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UNIT I

DEALING WITH STRESS

DEALING WITH STRESS

Listen, read and talk about...

causes and types of stress


the most and least stressful jobs and criteria of their
ranking
frequent signs of too much stress
the effects stress produces over body
stress-management techniques, their pluses and minuses
open and close-ended questions and interview structures

Learn how to...

paraphrase causality
write a summary
define your level of stress
help someone who is under stress
ask open and close-ended questions
structure your interview correctly

Practice in ...

scanning texts to locate the necessary information


paraphrasing causality
writing a summary
taking notes on a lecture and using telegraphic language
guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words from the
context
interviewing people about stress

Revise...

plural forms of nouns of Latin and Greek origin


building up vocabulary maps

DEALING WITH STRESS


Avoid stress? Impossible! To be alive is to be under stress. But
stress is not necessarily bad for you. Any emotion, any activity
causes stress. The same stress which makes one person sick can be
an invigorating experience for another.
With too little you would be bored to tears; but with too much you
would develop emotional or physical disease. Properly handled,
stress can mean a life of challenge, excitement and growth.
The biographies of great scientists, explorers, artists and other
creative and accomplished individuals reveal that times of intense
stress are also times of insight, creativity, accomplishment and
growth. The way we react to stress is more important than the
stress itself.

Communication Starter

1 There are many things in our lives that can be causes of stress. Here are
some of them. Group the stress factors under 3 headings.
catastrophic events

- living in a noisy
neighborhood
- natural disasters
- earthquakes
- divorce
- imprisonment
- losing ones job
- being expelled from the
university

major life changes

daily hassles

- wars
- torture
- automobile accidents
- violent physical attacks
- death of a family member
- illnesses
- commuting to work in traffic
- splitting up with your
boy/girlfriend

- getting married
- getting a job promotion
- disliking ones fellow workers
- waiting in a long line
- worrying about owing money
- misplacing or losing things
- hurricanes
- moving to another country
- fires

2 Interview your partner about types and frequency of stress that he/she

experiences. Ask questions using the verbal collocations with the word stress,
for example:
-

What major life changes cause (create, produce, provoke) stress in your life?
What daily hassles increase your level of stress?
Are you often under stress? Do you often suffer from stress?
Do you think you are susceptible to high/moderate/low levels of stress?
Is it hard for you to avoid stress?

2 a) Be ready to present the results of your interview to the class.


2 b) Make a conclusion about the stress level of your partner.
3

Ones work or study is often considered to be a source of stress. Read the


following statements about stress at workplace and try to guess if they are right
or wrong.
- Professionals who have to meet deadlines suffer from stress symptoms more
often.
- Air pilots are more vulnerable to stress than people in any other profession.
- Photojournalists are more often under stress than dentists.
- Competitiveness at workplace adds to stress levels.
- Some types of medical practitioners do not have to handle stress at all.
- Worrying about job stability is one of stress factors.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions can also provoke stress.
Now read the text and check whether your guesses were correct.
It is one thing getting a job in
these tough times its quite another
handling the stress that comes with
it. A survey carried out by an internet
job finder has ranked the most
stressful and the least stressful
careers.
According to CareerCast, 70
per cent of all employees say that
work is the main cause of their stress,
with nearly half of those questioned
attributing it to worries about job
stability.

Many people also complained their employers paid little attention to trying to
help them find a good balance between work and the rest of their lives.
The 2011 stress list is led by commercial pilots, but their $100,000 plus annual
salaries might make up for some of the angst.
At the other end of the stress scale, the health care field makes up five of the ten
spots in the surveys list of least stressful jobs with audiologist coming out as the best
bet. The toughest blue collar jobs are more predictable, with firefighters, who are paid
an average $45,222, topping the list and police officers and prison guards not far
behind.
To find the rankings, researchers reviewed the differences in five key criteria
environmental factors, income, outlook, physical demands and stress. With the last
category, they broke it down into factors like travel, deadlines, whether the work was
in the public eye, competitiveness, hazards and whether your own life or that of
another was at risk.
Career Casts Stress Lists in Full:
MOST STRESSFUL
1. Commercial Air Pilot
2. Public Relations Officer
3. Corporate Executive
4. Photojournalist
5. Newscaster
6. Advertising Executive
7. Architect
8. Stockbroker
9. Medical Technician
10. Real Estate Agent

LEAST STRESSFUL
1. Audiologist
2. Dietitian
3. Software Engineer
4. Computer Programmer
5. Dental Hygienist
6. Speech Pathologist
7. Philosopher
8. Mathematician
9. Occupational Therapist
10. Chiropractor

tough times difficult times


angst anxiety, worry
audiologist medical practitioner who checks up peoples hearing
blue collar types of jobs where peoples are working in productive industry
hazards factors harmful for peoples health
newscaster person who works in the sphere of TV or radio broadcasting
real estate agent a person who helps people to buy and sell houses
audiologist a professional whose task is to sell houses
occupational therapist a doctor who cures diseases related to peoples professions

4 You have read in the text above that researchers devised five key criteria that
helped them identify if someones job was stressful or not. They are environment
(1), income (2), outlook (3), physical demands (4) and stress (5) which includes
such factors as travel (5a), deadlines (5b), whether the work was in the public eye

(5c), competitiveness (5d), hazards (5e) and whether your own life or that of
another was at risk (5f).
Do you think that being a psychologist is stressful? Try to formulate your point of
view using the criteria presented above.
Criteria adding to stress level
1. Environmental
factors
2. Income
3. Outlook
4. Physical demands
5. Stress

High level

Average
level

Low level

a) Travel
b) Deadlines
c) Whether the
work was in the
public eye
d) Competitiveness
e) Hazards
f) Risk factor

5 Share your conclusion whether being a psychologist is a stressful job with


the group.

Vocabulary Building

Learn more words and word collocations that will help you speak
professionally about the phenomenon of stress.
Fill in the vocabulary map
using the words
from the box below.
Add more branches if necessary.

Do you remember that nouns of Latin and


Greek origin have special Plural forms:
Formula formulae/as
Index indices/indexes
Analysis analyses
Basis bases
Hypothesis hypotheses
Appendix appendices
Datum data
Stimulus stimuli
Criterion criteria
Phenomenon - phenomena

10

acute
extreme
add to
moderate
provoke
stress responses
reduce
long-term
be vulnerable to
mental
constructive
relieve
a sign of stress
cope

short-term
handle
substantial
severe
cause
be under
a source of stress
deal with
avoid
daily
stress management
techniques stress factors
be susceptible to
experience

chronic
remove
a symptom of stress
produce
suffer from
long-lasting
stress levels
considerable
excessive
manage
low
emotional
destructive
increase

adj. (degrees of
stress continuity)

adj.

Verb+stress

Stress

(degrees of
stress
intensity)

Stress+noun

2 Fill in the gaps with the missing words using the vocabulary map that you have
made.
1. Our life is tough and hectic so we face stress we cannot but adjust to it and
work out our own stress strategies.
2. People who have risky or life-threatening jobs may suffer from stress which is
very hard to treat.
3. Angst, anxiety and depression caused by stress can be very for peoples
health.

11

4. Stress can manifest itself through a number of different , such as headaches,


muscle aches, frequent colds and infections.
5. Meditation and relaxation can assist people in with stress-related problems.
6. Professions involving high competition make people more to stress.
7. If you keep your family relations at their peak, you will your stress levels.

3 Match the words from two columns to make a collocation about stress. Write
down sentences where these collocations are used.
1. produce
2. cause
3. avoid
4. add to
5. handle
6. meet
7. raise
8. change

a) severe headache
b) getting involved
c) stress levels
d) deadlines
e) stress
f) income
g) unfavorable environment
h) a tough situation

4 Translate from Russian into English using your active vocabulary.


1.
, .
2. , .
3. , .
4. .
5.
.
6. .
7. .
8.
.
9.
.
10. ,
.

12

Reading and Writing

Do you remember that people use different techniques of reading for


different purposes? You scan the text if you need to find a specific word or a
piece of information. Using such a reading strategy you do not need to
understand each word in the text.
Work in pairs: think and discuss with your group-mate examples of situations
from your life when you use scanning reading technique.
Now scan the following text to find the necessary information:
- illnesses that may be caused by stress;
- jobs that are highly stressful;
- things people do when they are under stress that are not good for their health.

STRESS AND ILLNESS


In many stressful situations, the body's responses can improve our performance
we become more energetic, more alert, better able to take effective action. But when
stress is encountered continually, the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful
than helpful to us. As will be seen later in this unit, the continual speeding up of bodily
reactions and the production of stress-related hormones seem to make people more
susceptible to heart disease. And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting
effectiveness of the body's immune system, thereby increasing susceptibility to
illnesses ranging from colds to cancer. Other diseases that can result at least in part
from stress include arthritis, asthma, migraine headaches, and ulcers. Workers who
experience the greatest degree of job pressures have been found to be especially likely
to suffer from a large number of illnesses (House, 1981). Moreover, many studies have
shown that people who have experienced major changes in their lives are at unusually
high risk for a variety of illnesses.
As an example of stress-induced illness, take the case of stomach ulcers, small
lesions in the stomach wall that afflict one out of twenty people at some point in their
lives. Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in occupations that make
heavy psychological demands, from assembly-line workers to air-traffic controllers. In
many cases, stress is the culprit. Stress leads to increased secretion of hydrochloric
acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid normally helps to break down foods during
digestion, but in excess amounts it can eat away at the stomach lining, producing
ulcers.

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Stress may also contribute to disease in less direct ways, by influencing moods
and behavior. People under stress may become anxious or depressed and as a result
may eat too much or too little, have sleep difficulties, smoke or drink more, or fail to
exercise. These behavioral changes may, in turn, be harmful to their health. In
addition, people are more likely to pay attention to certain bodily sensations, such as
aches and pains, when they are under stress and to decide that they are "sick." If the
person were not under stress, the same bodily sensations might not be perceived as
symptoms and the person might continue to feel "well." Some researchers have
suggested that assuming the role of a "sick person" is one way in which certain people
try to cope with stress (Cohen, 1979). Instead of dealing with the stressful situation
directly, these people fall sick. After all, it is often more acceptable in our society to be
sick and to seek medical help
than it is to admit that one
When you write an essay, an article or
cannot cope with the stresses
even a course paper, you may need to
of life.
present someones ideas, but certainly not
their exact words (unless you cite the source
The sense relations in
and use quotation marks). It is important,
many of the sentences in the
therefore, to learn to paraphrase.
text
STRESS
AND
Many students think that the way to
ILLNESS involve causality,
paraphrase is simply to use synonyms. In
or cause and effect. Causality
fact this is only one of the steps involved in
may be expressed in many
writing a paraphrase. You must first
different ways in English.
understand the sense relations in a
sentence. Then you can restructure the
In note form causality is
sentence and express these relations in
often indicated with an
another way.
arrow.
Complete
the

following notes and turn


them into full sentences using
causality expressions. A sample answer has been provided for the first example.
You can consult Appendix 1 to learn about various ways of expressing causality.

1. too much stress

breakdown of the immune system

susceptible to disease

Too much stress may lead to a breakdown in the immune system. As a result,
people may become more susceptible to disease.
2. stress
3. stress
4. stress

too much secretion of hydrochloric acid

depression

illnesses

people may decide they are sick.

14

3 The following sentences come from the text STRESS and ILLNESS.
First, write each sentence in the note form using arrows to show the direction of
the casual relations. Then, write a paraphrase of your notes using one of the
different ways of expressing causality. A sample answer has been provided for the
first example.
1. When a stress is encountered continually, the bodys reactions are more likely to
be harmful than helpful to us.
continual stress

harmful bodily reactions

Continual stress may lead to harmful bodily reactions.


2. Workers who experience the greatest degree of job pressures have been found to
be especially likely to suffer from a large number of diseases.
3. Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in occupations that make
heavy psychological demands.
4. Stress may also contribute to disease in less direct ways, by influencing moods
and behavior.

The sentences that follow


provide a detailed summary of
STRESS and ILLNESS in
jumbled order.
Number them in the correct
order.

Being able to write a summary is an


important skill. It shows that you have
understood what is most important in a text. A
summary is different from a paraphrase.
When you paraphrase, you look at a small part
of the text and rewrite it in your own words.
When you summarize, you look at the whole
text and reduce it to a few sentences (still
using your own words, not the authors ones).

Remember that
the first
sentence of a summary should
express the overall message of
the
text.
The
remaining
sentences should present the
most important ideas in the text.
A good summary does not need
to include details or support evidence for the main ideas.
Learn more about summary in Appendix 2.

___ a. Those who are going through a divorce, or people with stressful jobs, such as
air-traffic controllers, are in particular danger.
___ b. Stress may also indirectly affect your health, since people who are under stress
often engage in activities that are harmful.

15

___ c. Researchers have found that people who experience a great deal of stress in
their daily lives or in their jobs are more likely to get sick.
___ d. They may overeat or not eat enough, smoke too much, drink too much alcohol,
and not sleep well.
___ e. Such bodily reactions to stress can lead to illnesses ranging from the common
cold, to headaches, arthritis, ulcers, and even cancer.
___ f. Stress, it seems, can cause the immune system not to function well and can
cause harmful reactions such as an increase in acidic secretions in the stomach.

The summary you have created by reordering the 6 sentences contains too
many details. Find 3 least important sentences and delete them. Write out the
remaining three to produce a well-written, clear, and concise summary.

Listening and Writing


INTERVIEW WITH NANCY: The stress of teaching first-graders
There's a disruptive child: causing problems; behaving badly
It pulls everyone off track: away from the work that is being done
How does the stress manifest itself?: what are the signs or symptoms
Fatigue!: being tired
/ have to keep my temper in the classroom: not become angry
You're more susceptible to illness: get sick more easily and more often

1 How stressed are you? The following list is from a medical pamphlet on stress.
It describes frequent signs of too much stress. Read the list. Write your name next
to the symptoms you are currently experiencing.
You can find out more about your stress level doing a test given in Appendix 3.

FREQUENT SIGNS OF TOO MUCH STRESS


Problems eating or sleeping
Increased boredom and great fatigue
Problems making decisions
Increased feelings of anger when small things go wrong
Frequent headaches, backaches, muscle aches, stomach problems
Frequent colds and infections

2 Now listen. Place a check ( ) in the box next to the stress symptoms that
Nancy has. Compare answers as a class. Answer the questions below.

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1. How long has Nancy taught, and at what levels?


2. Why is teaching more stressful than other jobs, in her opinion?
3. Nancy says that she is sometimes impatient with her own child. Why?
4. What two reasons does Nancy give to explain why she is often sick?
5. What are the two things that Nancy does to relieve her stress?

INTERVIEW WITH SAM: The stress of being a police officer


patrol: an assignment in which a police officer walks, bicycles, or drives around
a certain neighborhood
a traffic violation: something illegal that is done by a driver
a routine stop: regular; not special or unusual
the force: the police force; the police as a group
ulcers: holes in the lining of the stomach that are made worse by stress
It's documented: shown to be true by research; proven
keep a relationship at its peak: in a very good condition; very healthy

3Now listen and try to get the answers to the following questions.
1. How long has Sam been a police officer?
2. What does Sam consider the most stressful assignment, and why?
3. What does Sam say about illness in the police force?

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4. What programs does the LAPD have to help officers cope with job stress?
5. How does Sam deal with his stress?

4 Read the following statements about the interviews that you have heard.
Write whether you agree (A) or disagree (D) with each statement.
___ 1 Nancy is probably in her early 30s.
___ 2 She takes her job very seriously.
___ 3 She doesn't teach during the summer.
___ 4 She enjoys her work as a teacher.
___ 5 Sam is probably in his forties.
___ 6 Patrol officers probably experience less illness than supervisors.
___ 7 Sam likes being a police officer.

5 Write down a short summary of the situation of stress Nancy/Sam faces


at workplace. Follow the plan given below:
-

Signs of stress Nancy/Sam experiences;


Stressful factors at job place Nancy/Sam has to handle;
Most stressful tasks Nancy/Sam performs;
Stress management techniques Nancy/Sam uses to fight stress.

Academic Listening and Summarizing


In this section you will hear and take notes on a two-part lecture
given by Ellen Cash, a professor of psychology. The title of the
lecture is Stress and the Immune System. Professor Cash will
present research supporting the idea that the mind can affect the
body.

Read the following description of the lecture from Professor Cash's


course syllabus.
Lecture note taking is a complex
Lecture: Stress and the immune system
skill and developing it requires a great
psychosomatic disorders
deal of practice. You need to organize
animal and human research
the information on the page to show
classical conditioning
what is the main point and what is a
(stimulus-response)
detail or example. You must also train
implications for health care
yourself to leave out unnecessary words
(such
as
articles,
prepositions,
pronouns) in other words, to use
telegraphic language.
18

Read the following sentences. Each one summarizes an excerpt from the
lecture on stress and the immune system, and presents an important point in the
lecture.
___ a There is research to support the idea that stress hurts the immune system.
___ b More doctors (etc.) now agree that learning to relax sometimes cures better
than drugs.
___ c Many common health problems may begin in the mind (psychosomatic).
___ d Research shows that when sick people feel helpless, their health gets worse.

Now

listen to the four short excerpts and match them with the correct
summaries in Step 1. Write the numbers in the blanks.

3 Using the blank lines in Step 1, rewrite the sentences in telegraphic language,
as if they were lecture notes, that is, leave out words that are not needed. Be sure
to leave enough information so that you can understand your notes. Here is an
example of what to do.
Example: The immune system recognizes foreign invaders and kills them.
immune system finds and kills invaders

LECTURE, Part One:


PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY AND ANIMAL STUDIES ON STRESS

4 Sometimes while reading a text it is enough to get the approximate meaning of


the word which seems new to you. Try to guess the meaning of the boldfaced
words. From three suggested variants choose the one with the close meaning.
1. Stress has real implications in terms of what it can do to the body.
a) consequences
b) choices
c) experiences
2. to recognize foreign invaders, things that come into the body
a) animals
b) attackers
c) medicines
3. to inactivate the invaders and remove them
a) eat
b) cause not to work
c) get rid of
4. The immune system is compromised, damaged, by certain stressors.
a) improved
b) assist
c) hurt
5. He was able to condition the rats' immune systems to malfunction.
a) teach
b) assist
c) punish
6. If we can condition immune systems to malfunction, then it makes sense that we
could also condition them to get better:
a) speed up
b) work harder
c) not work correctly

19

The following is an incomplete summary of Part One of the lecture. Read the
summary and think about what kinds of words or phrases might go in the blanks. Do
not write anything yet.

STRESS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, Part One


There is a lot of evidence to support the idea that our minds can affect our
_____. Many of the health problems that people suffer, such as headaches,
____________, and _________, may be related to psychosomatic disorders - that is,
they may be caused by the _______.
The new field of psychoneuroimmunology (PHI) studies the way in which
our minds can affect our _____________. In a healthy person, the immune system
protects the body against ________. Animal and human research has shown that
stress - especially uncontrollable stress - can hurt the immune system.
Robert Ader did an important study with rats in which he learned, quite by
accident, that the rats' ___________ could be conditioned to _________. This was
an exciting discovery for science: if the immune system can be taught to
_________, that probably means that it can also learn to _________ .

LECTURE, Part Two:


HUMAN RESEARCH IN PNI

Try to guess the meaning of the boldfaced words. From three suggested
variants choose the one with the closed meaning.
1. when people are under great stress, for example, accountants before tax
time
a) employers
b) people who type reports c) people who figure taxes
2. elderly people in nursing homes
a) homes for sick
b) hotels
c) homes for nurses
and older people
3. the ones who felt in control tended to be healthier
a ) were always
b) were never
c) were usually
4. Relaxation techniques can be very effective - more effective than
medication
a) drugs
b) medical care
c) hospitalization

20

Read the following incomplete summary of Part Two of the lecture. Be sure
that you understand all the words. Think about what information you will need
to fill in the blanks.
STRESS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, Part Two
There are also ______ studies to support the idea that the mind can
___________. Just thinking about stressful situations can suppress the __________ .
This has been seen in studies on accountants before tax time, and on _______ before
_______. Also, if people feel out of control, this can compromise their ____________.
Studies show that people in nursing homes who didn't choose to _______ are more
likely to get sick than people who _______.
People in the _________ field are becoming more interested in PNI. We see
this, for example, in the treatment of headaches and ____________. More doctors and
nurses today are teaching their _________ to control these problems by using
________________ rather than medication.

21

Reading and Speaking

1 a)

The article Under Pressure deals with the issue of most popular
stress management techniques, their advantages and disadvantages. It presents
five methods to cope with stress. Can you match the methods below with their
short description?
Stress-management
method
1. Drugs

2. Biofeedback

3. Cognitive-behavioral
approaches

4. Physical exercise

5. Meditation and relaxation

Methods description
a) This method consists in discussing with people who
suffer from stress the causes of their anxiety and
developing personal strategies to overcome and reduce
their fears and worries.
b) This method is the most widely-spread treatment for
stress conditions. It can directly affect the brain areas
that are responsible for anxiety and worry associated
with stressful situations.
c) This strategy is aimed at working out your own
method of dealing with the immediate impact of
stressful situation, controlling your bodys reactions
when faced with stressors.
d) This strategy involves the use of special devices that
can measure physiological reactions of people when
they are under stress. People are taught to decrease
their stress levels by means of various psychological
techniques, e.g. imagery and self-persuasion.
e) This technique supposes that if you practice sport
regularly you will get rid of stress and will not suffer
from depression.

b)

Compare your answers with those of your partner. Which of these


methods have you heard of before?

2 a) Now read the article closely filling in the table below.


Stressmanagement
method

Physical /
psychological
/
a combination

How it
works

When it
should be
used

1. Drugs

22

Advantages Disadvantages

2.Biofeedback

3. Cognitivebehavioural
approaches:

4. Physical
exercise

5. Mediation
and relaxation

Discuss with your partner these methods of dealing the stress, analyzing its
advantages and disadvantages.
Do you know any other stress management technique? Can you think of its
advantages and disadvantages?

23

UNDER PRESSURE
How to combat stress
Simon Green
In this article, Simon Green shows how evaluating methods of stress
management can be straightforward, particularly if you remember
some of the basic features of stress and its effects on the individual.
The critical issue is stress management, in particular the physical and
psychological methods of stress management, along with their
strengths and weaknesses.
Defining stress
Using a conventional definition of stress, we can say that it exists
when we feel that the demands being made upon us are greater than
our ability to cope with them. Stress can be short-lasting (acute) or
long-lasting (chronic). Immediate physical effect can include
physiological arousal in the form of increased heart rate and blood
pressure, and the release of 'stress' hormones from the adrenal gland
which help maintain arousal and increase blood levels of fatty acids
for use in muscular activity. Activity of the immune system may be
reduced, and if the stressful condition persists, the long-lasting arousal
is thought to lead to 'stress-related' illnesses such as cardiovascular
disorders (heart and circulation problems). The suppression of the
immune system may leave the person vulnerable to other illnesses and
infections. Although the emphasis is usually on physical illness, it is
important to remember that anxiety and depression are common
psychological problems associated with stress.
Two features of this simple outline are that stress is linked to a
feeling that life events are out of our control, and that some of the
negative effects of stress are linked to the high and sustained levels of
physiological arousal. The most effective methods of stress
management try to modify both of these fundamental features.

Treating the symptoms of stress


Apart from the major approaches listed in textbooks, there are many
other techniques which are supposedly effective in stress management,
especially in the general area of alternative medicine. Although the
specification gives examples of methods you might revise, you are free
to choose whichever you want. But try to follow some simple rules.
For instance, is there evidence that the method works? Are there clear

24

procedures? Even general approaches such as meditation and


relaxation have specific and detailed routines to be followed. Drugs,
biofeedback and physical exercise directly influence physiological
arousal, while cognitive-behavioural approaches try to alter the sense
of being in control of your life.
If you choose techniques more commonly associated with areas
other than stress, such as Freudian psychotherapy or antidepressant
drugs, try to bring out their direct relevance.
Psychotherapy is usually used for psychological problems such as
depression, anxiety or general unhappiness. Part of the process can be
to identify current areas of concern or stress in your life, and this may
help in coping with them. With the use of antidepressant drugs, the
simple link is that depression can be caused by chronic (long-lasting)
stress, so the use of these agents could be seen as helping to cope with
stressful situations. It is far simpler, though, to choose a clearlydeveloped method as a means of stress management.
Physical or psychological?
This specification refers to physical and psychological approaches, and
questions may require you to deal with one or the other. This division
can be hard to spot, as many methods are neither one nor the other, but
represent a mixture of approaches. Drugs would be the clearest
example of a physical method, as there is no necessary psychological
element in the technique.
Biofeedback also concentrates on physiological responses, but an
important element is the
conscious
psychological
You may learn much
effort to control these
more about imagery as a
responses through relaxation,
method to manage stress
meditation and imagery.
in Appendix 4.
So biofeedback could
count as either physical or psychological. Similarly, muscle relaxation,
meditation and yoga all help to reduce physiological arousal, and
could be seen as both physical and psychological methods. Physical
exercise does not sound very psychological, but the effects are often
on mood and self-esteem, so it could also qualify as being either
physical or psychological. Although examiners will read answers as
sympathetically as possible, and know that many methods are a
mixture of physical and psychological, it helps if you can briefly
justify your choice of approach.

25

Evaluating methods
Drugs
Despite some clear drawbacks, drugs are the commonest treatment for
stress-related conditions. Specific antianxiety agents (anxiolytics)
include the benzodiazepines such as diazepam (valium) and
chlordiazepoxide (librium); this group are the most prescribed of all
drugs used for psychological disorders. An advantage is that they
directly target brain pathways thought to produce the increased
anxiety associated with stressful situations, and they can also work
quite quickly. Disadvantages include the fact that up to 40% of people
do not respond to them and, more importantly, they usually have a
range of undesirable side effects which can lead to patients simply not
taking them. They can also lead to physical and psychological
dependence if over used. Critically, they do not treat the conditions
leading to the high levels of stress and anxiety, so there is a strong
likelihood that when treatment stops, the individual's situation is
basically unchanged.
An important evaluative point is that, as we become more aware of
the need to treat causes rather than symptoms, there is an increasing
trend for drugs to be used to improve the situation in the short term,
but to combine them with psychological approaches which aim to
produce longer-term change.
As a general evaluative point, remember that conditions such as
high blood pressure can be produced by inherited factors diet,
general lifestyle (e.g. being overweight), as well as stress. Ideally, all
of these would be addressed by a comprehensive therapy program.

Biofeedback
Biofeedback involves the use of recording electrodes and monitors to
measure physiological responses such as blood pressure or muscle
tension in the head and neck, which can lead to stress headaches. The
individual is trained to reduce levels of blood pressure or muscle
tension using a mixture of techniques such as progressive muscle
relaxation, meditation and imagery. An advantage of biofeedback is
that the use of the monitors helps the person learn effective techniques
to reduce arousal, and they can then use them independently of the
technology. Disadvantages include the cost of the technology and the
time needed by the trainer and client to learn how to reduce arousal.
Although biofeedback has been shown to be effective in controlling
blood pressure and stress-related headaches, there is some doubt as to
whether the feedback is actually necessary. One or two studies
comparing biofeedback with relaxation methods seem to show that the
technology does not significantly add to the benefits of relaxation

26

training.
Biofeedback does not directly focus on the causes of the stressrelated problems. However, training the client in how to manage the
condition does improve their sense of being 'in control' (also called
self-efficacy) and can help make their attitudes to stressful life events
more positive.
Cognitive-behavioural approaches
The major advantage of these approaches, such as Meichenbaum's
stress inoculation therapy and Kobasa's Hardiness training, is that they
focus directly on the causes of stress in the individual's life. The first
stage is always to discuss with the therapist situations which the
person has found stressful and hard to deal with. Their previous
methods of coping are analysed in terms of their success or failure.
Specific problems, such as poor time management in relation to
examinations and weak social skills in finding personal relationships,
are discussed. With the therapist, coping strategies and skills are
improved, which in turn can lead to increased confidence and selfefficacy. New strategies are tried out in the real world, with further
training and practice as necessary.
Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitivebehavioural stress management techniques, with long-term
improvement an important outcome. The key disadvantage is that to
identify the causes of stress, learn new coping strategies and how to
apply them in the real world, takes time and money. The client has to
have considerable motivation and application to persevere with the
training, besides being willing and able to analyse their own lives and
the sources of stress within it. The technique does not suit everyone,
and because of the need for a trained therapist, is not widely available.
Physical exercise
Over the last few years membership of fitness clubs has multiplied, as
exercise has become an important part of a stress-resistant lifestyle.
However, it has been difficult to identify the precise contributions that
it can make. It has been shown that regular exercise acts as a 'buffer'
against the psychological effects of stress, as exercisers have lower
levels of anxiety and depression compared with non-exercisers. They
also report higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy, perhaps
because the act of organising an exercise program and maintaining it
increases the sense of being in control and acting positively to improve
health.
The immediate physical effects of exercise are to increase heart rate,
blood pressure and other measures of physiological arousal. It is
therefore important that people with cardiovascular problems related

27

to stress, lifestyle or inherited tendencies take great care and medical


advice before beginning exercise programs. Although exercise can
contribute to weight control by burning up excess calories, the
physical stress of over-exercising in the unfit can have damaging
consequences on the cardiovascular system, besides possible
mechanical damage to joints, muscles and ligaments.
It is generally accepted that an exercise regime designed for your
particular level of health and fitness has positive effects on mood and
in toning up the arousal systems, in particular heart and circulation.
Like many stress management techniques it has to be practised
regularly to have any significant benefit; this is time consuming and,
if done through a fitness gym, expensive.
Meditation and relaxation
There are many techniques involving meditation and relaxation. They
involve a conscious attempt to reduce measures of physiological
arousal through muscle relaxation and imagery, and can be very
effective in the short term. Although some progressive muscle
relaxation programmes are quite complicated, most can be learnt
quickly and can be applied pretty well anywhere; they are especially
useful for controlling the arousal associated with the immediate impact
of stressful situations, e.g. traffic jams and intense personal
encounters.
Longer-term effects are difficult to assess. They do not target the
causes of stress, but if used regularly, help with the perception that you
are in control of your body's reactions to stressors; this increase in selfesteem and self-efficacy is seen by many as fundamental to stress
management, as it closes the gap between perceived demands and
perceived coping responses.
Which method is best?
I have discussed a few of the many techniques of stress management.
All have plus and minus points, and it is also important to remember
that combined approaches are often the most effective. Relaxation and
meditation are part of cognitive-behavioural techniques, and drugs are
often given in combination with psychological therapies,
simultaneously tackling physical symptoms and psychological causes.
Stress management techniques can also operate at an organisational
rather than an individual level, focusing on work practices and the
physical environment. If you wish to discuss these, remember that the
basic principles still apply; work practices (e.g. machine-paced work,
over- or under-load) and physical conditions (e.g. temperature and
noise) increase the perceived demands on people. Managing

28

joint
c
ligament

organisational stress involves a reduction in these demands by


reorganising work practices and improving physical conditions.
Simon Green is Head of the School of Psychology at Birkbeck
College, University of London, and a Principal Examiner for AQA (A)
psychology. Simon's books include Principles of Biopsychology
(Psychology Press).

3 Find the following information in the article:


- two types of stress determined by the time it develops in a person;
- examples of stress-related illnesses;
- techniques that help to reduce physiological arousal;
- disadvantages of using drugs as a method of stress management;
- examples of inherited factors that can add to ones stress level.

4 Paraphrase the following statements describing stress management methods.


Instead of the bold-faced words use words and word combinations given in the
article Under Stress:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Risky jobs can cause acute stress in people.


Long-lasting stress symptoms are most difficult to handle.
People who are on drug medication can experience psychological addiction.
Such jobs as firefighters or policemen often involve conditions that put the
professionals lives under risk or high danger.
e) In recent years membership of fitness clubs has raised greatly.
f) Practicing some meditation and relaxation techniques can take a lot of time.
g) The long-term effects of stress methods applied sometimes are difficult to
evaluate.

Read the following sentences about various methods of handling stress.


Fill in the gaps with the missing words.
1. The disadvantage of using drugs as a method to fight stress lies in the fact that
many people can develop undesirable ______ which can lead to patients simply
not taking the prescribed medicine any more.
2. When applying biofeedback, individuals are trained to reduce levels of ______ or
______ using a mixture of various techniques and they can freely use them on
their own any time they want.
3. In cognitive behavioral approach, the patients improve their ______ strategies
and ______ skills through direct communication with their therapist.

29

4. It takes time and money to identify real ______ of stress, learn new ______
strategies and apply them in the real world.
5. People feel more control and higher levels of ______ and ______ due to regular
physical exercises.
6. Some ______ programmes are quite complicated they cannot be learnt quickly
and applied pretty well anywhere.
7. It is difficult to ______ log-terms effects of meditation and ______ method of
______ with stress.

Here is what people say about different stress management techniques. Read
their opinions presented in the passages below and guess what method they refer
to. You may need to go back to the article Under Stress to prove your point of
view.
1) Bob: This method has become a part of my daily life style. I noticed that I started
to worry less and feel less tired even if I had a long tiresome week. I developed a
better perception of myself, I somehow feel younger and even more attractive.
Some of my colleagues say that I have lost a few kilos!
2) Jessica: Using this method I always try to analyze what it is that actually makes
me feel stressed. I think back about the exact situation and my relations with
people involved and figure out what was happening and how I reacted. My
therapist asks me a lot of questions that help me understand my motives and
responses and together we develop different coping strategies aimed at helping
me behave in other way when facing a similar situation.
3) Paul: When I first started to use this method, it did not work properly. I felt no
effect, I still had insomnia and anxiety, I failed to concentrate and could not
manage my emotional life. Then my therapist prescribed me another type of pills,
which were stronger and more effective in my case. I dont think that I have any
physical dependence now, because I do sometimes forget to take them, but I
know that I feel safer and more confident when I take them regularly.

Speaking and Interacting. Role Play

Many people suffer from stress of various degrees of intensity. Role-play


several situations at the counselors office.
Here are a few descriptions of peoples stressful situations. Each of them needs
your professional help in managing stress he/she experiences.

30

Irene is a 1st year student at the


Art Academy. She has just broken up
with her boyfriend. Because of low
mood she finds it difficult to
concentrate on studies. She keeps
putting all her assignments until later,
watching movies on her laptop,
sleeping or just hanging around with
her friends complaining about her
useless life.
Now the time of the
examination session has come and
Irene understands that she needs to
face loads of work not to fail her
exams. She is stressed. What should
she do?

As soon as Natasha got


married, her husband was offered a
well-paid job in Moscow. They
decided to accept the job offer and
to move, although Natasha was not
very much happy to leave her
parents and friends in Minsk.
Now they live in Moscow, but
Natasha feels very bad about it. Her
husband works all day long and
comes home late in the evening
tired. She has no friends to spend
her time with and no parents to talk
to. Her education is not very much
demanded by local labour market, so
she cannot find a good job. She surfs
the net and sleeps during the day.
Despite doing nothing, she also feels
tired and helpless when the day is
over. She has no appetite and there
is nothing that can bring her joy and
satisfaction.
What should she do to get
back her happy life?

Tim is a senior student at the


Polytechnic University. He does well in
his studies, so his parents found him a
well-paid part time job at a prestigious
company.
First, it was easy for him to
combine studies and work, but soon he
started to realize that he had very little
time not only for rest and social life
but also for a thorough preparation for
his seminars. He often feels exhausted,
racing through the day and trying to
keep in mind the endless list of things
to do. Tim started having headaches
and insomnia.
What should he do to avoid
developing chronic stress? How should
he change his life to reduce the stress
level?

Robert made up his mind to


buy a new laptop which he
desperately needed for his studies
and entertainment. He had no money
to put this dream into life, but he had
a few best friends who had lent him
the sum he needed.
But a terrible thing happened.
While he was travelling by bus in a
busy market area, he had his wallet
stolen. Now he has no laptop and no
money to give back to his friends.
What should he do?
31

Helen has just graduated from the Pedagogical University. She started working at
school 3 months ago. Now she realizes she finds it too hard to work with children. She loses
her temper easily, gets irritated by any misbehaviour and starts raising her voice at kids.
She wakes up every single morning thinking she has no desire to go to school and see
the kids. She even thinks of taking a false sick leave to stay at home for several days. Helen
suffers from migraine and low blood pressure. She feels weak and helpless.
What should she do to find a way out from this situation?

Before conducting your counseling session with the patient, make a list of
questions you may need to ask him/her to understand better the stressful
situation, stress factors, stress type and level. You know a number of various
stress management techniques but you need to find the best combination of those
to help your patient.
To know more about types of questions and interview structures consult Appendix 5.

32

ACHIEVEMENT TEST

1 Find the odd word out in each line. Write it down together with its translation
into Russian or Belarussian.
1. imprisonment/divorce/losing ones job/misplacing or losing things;
2. insomnia/obesity/excitement/ulcer;
3. overeating/meditation/imagery/sport;
4. fatigue/patrol/temper/first-graders;
5. philosopher/dentist/audiologist/air pilot;
6. severe/ moderate/acute/extreme/;
7. cause/produce/reduce/provoke;
8. deadlines/competitiveness/income/cardiovascular disorder;
9. arthritis/asthma/headache/imagery;
10. relieve/manage/handle/fight/stimulate.
10 points

2 Give synonyms to the words given in italics.


1. Mikes father was suffering from extreme stress since his mother had recently
passed away.
2. Chronic stress significantly influences peoples emotional life.
3. Everyday hassles you fail to come over can lead to nervous breakdown.
4. Stimulating conditions at your job might not only contribute to your promotion,
but also do good to your health.
5. Long-term stress is accountable for such severe illnesses as cardiovascular
disorders and even cancer.
6. Professionals whose job involves harsh competition are more susceptible to
stress.
6 points

3 Read the definitions and guess which words dealing with the topic of stress are
explained.
1. a method of visualizing pleasant images of unreal or upcoming events or
situations which aims at improving your well-being, confidence and health;
2. a persons feeling of being in control over his/her life and psychological state;
3. a stress-management technique which involves the use of special devices that can
measure physiological reactions of people when they are under stress;
4. the easing of a burden or distress, such as pain, anxiety or oppression;

33

5. a time limit, as for payment of a debt or completion of an assignment;


6. physical or mental weariness resulting from being extremely tired;
7. a problem brought about by pressures of time, money, inconvenience, etc;
8. a peripheral or secondary effect, especially an undesirable one, which can occur
after using a drug or a therapy.
8 points

4 Fill in the gaps using the correct prepositions where necessary.


In older days you would confront a lion, tiger or a bear and run (1) from it.
After running safely, your stress levels would drop (2). Or you would fight it and
kill it so it would become dinner and your stress would disappear.
Or you would become its dinner and would never be (3) stress (or anything
else) again.
But living (4) this tough world without fighting often causes (5) us to carry
(6) unresolved, chronic stress much (7) the time. Each of us can be vulnerable
(8) stress of various levels of intensity.
Chronic stress means you never completely relax and, because (9) the energy
drain, your body and mind become fatigued. You are then more susceptible (10)
colds, infections, ulcers, digestive troubles, high blood pressure, asthma, arthritis,
heart disease and premature aging.
10 points

5 Read the following statements about some rules of writing a summary. 3 of the
sentences have mistakes. Rewrite them correcting the mistakes.
1. The last sentence of a summary should express the overall message of the text,
whereas the opening sentences should present the most important ideas.
2. When you paraphrase, you look at the whole text and reduce it to a few sentences
using your own words, not the authors.
3. A summary should be quite short, regardless of the original's length.
4. When you summarize, you look at a small part of the text and rewrite it in your
own words.
5. A good summary does not need to include details or support evidence for the
main ideas.
6. When writing the summary, you must not make any conclusions about the
original, its audience, or anything relating to the text.
6 points

34

5 Read the text about one of the most stressful cities in the world and write its
summary

Business in Hong Kong,


One of the Most Stressful Cities in the World
By Daniel Messing

When they say "the check is in the mail" here, people look at their watches. In
Hong Kong, the post office delivers mail twice a day. A letter sent in the morning
arrives in the afternoon. Many people can't wait that long. They fax it. "Hong Kong is
one of the most stressful places in the world," said Dr. David Lam, a clinical
psychologist at Hong Kong University.
Excluding war zones such as Beirut, Hong Kong topped the list of stressful
cities in a study published in Psychology Today. Hong Kong runs on greed and
fear. Low taxes and a freewheeling stock market fuel the greed.
The 1997 deadline, when Britain handed over this nerve center of capitalism to
Beijing, only further bred this type of fear. In this duty-free port, where skyscrapers
sprout from the rock like quills on a porcupine's back, people walk fast and talk fast.
Hong Kong is perhaps more frenetic than New York, more workaholic than Tokyo.
"This is one part of the world where you can call up somebody at midnight to
talk business and they'll thank you for it," said Robert McBain, 38, an investment
banker who has worked in both Tokyo and New York. On Wall Street, most people
quit at the end of the day. In Tokyo, people let you out of elevators before barreling in.
In Hong Kong, elevator doors are finely tuned to open and shut within three seconds,
one-third the time it usually takes in North America, according to Otis Elevator Co.
(HK) Ltd.

35

Even shopping, the major Hong Kong sport, isn't relaxing. Almost everything,
from groceries to Gucci bags, is negotiable. Buying a simple item, such as a shirt, can
turn into a battle of nerves; Hong Kong works hard. Stores are open daily and the
typical work week includes Saturday morning.
Many offices are still humming at 7:30 p.m. "You don't talk about overtime in
Hong Kong," said Kai Sun Tso, property manager at Hutchison Whampoa Ltd., one of
Hong Kong's biggest diversified companies. "Overtime is expected."
It's the survival of the fittest. As in Japan, the stress starts in childhood, when 6year-olds compete to get into the best schools. Unlike Japan, Hong Kong has only two
universities serving 5.6 million people.
To be sure, some people thrive on the stress. Some people thought the place
would slow down in 1997? "We certainly did not look at it that way," Tso said. "If
you're scared, you might as well pack up and go to Canada."
(Retrieved: http://voices.yahoo.com/business-hong-kong-one-most-stressful-cities4176689.html)

15 points
Total 55 points

36

SELF-CHECK LIST
1.
2.
3.
4.

Use this Checklist to record what you can do (column 1).


Ask your teacher to assess what s/he thinks you can do (column 2).
Use Column 3 to mark those things which are important for you (Column 3).
Add to the list other things that you can do, or that are important for your language
learning at this level. Use the following symbols:

In column 1 and 2:
I can do this under normal circumstances
I can do it easily

!
!!

In column 3:
This is an objective for me
This is a priority for me

If you have over 80% of the points ticked, you have probably reached your learning
goals.
1
My
assessment

I know/have learnt
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

causes and types of stress


the most and least stressful jobs and criteria of
their ranking
frequent signs of too much stress
the effects stress produces over the body
stress management techniques, their pluses
and minuses
open and close-ended questions and interview
structures
the definition of the summary, its rules and
stages

I can
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

paraphrase causality
write a summary
define your level of stress
help someone who is under stress
ask open and close-ended questions
structure an interview in the correct way
take notes in English and use them as a basis
for writing a summary

I know/have revised
15 plural forms of nouns of Latin and Greek
origin
16 building up vocabulary maps
17 the scanning technique used for finding

37

2
Teachers
Assessment

3
Importance

specific words or pieces of information


18 lecture note taking
I have made/ written
19 summaries of the texts
___________________________________
(specify the title of the text)
20 collocation maps for stress
I can also do the following

38

Vocabulary File

Words and word combinations

For your notes


_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
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_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

1. acute (adj)
~ stress
synonyms: extreme, severe, excessive
2. add (v)
~ to stress levels
3. affect (v)
~ peoples health
synonyms: influence, have impact
4. anxiety (n)
a high level of ~
anxious (adj)
~ state
5. avoid (v)
~ stress
6. cause (v)
~ stress
synonyms: provoke, produce
cause (n)
~ of stress
7. chronic (adj)
~ stress
synonym: long-term
short-term
8. compete (v)
competitiveness (n)
9. daily (adj)
~ hassle
10. deadline (n)
meet a ~
face a ~
11. factor (n)

39

stress ~

_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

12. fatigue (n)


13. favorable (adj)
~ environmental conditions
unfavourable
14. handle (v)
~ stress
synonym: manage
15. hassle (n)
daily ~
16. level (n)
~ of stress
17. manifest (v)
stress can ~ itself through smth
manifestation (n)
18. moderate (adj)
~ stress level
synonym: average
19. produce (v)
~ stress
synonyms provoke, cause
20. provoke (v)
~ stress
synonyms: produce, cause
21. response (n)
bodys ~
physiological ~
respond (v)
~ to stress
responsible (adj)
be ~ for anxiety
synonym: be accountable for
22. relieve (v)
~ stress
~ pain
~ headache
relief (n)

40

quick ~

_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

23. remove (v)


~ stress factors
24. side-effect (n)
undesirable ~
25. source (n)
~ of stress
26. stability (n)
job ~
27. stress (n)
be under ~
~ -induced illnesses
~-related diseases
~ management
stressful (adj)
~ times
~ job
~ career
stressor (n)
28. suffer (v)
~ from stress
30. susceptible (adj)
be ~ to stress
synonym: vulnerable
susceptibility (n)
~ to illnesses
increase ~
31. tough (adj)
~ times
~ job
32. under (prep)
be ~ stress
33. vulnerable (adj)
be ~ to stress
synonym: susceptible

_________________________________

41

Unit II

INTELLIGENCE

42

2A

ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE

Listen, read and talk about...

difficulties in defining intelligence


history of intelligence testing and current approaches
well-known intelligence tests and problems in assessing
intelligence
Howard Gardners theory of multiple intelligence
problems of labeling

Learn how to...

make collocation maps


say formulae
take notes effectively
speak about your multiple
intelligences

Practice in ...

skimming and reading for


details
listening, taking notes and
completing outlines
writing a summary
discussing the problems of assessing intelligences
doing tests and quizzes
making and presenting a project

saying numbers and mathematical operations


constructions with gerunds

Revise...

43

ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence has been an important and controversial topic
throughout the history of psychology. Psychologists have been
disagreeing about the definition of intelligence and causes of it. They
also debate whether intelligence can be accurately measured and
how it should be done.

Communication Starter

a) Work in small groups and

discuss the following questions. Choose one


person in your group to jot down your
ideas. It can be done in the form of a
collective mind map.

Do you know anyone who is intelligent?


Why do you think they are intelligent?
What do we mean by intelligence?
How can we measure an individuals
intelligence?
Does knowing an IQ provide any benefits
for a persons University studies or future
work? Why? Why not?
Mind-mapping tecnique is described in
Appendix 6.

b)

Present the results of your group


discussion to the group.

READING AND SPEAKING

1 Think of and write 4 factors that you consider to be most important when you
judge if a person is intelligent or not.
1.______________________________________________________

44

2. ______________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________

Skim the text and find the paragraph that deals with each of the following
topics. Write the number of the paragraph in the blank.
__ a. Some problems with the theoretical definition of intelligence
__ b. An operational definition of intelligence
__ c. Several common-sense definitions of intelligence
__ d. A theoretical definition of intelligence

INTELLIGENCE DEFINED
1. Intelligence has been defined in many different ways.
Some have defined it as the sum total of everything you
know, others have defined it as the ability to learn and profit
from experience, and still others define it as the ability to
solve problems. Of course, there is nothing wrong with any
of the definitions but none of them alone is complete. We ,
use the term intelligence so often to define so many abilities,
that it is almost impossible to give it a specific definition.
2. However, it is important that we decide on a definition to
guide us through discussing the topic. We suggest, therefore,
that we accept two definitions, one academic and theoretical,
the other operational and practical. For our theoretical
definition of intelligence we can do no better than David
Wechsler, who defines it as the capacity of an individual to
understand the world about him (or her) and his (or her)
resourcefulness to cope with its challenges (1975)

3.This definition also presents some ambiguities. Just what ,


does one mean by capacity? What is meant by understand
the world? What if the world never really challenges ones
resourcefulness? Will such people be less intelligent? So, this
definition can pose even more definitional problems.
4. One way to overcome these difficulties is to define the
concept of intelligence operationally. Thus, we can
operationally define intelligence as that which intelligence
tests measure. This definition sidesteps the conceptual
problem of the true nature of intelligence. But it gives
definition we can work with for a while. To use this

45

definition, then, we need to see how intelligence tests work.


We will then be able to see how people differ in terms of
intelligence.
(Retrieved and adapted from Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human Behavior. Reading.
Study Skills. Writing. Cambridge University Press, 1997.)

3 Read the text and answer the following questions:


1. What are the common-sense definitions of intelligence? Are any of them
similar to your ideas presented in task 1?
2. What is the theoretical definition of intelligence?
3. Why does the theoretical definition pose more problems than it solves?
4. How is the concept of intelligence defined operationally?

Find English equivalents in the text for the following word


combinations:

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8. ,
9.
10.
11.

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________

46

5 a)

Scan the text and use exercise 4 to

say what verbs go with the noun


problem? What adjectives are used with
this noun? Now you may start drawinga
collocation map for problem.

It is important to learn
collocations if you want to speak
and write English well.

... + verb

verb + ...

A word is known by the


company it keeps (J.R.Firth)
Collocation is how words
occur together in speech and
writing

There is no rule or reason


why the English choose to say,
for example, do an exercise but
not make an exercise.

problem
adjective
s

One of the ways to


remember collocations better is to
organize them in collocation
maps.

b) Do you know any other words that collocate with the problem? You may
continue making this collocation map while working on this Unit.
Start building up a collocation map for intelligence as well.

6 a) Below you will find some more definitions of intelligence given by


famous psychologists. Guess which words from the box are missing.
cognitive

measure understanding

information

cope withbehaviour

learn from
function

1. Intelligence is whatever intelligence tests _______.


(E. G. Boring, a well-known Harvard psychologist of the 1920's)
2. Intelligence is the ability to plan and structure ones _______ with an end ( )
in view.

47

(J.P.Das, a well-renowned Professor (Emeritus) of Educational Psychology

at the University of Alberta, Canada)

3. "Intelligence is a _______ of activity mediated () through material


tools (, ), and other human beings."
(L.S.Vygotsky, a famous Russian psychologist,

founder of the cultural-historical psychology)

4. "Intelligence is developmentally constructed in the mind of the learner and moves


from concrete to abstract stages of ________".
(J.Piaget, a renowned Swiss developmental psychologist)

5. Intelligence is the ______ ability of an individual to _______ experience, to reason


well, to remember important ________, and to _______ demands of daily living.
(R.Sternberg, Professor of Psychology at Oklahoma State University)

b) Which of these definitions of intelligence appeals to you most? Why? Which


of the definitions
1) is more behaviour-oriented;
2) emphasizes the social aspect of intelligence;
3)stresses the importance of psychometrics;
4) focusses on the idea of intellectual development?

LISTENING AND NOTE-TAKING


The approach to understanding intelligence with the most supporters
and research is based on psychometric testing. It is also the most
widely used in practical settings.

1 Here are the tasks from an intelligence test. Can you do them?
1. Find two words, one from each group that are closest in meaning.
Group A

Group B

raise
floor
stairs

top
elevate
basement

A. raise and elevate


B. raise and top
C. floor and basement
D. stairs and top
E. floor and elevate

48

2.Which number should come next in this series?


25,

24,

22,

19,

15,

A. 4
B. 5

C. 10
D. 14

3. Which diagram results from folding () the diagram on the left?

4. Which of the diagrams follows?

5. Which number does not belong?


4
17
18
322

32
28
64
14

144
122
188
202

6. Library is to book as book is to


Binding

Copy Page Cover

A. page
B. copy
C. binding ()
D. cover ()
7. Which of the following figures is the odd one out ()?

49

(Retrieved from http://www.intelligencetest.com/questions/verbal.htm)


For the correct answers and explanations see the Keys section.

2 Can you say what skills this test measures? Match the tasks with the
skills they test.
Task 1.
Task 2.
Task 3.
Task 4
Task 5
Task 6
Task 7

mathematical
spatial
pattern recognition
classification
visualization
verbal
logic

The psychological definitions of the skills mentioned above can be found in the Keys
section.

The modern intelligence-testing movement started when the pioneering


French psychologist Alfred Binet began assessing intellectual abilities.
You are going to listen to an introductory lecture on the history of
development of intelligence tests.

50

Before you listen, interview your


groupmate about his/her method of
note-taking. You may use the following
list of the elements of note-taking
process. Report the results to the
group.
-

clear heading to show where the notes


come from (a book, a lecture, etc) and
the date;
using headings, underlining, circles,
colours, arrows, etc. for the most
important ideas;
missing out words which are obvious
(for example article in English)
using abbreviations () for
common words;
including your own opinions,
thoughts and doubts (on the margins,
for example)
using mind-mapping technique.

Some more tips for making your


lecture note-taking process
effective
Put most notes in your own
words. However, the formulae,
definitions, specific facts should
be noted exactly
Use outline form and/or a
numbering system. It will help
you distinguish major from minor
points
If you miss a statement, write key
words, skip a few spaces, and get
the information later.
Don't try to use every space on
the page. Leave room for
coordinating your notes with the
text after the lecture

4 Look at a students notes on five important points from the lecture. Which of
the elements of note-taking process did he/she use? Do you understand his/her
notes?
1. Binet made 1st of importance sch. skills, e.g. ____________________
2. He age-graded the tasks e.g._____________________________________
3. B. figured mental age of normal child____________________________
4. Definition: ave. child has IQ of 100 e.g.________________________
5. Kids from poor educ. Environ. Do badly on trad. IQ tests:

intelligent?
No, e.g.__________________________________________________________________

Now listen to the five excerpts from the lecture. Take notes on the
examples given after each point listed in exercise 4.

51

LECTURE, Part One: HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE


TESTING

6 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part One of the
lecture. Each of the vocabulary terms is printed in boldface ( )
and given in the context. Find their correct definitions on the right.
1. How did Binet go about trying to
devise his test?
2. a premise, or a theory on which to
base the test
3. a huge assortment of tasks
4. The tasks get progressively more
difficult
5. The seven-year-old was very
bright
6. We would say that the five-yearold was dull and would have some
learning problems
7. a ratio measure of intelligence
8. By this formula, an average child
has an IQ of 100
9. our current usage of IQ tests

a) mathematical relation
b) intelligent
c) not intelligent
d) increasingly over time
e) present; happening today
f) mathematical statement of a rule

g) create; make
h) idea with wich you begin research
i) collection; variety

7 Compare your results with your groupmates.


8 The following is an incomplete outline of Part One of the lecture. Examine the
structure of the outline and try to predict what kind or information you will hear.

INTELLIGENCE TESTING - AN INTRODUCTION, Part One


I History
A. Alfred Binet- ____________________________________________________
1. Purpose of test -________________________________________________
2. Theory behind test - ______________
3. "Mental age" - ________________
* To say formulae, you need
B. Lewis Terman -____________________
to know how to say numbers
Stanford-Binet test and
mathematical
__________________________________
operations. See Appendix 7
a. IQ formula *-____________________
for the rules and practice.
b. Purpose of test - _________________

52

9 a) Now listen to Part One of the lecture. Take notes.

b) Use your notes to complete the outline.

c) Compare the outline with your partners.


LECTURE, Part Two: CURRENT APPROACHES AND
SOME PROBLEMS

1 The following items contain some important vocabulary from Part Two of the
lecture. Each of the vocabulary terms is printed in boldface and given in the
context. Find their correct definitions on the right.
1. The test takes a long lime to
administer.
2. putting together puzzles and
other visual-spatial skills
3. not related to life success in
any significant way
4. a very strong culture bias
5. have a hard time surviving in
a rough neighbourhood
6. You need "street smarts" in
order to get along
7. to survive and thrive in that
situation

a) grow and develop well


b) ability to see and work with objects and
shapes
c) poor and dangerous
d) intelligence developed in everyday
situations
e) unfair advantage or preference
f) give (as a test)
g) important: noticeable

2 Compare your results with your groupmates.


3 The following is an incomplete outline of Part Two of the lecture. Examine the
structure of the outline and try to predict what kind or information you will hear.
INTELLIGENCE TESTING - AN INTRODUCTION, Part Two
II. Current approaches to intelligence assessment
A. Wechsler Scales - _________________________________________________
Different from Stanford-Binet:
1.______________________________________________________________
2.______________________________________________________________
III.________________________________________________________________

53

A. Definition:_______________________________________________________
B. Bias:____________________________________________________________

4 a) Now listen to Part One of the lecture. Take notes.

b) Use your notes to complete the outline

c) Compare the outline with your groupmates.


5

Discuss the following questions in a group.

1. Binets test was designed to identify "dull" children. Do you think children should
be told that they're bright or dull? Why or why not?
2

Remember what the lecturer said about "street smarts.'' Do you have a term for this
in your language? Give an example of "street smarts" from your culture.

READING AND SUMMARIZING

Now let us learn more about the two well-known intelligence tests: the
Stanford-Binet test and the Wechsler test.
Skim the two texts below and say whether you can find the following information
there. (Put a tick ( )in the corresponding column)
Information about

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

the author and his scientific interests


the purpose of the test and its subjects
revisions of the original test
types of abilities the test measures
the influence of schooling on the abilities
measured by the test
the score computed by the test
the way the test is administered
the shortcomings of the test
the time needed to administer the test

54

Text A
Text B
The
The
StanfordWechsler
Binet
Intelligence
Intelligence
Test
Test

Now read Text A and Text B in more detail and mark the following
statements as True (T) or False (F).
Binets major concern was with individual differences in solving problems.
The 1939 Wechsler test was designed for children.
The WISC was published in 1966.
The Binet test became known as the Stanford-Binet test after it had been
revised by a professor from Stanford University.
5. The Stanford-Binet test has one revision.
6. To test a four-year-old child, you should use the WISC-R.
7. The Stanford-Binet test measures crystallized abilities, fluid-analytic
abilities and long-term memory.
8. The abilities measured by the Stanford-Binet test are all influenced by
formal schooling.
9. The 3 tests the WAIS-R, the WISC-R, and the WPPSI are designed very
differently.
10. The Wechsler test has 11subtests, which belong to 3 main categories: a
verbal scale, a performance scale, and a short-term memory
11. The Standard age score in the Stanford-Binet test and the total score in the
Wechsler testindicate general intellectual ability.
12. Both tests are made up of subtests which are arranged in order of difficulty.
1.
2.
3.
4.

TEXT A. THE STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE TEST


Alfred Binet (1857-1911) was the
leading psychologist in France at the
turn of the century. Binet worked at
the psychology laboratory at the
Sorbonne. He studied hypnosis,
abnormal behaviours, optical illusions,
and thinking processes, but by far his
major concern was with individual
differences. In particular, Binet was
curious about how people differed in
their ability to solve problems.
In 1990Binet was asked to investigate why it was that
some children in the Paris school system were unable to benefit
from the educational experiences that they were given. What
was the problem? Were the children uninterested? Did they
have emotional problems? Or were they just intellectually
incapable of grasping and making use of the educational
material? In studying this problem, Binet decided to try to
construct a test to measure the intellectual abilities of children.

55

Binets first test appeared in 1905 and was revised in


1908. The test was an immediate success, and it caught the
attention of Lewis M.Terman at Stanford University, who
translated it into English and supervised a revision in 1916. It
then became known as the Stanford-Binet test. Since then, it has
undergone a number of revisions, the most recent of which was
published in 1986.
So what is this test like? The 1986 edition of the StanfordBinet is quite different from its predecessors. Subjects are tested
on three different types of abilities. Crystallized abilities are
defined as those needed to acquire and use verbal and quantitative concepts to solve problems. They are influenced by
schooling and could be called "an academic ability" factor.
Fluid-analytic abilities are skills needed to solve problems that
involve figural or nonverbal types of information. These skills
are thought to be not so influenced by formal schooling.
Essentially, they involve the ability to see things in new and
different ways. The third factor is short-term memory.
There are 15 subtests that test the three abilities*. Within
each of these subtests, the items are arranged by difficulty,
which is determined by appropriate age level. Age levels vary
from 2 years old to adult (18+). This means that if you were
giving the test to an eight-year-old, you would probably start by
giving items for a six-year-old and then continue to more
difficult test items, until the child consistently fails to answer
questions.
In interpreting an individual's scores, one compares the
scores to those earned by children of the same age. The
resulting score is called a standard age score or SAS. Standard
age scores are always computed so that an average SAS always
comes out to be 100. People who do better than average have
standard age scores above 100 and those who perform less well
than others their age have standard age scores below 100.
The Stanford-Binet has been in use for a long time. There
is much to be said for it. It is a well-recognized measure of
those behaviours that we commonly label intelligent, at least in
an educational or academic sense and is in this way, at least, a
valid instrument. The test does have some drawbacks. It is an
individual test (one subject and one examiner) and should be
administered and interpreted by trained professionals. The test
may take longer than an hour to administer, and hence it is quite
expensive.
* For the information on the 15 subtests of the 1986 edition

56

see Appendix 8.

Text B. THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE TEST


David Wechsler published his first
general intelligence test in 1939. Unlike
the version of the Stanford-Binet that
existed at the time, it was designed for
use with adult populations and to reduce
the heavy reliance on verbal skills. With
a major revision in 1955, the test became
known as the Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The latest
revision (now called the WAIS-R) was
published in 1981. The WAIS-R is
appropriate for subjects between 16 and 74 years of age
and is reported to be the most commonly used of all tests
in clinical practice.
A natural extension of the WAIS was the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), originally published
eleven years after the WAIS. After a major revision in 1974, it
became known as the WISC-R. The WISC-R is appropriate for
testing children between the ages of 6 and 17 (there is some
overlap with the WAIS). A third test in the Wechsler series is
designed for younger children between the ages of 4 and 6 1/2.
It is called the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
Intelligence, or WPPSI. It was first published in 1967 (and is
under revision). There are some subtle differences among the
three Wechsler tests, but each is based on the same general
logic. Therefore, we will consider only one, the WAIS-R, in
any detail.
The WAIS-R* is made up of eleven subtests, or scales.
The subtests of the WAIS-R are arranged by the type of ability
or skill being tested. The subtests are organized into two
categories. Six subtests define the verbal scale, and five subtests
constitute a performance scale. With each of the Wechsler tests,
we can compute three scores: a verbal score, a performance
score, and a total (or full-scale) score. As with the StanfordBinet, the total score can be taken as an approximation of g, or
general intellectual ability.
To administer the WAIS-R, you present each of the eleven
subtests to your subject. The items within each subtest are
arranged in order of difficulty. You start with relatively easy

57

items - those you are confident that your examinee will respond
to correctly - and then you progress to more difficult ones. You
stop administering any one subtest when your subject fails a
specified number of items in a row. You alternate between
verbal and performance subtests. The whole process takes up to
an hour and a half.
(Abridged from Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human
Behavior. Reading. Study Skills. Writing. Cambridge University
Press, 1997)
* You may find sample items from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale (WAIS) subtests in Appendix 9.

Scan the texts and make the collocation map for the noun test. You
may need to go back to the previous sections and make more collocations.
Continue making this collocation map while working on this Unit.

4 Take your notes on either of these texts. Write a short summary based
on your notes.
You may revise the rules of writing the summary in Appendix 2.

LISTENING AND SUMMARIZING


The scores (IQ scores) people got on intelligence tests have been
widely used to place, categorize, and describe people in various life
settings, including school and the workplace.

1 What are your memories of school? Read the following statements and fill in
the blanks to make true statements. Some suggested answers are in parentheses.
1. .. was/were easy for me (math/languages/writing/nothing)
2. I studied . for my classes. (a lot/very little/an average amount)
3. I . school (loved/usually enjoyed/tolerated/hated)
4. In school I thought of myself as . (smart/average/stupid)

Discuss these questions in class.


Can the label given to a person at school influence his/her future? How? Can
you think of any example?

58

3 a)

Now listen to the interview


and say how the results of the
intelligence
tests
influenced
the
persons life.

b)

Listen once again and


complete the following summary based
on the interview.

You may find this glossary helpful for


understanding the interview
a dunce
a stupid person
a menial-type a job requiring
job
little skill
to internalize
to
make
internal,
personal;
to
make a part of
ones beliefs

Ruth read about a .. who was told that he had a


. intelligence, based on the results of . in high school.
The man was labeled a He believed the label, and after high
school he . Years later, he took another test that showed
...When
the
man
heard
this,
he
Which conclusion can you draw out of this example?

PERSONALIZING THE TOPIC


Dr. Howard Gardners theory is a
contemporary intelligence theory that
extends the definition of intelligence beyond
academic smarts. It challenges the theory
of a single, generalized intelligence that has
dominated in psychology for more than a
century.

1 Look at the pictures of the famous people below. Do you know them? Can you
put them in order with the most intelligent first? Explain your decision.
1. ______
2. ______
3. ______
4. ______
5. ______
6. ______

59

If you have difficulties recognizing these people, see the Keys section.

2 Dr. Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple intelligence in 1983. He


argues that there are 8 intelligences, each relatively independent of the others.
Therefore, people are intelligent in different ways.

Guess the names of the eight different intelligences identified by H. Gardner.


One of them is done for you.

60

Gardner's
Multiple
Intelligence

logicalmathematical

See the list of the eight Gardners intelligences in the Keys section.

3 a)

These are the definitions of Gardners intelligences. Can you say which
Gardners intelligences they describe? The first one is done for you.
Good at

intelligence

seeing number patterns and following an Logical-mathematic


argument

famous examples
Albert Einstein

controlling the body and handling objects

being sensitive to others feelings,


emotions, goals and motivations

understanding ones own feelings and


controlling ones own behaviour

Plato

being sensitive to words and sounds and

Shakespeare

61

Charlie Chaplin

Abraham Maslow

the use of language


recognizing and classifying flora and
fauna

Charles Darwin

hearing and making sounds and rhythm in


music

Mozart

understanding the visual


transforming images

Picasso

world

and

b) Can you add any more famous examples of your own to those given in
the third column?

Do this quiz to find out which intelligence you are strongest in. For each
activity give a mark:
If you are very good at the activity, put 4.
If you are OK, but nothing special, put 2.
If you are not good at that activity, put 0.
(Do not spend too much time on this task. Go with your first thoughts.)
A
1
2
3
4

Linguistic intelligence
telling jokes and stories
remembering peoples names
saying tongue twisters ()
learning vocabulary

4, 2, or 0

Total
B
1
2
3
4

Spatial Intelligence
reading maps
drawing
learning from films and pictures
doing jigsaw puzzles()

4, 2, or 0

Total
C
1
2
3
4

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
copying other peoples actions
dancing
making things with my hands
doing sports

4, 2, or 0

Total

62

D
1
2
3
4

Interpersonal intelligence
leading meetings and games
helping my friends
listening to other peoples problems
having lots of friends

4, 2, or 0

Total
E
1
2
3
4

Intrapersonal intelligence
studying alone in the library
spending time on my own ( )
analyzing my personal strengths and weaknesses
learning from my mistakes

4, 2, or 0

Total
F
1
2
3
4

Logical-mathematical intelligence
doing math in my head
enjoy thinking about abstract ideas
playing number games
asking questions about how things work

4, 2, or 0

Total
G
1
2
3
4

Musical intelligence
remembering songs and melodies
playing a musical instrument
singing
tapping rhythmically

4, 2, or 0

Total
H
1
2
3
4

Naturalist intelligence
doing experiments in nature
learning about nature
recognizing different types of things
sorting things into groups

4, 2, or 0

Total

Look at your results. Put them on this graph. Higher numbers show
intelligences you are stronger in, lower numbers show the ones you are weaker in.

63

(from www.teachingenglish.org.uk)

6 Show your results to your groupmate. Tell him/her about them. Are you

surprised by your results? How is your groupmate different from you?


Useful expressions:

Remember
that
phrases
with
adjectives and prepositions are
always followed by gerunds (- ing
form) and not by infinitives
Adj. + prep. + ing-form

Im very good at
Im rather good at
I dont think Im strong in ..

(be fond of, be keen on, be interested


in, be afraid of, be tired of, be proud
of, be responsible for, be excited
about)

Im weak in ..

Discuss the following questions in a group.

1. Are all Gardners intelligences equally valued at school?


2. One criticism of Gardner's theory is that he classifies talents as a type of
intelligence. Critics might say that a talented dancer or chess player is not
necessarily smart. How would you reply to this criticism?
3. If school recognized multiple intelligence, how might the following activities be
revised: activities in the classroom, home assignments, graduation requirements?
4. What activities can be good for your intelligences to help you learn English
better?

64

PROJECT
1

In this unit you have learnt about the theory of multiple intelligence. Now in
groups of 3 or 4 discuss a possible Project of a School that makes use of this theory.
Consider the following aspects:
a) the layout of the school;
b) how students are grouped;
c) how the subjects are taught and assessed;
d) the strengths the teaching staff should have
e) add other aspects you think are necessary.

Decide what format you will use to present your project. It can be a
power point presentation, a poster, an oral presentation, etc.
Yet, a short passage describing your school should be provided.

65

2B

VARIATIONS IN INTELLIGENCE

Listen, read and talk about...


Gender differences

in intelligence
age differences and
IQ
nature vs nurture
problem

Learn how to...

describe numerical data presented in charts and graphs


conduct the Lincoln-Douglas debate
distinguish between different types of graphs

Practice in ...

using vocabulary and structures to describe changes in


numerical data
making dynamic graphs
debating the controversial issues of intelligence

Revise...

saying numbers
using prepositions in describing charts
vocabulary for debating

66

VARIATIONS IN INTELLIGENCE
This part will introduce you to the controversial issues of gender and
age differences in IQ scores. It will also dwell upon the problem of
heritability of intelligence and show you to what extent genes and
environment contribute to individual differences in intelligence
scores.

COMMUNICATION STARTER

a) Work in small groups and discuss the following questions. Choose one

person in your group to jot down your ideas. You may use mind mapping.
Do you think there is a
gender gap in overall
intelligence scores? What
about specific abilities?
How
do
you
think
intelligence changes with
age? Does intelligence of
adult people remain stable
over life span?
Do people who share the
same geneshave similar
mental abilities?
Are there genes for genius?
Does environment influence
intelligence
more
than
genes?

b) Present the results of your group discussion in class.


READING AND SPEAKING

You are going to read about gender and IQ. Before reading the text can you
fill in the grid? Check one column for each skill.
Who usually does better on tests of these skills?
Skills

Males

67

Females

No
difference

speaking fluencies
mathematical ability
reading
general intelligence
spatial relations
fine dexterity (, )

Skim the text below and put the sentences in the correct order to create a
summary of the text.
__ a) Others seem to be influenced by environmental factors.
__b) There is no difference between men and women in measures of global IQ.
__c) Some differences seem to be due to innate factors.
__d) But there are differences between men and women when specific skills are
measured.

Now read the text and find out how accurate your predictions were in

task 1.

GENDER AND IQ
There is a question to which we have a reasonably
definitive answer: Is there a difference in measured IQ
between men and women? Answer: No. At least, there are few
studies that report any differences on tests of overall, general
intelligence of the sort represented by an IQ score. Of course,
we have to keep in mind that there may be no measurable
differences between the IQs of men and women because our
tests are constructed in such a way as to minimize or
eliminate any such differences. Usually, if an item on an
intelligence test clearly discriminates between men and
women, it is dropped from consideration.
When we look beyond the global measure of an IQ
score, however, there do seem to be some reliable indications
of sex differences on specific intellectual skills. For example,
it is generally the case that females score higher than males on
tests of verbal fluency, reading ability, and fine dexterity (the
ability to manipulate small objects). Males, on the other hand,
outscore females on tests of mathematical reasoning and
spatial relations.
Tests of spatial relations require the subject to visualize
and mentally manipulate figures and forms. What is curious
about this rather specialized ability is that males seem to
perform better than females on such tasks from an early age,

68

.
,

widening the gap through the school years, even though this
particular ability seems to be only slightly related to any academic coursework. What this means is that sex differences
here cannot be easily attributed to differences in educational
opportunity.
On the other hand, educational experiences may have a
great deal to do with observed differences in mathematical
ability. Scores on tests of mathematics and arithmetic skills
are very well correlated with the number and nature of the
math classes taken while a student is in high school. For many
reasons, males tend to enroll in advanced math courses at a
higher rate than females. It is not surprising, then, that by the
time they leave high school, there are significant differences
between men and women on tests of mathematical ability.
So it seems that any differences that can be found between
males and females on intellectual tasks are reasonably small,
quite specific, and probably due to environmental influences
and schooling experiences.
(Adapted from Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human
Behavior. Reading. Study Skills. Writing. Cambridge University
Press, 1997)
(

4 a)

Read the text in more detail and decide which of the following skills are
due to environmental factors (write ENV in the blank) and which are due to
innate factors (write INN in the blank)? If no explanation is given, leave the blank
empty:
___ reading
___ math
___ verbal fluency
___ fine dexterity
___ spatial relations

b) Compare your answers with a partners. Find the parts of the text which led
you to your answers.

5 a) Scan the text and find the words that go with the word test. Remember
to put them on your collocation map.

b) Without looking back at the text, make true sentences comparing males and
females. Use the following structures:
do (perform) + better (worse)+ than;

69

score+ higher (lower )+ than;


outscore sb
Ex.: Males / females / memory tests. Males score lower than females on memory tests.
1. Males / females / spatial tests.
2. Males / females / fine dexterity
2. Males / females / verbal tests.
3. Females / males / tests of mathematical reasoning.
4. Males / females / tests of reading abilities.

READING AND MAKING GRAPHS

Skim the text below and find the paragraph in which each of the
following appears. Put the number of the paragraph in the blank.
__ a) data about IQ scores gathered using a cross-sectional method.
__ b) an example to show why the best answer to questions about IQ and age is It
depends.
__ c) a definition of the longitudinal method of gathering data.
__ d) a discussion about the usefulness of giving IQ tests to young children.
__ e) definitions of fluid intelligence and rystallized intelligence.
__ f) a comparison of the IQ scores of young children with their adult IQ score.

2 Now read the text and answer the questions:


1. What is the youngest age at which you can test a childs IQ and closely predict the
childs adult IQ?
2. The authors answer to the question Does intelligence decrease with age? is
yes, no, and it depends. Can you explain why each of the answers is
possible?
3. What are the differences between collecting cross-sectional data and collecting
data longitudinally?
4. What abilities show the level of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence?

AGE DIFFERENCES AND IQ


You know a great deal more now than you did
when you were 12 years old. You knew more when
you were 12 than you did when you were 10.
Certainly what we know generally increases with age,

70

but what we "know" is not a direct measure of


intelligence.
One interesting question is whether the IQ scores
of young children 2 can predict their IQ scores at ages
14 or 40 or 80. As it happens, the measured IQs of
individuals much younger than 7 do not correlate
very well with later IQ scores. We cannot put too
much importance on IQs earned by 4-year-olds as
predictors of adult intellectual abilities.
This does not mean that the testing of young
children is without purpose. Determining the
intellectual abilities of young children is often very
useful, particularly if there is some concern about
retardation or if there is some thought that the child
may be exceptional or gifted. The resulting scores
may not predict adult intelligence well, but they do
serve as a guide to assess the development of the child
compared to other children. Even taken as a rough
guide or indicator, knowing as early as possible that
there may be some intellectual problem with a
youngster is useful information.
What about intellectual changes throughout
one's whole life span? Does intelligence decrease with
age? Perhaps you can anticipate the answer: yes, no,
and it depends. Much of the data that we have on age
differences in IQ scores have been gathered using a
cross-sectional method. That is, IQ tests are given at
roughly the same time to a large number of subjects of
different ages. When that is done, the results seem to
indicate that overall, global IQ peaks in the early 20s,
stays rather stable for about 20 years, and then
declines rather sharply.
A different approach to the same question would
be to test the same individuals over a long period of
time. This is the longitudinal method. When this
technique is used, things don't look quite the same,
usually showing IQ scores rising until the mid-50s and
then very gradually declining.
So we have a qualified "yes" and a qualified "no"
as answers to our questions about age and IQ so far.
Probably the best answer is "It depends." Some studies
of cognitive abilities seem to demonstrate that we
should ask about specific intellectual skills, because
they do not all decline at the same rate, and some do

71

Correlation is one of
the most basic statistical
terms. It tells you how
closely two conditions
(variables) are related.
The highest possible
correlation is 1.0, which
means that every time
one variable is present,
the other is also present.

. ;

not decline at all. For example, tests of vocabulary


often show no drop in scores with increasing age
whatsoever, while tests of verbal fluency often show
steep declines beginning at age 30.
Another "it depends" answer comes to the
surface when we consider the distinction between
what is called fluid intelligence and crystallized
intelligence. It appears that fluid intelligence - abilities
that relate to speed, adaptation, flexibility, and abstract
reasoning - includes the sorts of skills that show the
greatest decline with age. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence - abilities that depend on acquired
knowledge, accumulated experiences, and general
information - includes the sorts of skills that remain
quite constant or even increase throughout one's lifetime.
(Adapted from Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human
Behavior. Reading. Study Skills. Writing. Cambridge
University Press, 1997)

Put each of the following verbs into


the correct column, depending on
whether it describes changing upwards or
downwards.
decline
rise
double

decrease
peak
jump

increase
drop
fall

Knowing how to interpret


statistical data in graphs, charts
and diagrams is an important skill
for a psychology student.
You may start developing this skill
by learning certain words and
collocations frequently used to
describe changes in numerical
data.

4. a)

Most of the verbs from exercise 3 collocate with adverbs to describe


changes in data. Put these adverbs into the correct column depending on whether
they describe a fast or a slow movement up or down.
gradually

sharply

steadily

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steeply

suddenly

5.

The two sentence structures given below are very useful in describing charts
and graphs:
[noun phrase] + [verb] + [adverb]
Ex.: Mean IQ scores have increased considerably in the past 50
years.
[there is/was/has been] + [noun
phrase]
Ex.: There has been a gradual increase in brain volume as we
progressed along the Human timeline of evolution..

Finish the sentences below so that they mean the same as the ones given.
1. Starting with the mid-50s IQ scores decline gradually.
There
2. IQ scores gradually rose until the mid-50s.
There
3 Global IQ peaks in the early 20s.
There.
4. Her IQ score slightly decreased last year due to a lack of motivation.
There
5. His fluid intelligence has fallen significantly over the past 5 years.
There

Here are some more collocations to describe graphs and charts. Can you say
what changes the boldfaced words and collocations describe? Give their Russian
equivalents.
1. There has been a considerable increase in mean IQ scores in the past 50 years.

73

2. Scores on nonverbal IQ tests have risen dramatically throughout the world since
the 1930s.
3. It can be seen from the diagram that individual intelligence scores fluctuate a great
deal over childhood and adolescence.
4. The bar chart shows that the IQ of babies and infants fed junk food has slightly
reduced, while the IQ of those going in for healthy diets has slightly increased.
5. The childrens IQ scores fell by* 1.67 for every increase on a chart reflecting the
amount of processed fat in their diet.
6. The chart shows that fertility is correlated at 0.86 with IQ for white women and
0.96 for black women.
*
For the correct use of prepositions in describing dynamic charts and graphs see
Appendix 10.

7.

Based on what you have read in the text decide whether the following
statements are true or false. Correct the false statements.
1. According to the data gathered using a cross-sectional method, global IQ stays
stable until the age of 40 and then decreases gradually.
2. Data based on a longitudinal method show that IQ scores increase until mid-50s and
then fall gradually.
3. Most studies show a slight rise in all cognitive abilities with age.
4. Tests on vocabulary demonstrate a significant fluctuation at an elderly age.
5. Tests of verbal fluency often show a dramatic decline beginning at age 30.
6. Fluid intelligence shows a considerable drop with age.
7. Crystallized intelligence remains stable and even rises throughout lifetime.

8.

This graph shows how global IQ scores change with age when gathered using a
longitudinal method.

Global IQ scores (longitudinal method)


IQ scores

high

low
10

20

30

40

50
60
Age

70

80

a) Make similar graphs to illustrate the other changes in test scores described in
the text Age differences and IQ.
Global IQ scores (cross-sectional method)
high

74

IQ scores

low
10

20

30

40

50
60
Age

70

80

40

50

60

70

80

60

70

80

60

70

80

Vocabulary test scores


IQ scores

high

low
10

20

30

Age

Tests of verbal fluency


IQ scores

high

low
10

20

30

40

50

Age

Crystallized intelligence scores


IQ scores

high

low
10

20

30

40

50

Age

Fluid intelligence scores


IQ scores

high

low

75

10

20

30

40

50
60
Age

70

80

b) Compare your graphs with your groupmates ones.


9. Without looking back at the text write the description of the graphs you
have created. Use your active vocabulary.
The graphs you have created and described are line graphs which are the most
widely used ones in psychology textbooks and journals. For information on other
kinds of graphs used for presenting and analyzing data and their examples see Appendix
11.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Nature versus nurture is one of the oldest and most enduring issues in all of
psychology. You will now listen to a lecture Intelligence nature or nurture?
Before listening discuss the following questions in small groups.
1. Can there be a clear answer to the question of what determines intelligence? Why?
Why not?
2. What experiments could be made to support the nature or the nurture view of
intelligence?
3. What problems can arise while conducting experiments with human subjects?

Consider the difference between the notions below. Give their Russian
equivalents.
Use a dictionary if necessary.
1. inherited / biological
2. identical twins / fraternal twins
3. twins / siblings
4. raised together / raised apart
5. adopted children / biological children

3 a) Read the following statements and try to guess


whether they are true or false.
1. It is not difficult to determine the influence of nature and nurture on intelligence.
2. There is animal and human research to support the nature view of intelligence.
3. The correlation of IQ scores for identical twins raised together is significant.
4. Identical twins raised together have more similar IQ scores than fraternal twins raised
together.

76

5. The IQ correlation of fraternal twins is the same as the IQ correlation of siblings.


6. Adopted children have an IQ more like their adoptive parents.

b)

Now listen to Part I of the lecture and


check your guesses.

4. a)

Listen to Part I of the lecture one more


time and say what the numbers below represent.
Match the two columns. Pronounce the numbers.
We remind that the rules of saying numbers
are described in Appendix 7.

0.72
0.85
0.45
0.6

You may find this glossary helpful for


understanding the lecture
a maze
a labyrinth
an error
a mistake
to breed
to
cause to
reproduce (esp.
animals)
DNA
deoxyribonucleic
acid

fraternal twins raised together


siblings raised together
identical twins raised together
identical twins raised apart

b)

Can you present these data in a graph? A bar graph seems to be the most
appropriate here. Consider the following:
- what the vertical axis (Y-Axis) of your graph shows;
- what the horizontal axis (X-Axis) shows;
- the title of your graph.
(Remember that the highest possible correlation is 1.0)

c) Write 4-5 sentences to describe your chart. You may find the following phrases
useful.

Useful language
The chart compares
shows
demonstrates
represents
The highest/lowest correlation is
The IQ correlation of is higher / lower than

have (has) an IQ correlation of


It is clear from the chart that

77

5 Based on the text of the lecture answer the following questions.


1. What animal research is there to support the nature view of intelligence?
2. Why do identical twins raised together have a higher IQ correlation than fraternal twins
raised together?
3. Why is the correlation of IQ scores for fraternal twins higher than that for siblings?
4. What is there in the research on the identical twins which shows us that nature is not the
only factor determining intelligence?
5. How do adoption studies support the nature view?

Before listening to Part II of the lecture consider the difference between the
notions below. Give their Russian equivalents. Use a dictionary if necessary.
1. enriched environment / impoverished environment
2. inner city homes / suburban homes
3. single-parent family / nuclear family

7 a)

Read the following statements and try to guess whether they are true or

false.
1. The rats raised in impoverished environment are as bright as the ones raised in
enriched environment.
2. Kids raised in suburban homes have a higher IQ than similar kids raised in inner
city environment.
3. Firstborns from smaller families have higher IQs than firstborns from larger
families.
4. Single-parenting negatively influences a childs IQ.

b) Now listen to Part II of the lecture and


check your guesses.

8. Listen to the lecture one more time


answer the questions.

and

You may find this glossary helpful for


understanding the lecture
confluence
model
which
model
explains birthorder difference
in intelligence
successive
coming
one
after another

1. How does Hebbes experiment with rats support


the nurture view of intelligence?
2. How does a childs environment affect his or her
intellectual development?
3. Who developed the confluence model? What is an intellectual climate of the family,
and how does it affect a childs IQ?
4. According to the lecture, what other environmental factors affect a childs intellectual
development?

78

DEBATES
Organize debates on one of the following topics.

79

1. The IQ test is the best tool for assessing a persons intelligence.


2. IQ tests should be abolished.
3. Measures of intelligence have no use.
4. A stupid person can become smart.
5. The younger generation is more intelligent than the older
Before the debate
1. Choose a topic for your debates. You may suggest a topic of your own. Yet, it should
be related to the problems of intelligence.
2. Find out what a debate is and how it works. The information in Appendix 11 will be of
use here. You can also find and watch samples of debates in the Internet.
3. Get divided into teams of six and decide which side of the argument to take: FOR or
AGAINST the topic of the debate.
4. Think of arguments to support your position. Use the material presented in this unit, go
to a library, search the Internet. Remember to use your collocation maps, mind maps,
summaries of the texts, graphs and their descriptions.
Conducting the debate*
1. Consolidate your ideas in a group and prepare your opening statements.
2. Distribute the following roles between the members of your group.
Moderator

calls the debate to order, poses the debatable point/question,


and
introduces the debaters and their roles.

Lead Debater

presents the main points/arguments for his or her team's stand


on the topic of the debate.

Cross-Examiner

poses questions about the opposing team's arguments to its


Question Responder

Question Responder

takes over the role of the Lead Debater as he or she responds to


questions posed by the opposing team's Cross-Examiner.

Rebutter

responds on behalf of his or her team to as many of the


questions raised in the cross-examination as possible.

Summarizer

closes the debate by summarizing the main points of his or her


team's arguments, especially attempts by the opposition to
shoot holes ( ) in their arguments.

3. Conduct the debate (see Appendix 12)


Note that in this format both teams offer a closing summary/argument after the
rebuttals
*We
suggest
using
the
Lincoln-Douglas
format
(http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/03/lp304-01.shtml)

adapted

for

classroom

You may find USEFUL VOCABULARY for debates in Appendix 12.

After the debate


After the debate the audience (or/and the judges) should decide which team has
developed and presented the best argument.

ACHIEVEMENT TEST

1 Write terms to match these definitions.


1. The capacity of an individual to understand the world and his (or her)
resourcefulness to respond to its challenges.
2. The model which explains the effect of birth order and family size on IQ scores.
3. The theory which argues that we have at least eight intelligences.
4. A persons mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
5. A famous test that computes a verbal score, a performance score and a total
score.
6. Skills (measured by Stanford-Binet Test) needed to solve problems that involve
figural or nonverbal types of information.
7. The ability to manipulate small objects.
8. The method of gathering data in which IQ tests are given at roughly the same
time to a large number of subjects of different ages.
9. A statistical term which tells you how closely two variables are related.
10. One of the oldest debates in psychology that centers on the influence of genetic or
environmental factors on a persons intellectual development.
10 points

2 Write the names for the following.


1. 3 Wechsler intelligence tests;
2. 3 types of abilities that Stanford-Binet test measures;
3. 8 kinds of intelligence identified by Gardner.
14 points

3 Write as many synonyms as it is indicated in parenthesis.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

intelligent (4)
unintelligent (3)
get over a problem (2)
adopt a label (1)
brothers and sisters (1)

6. to construct a test (1)


7. to give a test (1)
8. to modify a test (1)
9. a decrease in IQ scores (3)
10. to change dramatically (2)
19 points

4 Write antonyms to the following word combinations.


1. mentally retarded (1)
2. fraternal twins (1)
3. biological parents (1)

4. impoverished environment (1)


5. to decrease by 10% (3)

7 points

5 Insert prepositions where necessary.


1. Intelligence is a mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking,
cope challenges, and learn their experiences.
2. A researcher conducted an investigation to determine the correlation
intelligence and performance in GCSE exams.
3. The IQ test shows that he has an IQ ... 123.
4. Scores on tests of math are very well correlated the number and nature of
the math classes taken while a student is in high school.
5. Asian children and Asian American children frequently outscore other
American children intelligence tests.
6. The IQs of black children have been inflated for decades due the
millions spent at inner city schools, while adult average IQs remain 85.
7. The Irish IQ has risen 12 points since 1970.
8. The study reports there was a drastic increase IQ scores during the 20th
century,
9. After the treatment the patients IQ reached 85 points.
12 points

6. Look at the graph below and describe it using your active vocabulary.
The following questions can help you.
What kind of graph is this?
What does the graph show?
What does the Y-Axis (the X-Axis) represent?
When were the data first collected?
How have the correlations changed over 13 years?
What are the correlations during the first (the second) stage of data collection?
What conclusion can you make?

(from http://wilderdom.com/personality/L4-1IntelligenceNatureVsNurture.html)
18 points
Total 80 points

SELF-CHECKLIST
5.
6.
7.
8.

Use this Checklist to record what you can do (column 1).


Ask your teacher to assess what s/he thinks you can do (column 2).
Use Column 3 to mark those things which are important for you (Column 3).
Add to the list other things that you can do, or that are important for your language
learning at this level. Use the following symbols:

In column 1 and 2:
I can do this under normal circumstances
I can do it easily

In column 3:
!
This is an objective for me
!!
This is a priority for me

If you have over 80% of the points ticked, you have probably reached your
learning goals.
I know/have learnt

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

1
2

different definitions of intelligence


different approaches to intelligence
what is IQ and how it is measured
what a collocation is and why they are
important for learning English
the collocations for the words test and
intelligence
how to take notes effectively
if there are gender differences in IQ and
what they are
how the IQ changes with age
two research methods used in
developmental psychology
the factors that influence the
development of intelligence
different types of graphs
the collocations and sentence structures
to describe graphs
how to conduct debates
I can
speak about the problems in defining
intelligence
speak about the purposes of the StanfordBinet test and the Wechsler test and their

1
My
assessment

2
Teachers
Assessment

3
Importanc
e

3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1
2
3
4
5

2
3

specific features
speak about the theory of multiple
intelligence
speak about my personal intelligences
speak about the problem of labeling
take notes of a lecture effectively
say formulae and equations
speak about gender differences in IQ
describe age differences and IQ and
show them on graphs
say how biological and environmental
factors contribute to IQ development
use the correct vocabulary and structures
to describe graphs
describe the format of the LincolnDouglas debate
participate in debates effectively
I know/have revised
how to say numbers
how to write a summary
using gerunds
prepositions to describe charts and
graphs
vocabulary for debating
I have made/ written
a summary of the text
________________________________
___
(specify the title of the text)
collocation maps for test,
intelligence, problem
made a bar graph to represent the data
supporting the nature view of
intelligence
made a Project of a School that makes
use of the theory of multiple intelligence
I can also do the following

VOCABULARY FILE

Words and word combinations

1. administer (v)
~ a test
synonym: conduct
2. adopted (adj)
~ child
adoptive (adj)
~ parents
~ family
adopt (v)
~ a baby/ teenager etc.
adoption (n)
3. alternate (v)
synonyms: take turns, vary
4. ambiguity (n)
present ~
synonyms: uncertainty, unclearness
5. assess (v)
~ intelligence
synonym: evaluate, estimate
assessment (n)
6. assortment (n)
~ of tasks
synonyms: range, variety
7.capacity (n)
innate/ natural ~
intellectual / mental ~
synonyms: capability, mental ability
8. challenge (n)
cope with ~s
synonyms: question, demand
challenge (v)

For your notes


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~ the theory
9. correlate (v)
~ highly / significantly/ well
~ positively/ negatively
correlation (n)
high / low ~
positive ~
10.cope (v)
~ with challenges
synonyms: handle, manage
11. current (adj)
~ usage
~ theory
synonyms: modern, present
12. decrease (v)
~ considerably/significantly/
slightly/gradually/suddenly/steadily
synonyms: fall, drop, decline
decrease (n)
~ in sth (a number of people)
~ of (5%)
Synonyms: fall, decline, drop
13. demand (n)
cope with ~s
synonyms: challenge, question
14. devise (v)
~ a test
synonym: invent
15. dexterity (n)
fine ~
synonyms: ability, aptitude, craftsmanship
16. dull (adj)
label sb ~
synonyms: stupid, unintelligent
antonyms: bright, intelligent

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17. dunce (n)


be labeled a ~
synonyms:idiot, half-wit
antonyms: genius, brain
18. eliminate (v)
~ differences
synonyms: abolish, liquidate
19. enriched (adj)
~ environment
antonym: impoverished
20. fluctuate (v)
~ considerably/ sharply/ a great deal
synonyms: vary, go up and down
21. gifted (adj)
~ child
synonyms: intelligent, clever, talented
giftedness (n)
22. impoverished (adj)
~ environment
antonym: enriched
23. increase (v)
~ considerably/significantly/
slightly/gradually/suddenly/steadily
synonyms: rise, raise, grow
increase (n)
~ in sth (IQ scores)
~ of (5%)
synonyms: rise, grow
24. inherited (adj)
~ ability
synonyms: inborn, innate
antonym: biological
25. innate (adj)
~ factor
~ ability
synonyms: inborn, inherited

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antonym: biological
26.intelligence (n)
multiple ~
synonyms: cleverness, intellect,
sagacity,wits
intelligent (adj)
synonyms: brainy, clever, smart, bright,
resourceful, wise
antonyms: stupid, dumb, dull, silly, foolish
27. label (v)
~sb (un)intelligent
label (n)
give a ~
28. measure(v)
~ IQ
~ an ability/ skill
synonyms: assess, estimate
measure (n)
ratio ~
measurement (n)
29. memory (n)
~ for sth
bead ~
long-term ~
short-term ~
memorize (v)
30. outscore (n)
~ sb on sth
31.overcome (v)
~ difficulties /problems
synonym: get over
32. raise (v)
~ apart
~ together
synonyms: breed, bring up
33. ratio (v)

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~ measure
synonyms: proportion, quotient
34. resourcefulness (n)
synonym: capability
resourceful (adj)
synonyms: able, bright, capable, talented
35. retardation (n)
mental ~
synonyms: backwardness, subnormality
retarded (adj)
mentally ~
36. revise (v)
~ a test
synonyms: correct, edit, rewrite
revision (n)
major ~
latest ~
37. scale (n)
intelligence ~
performance ~
verbal ~
Wechsler ~
38. score (n)
~ for sth (creativity)
~ on a test
get a ~
intelligence/performance/ verbal/ total ~
Standard Age ~
synonym: result
score (v)
~ high(ly) / well (on a test)
~ low
39. sharp (adj)
~ rise in sth
sharply (adv)
rise ~
fall ~
synonyms: suddenly, unexpectedly

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_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

antonyms: slowly, gradually


40. sibling(s) (n)
synonym: brothers and sisters
41. skill (n)
intellectual~
visual-spatial~
test a ~
synonym: ability, aptitude, intelligence,
talent
antonym: inability
42. smarts (n)
street ~
synonym: intelligence
43. solve (v)
~ a problem
synonyms: answer, clarify, resolve,
overcome
solution (n)
find a ~ to sth
44. steep (adj)
~ decline in sth
steeply (adv)
decrease ~
fall ~
synonym: abruptly
antonym: gradually
45. successive (adj)
~ child
synonyms: following, succeeding
46. twin (n)
identical ~s
fraternal ~s

_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________

APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Causality: Structure and Vocabulary
Aid

The

cause of
reason for

The
One

effect
consequence
result

higher prices was an increase in demand.

of an increase in demand is
to
Therefore,
So,
As a result,
Accordingly,
Consequently,
Because of this,
Thus,
Hence,
For this reason,

The demand has increased,

Because
As
Since

higher prices.

the demand has increased

An increase in demand often

The prices are higher

causes
results in
leads to
produces

because of
as a result of
on account of
owing to
through
because
since
as

raise
increase

the prices are higher

the prices are higher

higher prices

an increase in demand

there is

prices

Appendix 2. Writing a Summary

A summary is a shortening, in your own words, of a text of written work. You are
to describe as accurately and briefly as possible the main ideas contained in a
text. A good summary shows that you have understood the text.
A summary should be quite short, regardless of the original's length. No concrete
examples or details (quotes or paraphrases from the original) are used here.
One of the first difficulties to overcome in writing a summary is getting the facts
straight. You should make no statements unsupported by the text. Make sure that all
you say about the text is factually correct.
Another difficulty is putting the material into your own words. To do so, read the
work carefully at least three times, put the work aside, then begin writing. This will
force you to use your own words without the temptation of borrowing directly from
the original.
Selecting the most important details is also a difficulty. Work to pick out those
details that are of greatest significance. Some details are more important than others,
and you must chose details according to the scale of importance.
Do not make any conclusions about the original, its audience, or anything relating to
the text. Your job is to provide your reader with an accurate, but brief, map of the
original and what you think about the writing or the topic of the text is not relevant
here.
Summary, unlike an outline, is a coherent piece of writing

1 Write down the main features of a summary.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

THE STAGES OF WRITING A SUMMARY:


1. Read and understand the text carefully.
2. Find the main ideas
a. They may be found in topic sentences.

b. Distinguish between main and subsidiary information.


c. Delete most details and examples, unimportant information, anecdotes,
examples, illustrations, data etc.
d. Make an outline.
3. Paraphrase write in your own words .
a. Find alternative words/synonyms for words/phrases that express the
main ideas - do not change specialised vocabulary and common words.
b. Identify the meaning relationships between the words/ideas - e.g.
cause/effect, generalisation, contrast. Express these relationships in a
different way.
c. Change the grammar of the text: rearrange words and sentences. Change
nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs, etc., break up long sentences,
combine short sentences.
d. Simplify the text. Reduce complex sentences to simple sentences, simple
sentences to phrases, phrases to single words.
4. Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. Combine your notes into a piece
of coherent writing. Use conjunctions and adverbs such as 'therefore', 'however',
'although', 'since', to show the connections between the ideas.
5. Check your work. Make sure your summary is:
a. in your own words
b. contains the main ideas
c. factually correct
d. objective: no personal ideas
e. short
f. coherent
Reading for important points
Identifying what is important in a text depends on knowing where to look but it also
depends on knowing what to look for the clues which help us to identify the
important points and to separate them from less important details.
Discourse markers or signposts can be such clues. They can help you to find the
important parts of a text. They can also warn you that some things in the text are not so
important. Lets examine some of the signposts writers use.
1. These phrases indicate an important point:
The main I important point I conclusion I reason . . .
The point to note here . . .
Above all . . .
2. Sometimes we are told how many important points to expect. For example:
There are three major reasons . . .
1. Important points may be highlighted using italics, bold type or capitals:

Answers to questions in psychology depend very much on the way in which the
questions are asked. To answer this particular question, we need to define both
psychology and science.
4. 'But' and 'however' often indicate an important contrast, qualification or correction.
For example:
The rising birth rate is not due to increased fertility, but to a sharp decline in
the death rate.
5. Asking a question in a text is a way of highlighting the answer which follows. For
example:
Why is a piped water supply so important? Disease due to contaminated
water is a common cause of death in childhood.
6. A writer may repeat an important point to make sure it is understood. For example:
Death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, the death rate can
be cut without anything else changing.
7. Conclusions are usually important. Look out for signposts such as:
therefore
the result
in conclusion
we can conclude
one of the primary conclusions
8. Examples are usually less important, although a key example can help you to
remember a main point. Examples are signposted by phrases such as:
for example/instance
like
such as
these include
to illustrate
among these are
They may also be shown simply by punctuation. For example:
The developing countries are dependent on cash crops - sugar, coffee, cacao,
cotton.
Precipitating factors are those which reduce the food supply (droughts, floods,
wars, epidemics) . . .
Paraphrasing
Examples:
a. Paul Ekman from the University of California has conducted a long series of
experiments on how nonverbal behaviour may reveal real inner states.
Paul Ekman who works at the University of California has performed a sequence of
investigations on the way nonverbal behaviour may disclose real internal
conditions.
b. Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving information.
Memory is the facility storing and retrieving for data.
c. It is worth looking at one or two aspects of the way a mother behaves towards her
baby.

It is useful to observe several features of how a mother acts when she is with her
small child.
Identify the meaning relationships in the text and express them in a different
way.
Examples:
a. Besides being a theory about the basis and origin of knowledge and the contents of
our minds in general, empiricism is also sometimes a methodology.
Not only is empiricism a theory about the basis and origin of knowledge and the
contents of our minds in general, it also sometimes a methodology.
b. As opposed to this, Locke is often supposed to be saying that, in addition to
properties, things have a "substratum" which "supports" their properties.
Locke is often supposed to be saying, on the other hand, that, in addition to
properties, things have a "substratum" which "supports" their properties.
c. Consequently in a sense one may speak of the Common Law as unwritten law in
contrast
with
Statute
Law,
which
is
written
law.
In a sense, therefore, one may speak of the Common Law as unwritten law in
contrast with Statute Law, which is written law.
Change the grammar of the text:
Examples:
i. change nouns to verbs
This rewriting of history was not so much a matter of a new start.
This rewriting of history was not so much a matter of starting again.
ii. change verbs to nouns
The Normans invaded in 1066.
The Norman invasion took place in 1066.
iii. change adverbs to adjectives
a. He wrote frequently.
He wrote on frequent occasions.
b. Politically, it was a bad decision.
From a political point of view, it was a bad decision.
iv. change active verbs to passive
a. We can relate a study of this kind to texts in other media too
A study of this kind can be related to texts in other media too.
b. In this treatment the teacher can use a variety of techniques to elicit the language
learners already know.
In this treatment a variety of techniques is used to elicit the language learners
already know.
v. break up sentences
In 1851 the average family size was 4.7, roughly the same as it had been in the
seventeenth century, but the 1 million couples who married during the 1860s, which

the historian G. M. Young described as the best decade in English history to have been
brought up in, raised the figure to 6.2.
In 1851 the average family size was 4.7, roughly the same as it had been in the
seventeenth century. However, the 1 million couples who married during the 1860s,
which the historian G. M. Young described as the best decade in English history to
have been brought up in, raised the figure to 6.2.
vi. combine sentences
Tropical forests are defined here as evergreen or partly evergreen forests. They grow
in areas receiving not less than 100 mm of precipitation in any month for two out of
three years. The mean annual temperature is 24-plus degrees Celsius. The area is
essentially
frost-free.
Tropical forests are defined here as evergreen or partly evergreen forests, in areas
receiving not less than 100 mm of precipitation in any month for two out of three
years, with mean annual temperature of 24-plus degrees Celsius, and essentially frostfree.
Paraphrasing and shortening
Examples:
a) It is undeniable that the large majority of non-native learners of English
experience a number of problems in attempting to master the phonetic patterns of
the
language.
Many learners find English pronunciation difficult.
b) Tea, whether of the China or Indian variety, is well known to be high on the list of
those beverages which are most frequently drunk by the inhabitants of the British
Isles.
The British drink a large amount of tea.
c) It is not uncommon to encounter sentences which, though they contain a great
number of words and are constructed in a highly complex way, none the less turn
out on inspection to convey very little meaning of any kind.
Some long and complicated sentences mean very little.
d) One of the most noticeable phenomena in any big city, such as London or Paris, is
the steadily increasing number of petrol-driven vehicles, some in private
ownership, others belonging to the public transport system, which congest the
roads and render rapid movement more difficult year by year.
Big cities have growing traffic problems.

Appendix 3. Doing a Stress Test


Are you stressed? Find out by taking the test below. Answer these 20 questions
choosing between Yes or No.
Do you frequently neglect your diet?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently try to do everything yourself?
- Yes
- No
Do you often blow up easily?
- Yes
- No
Do you sometimes seek unrealistic goals?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently fail to see the humor in situations others find funny?
- Yes
- No
Are you easily irritated?
- Yes
- No
Do you often make a big deal of everything?
- Yes
- No
Do you remember yourself complaining about others being disorganized?
- Yes
- No
Do you often happen to keep everything inside?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently neglect exercise?
- Yes
- No
Do you sometimes feel you have few supportive relationship?
- Yes
- No
Do you often get too little rest?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently get angry when you are kept waiting?
- Yes
- No
Do you sometimes ignore stress symptoms?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently put things off until later?
- Yes
- No
Are you inclined to think there is only one right way to do something?
- Yes
- No
Do you sometimes fail to build relaxation into every day?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently spend a lot of time complaining about the past?

- Yes
- No
Do you often race through the day?
- Yes
- No
Do you frequently feel unable to cope with all you have to do?
- Yes
- No
(retrieved on http://www.lessons4living.com/stress_test.htm)
Now calculate your results.
Here is your score:
Few hassles.
Scores of 1-6
Pretty good control.
Scores of 7-12
Danger zone. Watch out!
Scores of 13-17
Stressed out! You may need help.
Scores 18+
Write down 5 more questions that you can ask somebody to check if they are
often under stress.

Appendix 4. Text Scanning and Writing the


Summary

1 To learn more about imagery as a stress-management technique and practise


your reading strategies scan the following text. You might try to locate in it the
following bits of information:

The definition of guided imagery;


Effects of guided imagery on a persons body and emotional state;
Advantages of guided imagery application.

GUIDED IMAGERY TO REDUCE STRESS


BY GERI WALTON
Although not all stress is harmful to the body, chronic stress can cause physical,
emotional and psychological strain on the body. It can affect the body in a negative
way because when you are chronically stressed, the adrenal glands are in high gear
making cortisol, and cortisol can damage the body.
Symptoms of chronic stress on the body may be mild at first. A person may
suffer a headache or cold. However, the longer chronic stress exists the more likely
serious health consequences are to develop, and they can include:

cancer
cardiovascular disease
depression
diabetes
hair loss
hypertension
immune problems
insomnia
obesity
obsessive-compulsive
anxiety disorder
sexual dysfunction
thyroid problems
ulcers

or

One way to reduce stress is through guided imagery. Guided imagery is a


language the mind uses to communicate with the body in a positive way, and
it usually includes pleasant images. To gain maximum benefit, these images often
include using all of a persons sensessight, sound, taste, smell, touchto
experience the event. When a person uses all senses, his or her body responds as if the

event were real. Having such an experience can then allow a person to heal him/herself
subconsciously and achieve positive and desirable outcomes because it improves wellbeing, confidence, and health.
Guided imagery also leads to relaxation and improved physiological responses by
the body, so that the brain can release chemicals to lower blood pressure, reduce pain,
improve breathing, and relieve other stress-induced conditions. Guided imagery can
also improve certain white cell functions important to the immune system and thereby
increase its effectiveness.
There are also several advantages to guided imagery in relation to other relaxation
techniques. For instance, there are no physical limitations such as those required when
a person does yoga or tai chi. Guided imagery also requires no medications, so people
dont have to worry about adverse reactions that might occur if they were to use herbal
theraphy or medications. Additionally, guided imagery is cost effective because tapes
or CD are low-cost but highly effective, and theyre easy to use.
There are various forms of guided imagery. Here is one example, with a few simple
steps to help you achieve guided imagery on your own.
1. Soothing music can enhance any guided imagery practice, so if you want put on
some soothing music. Then find a comfortable chair and assume a meditative
posture.
2. Dim the lights, close your eyes, and take a few deep breaths.
3. Picture yourself walking down an imaginary staircase, and with each step relax
deeper and deeper.
4. When youre relaxed, imagine yourself in a favorite spot, such as the
mountains, the beach, or near a babbling stream? Dont worry if your mind
wanders. If it does gently return to your practice.
5. Try to make the event as realistic as possible. Is the weather hot or cold? Is the
wind blowing? What do you smell? Do you hear birds chirping or is it
completely quiet? Are you alone or other people nearby?
6. As you relax deeper and the image becomes clearer, feel the positive emotions
from being in such a place. Then mentally reinforce the imagery by internally
saying something, such as I am totally relaxed and stress-free, I am letting
go of all tension, or I am relaxed. I am calm. As you do so, notice how the
stress pours out of your body by allowing it to flow out through your feet.
7. Relax and stay with the pleasant setting for at least ten minutes. During that
time, also notice how your body feels lighter, how aches and tension seem to
disappear, and how your breathing becomes more relaxed.
8. To end the session, take a few more deep breaths and see yourself climbing
back up the staircase.
9. Stretch and open your eyes. Then sit quietly for a few minutes and think about
what happened. If you want you can also keep a journal and write down any
thoughts that came to mind from the experience.

(Retrieved: http://www.newrinkles.com/index.php/mental/stress-management/guidedimagery-to-reduce-stress)

The most important information that you have located from the text
GUIDED IMAGERY TO REDUCE STRESS when doing Task 1 will help you
to structure your ideas for writing the summary of this text. In case you need to
refresh your knowledge about the steps of writing the summary, check Appendix
1.
Write your summary in the space provided below.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Appendix 5. Interview Structures


Questions Types
a) Open-Ended Questions
These allow the respondent open options for responding. Open-ended questions
include those such as What do you think about the things in your daily life that stress
you most? and Please tell me about any recent situation when you felt you were
losing control. Consider the phrase "open-ended". "Open" actually describes the
interviewees options for responding. They are open. The response can be two words
or two paragraphs, or twenty-two paragraphs even.
Open-ended interview questions:
Put the interviewee at ease;
Allow the interviewer to pick up on the interviewees vocabulary, which
reflects his/her education, values, attitudes, and beliefs;
Provide richness of detail;
Make it more interesting for the interviewee;
Allow more spontaneity;
Make phrasing easier for the interviewer;
b) Closed Questions
These questions limit the options the respondent has for responding. Such
questions are of the basic form starting with: How many? or Do you agree that...?
or When? The possible responses are closed to the interviewees, since they can only
reply with a finite number such as, for example, Yes, No, or One or Never.
A closed question limits the response available to the interviewee. You may be
familiar with closed questions through multiple-choice exams in college. You are
given a question and five responses, but you are not allowed to write down your own
response and still be counted as having correctly answered the question.
A special kind of closed question is the bipolar question. This limits the
interviewee even further by only allowing a choice on either pole, such as yes or no,
true or false, agree or disagree:
Do you use pills before going to bed to help you fall asleep quicker?
Do you agree or disagree that there is no use taking responsibility for another
peoples actions which you cannot control? etc.
The benefits of using closed questions of either type include:
Saving time;
Getting to the point;
Keeping control over the interview;
Covering lots of ground quickly;
Getting to relevant data.
Arranging Questions in a Logical Sequence

There are two of recognised ways of reasoning inductive and deductive, and
there are two similar ways of organising your interviews. A third way combines both
inductive and deductive patterns.
a) Using a Pyramid Structure
The interviewer expands the topics by allowing open-ended questions and
more generalized responses. Pyramid structure for interviewing goes from specific
to general questions.

WH-quest.
Yes/No question
What do you think?
What do you feel about ?

b) Using a Funnel Structure


The interviewer takes a deductive approach by beginning with generalized,
open-ended question and then narrowing the possible responses by using closed
questions.

What do you feel about?


What do you think?
WH-question
Yes/No q.

Funnel structure for interviewing begins with broad questions, then funnels to
specific questions. Using the funnel structure method provides an easy, nonthreatening way to begin an interview. Respondents will not feel pressured that they
are giving a wrong response to an open-ended question. A funnel-shaped question
sequence is also useful when the interviewee feels emotional about the topic and needs
freedom to express those emotions.
c) Diamond-Shaped Structure for Interviewing
This structure combines the pyramid and funnel
structures. The interviewer begins with easy, closed
questions that provide a warm-up to the interview
process. In the middle of the interview, the interviewee
is asked for options on broad topics. The interviewer
then narrows the questions again to get specific
questions answered.
The chief advantage of using a diamond-shaped
structure is keeping your interviewees interest and
attention through a variety of questions.
Adopted from
http://homepage.eircom.net/~iandowney/inter.htm

Appendix 6. Mind Mapping

Mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items
linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. Mind maps are used to
generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and
organizing information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing.
The guidelines for creating mind maps:
1.Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.
2. Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your mind map.
3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.
4. Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.
5. The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central
lines are thicker, organic and thinner as they radiate out from the centre.
6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.
7. Use multiple colors throughout the mind map, for visual stimulation and also
to encode or group.
8. Develop your own personal style of mind mapping.
9. Use emphasis and show associations in your mind map.
10. Keep the mind map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or
outlines to embrace your branches.
(from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MindMapGuidlines.svg)

Appendix 7. Saying Numbers

CARDINAL NUMBERS
1

one

84

eighty-four

100

a/one hundred

200

two hundred

432

four hundred and thirty-two(British English)


thirty-two (American English)

1,000

a/one thousand

1, 560

a/one thousand five hundred and sixty (BrE)


sixty (AmE)

100,000

a/one hundred thousand

598,307

five hundred and ninety-eight thousand, three hundred and


seven(BrE)
ninety-eight thousand, three hundred seven
(AmE)

1,000,000

a/onemillion

3,000,000,000 three billion

DECIMALS
16.5
sixteen point five / sixteen and a half
17.38%

seventeen point three eight percent

0.185*

(nought / zero) point one eight five

* There are a number of ways you can say 0 in English.

When we use it
0 = oh

0=
nought

after a decimal point

9.02 = "Nine point oh two."

in bus or room
numbers

Room 101 = "Room one oh one."


Bus 602 = "Bus six oh two."

in phone numbers

9130472 = "Nine one three oh four seven two."

in years

1906 = "Nineteen oh six."

before a decimal point 0.06 = "Nought point oh six."

0 = zero in temperature

0 = nil

For example:-

-10C = "10 degrees below zero."

US English for the


number

0 = "Zero"

in football

Chelsea 2 Manchester United 0 = "Chelsea two


Manchester United nil."

0 = love in tennis

20 - 0 = "Twenty love."
(fromhttp://www.learnenglish.de/basics/numbers.htm)

FRACTIONS
1/2
one half
2/3

two thirds

3/4

three quarters

1/8

one eighth

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS
+
plus (and)
minus (take away)

multiplied by (times)

divided by

equals (is)

Practice
1 Say these numbers

1. 1.95
2. 2/5
3. 0.74
4. 1,507
5. 123,450
6. 1,689,237,705
7. 4.6%
8.
9. 9.5
10. 0.09
2 Match the spoken phrases with the situations below
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Its four two nine three two oh


In nineteen oh three
Its three degrees below zero
They won two nil
Shes winning two sets to love

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

the result of a football match


the temperature
a telephone number
the score in a tennis match
the year somebody was born

3 Put these words and phrases into the sentences below


a) times
divided by
minus
plus
1. Six six equals twelve.
2. Ten equals four.
3. Ten equals sixty.
4. Ten equals five.
b) Match the words with the patterns above
multiplication

4 Read these equations.


1. 1+6-222.5=4
2. 5.79.5100=60

addition

division

subtraction

Appendix 8. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence


Scale (15 subtests)
1. Vocabulary. For ages 2-6, provide name and definition of picture of object; for
older subjects, define words increasing in difficulty.
2. Bead memory. String a series of multicolored beads after seeing a picture of the
required string.
3. Quantitative. Complete a series of arithmetic problems, from simple counting to
complex word problems.
4. Memory for sentences. Repeat a series of sentences of increasing complexity.
5. Pattern analysis. At young ages, match shapes to holes; at older levels, use blocks
of different designs to copy patterns of increasing complexity.
6. Comprehension. Answer questions like, Why does the government regulate
radio and television broadcasts?
7. Absurdities. Identify what is wrong with picture for example, a wagon with
triangular wheels.
8. Memory for digits. Repeat a list of digits of increasing length; forwards or
backwards.
9. Copying. Draw (duplicate) a series of geometric line drawings of increasing
complexity.
10. Memory for objects. Recognize a series of pictures of simple objects presented
one at a time from a larger picture displaying many objects..
11. Matrices. Shown a series of pictures, determine which of a number of alternatives
comes next in the series.
12. Number series. Presented with a series of numbers, determine whatnumber comes
next.
13. Paper folding and cutting. Fold and / or cut a sheet of paperaccording to a
prescribed pattern.
14. Verbal relations. Given three words that are alike and a fourth that is different,
explain why the three are alike and the fourth is different.
15. Equation building. Given a series of digits and algebraic signs, create a balanced
equation.
(from Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human Behavior. Reading. Study Skills. Writing. Cambridge
University Press, 1997)

Can you say 1) which subtests test Crystallized abilities;


2) which subtests test Fluid-analytic abilities;
3) which subtests test short-term memory?

You may find useful to complete this diagram.


g = general intelligence

Crystallized Abilities

Verbal
Reasoning

1._________
2._________
3._________
4._________

Fluid-analytic Abilities

Quantitative
Reasoning

5._________
6._________
7._________

Short-term Memory

Abstract /Visual
Reasoning

8._________
9._________
10.________
11.________

12._________
13._________
14._________
15._________

Appendix 9. SAMPLE TESTS FROM THE WAIS-R

VERBAL SCALE

Information
What was Marie-Curie famous for?

Digit Span
Listen carefully, and when I am through, say the numbers right after me.
7

Now I am going to say some more numbers, but I want you to say them
backwards.
3

Vocabulary
Tell me the meaning of corrupt.

Arithmetic
A coat that normally sells for 60 is reduced by 15% during sale. What is the
price of the coat during sale?

Comprehension
Why should people pay taxes?

Similarities
In what way are wool and cotton alike?

PERFORMANCE SCALE:

Picture Completion
I am going to show you a picture with an important part missing. Tell me what
is missing.

Picture Arrangement
The pictures below tell a story. Put them in the right order to tell the story.

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image

Block design
Using the four blocks , make one just like this.

Object Assembly
If three of these pictures are put together correctly, they will make this puzzle?
What are they?

Digit-Symbol Substitution
CODE

=
4

X
5

TEST

Appendix 10. Use of Prepositions with Numerical


Data in Describing Charts, Graphs and Tables
The use of prepositions depends on whether you are using it after a verb or a noun
Verbs that take a
preposition
rise to/by
increase to/by
fall to/by
drop to/by
shoot up to/by
plunge to/by
stay at
remain at
fluctuate between/around

Verbs that dont take a


preposition
reach

Nouns that take a


preposition
a rise of
an increase of
a fall of
a decrease of

Examples: Newspaper circulation rose by20,000 newspapers per month.


Newspaper circulation rose to20,000 newspapers per month.
There was a rise of 20,000 newspapers per month.
(from www.britishcouncil.org/profes...)

Appendix 11. Types of Graphs


Graphs have been recognized as an effective method of analyzing and representing
scientific data.
The most widely used graphs are line graphs that are used to show the relation
between two quantitative variables. They are most often used to show continuous
change or when the shape of the curve () is important.
Bar graphs (Fig. 1) and histograms(Fig 2) are made up of columns plotted on a graph.
The independent variable is categorical in bar graphs or quantitative
() in histograms. Usually there is no space between columns in
histograms.

Fig.1 Mean verbal intelligence scores before and after training

Fig.2 Frequency Distribution of Hours Studied for an Exam

Scatter graphs consist of single dots () plotted on a line graph; the dots are not
joined by lines. A cluster of dots along a diagonal indicates a correlation. For example,
the shape of the data in the scatter diagram below (Fig.3)indicates a negative
correlation. As the values on the X-Axis (the number of drinks) increases, the value on
the Y-Axis (the physical dexterity score) decreases.

Fig. 3 Drink and dexterity test

Appendix 12. What is a Debate?


A debate is a kind of contest where you must support your argument and refute
your opponent's argument with logical reasoning and rebuttals (
) by giving facts and evidence.
There are many different styles and forms of debates (parliamentary debate,
Oxford-style debate, Lincoln-Douglas debate, etc.)
In schools, colleges and universities debate often takes the form of a contest with
explicit rules. It may be presided over by one or more judges. Each side seeks to win,
following the rules. Each side is either in favor of ("for, 'Affirmative' "), or opposed
to ("against, 'Negative' ") a statement (proposition). The "for" side must argue
supporting the proposition; the "against" side must refute these arguments persuading
not to accept the statement; they are not required to propose any alternative.
There are also some common elements for different forms of debates
1. Both (affirmative and negative) sides must have an equal number of speakers.
2. Both sides must have an equal amount of time.
3. The affirmative generally speaks first and last.
How Does the Debate Work?
One of the most widely used forms of debate - Lincoln-Douglas debate - starts
with a statement of purpose/policy. (For example, School uniforms should be
required in all schools.) The debater who agrees with the statement (the Affirmative)
begins the debate, which is structured in this way:
1. Affirmative position debater presents constructive debate points. (6 minutes)
2. Negative position debater cross-examines ( )
affirmative points. (3 minutes)
3. Negative position presents constructive debate points. (7 minutes)
4. Affirmative position cross-examines negative points. (3 minutes)
5. Affirmative position offers first rebuttal (4 minutes)
6. Negative position offers first rebuttal (6 minutes)
7. Affirmative position offers second rebuttal (3 minutes)
As you see, this format includes a cross-examination period between the speeches
that allows speakers to ask each other questions to clarify arguments. There are also
formats that allow members of the opposing team to ask questions during a speech.
Other formats include questions from expert commentators or from the audience.
Sometimes members of the audience are asked to vote for the team they think did
the better job. In other formats judges decide which side won the debate.*

*The criteria for judging Lincoln-Douglas Debate can


http://www.uiltexas.org/files/academics/speech/ld-judging-criteria.pdf

be

found

Vocabulary for debates


When you want to state an
opinion:
INFORMAL
FORMAL

In my opinion____
I think that_____
I feel that______
I believe that______
It seems to me that________
If you ask me_____
I'd say that_______
The point is________
As I see it_______
I'd say that______
The point is______

You know what I think... I think


that____
Wouldn't you say that_______?
Don't you agree that_______?
I'd just like to say that______
I'd like to point out that_______

When you want someone to repeat or explain:

I don't understand what you mean


Would you explain that, please?
I'm sorry, but I didn't understand your point.
Could you give an example?
What do you mean by_____?

on

When you want to agree with someone (in ascending order of


formality):

You're right
I think so, too
I agree with you
You could be right
I couldn't agree more
That's a good point
I couldn't agree more
I see what you mean
That's just what I was thinking
I agree entirely
You know, that's exactly what I think

When you want to disagree with


someone (in ascending order of formality):

Yes, but_____
Informal disagreement
I disagree
(between people you know
That's not the point
very well)
No, I think you're wrong
I can't agree with you
Up to a point, but________
there
Yes, that's quite true, but_____
You can't be serious!!
I'm not sure I quite agree
Come off it!
Well, you have a point there, but_____
Don't be silly!
Perhaps, but don't you think that_____
I see what you mean, but________
I tend to disagree with you there

When you want to persuade someone:

You must admit that___


Do you really believe that_____?
Don't you think that______?
Don't you agree that____?

(from http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/mcanapero/debate.htm)

Keys
UNIT 1

Reading and Speaking

1 a)
Stress-management
method
1. Drugs

Methods description

2. Biofeedback

b) This strategy involves the use of special devices that


can measure physiological reactions of people when
they are under stress. People are taught to decrease
their stress levels by means of various psychological
techniques, e.g. imagery and self-persuasion.
c) This method consists in discussing with people who
suffer from stress the causes of their anxiety and
developing personal strategies to overcome and reduce
their fears and worries.
d) This technique supposes that if you practice sport
regularly you will get rid of stress and will not suffer
from depression.
e) This strategy is aimed at working out your own
method of dealing with the immediate impact of
stressful situation, controlling your bodys reactions
when faced with stressors.

a) This method is the most widely-spread treatment for


stress conditions. It can directly affect the brain areas
that are responsible for anxiety and worry associated
with stressful situations.

3. Cognitive-behavioral
approaches

4. Physical exercise

5. Meditation and relaxation

UNIT 2

2A
Reading and Speaking

6 a)
1.measure 2.behaviour
information, cope with.

3.function

Listening and Note-taking

4.understanding

5.cognitive,

learn

from,

1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A;
C. Explanation: The pattern decreases progressively; -1, -2, -3, -4, -5;
A;
A. Explanation: All the characters are letters back to back?
17. Explanation: 17 is the only odd number.
Page;
C.

2
1.verbal 2. mathematical 3.spatial. 4.pattern recognition 5.classification 6. logic
7. visualization
Verbal

Verbal intelligence measures your capacity to use language in


order to express yourself, comprehend stories and understand other
people. Verbal abilities include reading, writing and
communicating with words.

Mathematical

Mathematical intelligence generally represents your ability to


reason and to calculate basic arithmetic computations. It also helps
you to understand geometric shapes and manipulate equations.

Spatial

Spatial abilities are the perceptual and cognitive abilities that


enable a person to deal with spatial relations, in other words the
visualization and orientation of objects in space. Put simply spatial
skills assess your ability to manipulate 3D objects by flipping and
rotating them.

visualization

Visual intelligence measures the ability to process visual material


and to employ both physical and mental images in thinking. Your
visualization skills determine how well you perceive visual
patterns and extract information for further use.

classification

This intelligence is closely related to the concept of general


intelligence and measures the ability to organize collections of
items by finding similarities and differences between them.

logic

Logical thinking is the ability to make deductions that lead


rationally to a certain conclusion.

Pattern
recognition

Pattern recognition is the ability to see order in a chaotic


environment; the primary condition for life. Patterns can be found

in ideas, words, symbols and images and pattern recognition is a


key determinant of your potential in logical, verbal, numerical and
spatial abilities.
( from http://www.intelligencetest.com)

Reading and Summarizing

2
1.True. 2.False. 3.True. 4.True. 5.False. 6.False. 7.False. 8.False. 9.False. 10. False.
11. True. 12.True
Personalizing the topic

1Angelina Jolie (an American actress); Sigmund Freud (an Austrian neurologist,
the father of psychoanalysis); Vincent Willem van Gogh (a Dutch post-Impressionist
painter), Barack Hussein Obama (the 44th President of the USA); Victoria
Azarenka (Belarusian tennis player), Albert Einstein (a German physicist)

2
spatial
intraper
sonal

interpe
rsonal

linguisti
c

naturali
stic

Gardner's
multiple
intelligence

logicalmathe
matical

musical
bodilykinesth
etic

REFERENCES
1. .. = English for Sociologists:
1 . . . 3
.1. / -. .. .: , 2007.
2. .., .. = English for
psychologists: . 1 . . . 1-23
01 04 : 3 . .1 / .. , .. : ,
2007.
3. , .. - / ... 24-. .: .., 1992.
4. Espeseth, M. Academic Listening Encounters: Listening, Note-taking and
Discussion. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
5. Myers, David G. Psychology (7th Edition). Worth Publishers, 2004.
6. Seal, B. Academic Encounters: Human Behavior. Reading. Study Skills. Writing.
Cambridge University Press, 1997.
7. Simon Green. Under Pressure: How to combat stress // Psychology Review, 2000.
Vol.7. 2.
8. www.teachingenglish.org.uk
9. http://www.learnenglish.
10. http:// wilderdom.com
11. http://intelligencetest.com
12. http://www.britishcouncil.org
13. http://voices.yahoo.com/business-hong-kong-one-most-stressful-cities4176689.html
14. http://claweb.cla.unipd.it/home/mcanapero/debate.html

Keys
Tapescipts??????