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UNIVERSAL PRESSURE BOILER

The universal pressure boiler, usually referred to as the once through boiler, derives its name
from the fact that it operates at all commercial temperatures and pressures, subcritical and
supercritical. It is more economical as a largers unit operated at higher pressures, in the
higher subcritical to the supercritical pressure range. Typical operating conditions are
summarized below:Steam Output (Range in Capacity)
About 300,000 to 10,000,000 lb/hr.
Operating Pressure
Subcritical usually at 2400 psi.
Supercritical at 3500 psi with 5% overpressure.
Steam and reheat temperatures
Usually 1000 F.
-Constant steam temperature can be maintained to 25% load with any fuel.
-Constant reheat temperature can be maintained to 60% load with any fuel.
Fuel
Load and lignite, oil, natural gas.
Operational Control
Completely automatic including boiler feedwater pumping rate control,
firing rate control and steam temperature control.
Furnance
Water and/or steam cooled, pressure or balanced draft type.
The principal of operation is that of the once-through or "Beuson" cycle. The working fluid,
boiler feedwater, is pumped into the unit as liquid, passed sequentially through all the
pressure party heating surfaces where it is converted to steam, and leaves as steam at the
desired temperature.
There is no circulation of water within the unit, and for this reason a drum is not required to
separate water from steam.
Firing may be by oil, gas or coal. The furnace is completely fluid cooled.
It can be designed for balanced draft or pressure operation. Ash removal may be either dry or
wet. Reheaders for single or two-stage reheat may be incorporated.
Fuel-supply and turbine throttle are adjusted to control steam flow and steam pressure.
Superheater steam temperature is controlled by the fuel firing rate. Reheat steam temperature
can be controlled by gas recirculation, excess air or attempeation, separately or in
combination.
The universal pressure boiler is designed to maintain a minimum flow inside the furnace circuits
to prevent overheating of furnace tubes during all operating conditions. This flow must be
established before boiler start up.
A bypass system, integral with the boiler, turbine, condensate system and feed water system, is
provided so that the minimum design flow can be maintain through the tubes and heaters, which
are exposed to high temperature combustion gases during the startup operation and at other-times
when the required minimum flow exceeds the turbine steam demand. The bypass system performs the
following additional functions:

- Reduce the pressure and temperature of the steam learning the boiler during start up to
condition suitable for the turbine, condenser and auxiliary equipment.
- Provide means for recovering heat flowing to the bypass sysem, during startup and low-load
operation, using the feedwater heater.
- Provides means for conditioning the water during startup without delaying boiler and turbine
warning operations.
- Protect the high temperature (secondary) superheater against shock from during startup.
- Provides means for relieving excessive pressure in the system after a load trip.