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English Language Tree

Subject

English
Standard 1

Spoken
Language
Substandard 1

Listening and
speaking
Benchmark 1

listen and respond appropriately to others

Benchmark 2

Evaluate speakers delivery; identify tone,


mood and emotion

Benchmark 3

ask relevant questions to extend


understanding and Knowledge

Benchmark 4

articulate and justify answers, arguments


and opinions

Benchmark 5

give well-structured descriptions,


explanations and narratives for different
purposes

Benchmark 6

maintain attention and participate actively


in collaborative conversations

Benchmark 7

Stay on topic and initiating and respond to


comments

Benchmark 8

use spoken language to develop understanding


through speculating, hypothesizing imagining
, and exploring ideas

Benchmark 9

speak audibly and fluently with an


increasing command of Standard English

Benchmark 10

participate in discussions, presentations,


performances, role play, improvisations and
debates

Benchmark 11

gain, maintain and monitor the interest of


the listener(s)

Benchmark 12

Consider and evaluate different points of


view

Benchmark 13

select and use appropriate registers for


effective communication

Substandard 2

Vocabulary
Benchmark 1

Understand content-area vocabulary

Benchmark 2

Develop vocabulary through direct

instructions, reading or listening to texts


Benchmark 3

Use context clues for meaning of unfamiliar


words

Benchmark 4

Use grade-appropriate reference sources to


learn word meanings

Benchmark 5

Use picture clues to help determine word


meanings

Benchmark 6

Create and use graphic organizers to group,


study, and retain vocabulary

Standard 3

Benchmark 7

Classify and categorize

Benchmark 8

Synonyms and antonyms

Benchmark 9

Root words, prefixes and suffixes

Benchmark 10

Homographs and homophones

Benchmark 11

Figurative language and idioms

Benchmark 12

Related words and derivations

Reading
Substandard 1

Reading
Benchmark 1

Learn relationship between sounds and


letters; decoding

Benchmark 2

Use pre-reading supports to enhance


comprehension of written text

Benchmark 3

Use visual and contextual support to read


grade-appropriate content area text

Benchmark 4

Skim and scan

Benchmark 5

Use prior knowledge before, during and after


reading

Benchmark 6

Predict and set purpose to guide reading

Benchmark 7

Apply inferential skills; draw conclusions,


generalize and make inferences

Benchmark 8

Summarize and paraphrase

Benchmark 9

Analyze and synthesize

Benchmark 10

Authors purpose

Benchmark 11

Elements of writing; fiction, non-fiction

Benchmark 12

Literary devices

Standard 4

Writing
Substandard 1

Writing
Benchmark 1

Write uppercase and lowercase letters

Benchmark 2

Write using newly acquired basic vocabulary


and content based grade-level vocabulary

Benchmark 3

Write using a variety of grade-level sentence


lengths and patterns.

Benchmark 4

Connect words to combine phrase, clauses


and sentences in increasingly accurate ways

Benchmark 5

Write brief compositions about topics of


interest

Benchmark 6

Narrate, describe and explain with specificity


and detail to fulfill content area writing needs

Benchmark 7

Write in chronological order

Benchmark 8

Use accurate grammar, punctuation and


spelling

Benchmark 9

Plan, draft, edit and proofread

Benchmark 10

Summarize and organize materials

Benchmark 11

Write formal and academic essays as well as


writing imaginatively

Benchmark 12

Write for a wide range of purposes and


audiences

Standard 5
Substandard 1

Grammar
Benchmark1

Parts of speech

Benchmark2

Contractions

Benchmark 3

Root words, prefixes and suffixes

Benchmark 4

Phrases

Benchmark 5

Sentence function

Benchmark 6

Sentence structure

Benchmark 7

Punctuation

Benchmark 8

Verb forms

Benchmark 9

Verb tenses

Benchmark 10

Subject verb agreement

Benchmark 11

Active and passive

Benchmark 12

Reported speech

Benchmark 13

Modifiers

English Language Tree


Subject

English
Standard 1

Structure
Substandard 1

Grammar
Benchmark

Numbers

1
Benchmark

Contractions

2
Benchmark

Adverbs of frequency

3
Benchmark

Occupational activities

4
Benchmark

Verbs of sensation

5
Benchmark

Imperatives

6
Benchmark

Countable and uncountable nouns

7
Benchmark

Tenses/simple, cont. and perf.

8
Benchmark

Affirmative and negative sentences

9
Benchmark 10

Interrogation

Benchmark 11

Kinds and forms of verbs

Benchmark 12

Auxiliaries

Benchmark 13

Conditionals/ Unreal conditional

Benchmark 14

Reported speech

Benchmark 15

Pronouns and nouns

Benchmark 16

Adjectives and adverbs

Benchmark 17

Comparatives and superlatives

Benchmark 18

Multi-word verbs

Benchmark 19

Collocations

Benchmark20

Direct and indirect objects

Benchmark 21

Intentions and arrangements

Benchmark 22

Suffixes and prefixes

Benchmark 23

Relative clauses

Substandard 2

Benchmark 24

Speculating modals

Benchmark 25

Causatives

Vocabulary
Benchmark 1

Identifying oneself and family

Benchmark 2

Locations ,directions and maps

Benchmark 3

Dates and events

Benchmark 4

Contrast and comparison

Benchmark 5

Colors ,body parts

Benchmark 6

Cultures and languages

Benchmark 7

Chores responsibilities and activities

Benchmark 8

Post nominal adjectives

Benchmark 9

Numbers and dates

Benchmark 10

Objects

Benchmark 11

Countries and nationalities

Benchmark 12

Interests, activities and abilities

Benchmark 13

Body, appearance and personalities

Benchmark 14

Names of likes and dislikes

Benchmark 15

Daily routines and events

Benchmark 16

Occupations

Benchmark 17

Preferences

Benchmark 18

Linking words

Benchmark 19

Instructions and reasons

Benchmark 20

Adverbs and intensifiers

Benchmark 21

Word families

Benchmark22
Benchmark 23
Standard 2
Substandard 1

Multi-part words
Verbs of movements

Listening
Listening
Benchmark 1

Listening to and producing vowels and


consonants

Benchmark 2

Listening to interviews and surveys

Benchmark 3

Listening for specific information

Benchmark 4

Descriptions, opinions and


commentaries

Benchmark 5

Listening to stories

Benchmark 6

Identifying sounds

Benchmark 7

Audio guide

Standard 3

Benchmark 8

Phone messages

Benchmark 9

Listening to adverts

Benchmark 10

Working out meanings

Reading
Substandard 1

Reading
Benchmark 1

Punctuation

Benchmark 2

Reading newsletters, emails &letters

Benchmark 3

Reading stories, reports and essays

Benchmark 4

Dictionary definitions & encyclopedia

Benchmark 5

Guessing meaning

Benchmark 6

Skimming and scanning

Benchmark 7

Present situations and future plans

Benchmark 8

Playing games and quizzes

Benchmark 9

Interviewing , replying &giving


opinions

Substandard 2

Benchmark 10

Habits, likes and dislikes

Benchmark 11

Reading brochures

Benchmark 12

Reading online materials

Benchmark 13

Sentence gaps

Benchmark 14

Idiomatic expressions

Pronunciation
Benchmark1

Vowels , consonants and diphthongs

Benchmark2

Word stress

Benchmark 3

Plural forms

Benchmark 4

Intonation

Benchmark 5

Vowels

Benchmark 6

Weak forms

Benchmark 7

Diphthongs

Standard 5

Writing
Substandard 1

Standard 4

Writing
Benchmark 1

Factual paragraphs

Benchmark 2

Descriptive paragraphs

Benchmark 3

Graphic organizers

Benchmark 4

Writing in chronological order

Benchmark 5

Using an idea map

Benchmark 6

Introducing opinion with phrases

Benchmark 7

Sequence in writing

Benchmark 8

Messaging and reporting

Benchmark 9

Writing stories

Benchmark 10

Writing paragraphs

Benchmark 11

Writing descriptions

Benchmark 12

Writing personal emails

Benchmark 13

Writing diaries and blogs

Benchmark 14

Writing short notes

Benchmark 15

A for/against Essay

Benchmark 16

Inquiries and short texts

Speaking
Substandard 1

Speaking
Benchmark 1

Telling the time

Benchmark 2

Capabilities

Benchmark 3

Chores responsibilities and activities

Benchmark 4

Expressing sufficiency

Benchmark 5

Expressing opinions

Benchmark 6

Descriptions of events and experiences

Benchmark 7

Expressing abilities

Benchmark 8

Asking for and giving information

Benchmark 9

Obligations, possibilities and advice

Benchmark 10

Making suggestions

Benchmark 11

Predictions

Benchmark 12

Polite requests

Benchmark13

Giving and accepting apology

Benchmark 14

Reactions and clarifications

Benchmark 15

Story telling

Benchmark 16

Personal preferences

Benchmark 17

Doing questionnaires

Benchmark 18

Roleplaying

Benchmark19

Giving a presentation

Benchmark 20

Interacting in discussions