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Equation Section 6

Friis Transmission Equation and Radar Range Equation
equation. Maximum range of a radar.)
1. Friis transmission equation
Friis transmission equation is essential in the analysis and design of wireless
communication systems. It relates the power fed to the transmitting antenna and
the power received by the receiving antenna when the two antennas are
2
separated by a sufficiently large distance (
R  2D /  ), i.e., they are in each
max
other’s far zones. We derive Friis equation next.
A transmitting antenna produces power density
W  
(,
)
in the direction
ttt
(,
 
)
. This power density depends on the transmitting antenna gain in the
t
t
given direction
G  
(,
)
, on the power of the transmitter
P
fed to it, and on the
t
t
t
distance R between the antenna and the observation point as
P
P
t
t
W
G
(,

)
eD
(,

) .
(6.1)
t
t
t
t
tt
t
t
2
2
4
R
4
R
Here,
e denotes the radiation efficiency of the transmitting antenna and
D
is
t
t
its directivity. The power P r at the terminals of the receiving antenna can be
expressed via its effective area
A
and
W
:
r
t
P
 A W
.
(6.2)
r
rt
(,
 
)
t
t
(,
 
)
r
r
R
To include polarization and heat losses in the receiving antenna, we add the
radiation efficiency of the receiving antenna
e
and the PLF:
r
2
P

e
PLF
AW
AWe
| ρ ˆ ρ ˆ
|
,
(6.3)
r
r
r
t
r
tr
t
r
2
2

P
D
(,
 
)
We
| ρρ ˆ ˆ
|
.
(6.4)
r
r
r
r
tr
t
r
4


A

r

Here,

D

r is the directivity or the receiving antenna. The polarization vectors of

the transmitting and receiving antennas,
ρ ˆ
and
ρ ˆ
, are evaluated in their
t
r
respective coordinate systems; this is why, one of them has to be conjugated
when calculating the PLF.
The signal is incident upon the receiving antenna from a direction (,
 
) ,
r
r
which is defined in the coordinate system of the receiving antenna:
2
P
t
 P
D
(,

2
)
eD
(,

)
 ρρ
e
| ˆ
ˆ
|
.
(6.5)
r
r
r
r
tt
t
t
r
t
r
2
4
 
4
R

W
t
The ratio of the received to the transmitted power is obtained as
2
P
r
ee
| ρ ˆ
 ρ ˆ
| 2 
D
(,

)
D
(,

)
.
(6.6)
tr
t
r
t
t
t
r
r
r
P
 
4
R
 
t
If the impedance-mismatch loss factor is included in both the receiving and the
transmitting antenna systems, the above ratio becomes
2
P
r
22
2
 
(1
|
|
)(1
 |
|
)
ee
| ρ ˆ
ρ ˆ
|
D
(

,
)
D
(

,
)
.
(6.7)
t
r
tr
t
r
t
t
t
r
r
r
P
 
4
R
 
t
The above equations are variations of Friis’ transmission equation, which is
well known in the theory of EM wave propagation and is widely used in the
design of wireless systems as well as the estimation of antenna radiation
efficiency (when the antenna gain is known).
For the case of impedance-matched and polarization-matched transmitting
and receiving antennas, Friis equation reduces to
2
P
r
D
(,

)
D
(,

)
.
(6.8)
ttt
rrr
P
  
4
R
 
t
2
The factor ( /4 R) is called the free-space loss factor. It reflects two effects:
(1) the decrease in the power density due to the spherical spread of the wave
through the term
1/ (4 R
2
) , and (2) the effective aperture dependence on the
wavelength as
2
/ (4 ) .
2. Maximum range of a wireless link
Friis transmission equation is frequently used to calculate the maximum
range at which a wireless link can operate. For that, we need to know the
nominal power of the transmitter
P
, all the parameters of the transmitting and
t

receiving antenna systems (such as polarization, gain, losses, impedance

mismatch), and the minimum power at which the receiver can operate reliably
P
. Then,
r min
2
P
2
22
2
t
R
 
(1
|
|
)(1
 |
|
)
ee
| ρ ˆ  ρ ˆ
|
D
(

,
)
D
(

,
)
.
(6.9)
max
t
r
tr
t
r
 
t
t
t
r
r
r
 
4
P
r min
The minimum power at which the receiver can operate reliably is dependent on
numerous factors, of which very important is the signal to noise ratio (SNR).
There are different sources of noise but we are mostly concerned with the noise
of the antenna itself. This topic is considered in the next lecture.
3. Radar cross-section (RCS) or echo area
The RCS is a far-field characteristic of radar targets which create an echo
far field by scattering (reflecting) the radar EM wave. The RCS of a target  is
the equivalent area capturing that amount of power, which, when scattered
isotropically, produces at the receiver power density equal to that scattered by
the target itself:
2
W
|
E
|
2
s
2
s

lim
4
R
lim
4
R
, m 2 .
(6.10)
2
R

 
W
 
R

 
|
E
|
i
i
 
Here,
R is the distance from the target, m;
W
is the incident power density, W/m 2 ;
i
W
is the scattered power density at the receiver, W/m 2 .
s
To understand better the above definition, we can re-write (6.10) in an
equivalent form:
W
i
lim
   W
(
R
)
.
(6.11)
s
2
R

 
4
R
The product
W
represents some equivalent intercepted power, which is
i
assumed to be scattered (re-radiated) isotropically to create a fictitious spherical
2
wave, whose power density in the far zone W s decreases with distance as
1/ R
.
It is then expected that
W
is a quantity independent of distance.
W
must be
i
s
equal to the true scattered power density
W
produced by the real scatterer (the
s

We note that in general the RCS has little in common with any of the cross- sections of the actual scatterer. However, it is representative of the reflection properties of the target. It depends very much on the angle of incidence, on the angle of observation, on the shape and size of the scatterer, on the EM properties of the materials that it is built of, and on the wavelength. The RCS of targets is similar to the concept of effective aperture of antennas. Large RCSs result from large metal content in the structure of the object (e.g., trucks and jumbo jet airliners have large RCS, 100 m 2 ). The RCS increases also due to sharp metallic or dielectric edges and corners. The reduction of RCS is desired for stealth military aircraft meant to be invisible to radars. This is achieved by careful shaping and coating (with special materials) of the outer surface of the airplane. The materials are mostly designed to absorb electromagnetic waves at the radar frequencies (usually S and X bands). Layered structures can also cancel the backscatter in a particular bandwidth. Shaping aims mostly at directing the backscattered wave at a direction different from the direction of incidence. Thus, in the case of a monostatic radar system, the scattered wave is directed away from the receiver. The stealth aircraft has

4
10 
W
, W/m 2 .
t
4
2
R
4
2
R
t
t

PG

t

t



(,

t

t

)

Pe D

tt

t



(,

t

t

)

RCS smaller than of a penny.

m 2 , which makes it comparable or smaller that the RCS

The radar range equation (RRE) gives the ratio of the transmitted power (fed to the transmitting antenna) to the received power, after it has been scattered (re-radiated) by a target of cross-section . In the general radar scattering problem, there is a transmitting and a receiving antenna, and they may be located at different positions as it is shown in the figure below. This is called bistatic scattering. Often, one antenna is used to transmit an EM pulse and to receive the echo from the target. This case is referred to as monostatic scattering or backscattering. Bear in mind that the RCS of a target may considerably differ as the location of the transmitting and receiving antennas change. Assume the power density of the transmitted wave at the target location is

(6.12)

R
t
R
r
(,

)
t
t
(,
 
)
r
r
The target is represented by its RCS  , which is used to calculate the captured
power
P
 W
(W), which when scattered isotropically gives the power
c
t
density at the receiving antenna that is actually due to the target. The density of
the re-radiated (scattered) power at the receiving antenna is
P
W
PD (,

)
c
t
tt
t
t
W

e
.
(6.13)
r
t
4

22
R
4
R
(4
2
RR
)
r
r
tr
The power transferred to the receiver is
2
PD (,

)
tt
t
t
P
 e AW  e
D
(,

)
e
.
(6.14)
r
r
r
r
r
rrr
t
 
4
 
(4
2
R R
)
t
r
Re-arranging and including impedance mismatch losses as well as polarization
losses, yields the complete radar range equation:
2
P
DD
(,

)
(,

)
r
222
ttt
rrr
e e
(1
 |
|
)(1
 |
|
) |
ρ
ˆ
ρ
ˆ
|
.(6.15)
tr
t
r
t
r
P
 
4
RR
 
4
t
tr
For polarization matched loss-free antennas aligned for maximum directional
2
P
DD
(,

)
(,

)
r
ttt
rrr
.
(6.16)
P
 
4
RR
 
4
t
tr
The radar range equation is often used to calculate the maximum range of a
radar system. As in the case of Friis transmission equation, we need to know
all parameters of both the transmitting and the receiving antennas, as well as the
2
2
22
(
RR
)
ee
(1
 |
|
)(1
 |
| )| ˆ
ρ ρ
ˆ
|
t
r
max
tr
t
r
t
r
2
(6.17)
P
DD
(,

)
(,

t
ttt
rrr
) .
P
 
4
 
4
r min
Finally, we note that the above RCS and radar-range calculations are only
basic. The subjects of radar system design and electromagnetic scattering are
huge research areas themselves and are not going to be considered in detail in
this course.