader, the most frequent calculation methods encountered in the
study of the calculus at this level.
243
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