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Maturity
Author
L.ROCAMORA / JL.ALBERT
P ES E TCI TC TLS
17/03/2010

Author : F. ANTONIO
Checked
A.LAPEYRE
P ES E TCI TC TLS

Date
17 March 2010

From
L.ROCAMORA / JL.ALBERT

To
G.MICHON / D.CRENNE

Project leader
B.OLIVIER

Project code
A-0355E

Campaign
EDTR_145_2010_ETB03

Customer
PROTON CAMPRO

Campaign name
EDTR_145_2010_ETB03

Test name
Test 6 G103

Test date
From 09 to 12 February 2010

ETB
3

Engine

Proton 1.6L IAFM + n346

Subject

Air path calibration

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Description
First version

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION
1
INTRODUCTION
3

2
TEST CONDITIONS
3

3
RESULTS & METHODS
3.a AMP acquisition
3.b Pressure loss through the air cleaner determination:
3.c TIA_THR / T_OIL / TAM
3.d VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCIES
3.e Eff_vol_flow_cor
3.f REDUCED AREA

4
CONCLUSION
9

5
VALIDATION AND GRAPHS
9

Author : F. ANTONIO

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PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Table of contents
1

5
5
5
6
7
8
9

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

INTRODUCTION

The aim of these tests was to calibrate the "Intake Air System".
The target of the Intake System (INSY) is to coordinate the air flow controlling components
(throttle and variable intake manifold) and to predict the air mass flow behaviour.
With Systems like this, equipped with a manifold pressure (MAP) sensor, the mass air flow is not
directly measured but only calculated out of the air density, it strongly depends on the knowledge
of the air temperature in the manifold. Any deviations from the temperatures valid during the
calibration of the engine have to be compensated.

2 TEST CONDITIONS
Air intake temperature:

Regulated at 25C.

Coolant temperature:

Regulated at 90C water-out.

Oil temperature:

Regulated at 110C

Relative humidity:

Regulated at 50%

OIL Type:

TCO_002 commercial COFLU 05W30

Fuel:

ALVEA Ron95 commercial (Ron measured 98.4) regulated at 25C

Fuel pump:

Pressure regulated at 4bars relative by the bench

Engine name:

PROTON 1.6L IAFM n346

ECU:

EASY-U1.28 U00110 CPC.515.000.C002 C3sample (with Canon plug)

Software calibration:

U0120A3b.a2l

Calibration file:

U0120A_IAFM_PLUS_16_DET_20100119_ dc03.s19

Exhaust line:

Catalyst and vehicle pipe with muffler.

Temperatures limits:

Exhaust global limit < 900 C


Catalyst < 950C

Devices:

Author : F. ANTONIO

Morphee, INCA, Indicom, Gas analysis.

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Proton engine configuration:


Naturally-aspired engine.
MAP sensor with air temperature measurement included in inlet manifold. (NC_MAP_CONF
= 1)
VIM actuator.
No AMP; PUT; PRS_AIC_DOWN sensors available (NC_AMP_CONF = 0 / NC_PUT_CONF
= 0 / NC_PRS_AIC_DOWN = 0).
No TIA_THR; TIA_CYL sensors available.
Then the air path strategy was calibrated respecting the chronology of the following method:

MAP acquisition validation (during input/output check test).


AMP acquisition and PRS_LOSS_AIC determination.
TIA acquisition (TIA_THR and TIA_CYL).
Volumetric efficiencies determination.
AR_RED tables calibration.

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

Involved tables and variables were:


AMP learning:
c_n_amp_ad_max
c_n_amp_ad_min
c_amp_hys
c_amp_max
c_amp_min
c_t_dly_amp_ad_map_mes_min
ip_tps_amp_ad_map_mes_min_1
ip_prs_loss_aic
TIA_THR model:
ip_tia_thr
ip_fac_tia_thr
MAF model:
ip_eff_vol_ofs_3_[0][0][0]
ip_eff_vol_slop_3_[0][0][0]
ip_eff_vol_ofs_3_[1][0][0]
ip_eff_vol_slop_3_[1][0][0]
Eff_vol_flow_cor:
ip_eff_vol_prs_ex_cor_1[0]
ip_eff_vol_prs_ex_cor_1[1]
ip_eff_vol_vo_cor_2[0]
ip_eff_vol_vo_cor_2[1
ip_prs_ex
Author : F. ANTONIO

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

lc_prs_ex_swi]

Author : F. ANTONIO

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

RESULTS & METHODS


.3.a

AMP acquisition

Due to non presence of AMP sensor, the ambient pressure is measured by MAP sensor in the two
following cases:
At the first tooth detection, AMP = MAP
At full load (naturally aspired engine) where AMP = MAP pressure loss through the air
cleaner.
AMP learning activation was calibrated for:
C_AMP_HYS = 2 hpa of difference in order to enable learning at Full load conditions.
C_AMP_MIN = 500hpa
C_AMP_MAX = 1200hpa
C_N_AMP_AD_MAX = 4200rpm
C_N_AMP_AD_MIN = 1600rpm
IP_TPS_AMP_AD_MAP_MAS_MIN_1 comes from the previous calibration

.3.b

Pressure loss through the air cleaner determination:

The aim of this test was to model the pressure decrease between ambient pressure AMP and the
pressure upstream the throttle PUT due to air filter and ducts in the air cleaner and the air intake.
This table was calibrated, using the difference between AMP bench measurement and the MAP
system measurement, on the full load points at different engine speeds between AMP acquisition
limits of C_N_AMP_MIN and C_N_AMP_MAX.
The VS effect was not calibrated at engine bench so the values were constant function of vehicle
speed.
Pressure loss through the air cleaner:

Author : F. ANTONIO

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Reduced area:
ip_ar_red_thr
ip_tps_sp_mdl_bas

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

TIA_THR / T_OIL / TAM

According to the air temperature sensor position inside the intake manifold, it is expected that
TIA_IM and TIA_CYL are comparable to the measured air temperature. Therefore TIA_IM and
TIA_CYL are set equal to TIA, which normally based on the measured TIA_MES value.
So the TIA configuration was TIA = TIA_IM = TIA_CYL.
The calculation of TIA_THR is made from TIA, by taking into account the influences of:
1. The mass air flow through the throttle (mapped via MAF_THR_STK_TIA, N_32)
2. The manifold wall temperature (mapped via TIA, TOIL)
Exhaust gas recirculation and canister purge effects are not taken into account.
IP_TIA_THR table was calibrated using volumetric efficiency measures with VIM off, using bench
measures of inlet temperature near throttle compared to inlet manifold temperature.

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Results:

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.3.c

Author : F. ANTONIO

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCIES

The aim of the test was to calibrate the volumetric efficiency slope and offset in two VIM positions
so that the linear model best fits the reality of the actual engine. Because in the Intake Manifold
Model, the mass air flow into the cylinder is modelled as a linear (volumetric efficiency) depending
on the intake manifold pressure. These coefficients depend on the engine speed and then are
valid for a real linear relation between the MAF_CYL and the MAP in regular conditions.
In steady state and without EGR or canister purge, MAF_CYL=MAF_THR.
On the Proton engine configuration, four tables were used to the volumetric efficiency calibration:
VIM_OFF:
IP_EFF_VOL_OFS_3[0][0][0]: volumetric efficiency slope in VIM position 0
IP_EFF_VOL_SLOP_3[0][0][0]: volumetric efficiency offset in VIM position 0
VIM_ON:
IP_EFF_VOL_OFS_3[1][0][0]: volumetric efficiency slope in VIM position 1
IP_EFF_VOL_SLOP_3[1][0][0]: volumetric efficiency offset in VIM position 1
The table change between the two VIM states (OFF / ON) is made by the index
STATE_ACR_EFF_VOL_CLC.
To calibrate these tables, were done measures of System MAP and Bench MAF at 300mbars (low
load), at 600mbars (part load) and at Full Load, on engine speeds corresponding to table
breakpoints and on both positions of VIM.
Slope and offset of resultant lines were calculated via Excel function at each engine speed
breakpoint of volumetric efficiency maps.
Then the results were reported in tables.

Author : F. ANTONIO

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.3.d

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.3.e

Eff_vol_flow_cor

Because of no linearity of the air path model and to avoid so important MAF error the model
eff_vol_flow_cor was calibrated from 1000rpm to 2400rpm
It was normally used on turbo engine.
Configuration:
Lc_prs_ex_swi = 1
Ip_prs_ex = 1013mbar
ip_eff_vol_vo_cor_2[0] = 1
ip_eff_vol_vo_cor_2[1 = 1
ip_eff_vol_prs_ex_cor_1[1] = 0
From data of a complete engine characterization, ip_eff_vol_prs_ex_cor_1[0] was tuned to
minimize MAF error from 1000rpm to 2500rpm.

Author : F. ANTONIO

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PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

Author : F. ANTONIO

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

.3.f

REDUCED AREA

So to calibrate this table, sweeps were done on several engine speeds at iso TPS values, and for
all throttle position breakpoints, the table was readjusted to reduce the variables
AR_RED_DIF_REL and PUT_MDL_DIF_REL until 0.
Then the map IP_TPS_SP_MDL_BAS is an inversion of the table IP_AR_RED_THR.
See graph page 31.
IP_AR_RED_THR and IP_TPS_SP_MDL_BAS final tables:

CONCLUSION

Calibrations were correctly performed without any problem.


Different tables validations revealed that maps were correctly calibrated, with global TIA_THR
error below 3C and global MAF error between - 5% (low rpm, part loads) and 3%.
The volumetric efficiency were also reworked on the breakpoints 800 rpm, 1000 rpm, 1200 rpm,
1600 rpm, 2400 rpm, 5400 rpm & 5800 rpm in order to minimize a so important error at low
MAF (<200mg/strk). Slope and the offset were changed on the table to have better accuracy at
low MAF and keeping a correlation (MAF system / MAF bench) acceptable for higher MAF. This
change explains the area at low rpm & part load where MAF_DIF reach -5% during the first
validation.
To correct this error, eff_vol_flow_cor was activated and tuned from 1000 to 2400rpm. This
function permits to a supercharger engine to model MAF as a curve instead of a line, function of
the ratio MAP / PRS_EX. and engine speed. In our case PRS_EX is fixed to 1013
This calibrations was validated with the last engine characterisation, EDTR145 TEST 17, results
were correct, see to the graphs page 11
For the table of IP_AR_RED_THR, original breakpoints at 13% and 17% of TPS_SEG were
changed for breakpoints 30% and 40 % in order to be more accurate at high load and high rpm.

Author : F. ANTONIO

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This test allows calibrating the basic reduced area which represents the real area air flow.
On the Proton application, only the throttle opening section was considered, then only the table
IP_AR_RED_THR was calibrated.

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

VALIDATION AND GRAPHS

Full engine characterisation (EDTR145 TEST 11) was performed to validate the overall
calibrated function. Air path was validated from this test. More detail in report TEST 11.

ECU :

EASY U

Date : 19/03/2010

Engine Name :Proton 1.6L IAFM +

Comments : Ron 95 commercial

Calibration file : U0120A_IAFM_PLUS_16_EDT_20100306_dc12.s19

Differences on TIA_THR Temperature (System-Bench) [C]


13
12
1

11

-0

-0

-2

10

-1

-3

-1

3
-2

-2

-1
-2

-1

0
1

9
-1

1
2
0

6
-1
-1

-2

2
1

-3

-1

0
1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500
Engine speed (rpm)

Author : F. ANTONIO

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-1

8
PME (bar)

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TIA_THR comparison between bench and system:


Inlet air temperature was regulated to 25C

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Air path validation without eff_vol_flow_cor calibration:


ECU :

EASY U

Date : 19/03/2010

Engine Name :Proton 1.6L IAFM +

Comments : Ron 95 commercial

Calibration file : U0120A_IAFM_PLUS_16_EDT_20100306_dc12.s19

Difference MAF (Bench/System) [%]


13

-0

-1

-1

-1

-1

10

11
0
1

-1

-4

8
1
PME (bar)

7
-1

6
-4

-3

-2

-4

-1

5
-2

-2

4
3

-3

-3

2
-4

2
-1

-5

0
1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500
Engine speed (rpm)

Air path validation after eff_vol_flow_cor calibration:


ECU :

EASY U

Date : 23/04/2010

Engine Name :Proton 1.6L IAFM +

Comments : G004 RON 95 ref

Calibration file : U0120A_IAFM_PLUS_16_EDT_20100421_dc23.s19

Difference MAF (Bench/System) [%]


12
11
1

-0

10

-0

-0

-0

-1

-1

8
-1

-1

7
6

5
4

-2

-1

3
2

-1

5
-1

-1

-1
-2

-2

-3
0

0
-1

9
-1

-2

-1

10
-2

-2

-1

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-0

bar

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-1

2
1

-3

-4
-5
-6

-1

-7
-8

0
1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500
Engine speed [rpm]

Author : F. ANTONIO

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IP_AR_RED_THR :

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ENGINE DYNO TEST

Volumetric efficiencies determination, first test:


VIM OFF:

Author : F. ANTONIO

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AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
18/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106

Proprietary data, company confidential. All rights reserved.


Confi titre de secret dentreprise. Tous droits rservs.
Comunicado como segredo empraserial. Reservados todos os dereitos.
Confidado como secreto industrial. Nos reservamos todos los derechos

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

VIM ON:

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
19/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106

Proprietary data, company confidential. All rights reserved.


Confi titre de secret dentreprise. Tous droits rservs.
Comunicado como segredo empraserial. Reservados todos os dereitos.
Confidado como secreto industrial. Nos reservamos todos los derechos

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
20/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106

Proprietary data, company confidential. All rights reserved.


Confi titre de secret dentreprise. Tous droits rservs.
Comunicado como segredo empraserial. Reservados todos os dereitos.
Confidado como secreto industrial. Nos reservamos todos los derechos

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
21/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106

Proprietary data, company confidential. All rights reserved.


Confi titre de secret dentreprise. Tous droits rservs.
Comunicado como segredo empraserial. Reservados todos os dereitos.
Confidado como secreto industrial. Nos reservamos todos los derechos

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Air path evolution:


After the first engine characterization slope and offset were adjusted at 800rpm, 1000rpm,
1200rpm, 1600rpm, 2400rpm and 5400rpm.

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
22/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106

Proprietary data, company confidential. All rights reserved.


Confi titre de secret dentreprise. Tous droits rservs.
Comunicado como segredo empraserial. Reservados todos os dereitos.
Confidado como secreto industrial. Nos reservamos todos los derechos

AIRPATH CALIBRATION

Weitergabe sowie Vervielflfigung dieser Unterlage, Verwertung und Mitteilung ihres Inhalts nicht
gestattet, soweit nicht ausdrcklich zugestanden. Zunwiderhandlungen verpflichten zu Schadenerastz.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten, insbesondere fr den Fall der Patenterteilung oder GM-Eintragung

PT TC2
ENGINE DYNO TEST

Author : F. ANTONIO

page
23/23

Copyright
All rights reserved.

G_106