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METAPHORAND TRANSLATION

by
MAYSOONZAHRI

For the Degree of Ph. D.

Department of Modern Languages


University
of Salford

1990

>t-,

TO MY HUSBAND

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter
I-

II

III

Page
INTRODUCTION

A-

Aims of this

B-

Methodology

work

of research

LITERATURE REVIEW

A-

The Formal/Dynamic

B-

The Substitution

C-

The Idiomatic

D-

The Individualistic

E-

The Functional

F-

The Language Function

G-

Evaluation

H-

Main Contributions

Equivalence
School

School

of Translation

of Translation

Translation

School

School
Equivalence

of Translation

14

School

17

School

of Translation

of Translation

and Criticism

1.

Metonymy

2.
3.
4.

Synecdoche
Simile
Metaphor

C -Classification
D - Anatomy

of

27

Language
Language
-

F - Major

Schools

30
31
32
32
33
35

Metaphor

Theories

30

31

of Metaphor

E - Major

19
21

and Figurative

B - Types of Figurative

11
12

FORMULATING
VERSUS
SURFACE
APPROACH
OF
MEANING
DEEP
MEANING
A - Literal

37

of Metaphor
of Metaphor

40
Translating

43

G - Deep versus

Surface

Meaning

60

H - The Factual

and the Fictitious

62

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
IV

Page

APPLICATION
OF THE APPROACH
A-

Introduction

B-

Selection

of Data

C-

Metaphor

Categories

D-

Metaphor

Defined

E-

Devising

a Model to Assess Adequacy of Translation

Quranic

of
F-

V-

in the Quran

69

as a Text

70

Metaphors

73

Comparison

and Analysis

their

Translations

Five

Quranic

of

Metaphors

and

75

Rules of how to translate

B-

Rules further
tested by applying
data (metaphors from the media)

metaphors

336
deduced

343

Conclusion

357

Second Model for

- FURTHER IMPLICATIONS
TRANSLATORS

Assessing

FOR FLEXIBLE

Translation

GUIDELINES

Adequacy

373

380
of

the

proposed

Approach,

Implications
B-

Suggestions

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

361

372

The Guidelines

summary

360

FOR

- CONCLUSION
A-A

337

them to random

IMPLICATIONS
FOR A SECONDMODELTO MEASUREADEQUACY
OF TRANSLATION

A-

VIII

68

A-

A-A

VII

65

CONSEQUENCES
OF APPLYING THE APPROACH

C-

VI

68

and

its

381
for

Future

Research

387

389

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to extend my thanks to my Supervisor


Hassan Mustapha

Dr.

for

his

help

and

guidance

to

like

would

University

thank

me

sponsored

who

too,

Damascus
to

do

this

work.

in order

Thanks are also


Fleming
in typing

Most

of

gratitude
their

for

Mrs.

to

and dedication

her co-operation

this

thesis

all

to

my

moral

encouragement.

would
husband
support

Patricia

to express

like
and

and

family

my
for

constant

ABSTRACT

---

In the first

chapter,

of research

In

the

chapter,

in research

trends

In the-third
are formulated.

theories

(1985)

how

to

approach

evaluation..

Lastly,

of

necessary

suggested

carried

Firstly.

and

chapter

different

-Further,
as well

writers

its

traditional

as well

translation

an approach
for

classifications

described.

are

Then

reviewed

of deep-versus
the division

major

traditional

as major

are

it

translate

with

surface

the

meaning
into

the

to data

of

of texts

represents

the application-of
of

Ouranic

the

approach

The application

metaphors.

is

out as follows:

the

Quranic

Secondly,

Dressler$(1981)

Thirdly,

evaluated.

and

are considered.

translations

characteristics
Quran.

its

of -metaphor

implications

and the Fictitious

The fourth
five

its

are reviewed

and how to

of metaphor

analyzing--"it

function--

is explained.

study

by the reviewed

of metaphor,

method of

the.

about

schools

Factual

The nature

and

methodology

upon.

the problems

chapter,

and. Leech's

identified

made to the discipline

of weakness are touched

as areas

this

on translation

studies

are

and the

are set

and organizing

major

activities

main contributions

is

in conducting

adopted

second

the aims of the. study

-metaphors

in order-to
metaphor
definition

by modifying

are

major

establish
is defined
of text

classified
area5of

as a text

according

to

metaphoric

use in the

using

common

de-Beaugrande

and

characteristics.

and incorporating

House's

(1981)

and

Crystal

and

11

in House (1981)

Davy's
and.

assess

identified
deep

adequacy

meanings

are separated
Three.

meanings

is

the

The

devised

model is

Quranic

metaphors.

then

basis

Consequently,

the

with

five

deals

versus

surface

from

the

by applying

are

further

tested

are

then

suggested

of those

flexible

as

the

approach

random

rules

of

of
of each

translations

on

the

are described

translations.

the

are

to

the

As a result,

approach

methods

translations.

Ouranic

them

translation

of

applying

of

and

translations

from the original

consequences

five

and surface

Fifthly,

the original.

of

consequences

in

earlier

deep

of

of every

and deviations

These

meaning.

derived

data

of the model and general

the

with

and

translations

wording.

The profiles

profiles

of the quality

five

of

specific

a profile

is achieved.

metaphors

assessment

Chapter

their

surface

meaning of the metaphors

to the aforementioned

the dimensions

to provide

translating

from

of the translations

of

separation

compare
metaphors

described

method

the non-figurative

applied

compared

inaccuracies

the

of

divorced

translations

are

purpose

as its

as well

(%985)

Quranic

Fourthly,

right.

metaphor

to analyze,

the

of

own

to Leech's

to establish

of the Quranic

in their

Quranic

of every
according

Chapter

translations

the

of

as texts

earlier

a new model is devised

models,

data

how to

of

media

of

deep

of

metaphor

Those

methods

metaphors

translate

metaphors

and
in

general.

The sixth

deals

chapter

for

meaning approach
and

other

devised
assessing

on

types
the
the

with

the

devising

of

reproduction

of the deep versus

a second model to assess

of translation
basis

implications

texts.

disentangling
of content

As a result,
form

from

in the second

surface

adequacy of longer
a second model is
content

and

language

using

then
the

111

criteria

of surface

versus

deep meaning,

as well

as

focus

the

of

the

text.

Chapter

seven represents

as the two proposed


crystalize

as

the consequences
their

models and

guidelines

suggested

of the general

applications.
to

help

approach

These

translators

as well

consequences
in the HOWof

translating.

In

the

approach
future

eighth

chapter,

and its

implications

research.

as

conclusion,

are presented

a
as well

summary of the proposed


as

suggestions

for

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

Page

A-

Aims of this

B-

Methodology

work

of research

2
A-

Aims of this

Our study

has four

1.

To study

2.

To

contrast

and

to

media

different

in

adequacy

as test

these

of

these

strategies

to contribute

order

translations

of

translations

a view to deducing

model with

as well

English

strategies
on random

of
data

to the HOWof metaphor

in particular.

To generalize
deep

strategy

versus

of metaphor

surface

a second flexible

suggesting
of texts

To

five

measure

devised

metaphors,

translating

4.

and

to translation.

relevance

compare

translating

metaphor

of

and its

metaphors

according

3.

aims:

metaphor

Quranic

of

work

that

suggest

implications

display

flexible

surface

meaning,

proposed

models.

of

language

for

by the study

analysis

longer

model to assess

guidelines

revealed

to

meanings

a predominant

based on

translating

with

adequacy

of

approach
a view to

translation

function.

translators

of metaphor,

the Quranic

texts

an

by exploring
approach

translations

the

of deep vs.
and the two

3
B-

Methodology

Popper

(1959)

research

future

p. 27-33 proposes

are based on deducing

research
or

of Research

that

events

theories

the

be confirmed

can

Popper's

theories

principles

theories

constructed

to be true

the

of scientific

from general

starting

to happen should

ought

be wrong by further

Thus,

Then

work.

the general

that

are used to predict

theory

by supporting

statements

be

correct.

evidence

Such
to

or prove

research.

in order

mean that,

propositions

investigate

to

a problem

appropriately:

(a)

The

problem

background

defined

and

described:

with

the necessary

information.

(b) A hypothesis
or thoery

be

must

by being

is be formulated
so it

can be

from a basic

derived

discussed

presented,

adequately

statement
and

then

generalized.

(c)

(d)

The

hyphothesis

is

order

to obtain

results.

According

to

organization
to

can be further

The results

be

and that

Weisman

his

(1980)

of an investigation

convinced

that

conclusion

to data

applied

is

by applying

verified

p. 149-165

and

is very

important

the researcher

by the researcher

selected

based on plausible

them to random data.

Hook

has arrived

in

(1969)

p. 70-75 the

because the reader


at a logical

criteria.

conclusion

is

The abstract

of a study
investigation

of the

points

the reader

gives

of the major

a plan

in which

as the order

as well

and

sections

they

be

are to

discussed.

The introduction
It

the

sets

introductory

aims

for

the reader

prepares

the

of

information

study

and

is vital

that

the subject

background

the

provides

to follow

of the study.

matter

up the

and

discussion

that

the data

of the

comes next.

body

.-The

Investigation,
necessary

The

discussion

future

can further

to establish

data

the

of

well

the
at.

arrived

The

study.

of

results

them to random

investigation

the

of

as

induction

by applying

be verified

the validity

as

logical

the

represents
the

based

and

its

usefulness.

and Pugh (1988)

Phillips
four

contains

of the results

and analysis

study

analyzing

in the study

in order

data

the

of

It

part.

major

of the data

based on

information

its

on which the work is

the theory

conclusion

obtained

is

the thesis

of

p. 52-56,

"background

elements:

theory",

a Ph. D.

that

claim

"focal

theory",

is

manifested

work has to
"data

cover

theory"

and

"contribution".

According to them, a background theory


review

that

matter.

1.

A literature

Show that
theory

would

demonstrate
review

the researcher

of his

discipline,

the researcher's

is supposed,

i. e.

to show that

literature

commandof his subject

as Phillips

has a professional

by

and Pugh claim,

to:

command of the background


he has "something

to say

2.

about

his

listen

to" P. 53

Provide

while

[his]

that...

the researcher's

have

who

field

assessment

in

worked

that

the grounds

explaining

fellow

field
for

of the

contributions

as well

in the field

trends

and schools

4.

Indicate

points

of weaknesses of such identified

maintain,

is

researcher

is supposed

Provide

2.

Formulate

3.

Provide

4.

Consider

5.

Use his

focal

the

other
data

theory

of the relevant

is

and validity

if

people's

working

schools.

form,

as Phillips

theory

part

and Pugh

of a Ph. D.,

the

appropriate.

arguments.

as Phillips

and Pugh claim,

the

to provide

and arguments
to be included

to be covered

of the material"

the necessary

discussion.

is essential

investigation.

whole

theory

as analyze-it.

on as well

it

the data

in question.

research.

and analyze

material

element

he is

problem

with

work

to:

and the data

The third

In the focal

theory.

a hypothesis

a thesis,

researcher

claim,

focal

of their

of research

in a Ph. D.

the WHAT and WHYof his

1.

Having

the

others

such criticism.

Pinpoint

to be included

of

as criticism

3.

The second element

would want to

professionals

The

supporting

it

as it

links

the

by

the

thesis

put

provide

the criteria

in the work.

by a Ph. D.

which provides

'study

Phillips

as

the grounds

p. 54 used in support

of

for
the

and

the

Pugh

"relevance

researcher's

6
thesis.

A vital

question

Phillips,

is

listen

in a Ph. D. study,
out his

to point

Assess the
study

importance

the significance

3.

Indicate

the

4.

Suggest future

In Phillips'

as Phillips

and Pugh claim,

This

have to

p. 55

answer".

contribution.

would

is

for

the

be to:

of the field

of

he used.

in the material

own words,

of terms

theory

the

and

as a result
the

analysis.

research that could now be followed

and Pugh's

background

of his

limitations

the most general

words,

in the field,

academics

to

according

concerned.

Pinpoint

different

work,

of the work to the development

2.

"in

fellow

we, your

You must have a convincing

element

researcher

i-

"why should

to you?

The last

in the assessment of a researcher's

theory

focal

research

work

has

element

that

been

you started
p. 55.

work"

further

is

of a PhD.

as to why and in what way

a discussion

of your

researcher's

the contribution

up by others.

Therefore,

with

the

are now
in

development

other
of the

discipline.

The form of Ph. D.


guidelines
out.

work suggested

according

to

which

by Phillips
our study

will
will

be adopted
be organized

by

us

as

and carried

CHAPTERTWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Page

Equivalence

A-

The Formal/Dynamic

B-

The Substitution

C-

The Idiomatic

D-

The Individualistic

E-

The Functional

F-

The Language Function

G-

Evaluation

H-

Main contributions

School

School

of Translation

of Translation

Translation
School
Equivalance

School

8
11
12

of Translation

14

School

17

School

of Translation

of Translation

21

and Criticism
and points

19

of weakness

27

8
In

the

Their

crystalize.

determine

to

range

In

text

or

following

the

chracteristics,

information

The

to this

language

the

structures

Nida

believes

ought

to

claims

that

one

which

"there

possible

widest

their

schools,

with

main
to

view

background

the necessary

by Nida

is advocated

where he claims

p. 9.

utterances"

for

helpful

following

of generating

dynamic

view

the mechanisms by
transformed

and

of

because it

the translator

transferred

in his

(1964)

that

This

have to "describe

language"

which

into

the

p. 9.

languages

no two

the

closest

are

fundamentally

be called

may

school

decoded,

since

at

the

concern

main

"as a dynamic mechanism capable

will

is

of another

aim

for

and provide

to Nida is very

message

that

theory's

limitations

as

of translating",

the translator

total

"Translation

translation

as well

language

according

means that

those

review

of different

series

translation

useful

study.

book "Toward a science

an infinite

suggest

methods

schools

various

p. 19.

categories"

equivalence

he views

to

translation

to the discipline

formal/dynamic

Chomsky,

it

puts

contributions

an insight

gaining

(1982)

we

is

goal

appropriate

texts

of

translation,

of

ultimate

As Newmark

strategies.
is

discipline

multifaceted

identical,

two different
and another

which

the
in

approximation

possible

formal

are

translator

translating.

types

of

is

primarily

He

equivalence:
dynamic"

p. 159.

Formal equivalence
the
is

message
translating

translation,

itself
poetry

in both

according

to Nida,

form and content"

by poetry

which means that

"focuses

p. 159.
both

attention

on

An example of this
form

and

content

9
to be essential

are viewed

Dynamic

dynamic

"the

be

original

Nida identified
being

either

translators,

despite

that

the dominant
be,

However,
designed
listener"

that

content

approach
of the

purpose

existing

sociolinguistic

to elicit
p. 157.

Another

response

in the translation
"that
his

imperative

the reader

158,

of pleasure
by Nida

may understand

is

p. 158.

or form

content

of the

form

translator
content.

and

from the

hand,

be

reader

or

is when the translator

behaviour.

a certain

inter-

are

on the other

may,

given

own circumstances"
purpose"p.

both

us about

translation

example

to which

But the purpose

to tell

an emotional

form

and

in the degree
p. 156.

informative

"a largely

of the message for

the
While

In this
full

implications

a translator

to make "an action

case,

who

explicit

and

a translator

is

p. 158.

Moreover,

Nida claims

to achieve

the

"(1)

translating

of audience,

and

primarily

to Nida,

according

he has to make sure

compelling"

between

which existed

the

affect

message

fact

the

consideration"

needs to reproduce

an

the

of

and

p. 159.

such as "type

or dynamic,

messages differ

related,

"has

that

with

p. 191.

Nida claims

could

factors

nature

pressures"

is

message"

is concerned

between receptor

the same as that

and the

various
formal

is the relationship

substantially

receptors

hand,

on the other

that

relationship,

should

message
the

translation,

equivalence

of the message.

components

following

that
if

He must understand
and stylistically;

in accordance
his

translation

the original

with
is

Prochazka

to be a good one:

word thematically

10
(2)

He must overcome the differences


linguistic
structures;

(3)

the stylistic
He must reconstruct
work in his translation,
original

participants
done,

Nida,

to

According

ought

be

immediately

"naturalness
way "the

of a dynamic

message fits

there

translations

Comprehension

(3)

Equivalence

Comprehension

in

the

of

intent,

on

the
the

p. 170.

He

says

to the way

contribute

intent,

culture
to Nida,
receiving

p. 182.

as

a dynamic

While

culture

even

for

language

"universality

it

the

equivalence
or the source

culture

of the message" p. 182

the message being

though

on whether

or a formal

translation

to the target

responsible

depending

believes,

Nida

equivalence

respectively.
is

process.

and

of response"

would be linked

translation,

according

of
is

translation

of the communication

efficiency

(2)

language

will

that

translation.

that

of

are evaluated:

General

"(1)

believes

audience"

factors

important

dialect

p. 170depends

adequacy of

assessing

about

three

are

language

be

could

and arrangement

Nida

translation"

equivalence

and other

This

or geographical

Moreover,

the receptor

Nida moves on to talk


that

p. 170.

evident"

of the writer

selection

class

as social

of the

translation.

"appropriate

by

such features

words so that

in the

to be reproduced

two

structures
" p. 161.

and attitude

viewpoint

believes,

Nida

as

the

between the

easily

is different

understood

from the source

culture.

Although

the

equivalence
the accuracy
183).

three

factors

of response

of efficiency,

comprehension

are interdependent,

of translations

as Nida believes.

of

intent

each of them helps


(See Nida,

1964,

and

to assess
pp. 182-

li
In the end,
to Nida,
the

there

to translation

translation,

later

in

Translation"

for

SL meanings,

"in

as he says

so since

transference

not

the

TL text"

He believes

that

for

TL and SL

the

features"
by Catford

are

must share

these

that

translation.

Shifts,

according

in

the process

identifies

two major

"Category

shifts"
from

types

and
TL

of
TL"

p. 48.

an implantation

of

to

idea

to

there

of going

(1965),
lexis

it

claims

"situational

further

features

"shifts"

"mean

developed

that

take

departures

he calls

pp. 73-82).
and

to

relate

place

from

vice-versa...

"Level
In short,
[are]

shifts"

in

formal

from the SL to the TL" p. 73.

which

"in

are to each other.

are

him

He

p. 49.

is

to

equivalents

what he calls

This

they

puts

are translation

situation"

have

they

As Catford

common situational

of "shifts"

(see Catford
grammar

people

into

equivalent

the SL text

that

claims

correspondence

items

given

and how close

in question

Catford

"shifts

be

them to be equivalent.

by claiming

in

substitution

is

there

to

all

with

Furthermore,

that

texts

in a

inter-changeable

p. 49 for

the cultures

transference,

SL and TL texts,

TL text

to

SL meanings

of

the same way in the same situation.

translation,

when they
that

in

sees

p. 48.

into

function

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language

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of

investigates

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there

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to

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SL meanings

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languages.

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"in

that

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approach

texts

book,

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meanings

purpose

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in

advocates

substitution

aforementioned

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Catford

as substituting

culture.

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(1965),
the

translating
the

message

according,

contribute,

p. 191.

pressures"

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the

of

that

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assessment

nature

factors

different

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and

he claims
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only

12

level

possible

as "departures

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from formal

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untranslatability.
shared

(ii)
also

claims

feature

Word of God" the

idomatic

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translating

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respectively,
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The

meaning

form"

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(1)

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p. 94.

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situational
from

absent

in "Translating

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approach.

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components
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message which

two languages

pp. 19-20.

and (2)

may be called

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elements

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when

in 1974 advocate

involves

form and (2)

TL polysemy"

and

p. 99.

translation

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items

They go on to say that

are what is meant by

is communicated

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form.

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of

p. 20.

writers

literal

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trends

translation,

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from two sources:

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the SL text

Beekman and Callow

types

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arises

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of which

decade later,

claim

for

relevant

two

arise

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with

untranslatability

cultural

functionally

the culture

of an SL item

that

"ambiguities

that

shifts,

p. 76

between

distinguishes

claims

category

in translation"

of two or more SL grammatical

exponence

polysemy

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correspondence

Catford

conclusion,

(i)

in translation".

shifts

translation

the first

to reproduce

that

seeks to

which

p. 20;
into

the original

language

whether

in these

two broad types

literal,

2-

or not

modified

basis

translation

within

language"

the

on

it

or
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(2)

parallel

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the

form",

p. 20,

the

form of the

first

parallels

3 -idiomatic,

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unduly

(1)
forms

linguistic
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of the

seeks
second

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form of a
either

translation"

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literal,

be identified:

could

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the Linguistic

of

free

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translation.

13
Highly

literal

translation,
because

unacceptable
very

for

closely;

language.

second

over-emphasizing,
information
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free

unduly

is not
free

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translation,

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implied

grammar

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of

hand,
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original

message or introducing

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and the highly

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of

on the other

in the original.

translation

the structure

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from the content

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of the original

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Beekman

to

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translations

accurate

representation

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literal

modified

translato

"is

prepared

than

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the original
the RL" p. 23.

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are found

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in the original

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of the original.
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translation

type

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p. 23.

acceptable

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claim

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back to the original.

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translation.

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with

idiomatic

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of the target

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idiomatic

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grammatical
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and lexical
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the original

forms

translation
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p. 20
of
is

"must be

14
conveyed

The writers
language

that

claim
are

translation

is
from

meaning
Idiomatic

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original

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use.

word combination"

text

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de Beaugrande
able

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communicative

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based on identifying

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Beaugrande

translation

be "in

only

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method

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and Dressler

texts

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translation,

text

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(1981).

following

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to recurring

texts

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p. 216.

approach

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p. 25.

Dressler

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RL" p. 25.

word in the original

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texts

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to say that
how texts

the study

are produced

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Dressler,

text

which meets seven standards

is

defined

of textuality"

"as
p. 3:

15
1-

is the first

"Cohesion"
actual

words

p. 3.

sequence"
Dresseler
"major

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The

is

for

and relations

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p. 4.

text

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is

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Dressler

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it

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p. 7.

Beaugrande

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the

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textuality
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5-

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of

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expected

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Beaugrande

extent
vs

to

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unexpected

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or

16
p. 9.

known vs unknown/certain"

6-

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knowledge

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translation

must

adaptation

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in

elements
virtual

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text

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impose

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world

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in order

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the writers
in terms

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provide
p. 217,

discourse"
in the

the text

p. 217.

texts

of

translation
p. 217.

activities"
the

and

range

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suggest
of processes

that

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not

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own processing
both

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literary

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with

text

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equivalence

p. 216.

experience

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translators

p. 217.

that

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as possible"

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of

of the original

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organisations

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independently

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identifiable

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claim

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by de Beaugrande

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target

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systems

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upon
p. 10.

is responsible

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p. 11.

be "in

to a

dependent

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of textuality

standards

communication"
can only

and is

in text

observed

patterns

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texts

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by the writers,

claimed

as

characteristic

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relevant

previously

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or

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to

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and Dressler

is

of textuality

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factors

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factors

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" p. 9.

of occurence

situation

7-

is about

it

Dressler,

As claimed by de Beaugrande and

is Situationality.

if

of

range

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and operations",

17
translating

In

the

would benefit

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end,

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independently

dismiss

writers

translating
can

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setting

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an

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p. 216,

between

distinction

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on the grounds

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entail

deal.

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language

language

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texts

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target

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as the use of the text

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suggests

to

language

text

to

text,

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that

of

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and translation

and target

based on

her model to a corpus

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in

is

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implications

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in which
she

texts

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analysed

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p. 49.

she derives

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quality

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text

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function"

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text

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match

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language

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text's

to the

language

function.

18
House adapts
dimensions
After

for

her purpose,

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she describes
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criterion

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it

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claims

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the function

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could

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p. 42)

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function

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19
the degree

of her test

a result

translation.

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linked"

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translation

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text

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text

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value

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or

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20
p. 21.

persuasive"

are suggested by Newmark:

TWOmethods of translation
(a) Communicative
"

language

translation
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readers

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language

target

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produce

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p. 23.

is of the utmost
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importance.

are texts

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communicating

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a

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21
do something,

the clarity

Texts

reports,

translation

functions

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instructions,

propaganda,

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of

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G. Evaluation

and Criticism

In reviewing
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to

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the

instance,

suggests

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equivalence

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produce

(1965)

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natural

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the

(1974)

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in'the

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or

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and content"

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p159.

equivalence

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school

of translation

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formal

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form"

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to

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hand,

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(1964)

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p20.

proposes
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using]
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22
But

de

Beaugrande

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p. 216.

In contrast,

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of.

experience

school

between

p. 39 produced

school

the

means to achieve

is semantic,

strategy

we

function

that"

translation

be "in

Equivalence

on the readership

possible

contextual

Therefore

Functional

Individualistic

Language function

(1982)

when the

original

can only

dimensional

as producing

close

equivalence

(1981)

situational

equivalence

(1981)

as a match of

Newmark's

while

Dressler's

and

texts

what
to

be

but also

employ

is very

useful

provides
while

the basis

Beekman

and

23

Callow's

from

apart

in

(1981)
the

to

contrast

experience

equivalence
message

translator,

the

de Beaugrande

insists

that

p. 216,

which

equivalence
makes

literature

this
that

except

natural

and Dressler's
can

be

only

equivalence

translation

"in

sounds

both

its

an

would

receptor

receptor

Catford's

substitution

two types

of translation,
literal

be

texts

school

This
is

message

of translation

corresponding

to be substituted

would

formal.

When
for

the

when

the

priority
But

importance,
that

means

kept

the

the

same as that

and message.

apart

the

be

dynamic.

and

method of translation
ought

first

and message is of primary

but

text

have

translation:

of

is the

would

translating,

language

the

all

translation.

equivalence

and form

content

the receptor

method

original

that

and Dressler's,

two types

and dynamic

translation

between

relationship

Beaugrande

of-de

is

review

has identified

instance,

between

relationship

two

in

original

schools,

the method of translation

and

the

of

equivalence

types.

for

in

in

trend

translation

formal

acceptable

above

participant"

schools,

school,

free

sense

school,

of

Nida's

between

how to achieve

suggest

undertaking.

translation
identified

the

all

individualistic

The second major

the

the

recreating

impressionistic

the

not specifically

of the second language.

expressions

But

did

school

share

situational

on the other
to the

did

traditional

not tell

from

methods

of

us how to achieve

an

suggesting

by a target
features

hand identified

language

that
text

which Catford

source

and that
did

not

24
but

specify

only

that

said

features

these

to the two cultures

relate

in-

question.

Beekman and Callow's


Idiomatic

school

is

translation

On

the

function

of

covert.

House's
1981,

the

function.

is

then

based

are

claims

general

the

on the

be

use.

overt

function

overt,

but

test

is

when the
is

method
her

of

and

text's

translation

results

Idiomatic

covert

the

should

method

ideational,

for

as

sense or

But

text.

When

of translation

on whether

identifies

school

translation

text

of

to be most appropriate

on a text's

the

depending

feature

House's

types

acceptable

translations

prominant

hand,

based

interpersonal

But de

the

suggested

other

translations

House

literal

and modified

sense and form are

identified

be

to

cases

(See

pp185-204).

Beaugrand's

and

distinction

the traditional

translation,

refutes

translating,

because the writers

Individualistic

(1981)

Dressler's

claim

that

"there

can be an equivalence

their

setting

of occurrence"

p. 216,

of

that

between free

such a distinction

language

a view

school

elements

which

they

of

and literal
would mean

independently
believe

to

of
be

wrong.

From

different

translation

on

informative
semantic
require

the

basis

of

and the vocative.


translating,

communicative

Language

between communicative

distinguishes

translation

Newmark's

standpoint,

while
translating.

language
Expressive
informative

and semantic

functions:
texts

Function

school

of

methods

of

the expressive,
are

and vocative

claimed
texts

to

the
favour

are said

to

25
As a result,

we notice

that

and dynamic equivalence


distinction

between

Callow's

dictinction

translating;

to

and

Newmark's semantic

The third
above

mentioned

types

on

basis

identifies

ideational

ideational

and

identifies

expressive,

Nida,
and

to

descriptive,

informative

hand,

relates
This

as a result
that

House,

functions

types

to

the

the

Newmark
to

corresponding

language.

of

role

Nida's

that

to

while

texts

text

instance,

corresponding

and vocative

implies

for

language,

of

text

the

of reviewing

many of them identify

texts

and vocative

to

and

respectively.

functions.

language

of

the

of

narrative

as de Beaugrande

They claim
stands

p. 186.

identify

a literary

in a principled

of the real

them "increase

and Dressler

world"

But

texts.

by

played

method

form

corresponds

didactic

literary,
text

could

While

knowledge
texts

p. 185.
Each

They

traits

be defined

and

didactic

as "a text

the currently

accepted

attempt

whose

to the accepted
according

would

text.

and uses"

texts,

scientific

"on

identify

these

of

scientific

relationship

about

depending

types

has "typical

claim,

alternativity

p. 185.

and distribute

text

communication"

and argumentative

they
that

in

text

identify

(1981)

and Dressler

texts.

world"

is

schools

a message.

Furthermore,

version

comes to surface

that

idiomatic

and

translating;

covert

translating

Catford's

and to Beekman and

literal

and

functions

p. 184.

world

overt

to

genre.

function

types

House's

equivalence

roughly

translating;

modified

interpersonal

But de Beaugrande
the

the

interpersonal

in

content

free

and

and

other

between formal

corresponds

between

informative

on the

roughly

literal

translation

the

the expressive,

translating

and communicative

trend

major

distinction

Nida's

to

to
real

"distribute

26

knowledge

established
receivers"

p. 186.

The fourth

major

the

Further,

between actual

property

language"

p. 35,

Beekman and Callow

(1974)

they

of the

claim

p. 20

original"

the

using

separation

implies

creating

is

"meaning

that

of form and content

to be in adequate.

in form being

a translation

that

classifies

as substituting

he claims

believe

as well,

being

in a message.

the separation

view which he believes

since

because he

because substitution

and calls

many of

content

implies

text

text

of

that

and

of translation

as the transcoding

content,

form

as separate

sense although

is

review

of

language

a target

an approximate

audience

of form and content

form and content,

new form with


of

for

text

probability

definition

(1965)

Catford's
language

the

importance

to the

according

literature

form and content

Nida views

separate:

source

in

learning

non-specialized

deduced from the

trend

believe

writers

texts

to a

natural

separate

from

"the

sense

to convey

ought

expression

the

of

second

language.

On

the

(1981)

that

claim

that

p. 216 which
House's

hand,

other
they

view

form and content


can only

equivalence
implies

work

as

that
well

deduce from de Beaugrande

cannot

we

translating

being

he believes

in form and content

The idea of form and content

is

an

"experience

as separate

being

separate

because

to us that

they

of participants"

individualistic

but Newmark's use of

and content

separate,

be in the

indicate

does not

items,

as separate

and Dressler

experience.

she believes

"message"

in form

indicates

that

items.

is pursued

in our

study

and

27
used as a basis

H. Main contributions
The

his

of the reviewed

are as follows:

of view

point

for

guidelines

Nida's

(1964)

of House's.

and detailed

as that

Catford's

contribution

is

that

major

take

overcome translating
while

what

they

their

work gives

claim

translating

did

they

although

sense"

insight

us a great

is

is not

into

translation,

of

distinction

their

(1974)

between

p. 270).

defined.

precisely

the problems
us with

not provide

changes
on how to

not helpful

quality

is

the

of

(see Beekman and Callow,

"making

as

model of assessment

work is

but his

main contribution

and meaning

structure

of

and

description

detailed

or how to assess

problems

Beekman and Callow's

surface

his

in translation,

place

his

However,

to

teachers

students

p. 161).

not as explicit

in addition

model of Assessment
both

from our

on translation

writers

help

translators

(see Nida

translation

six.

of weakness

and points

contributions

main

in chapter

to measure adequacy of translation

But

However,
in

involved

Bible

on how to

guidelines

translate.

de Beaugrande

helps

characteristics
devices

in

the

can only

equivalence

look

themselves

of certain

House's

translators

like

be "in

which we modify

description
to
But

try
the

the experience

by other

understood

contribution

of text
and

writers'

people,

which

four

that

suggestion
p. 216,

although
implies

makes

people

can

the existence

each other.

is her model of translation


in chapter

text

and

the adequate

reproduce

matter,

which we understand

and use later

types

of participants"

a mere individualistic

methods through

major

text.

translation

equivalence

make

(1981)

and Dressler's

in this

quality
study.

assessment
Her work is

28
extremely
can

analyze

as well

At last

Newmark's

semantic

and workable

translating

exp. anation

of

with

methods

translation

the

importance

of the readership

of

to

suggests
in deciding

flexible

analysis
his

Further,

between message and audience

the relationship

and

communicative

us with

deal

great

between them.

the differences

is his

He has provided

of'translation.

methods

we'

teacher more systematic.

as we see it,

contribution,

major

which

Her model is detailed

translations.

as evaluate

the means by

us with

which makes the Job of the translation

explicit

and

because she has provided

useful

and

emphasis

on

students

of

the translation

method.

In conclusion,
p. 183
different
basic

features

cultural

is

translation

(1981)

participants"

(1965)

languages

across

overlap

Catford

while

" p. 94 after

for

easy

relatively

culture,

opinion

Dressler

it

makes

Newmark

all.

insist

p. 216.

declares
"to

(1982)

adds

to be" p. 47.
that

us to understand

remains

between two languages,


likely

"universality

that

( 1964) suggests

Nida

equivalence

that

message"

a message from a
the equivalence

some extent

a matter

of
of

"the

closer

the

therefore

better,

the

that

the closer,
But in contrast,
can only

of the

be "in

de Beaugrande

and

the experience

of

29

CHAPTER THREE

FORMULATINGAPPROACHOF DEEP MEANING VERSUS SURFACEMEANING


Page
Literal

B-

Types of Figurative

Language

30
31

1.

Metonymy

31

2.

Synecdoche

32

3.

Simile

32

4.

Metaphor

33

C-

Classification

D-

Anatomy

E-

Major

Theories

F-

Major

schools

of

G -. Deep versus
H-

Language

and Figurative

A-

The Factual

of

35

Metaphor

37

Metaphor
of
of

40

Metaphor

Metaphor

Translating

43

Surface

Meaning

60

and the

Fictitious

62

30
III

VERSUS
FORMULATING
OF
DEEP
MEANING
SURFACE
MEANING
APPROACH
-

A-

Literal

and Figurative

Metaphor

is

divorced

from the

something

sentence

means such as 'She is very


lovely

'what

saying

we are having'

weather

or saying

about

somebody 'big

not;

or saying

about

something

indirect
to

starving'

mean

'Serve

us

'the

or

In the case

means.

of what the sentence

means she is

ugly,

or

in fact

is

he

is

mean that

his

to

say

In

on';

'I

or

'I

wife

say 'it

Somebody might

the heater

am
is
to

am waiting'

to mean 'go and answer

is ringing',

bell

such

when we mean the opposite.

dinner'.

the

to mean 'switch

'open the door';

deal'

In

when the weather

a man might

speech acts,

mean

in here'

freezing

'big

meaning

between speaker's

when we really

shot'

and

speech acts.

when he really

pretty'

bad;

the case of

and indirect

means is the opposite

speaker

meaning being

something

means is not what the sentence

the

what

saying

of the difference

examples

meaning are irony

cases what the speaker


irony,

i. e.

meaning,

Some other

else.

case of the speaker's

of the special

an example

meaning and literal

of

Language

the door'.

There must be a system

understanding

literal

system

proposed
that
such

of

rules

by Searle

he should

means that

of utterance

behind
(1979)

an

the hearer's

hearer

can

because

language,

the

it

Secondly,

"alternative

understanding

as follows:

p. 114-115,

seek a metaphorical

as S is P because

seek

indirect

and

hearer

the

which

goes

beyond

meaning.

'She is the sun'.


to

type

this

to

according

ironical

metaphorical,

understand

the

rules

of

First,

interpretation

is obviously

meaning",

he tries

the hearer

false,

has established
to find

is

thinks

statement

of a certain

or literally

once the hearer

of a metaphor

for
that

example,
he has

ways in which

'S'

31
be like

could

distinctive
possible

This

features

of

both

and metaphor

will

be pursued

in the next

B-

Types of Figurative

1)

Metonymy

with

associated
has

it

decided"

speech

being
closely
hand,

what it

language is

means

from

apart

and what is meant is very


it

be the way we approach

should

A further

in particular.

important

discussion

any

of this

chapter.

Language

of the American

Dictionary

(1976)

Dictionary

for

that

for

of another

'the

that

it

symbolises,

President

means that

used for

For example,
the

metonymy as "a

letter

is

e. g.

crown

(undated)

the Study of Literature,

to.

describes

by the use of the name of one thing

name of one thing

related
it

or indirect

the White House has decided

characterised

for

"the

properties

the name of something

Handbook

some

range of

to Searle.

New World

e. g.

Longman Modern English


of

he finds

the use of the name of one thing

"metonymy is

(1964),

the

and

Language

Webster's

to

i. e.

to understand

well-known

and restrict

Thus metaphorical

because

in general

"salient,

sun)

(she),

between what is said

text

According

'S'

according

of translation

for

p. 115 (the

in order

says,

separation

in the study

'P'"

'S' and 'P'.

literally

looks

he

to suit

by the hearer

processed
what it

Thirdly,

connotations

by

shared

'P'.

another
if

a letter

in Milton's

which

for

identifies
it

in said

figure

in place
king".

metonymy as

suggests

or

to be in Milton's

own handwriting".

of

is

32
2)

Synecdoche
is

This

Dictionary

in which

reverse

of this.

Longman

of

a part

Language (1964),

bread for

Example:

Modern

English

Dictionary

by which

the part

is taken

for

the species

for

the genus,

it

fisure

the whole

it

('so

as "the

the

for

the matter

a soldier".

rhetorical

much a head'

part,

the

of

or the

a whole or class,

desribes

the

New World

as "a

or the army for

(1976)

the whole for

'so much per person'),

species,

food,

Webster's

defines

is used for

individual

of

language.

figurative

of

of the American

speech

device

type

another

for

genus
thing

instead
the

made of

it,

etc. ".

Handbook
follows:

"In

for

3)

used in place

is

ten ships

its

of one of

defines

synecdoche

is substituted

for

Ten sails

parts

as

the whole,
thus

stands

".

Simile

Simile

is

figure

another

Dictionary

of

is

like,

e. g.

as, etc.,

likened

like-,

Handbook
explicit

as ' etc.,

for

is

the

comparison

e. g.

Study

of

by

Language (1964),

as big

likened
his

Literature

of speech in

by

the

use

as "a figure

simile

in one respect
was as clear

(undated)
unlike

New World

of

".

describes

explanation

between essentially

thing

as a whale';

to another

Webster's

as "a figure

dissimilar

(1976)

Dictionary

one thing

defined

speech

to another,

a heart

Longman Modern English


speech in which

of

American

the

which one thing

of

of something

a part

synecdoche

or the whole

(undated),

the Study of Literature,

for

defines

things,

of

by the use
".

as crystal`

simile

introduced

as "an
by

33
connective

e. g.

like,

as,

Examples of similes
"My heart

given

like

is

or a verb

are:

bird

(C. Rossetti)
(Wordsworth)

as a cloud

(Shakespeare)

a woman's tear

I as weaker than

are but borrowed

Seems he a dove? His feathers

(Shakespeare)"

Metaphor

4)

According to Webster's New World


(1964),

(1976)

Dictionary

Handbook

is likened

were that

literally

applicable,

for

Study

the

of

describes

other,

e. g. an icy

Literature

as "a

metaphor

is attributed

speech in which a name or quality


is not

it

Language

American

to

e. =.

a stage".

Longman Modern English

of

the

of

by being spoken of as if

thing

the world's

all

Dictionary

of speech in which one thing

metaphor is "a figure

another different

it

as seems".

by the same reference

a singing

lonely

I wandered

than

figure

to something to which

glance,

nerves

(undated)

of steel".

defines

metaphor

as

follows:

"My heart

is like

I wandered lonely

bird

a singing

(C. Rossetti)
(Wordsworth)

as a cloud

I am weaker than a woman's tear


Seems he a dove? His feathers

Just

assertion

or 'than'

my heart in a ainsini

as Ceasar growled-

so -my heart

are but borrowed

'as',

If the speaker omits 'like',


impossible

(Shakespeare)

is a singing

contains
bird

by

its

making, say, the literally

bird'

terms that

(Shakespeare)

he

uses

are literally

incompatible

terms

metaphor.

incompatible,
forces

the

hearer
If

to regard

the connotations

we do not have both

bird;

if

but because

'all'

'all'

implicitly

metaphoric,

instead

to

refers

in a crowd like

approximately,

replacing,

be

would

'flocking'

deities,

pagan

is a
these

all

'flocking'

to sheep,

referred

My heart

of

In Milton's

or submerged metaphor.

and more came flocking-,


literal,

( My winged heart

terms

) we have an implicit

the dertoCartLon of one term.

than

rather

is
a group

of sheep".

by

talked

the

star,

teeth

examples

in English

being

language

literal
well
part

as how to
of

the

interpretation
however,
over

dead

used.

use

and
have

the

in

to Fraser

according
burst

to Paivio

and

Nose

of

an

are all

of a coat,

are another

example of dead

(1979),

Ortoney

laughter'

with

the

are examples

p. 173

'to

of such idoms

metaphors.

metaphors
because
in

them

language

tails

tenor.

the vehicle

living.

or

compared

and

vehicle

According

dead

Idioms

in English.

'to

the

would be the eye,

be

is

the tenor

to which

brightness.

could

the thing

of the metaphor,

leg of the table,

of a comb,

had once been live

Idioms

is

were named

of metaphor

parts

between

the tenor

metaphors

come neck and neck',


that

the thing

the similarity

of dead metaphor

metaphor

the subject

of similarity

p. 270,

Pegg (1981),

is

eyed girl',

ground

aeroplane,

is

which

'a starry

Thus in

the basic

the vehicle,

about;

and the ground

p. 3,

tenor

The

I. A. Richards.

being

(1979)

to Ortoney

According

their
the

cannot
potential

can

meaning

found

of

becoming

in

or

of

in

dictionaries

as

Therefore,
are

dictionaries.

idioms

qualities

acquired

be found

which

metaphors

be

have

context.

relevant
live

unlike

they

that

entails

dead

creative,
Live
metaphors

they
open

are
to

metaphors
by being

35
The

with

someone'

fish

to fry'

to do with

dead

any loss

C-

from

examples

Arabic

English

chosen

a translation

to the mind,

does

means

because

the

and specified

in

metaphor

can be replaced

by non-

so would not mean


power.

of

it,

common in

order

to

express

the

main

and Arabic

English
the

Arabic

which

metaphors

are metaphors

others

to

according

briefly

types

these

use

p. 271-272

in

and English

Some of

arbitrarily.

are very

explain

and Arabic
from

The examples

them.

have

or emotive

and Pegg (1981)

will

we

both

in

type

one

which

p. 158 and Paivio

following,

the

to

as doing

effects

explanatory

conjure

they

when translated,

of Metaphor

There are types

In

it

as

have another

of Metaphor

Classification

Leech (1985)

'to

by convention

restricted

in the second language,

information,

of

is

metaphors

language

figurative

a fish

bear

have a bone to pick

someone;

of a live

as that

effect

Therefore,

dictionaries.

frying

some dead metaphors

that

not have the explanatory


of

against

does not

to.

to attend

imagery

'to

For example,

wording.

has nothing

the

meaning

are dead metaphors,

means to have a grievance

affairs

Further,

because they

literal

to their

relevance

other

idioms,

of

meaning

show how
feature
we
are

will
from

and provide
metaphors

of

characterizing
were

provide
the

Ouran

used frequently

in the

by Leech (1985)

and Paivio

and

Arabic

media.

This

traditional

Pegg (1981)
shared

will

features

translations

pinpointed

classification
be used later
so

that

can be analyzed,

to classify

every

category

criticized

Ouranic

metaphors

of Ouranic
and assessed.

according

metaphors

and
to

and their

36

(a)

Humanising

(Anthropomorphic)

metaphors

These assign

human characteristics

situations.

Examples of this

stingy

land,

thirsty

nature,

to inanimate
are:

(b)

Examples from Arabic

etc.
J

I *.

it

ys,,

are:
Lke. 1
&j

t-..

winds,

sit

Metaphors

Animalising

to people and objects.

These assign animal characteristics


Thus in

delirious

eye of a needle,

or

animals

objects,

3: 3% LP't

"And submit to them the wing of humility"


man is
that

is

the fox

is dirty,

in Arabic

memory, whereas
Arabic

are often

it

forgets

never

In addition

the elephant

'he

is

an animal'

expresses

contempt.

However,

in

is

pet'

tradition
is

a dear

of calling

a famous Arabic

means

female

L. -JorL, -= min
or strength

is

But,

`o-'J

it

not

Arabic.
is

animal

metaphors

of

someone.

'He is

the case all

dove'.

animals

would

and helpful.

patient

dehumanisation;
is

such as!

Other

a graceful

culture
i

6,,:

to call

).

as

has a

--,-twhich
AA.,

caliph

names stand

deer,

a louse'

the time

Arabic

be abusive

long

and

The camel in

dehumanisation

and

this

after

contemporary

in animals

ox and mule.

clumsiness

the name of the famous

tribe,
dog.

for

the

and

between English

an overlap

and yet

'a darling

or

people

For example,

stubborn

characteristics,

contempt

expresses
'She

to another.

has no such associations.

certain

used to express

is

stands

maltreatment

to symbolising

characteristics

such as the fox,

animals

certain

in English

However,

certain

the mule is

There

is weak and contemptible.


concerning

represent

from one culture

the pig

cunning,

and Arabic

Thus,

Animals

be different

might

louse

to a bird.

likened

someone as
for

beauty

is a wild

37
cow

with

nice

youngster
lion

(c)

to Abstract

These transform
back

physical

which

namely patience,

(d)

These assign
concept

help

conceptions

him;

it

the

An example

action

is extended

'to

from Arabic
into

such

is derived

the expression

yields

from the

give

a hand

aFLI-

is

as

an abstract

concept,

to

abstract

and comfort.

Metaphors

or physical

the taste

characteristics

of success;

Examples from Arabic

of passion.

Q means

are names of the

c C's

abstract

him.

Shifting

material

such as,

into

objects

strength

to Concrete

Abstract

that

Metaphors

'Hand'

physical

. are birds
rt,

ur- I.AG "..,

meaning to support

'back'.
i. e.

to someone',
in

physical

entity

Lc,. L

and strength.

Shifting

someone"

>"c

The masculine

while

dignity

symbolising

"to

and beauty.

the eagle,

of

Concrete

while

eyes,

kindess

symbolise

t_. .,,

an

of fame;

the price

the

fire

are:
w"t

(e)

The synaesthetic
of

another

voice,

metaphor

describes

such as warm touch,

sweet warmt4ptc.

experiences
dull

colours,

Examples from Arabic

of one sense in terms


tasty

smell,

smooth

are:

-51\%-

D-

Anatomy of Metaphor
Leech (1985)
metaphors.

p. 153-165,
The technique

proposes
consists

useful

of three

technique
stages,

to

the first

analyse
stage

38
is

to separate

deciding

which

When a literal
be

are

parts

After

make sense on its

should

following

We will

own.

language

and which

figuratively.

two

this

to

each of them

meanings,

apply

by-

one is

then a metaphorical
the

separating

of

use

literally

used

seems absurd,

reading

attempted.

from the figurative

literal

the

technique

the

to

example:
"Life's
but a walking shadow, a poor player that
his hour upon the stage and then
struts
and frets
(Macbeth, v; v)
is heard no more".

first

The

in

The dots

as

there

meaning:

The second

line

belong
the

while

the

to

lines

mean

meaning.

but a
shadow,

walking

a poor player

and frets

struts

his

hour upon the stage

line

and then is

meaning:

Figurative

meaning:

the

separating
to

words

meanings,

..

meaning:

The third

is

the

meanings.

that

meaning:

Figurative

After

literal

Life's

Figurative

Literal

that

literal

as the

a gap in the

meaning:

Literal

mean

and figurative

line

The first

Literal

is

well

literal

the

to separate

following

the

figurative
that

is

stage

literal

literal

and

literal

and
figurative

heard

and figurative

the tenor

reconstruct

both the

no more

meanings,
by filling

and vehicle

figurative
readings

The

readings.
are

to

the next

step

in the gaps of
gaps

be filled

between
to fit

the

in the

39

general
this

meaning without

both

reconstruction,

sense each on its

The first

further

creating

the vehicle

tenor

is but an illusive

Life

meaning:

Figurative

a short

should

are both

make

lasting,

and short

makes us happy while

that

meaning:

fading

gradually
Figurative

a poor player.
that

is

line

The second
Literal

shadow,

life.

are used to describe

why they

lasts

of time

period

illusive

that

situation

is but a walking

Life

meaning:

The shadow and player

meaning:

that

struts

till

it

it

exists,

but

is

away.

and frets

his

hour upon the stage.

line

The third

meaning:

Figurative

vehicle

the ground
is

comes to an end.

and then

meaning:

Establishing

for

is heard no more.

between

similarity

the most important

thing

anatomy

metaphor
understand

should

of

metaphor

is very

be approached

a metaphor

i. e.

important

in order

and establish

this

since

would be what is meant by the metaphor,

it.

the

and

After.

own.

for

The

language.

line

Literal

Literal

figurative

its

to

the

tenor

ground
its

be

meaning,

it

understood.
we try

the

of similarity

literal

because

and

meaning.
is

the way a
Once

to translate

we

40

E-

Major

Theories

Metaphor-

has

another.

It-follows

Black

"1)

the

subject

individual

set

the secondary
.

elements,

and associations

than

'Life

a stage'.

casting

is

thing

as a

utterance

that

or words used

rather

example

through

word

calls

are normally

In this

but

in

the

to mind.

functions,

on the

an

primary
the

according
subject

the

property

of

subject..

4) In juxtaposing
metaphorical

is

is a 'icontrast

p. 28.

the word 'stage'

that

to be identified

as a system

in the theatre

interested

(1979),

in Ortoney

of connotations

for

like

by which a metaphorical

The'mechanism

to Black

to be regarded

that

following

the

There

the

said

and the vehicle".

from

one" p. 28.

frame"

meaning of the

p. 85,

subjects

focus,

literal

and associations

connotations

3)

is

p. 28,

metaphor,, --we are not

p. 28-29.

statement's

subject

thing".

(1979),

has two distinct

the surrounding

The secondary

emerged

individual

the

focused

of the tenor

has'

and the secondary

metaphorical

nonliterallyand

"2)

in Ortoney

statement

metaphorical

as the primary
between

by Black

put

85,

between

and the

action

metaphor.

of

Ricoe ur(1977)"p.

Ricoeur-(1977)

to

joint

of

and

to

place

statement

the

theory

According

of

thinking

perceiving

takes

according

from

The interaction
conceptions

an "interaction

in terms

one thing

about

involves

as well.

another

Richards,

arises

as talking

metaphor

[metaphorical]

the

while

"metaphor

of

that

of

word",

that

terms

maintains

meanings

been defined

often

in

one -thing

of Metaphor

the primary

statement
rather

than

is
others

and secondary
in

fact

subjects,

focusing

in both the primary

the originator

on and emphasising
and secondary

of a
certain

subjects.

41
5)

A fusion

between the two subjects

takes

statement

as follows:

place

(a)

the primary

seeing
tempted

(b)

this

first

in

focuses

attention

the grounds

for

meaning
principal

feature,
is

that

word

chairman

St&tement

"The

meaning

words;
sentence

rather,

- rAeCaphor

of

the

and isolating

and

the discussion,
not",

latter
one of

the

that

word

balance

the condition

is

its
one

In the

not.

ploughed

of

of

between

statement

another

Flat

iotLc

is

meaning
its

This

is

taken

p. 84.

theory

sentence

is

word

yet

of which constitutes

metaphorical.

a single

metaphorically

the metaphor,

presence

the

within

the

the

p. 28-29)

constitutes

the statement

the contrast

through

(1979),

the

word,

and

the others

metaphorically,

subject
with

parallel

statement

statement

taken

ploughed

The

the

subject,

secondary

and Thought,

on a particular
considering

between

in

in

can fit,

usbject.

"An entire

(1977),

the

as well

(See Metaphor

Ricoeur

of

recalled

the primary

of view,

results

changing

the

a meaning that

associations,

(c)

from

up

point

features

subject,

building

his

is

the reader

subject.

to choose some of the

the secondary

To

of the metaphorical

of the meaning of the

not the result


proceeds

parts".

Ricoeur

from

breaking

(1977),

p. 78.

down

the

42

Another
the

two major

theories
theory.

comparison

it

then

expression,

of metaphor
If

is

any

theory

is

state

the ground

new

but

to the metaphorical

According

to

Ricoeur
tend
is

it

addition,

is

of

these

It

theories

owes more

to

p. 86.

In

creates

the

observation"
"the

it.

analogy.

one.

metaphor

[expresses]

metaphor

to

to

would be

which

simple

an empty

that

say

of

is

impossible,

loss

without
that

certain

culture.

fulfil.

See Ricoeur,

Moreover,

it

is

implies

according

Compactness:

other

of

some

pre-existent

imagery

metaphor

follows

since

substituting
it

that

untranslatability

has

in

be

cannot
of

a certain

an

metaphor

context
function

a communicatve

in

a
to

p. 87.

(1979),

into

less
a more

of

learning

through

three

p. 475:

large

guarantees

and concreteness

facilitate

to

converts

known domains of experience


Vividness:

it

metaphor

to Ortoney

metaphor

that

new information

believed

is

is

The

meaning.

words,

(1977),

metaphor

hypotheses,

of

a carrier
In

this

result

metaphor

translated

live

not

objective

to

true
the

important

most

interaction

2)

to

than

that

if

notion

that

a replacement

raised

not

p. 86.

similarity",

1)

vague

to

metaphor

holds

It

a comparison

were

does

The comparison

ornamental.

and thus

and

of a literal

metaphor

theory.

objections

reduce

more

than

similarity

The

to

the

and

merely

statement

(1977),

appreciation

subjective

is

theory

a substituent

is to produce

of an analogy

equivalent

"Similarity,

to it

case of the substitution

a special

they

is

metaphor

an equivalent

information

carry

because

the substitution

are:

amounts of

information

from well

known domains.
memorable

experience

learning

invoked

by the

through
vehicle.

its

43
Inexpressibility:

3)

that

are not

are

totally

complicated

that

they

new

schools

In the following

we review

Translation

The equivalent

message approach

language

In

However,
then
the

his

when the
translation

source

metaphors",

choice

bias

basic

by Den Broack,

1981.

by Newmark, 1982.

advocated

(1974),

is

that

"the

with

based

on

the readers

the

of the

same message as did

of

the

translator

the

of

of

metaphors
metaphors

is

is

to

metaphors
to
likely
by

be loyal
to

be

Den

Broeck

be loyal

to
be

ought

to

to

target

the

that

"corresponding

is

translating

metaphor
by

advocated

translator

chooses

to

approach

choice

translation

language
p. 85.

of

1974.

approach

to be provided

of

his

then

and schools

by Beekman and Callow,

to metaphor-translating

language

principle

when the

language,

with

p. 150, of the metaphor.

source/target

cases

priority

ought

readers",

on the

comparison

studies

advocated

approach

by Beekman and Callow

advocated

based

recent

advocated

Language bias

3) The Literal

the

in

and

are:

Message Approach

2) The Source/Target

While

too emotional

are

described

these

from 1974 to 1982.

1) The Equivalent

original

because

either

they

some of the very

investigated

The approaches

second

human experience

of

translating

of metaphor

metaphor-translating

principle

be

to

need

language
that

or

aspects

known experiences.

previously

Major

those

literal

through

expressed

experiences

F-

invokes

metaphor

of
target

(1981).
the

source

literal.
language,

substituting
language

44
Lastly,
is

the

literal

translating

metaphor

that

suggests
translate

other

we

investigate

Beekman and Callow


of

enumerate
I.

"The three

C-

The point

of

the

of

He

preference.
is

translator

to
he

be-inappropriate,

that

should

Message

Equivalent

the reasons

explain

Approach

behind

literally

translated

to

metaphor

the misunderstanding
in

bible.

the

They

in the following:
p. 137, of speech:

of the figure"

is

"The items

implicit

compared have no plausible

The metaphorical

C-

New metaphors

proceed

to

render

"whenever

such a literal

communicates

being

"in

other

transfer

than

for
its

communicates

in the RL

in the RL

formed

the criteria

to say that

metaphor

resemblence

meaning is excluded
are no longer

from the second language

derives

of misunderstandings

B-

The writers

is implicit"

of similarity

A second reason

in the RL",

p. 137.

to decide

the translator
literal

form",

p. 143,

wrong meaning and

ambiguous meanings one of which

is wrong,

is

usually

obscure

or

p. 143.

meaning",

Therefore,

order

main points.

similes

parts

The topic

A-

zero

on its

reasons

B-

when it

in

on

proposals

"The image may be unknown

A-

2.

these

on Newmark's

enumerates

However,

the

(1974)

and

metaphors

based

translating-

metaphor

techniques.

and touch

translating

is

and priority

strategy

literally.

metaphors

suggests

he

which
first

the

It

to

approach

priority
1982.

in

by Newmark

advocated

First,

translation

the

writers

claim

that

it

is essential

for

the translator

to

45
that

verify

the right

by showing
when

the translation
is

a metaphor

Does the
points

2.

Once the

needs to pinpoint

failure

failure

of communication

is

discovered,

go on to maintain

not

is considered

therefore,
[would

it

on

derive

from the

derive

from the

it

"is

Further,

the writers

1) - "adjustment

is

original.

how

the
is

claim,

focus

the

of

the topic

"live,

be retained

specify

in translation

not

in the RL",

explicitly

image should

the

the writers

of

live

at all

the permissible

or dead and

image then

the

and point

literary

B-

The metaphor

may be kept

may be rendered

is

of similarity

it

is

a thematic

possible",

types

image or

p. 144.

of modipcnt. on of form

form of the metaphor

in the second

as a simile

In

p. 144,

attention",

p. 144
The form of metaphor

p. 144.

as:

of the actual

A-

metaphor

p. 144.

or if
if

his

revise

image or a symbol".,

"and only

But in cases where the metaphor


a symbol,

by the

the figure

whether

then

can

decides

what

is dead,

can be deleted,

be] expressed

of metaphor

of the problem.

translator

to be a thematic

where the metaphor


because

the

that

first

"depends

important

Thus,

receivers.

the meaning of the original",

the meaning intended

The writers

cases

language,

the second

intended

the causes

of communication

and provide

it

of the

to communicate

translation

whether

to a section

into

language

cause

translating

rendered

of the metaphor.

Does the
second

being

"fa'iing

p. 143, the translator


1.

is

meaning

language.

or simile",

46

C-

The metaphor

The metaphor may be rendered into


of these

three

"making

2) -

explicit
by the

carried

To sum up,
"possibly

some
figure",

first

the

appropriate

"the

"fails

communicate

to

are ennumerated)

information

is

which

p. 144.

the parts",

of

form of

p. 145.

a -metaphor

But when this

is used and when the

p. 145,

the right

in

cp. 150.,

writers
his

achieve

reactions

flexible

then

meaning,

is

not

latter
form

a non-figurative

is

his

approach

so that

the

same message

lties
to

the

" he needs
the

of

the

bias

approach

Den

Broeck

translating,
a suitable,

2) possible

to metaphor

(1981)
there

claims
should

language

second

be

to

sensitive

on the

figures

one hand

on

the

and

other"

may be provided

with

p. 150.

readers",

original

to

RL readers
these

translating

readers

as did

of

has a number of open

a translator

Therefore,

goal.
diffict

and

that

claim

Now, we move on to review the major points

"1)

implicit

of the

part

form of a simile",

the

conclude,

choices

"the

of forms

combinations

p. 145.

used",

the

into,

p. 145,

the second language by"combinations

method is to keep the original

expansion

with

to

way",

p. 145.

possibilities",

(see p. 149, where possible

To

in a "non-figurative

language

the second

D-

may be rendered

of the source/target

language

translating.

that

in

order

be made available

i. e. operational,
modes of translating

definition
metaphors

to

investigate

as a starting
of metaphor;

point:

metaphor

47

3) a specification

of distinct

4) a specification

of the constraints

treatment

that

maintains

how metaphors

translation

"set

can

the

follows,

in

up

to him,

73,
p.
,

predictions
language

2)

to

a theory

of

Instead
the

which

of translation

as well

as the

Therefore,

of metaphor.

observable

in which general

could

uncover

"theoretic

degree

as the writer

"make such specifications

puts

as seem necessary
statements

about

the

p. 73.

as "possible

p. 77, of

applications",

are:

of when metaphors

are most likely

to be rendered

from one

to another.

descriptions
optimal

a theory

translating

by the writer

translating

to

be expected

p. 77.

can be made",

of metaphors

The models suggested

1)

that

"cannot

p. 77.

according

framework

a theoretical

translation

metaphor

models

own words he will

his

to provide

be translated",

of metaphor

of translatability"
it

as a rule-governed

of translation

be described",

according

techniques

a theory

should

phenomena can properly

It

itself

p. 74.

writer

specify

can occur;

which can be imposed on the

by translation

of metaphors

activity",

The

in which metaphors

context

of how "metaphors

are to be translated

between SL text

correspondence

and TL text

in order

that

may be established",

p. 77.
But as the writer
such generalizations
generalizations,
"possibilities",

claims

since

there

are impossible
we

will

p. 77, yielded

have

is

not enough research

to make.
to

Therefore,

settle

by the above models.

for

in this
instead
the

area,
of such

following

48

1-

Literal

translation

tenor

and SL vehicle

is translated

metaphor

:a

into

are rendered

literally

when both SL

language.

the target

+S
"substitution",

2-

p,. 77,

"SL vehicle

the

when

or less

poetic

metaphor

Other

problems

type

literary
literary

system

The

of

is

writer,

rejected

having

to

discuss

translatability

of

proceeds

aspect",
for

The writer,

of the SL",

of this

by rigid

conventions

lack

of modesty,

metaphor

"is

only

in general.
also

applies

has adapted

special

laws

of

provide

etc. ",

He

is

of obstacle

such that

an

SL

p. 81.

translating,

maintains

that

case or significant

Therefore,

to metaphor

these

type

can

to metaphor

metaphor.

and

in the target

which

is governed

of

p. 80.

in the case of shared

traditions

some obstacles

in

convention

offshoot

boldness,

p. 80.

originate",

"aesthetic

An

its

by

factor

they

be high

thus

translatability

as he says,

in which

symbolical

investigated

translatability

more

"when a

claims

depend on the availability

least

p. 84, of translatability

general

with

is rendered

extra-linguistic

from

will

p. 81.

for

the

arise

could

similar

system

TL

the

p. 77.

peculiarity

context

cultural

or at

it

be hampered as the writer

"from

result

substitutes"

"when the target

in the TL",

"Translatability

traditions

adequate

metaphor

could

TL vehicle

whenever

paraphrased

could

of obstacle

p. 81,

tradition,

is

based on a grammatical

the so-called

metaphors,

A third

is

in

another

p. 77.

expression

translating

metaphor

by a different

replaced

a metaphor

non-metaphorical
But,

is

the same tenor",

"paraphrase,

3-

for

a metaphor/substituted

"the

translation",
translatability

basic

law
p. 84.
as

49
follows:
(1)

is

Translatability
basic

type,

high

that

provided

languages

of

when a pair
the

are

of

close

and (3)

(2)

are

conditions

under

is contact

between SL and TL.

fulfilled.
(2)

Translatability

is

(3)

Translatability

is high

(4)

when the general

on parallel

Translatability

is

kind

of

further

(for

description

of

translated",

p. 85,

and recurrent

made up,

involves

when translation

information",

the

"a

various

because

patterns",

no more than a

p. 84.
last

of the

further

law of translatability,

ways

in

which

see

would allow

us "to

p. 85.

But instead

the writer

which

principle

to the SL or to the TL?


translating

are

discover

regularities

the conflict

about

is

the

basic

conflict

will

faced

by

translator

once the translator's

of this

actually

as he claims

in question:

Hence,

in terms

is

involve

would

metaphors

this

choice"

metaphor

to be taken

step

between the two languages

the translator
to be loyal

high

that

"basic

the

in SL

evolution

p. 84)

claims

writer

cultural

lines.

specifications

Den Broeck,

adopt

when there

and RL proceeded

single

The

high

mind is
would mean

the following:
1)

if

the translator's

likely
if

2)

the translator's

likely
often

The
about

be translated

writer

be substituted
be adapted",

concludes

"discovering

loyalty

is to the SL, then

SL metaphors

would most

is to the TL, then

SL metaphors

would most

literally.
loyalty

by "corresponding

TL metaphors,

or will

at least

p. 85.

by saying

regularities,

that
it

because a theory
should

not try

to

of translation
create

them

is
by

50

"
imposing

or norms on translational

rules

he has attempted
description

more realistic

Therefore

can be translated",

metaphors

of what a theory

expectation

what-

"a tentative

to him is to provide

according

study

of how and to what extent

to suggest

p. 86

of translation

can

do.

actually

Lastly

in his

p. 86.

practice",

the Literal

we review

Translation

priority

to

approach

metaphor

translating.

to

According
describe

event

an entity,

in

and

Newmark (1982),

more complex

function

the principal

more comprehensively

or quality

by using

is possible

way than

of metaphor
and

is

"to

concisely

literal

language",

p. 84.

the writer

Moreover,
their
[...

with

readers

a character

of]

claims

that

employ

writers

"both

understanding

a clearer

p. 84,

or situation",

to

metaphors

and emotional

physical
metaphors

although

provide

might

appear

to be vague and unclear.

for

used

their

characteristics",
scientiific
similarity

Newmark
translating

(1)

Literal

"connotations
p. 85,

even though

between two different

in order

rendering

the

the case that


for

than

rather
they

[...

metaphors

their]

is

are

physical
on

"a

points

of

based

are essentially

p. 84 which

procedure",

observable

specifies

is, often

it

that

Newmark goes on to maintain,

identifying

entities.

following

to

be

the

techniques

of

metaphor

of preference:

of the

original

image

"provided

the

image

has

51
frequency

comparable
the target

language.

languages

in

and currency

in the appropriate

He identifes

"cultural

question

important

factors

language.

He remarks

in a successful

to be "culturally

that

as he claims

metaphor,

is

to produce

(2) Substitution

of

The writer

a simile.

the

of

shock

"emotive",

(4)

in

of]

than

rather

most

p. 90.

including

here

by

plus

sense",

p. 90.

This

both

for

both to the

in

texts

cases

and

simile

form

the

"modifying
that

are

not

translation

layman and the expert",


not

in

this

this

language

p. 90,

be understood
case

is what matters

that

do not correspond
as well

will

that

p. 90,

where a source

or

communicative

Newmark claims

frequency,

sense

as the writer

emphasizes

effect",

plus

procedure,

of the metaphor

The writer

instance,

current

semantic

transfer

to sense.
in

suitable
image,

language

simile

the equivalent

metaphor

language

language

in

metaphor

be useful

would

target

of

p. 89.

culture"

the

reproducing

in

that

target

standard

language

this

language

p. 88.

or

itself

cases where a "simple

(5) Reducing
be

combine

addressing

by most readers",
gloss

p. 89,

metaphor

of

a metaphor
would

[because

that

ought

in nature.

"Translation

claims,

remarks

a metaphor",

p. 89,

occasionnaly

but

texts

like

simile,

"a

the target

with

image,

original

image by

of the original

the

of

target

of the target

description",

an accurate

image which does not clash

Keeping

whole point

the

and technical

p. 88 to the receivers

"the

to

metaphors

in scientific

to be very

p. 88,

experience",
of

between the

p. 88,

overlap",

transfer

similes

familiar",

because,

(3)

"universal

and

p. 88 in,

register",

"the

the most.

procedure

would

image and a target

in matters

of "register

as the degree

of formality,

52
emotiveness

and generality",

reproduced

by

a non-figurative

be dropped
language

the metaphor
out

is not

text

writer

p. 91,

what is

is

"fulfilled

dropped

(7)

set

"less

important",

"same

the

Reproducing

fully

procedure

"may be useful

understood
if

and alliterations

the

intention

of

important",

the function

of the

p. 91 can the metaphor

be

there

or irrational

many factors

of the metaphor

The

that

sure

He adds that

a
this

p. 91, because then

only

affect

areas

in metaphors,

points

within

rough

the

be

in

word

Moreover,

p. 93,

deriving

translated

by

of reference"

93.
p.
,

translators

approach

the context",

metaphor

polysemy,

expressions.

elements",

can

are no rational

make

language.

to some
element

and imagination

p. 91.

sense",

to

want

embedded in metaphoric

"personal

as he says,

"importance

as

more explanation.

without

such as the cultural

the

if

is repeated",

the metaphor

translating,

However,

Only

in the target

Newmark draws attention

meanings since

"more

combined with

might

out,

To conclude,

human creativity

of what is

in the text";

the message can be communicated

that

the

can

"source

the
But

first

p. 91.

metaphor

as Newmark points
is

maintains

if

only
p. 91.

to consider

of priorities

a metaphor

as Newmark believes.

metaphor

play

p. 91,

expressive",

ought

in

are to be reproduced.

"redundant",
or

elsewhere

completely

translator,

is

authoritative

and its

text

and

metaphor

it

the translator

remarks,

the original

if

is'

metaphor

sense must be analyzed

As Newmark claims,

completely.

completely

when a

an image is multifaceted

that

of it

that

"the

expression,

the sense components

and all

(6) Dropping

He remarks

due to the fact

p. 91,

componentially",
nature

p. 90.

p. 92,

he
from

"primary

such as

the cultural

53
and "symbolic
reader's

these

certain

trends:

Firstly,

it

method for

be possible,
all

three

studies

of the'

extent

p. 92.

translation,

metaphor

literal

that

agreed

a translator

techniques

other

can

translation

in order

identify

of a metaphor

however,

to attempt,

were suggested

we

should

of

that

not
by

preference

writers.

Secondly,

form

of

modification

of

his

of form since

modifications

metaphor

translated,

when

However,

and Newmark.

by Beekman and Callow

suggested
suggest

of

was generally

first

the

knowledge",

and]

as "the

as well

and Criticism

In reviewing

is

[...

commitment

Evaluation

p. 93, of metaphor,

content",

techniques

are

were

Den Broeck did

not

in the broadest

of

sense.

difficulties

Thirdly,
three

writers

in their
The

although

derives

set

Fourthly,

the

communicative
criterion
the

act

of

in deciding

second

language.

decide

whether

text:

Beekman

being

importance

"alive"

whether

is

and Callow's

and constituting

of the original

all

in two sets.

categorized

metaphor

in

metaphor

or not a metaphor

However,

a metaphor

they

by

and detailed

were more specific

was identified

text

identified

and the

language.

the

of

were

which

from the elements

to the second

relates

second set

Beekman and Callow


of the problems

presentation

first

translating

of metaphor

each

important
(1974)

study
to

criterion

a "thematic

by all

three

is

be

to

chose

the

implementing

its

studies

image

example
or

as a

reproduced

in

own criteria

to

communicative
for

the

is

act

of

the metaphor

symbol",

p. 144,

54
Den

while

Broeck's
function

communicative
"live",

since,

or

functional

no

in his

(1982),

as

these

translated

RL

in

"the

is

it

is

p. 91,

authoritative

or

for

for
that

is

that

of the reader's

all

image they

some of these

RL readers

p. 150, while

readers",

And

reader.
commitment

studies

claim

"the

(...

Den

function",

Newmark
and]

are

(1982)

knowledge",

metaphor.

recognize

to metaphor

an obstacle

instance,
the

three

"careful

suggest

to the communicative

the

(1974)

and difficulties

they

the original

relevancy]

goal

of one method of

to the reactions

that

the

of

Beekman and Callow

Furthermore,

in how to translate

as forming

(1974)

likely

if

in the text",

choice

p. 143, to ensure

on "[...

extent

is

trend

metaphor

own culture
it

p. 150.

ultimate

p. 92, as a factor

Callow

the

within

the receivers

of

For example,

to be "sensitive

insists

which

identifies

The sixth

Newmark

be deleted

not

the translator's

another.

readers",

(1981)

Broeck

is

importance

the

the same message as did

receiving

of such

p. 76.

can only

was

or writer

of the metaphor

text

little

may be of

speaker

elsewhere

language

of the RL readers",

questioning

in

than

the translator

p. 76,

"fulfilled

is

in affecting

rather

the

being

the occurrence

importance

a metaphor

maintain

studies

metaphor

translation
require

p. 76, and not

p. 91.

expressive",

Fifthly,

that

"source

the

that

provided

the

or in that

"the

function

and its

"redundant"

to the

random or irresponsible",

was totally

and remarked

"relevant

metaphor

because

it,

using

being

situation",

use of live

e. g.

identified

well,

p. 92,

context",

of

relevance,

text

in its

"the

as he claims,

metaphor

is metaphor

criterion

of the text

unaware of his

completely

(1981)

that

used,

"original
and for

images will

the

translating.
writers

any given

be unknown",

factor

cultural

Beekman and
drew

receptor
p. 137.

on

their

culture,

55

Den Broeck

(1981)

from

arise
cultural

the

the

p. 92, but thinks

In

the
i-

on:

the

elements

the

Beekman
the

as did

message

Den Broeck's

language

the

metaphors

or

original

literal

devise

as to

the

not

then,

work

either

receiving

language,

the

core

specifically

by

suggested
their

of

be provided

is

very

whether

his

language.

language

depends

translating

should

hand

_..

but

literal,

approach

is

approach
"the

with

same

p. 150.

readers",

second
be

But

language

other

did

that

to

or

metaphor

applied.

second

(1974)

cultural",

In

broad,

first

the

case

second

from

lies

with

his

translation

case

by corresponding

metaphors

stems

loyalty

the

in

it

it

second

the
the

be

would

language

by paraphrasing.

(1982)

important
be set

of

is

approach

based

by him in order

priorities

in the text

of

for

the translator,

that

the

each

its

according

on

an

to his

sets

of

of which
ought

more important

intetention.

text

first

a translator

he thinks
to

the

attempting

of preference,

"what

in relation

up specifically

means that

on

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translating.
set

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then

translator

suggested

being

of

"predominantly

if

(1982)

Newmark

while

and related

metaphor

ways

on the

the

be found

to

original

first

Newmark's

techniques

p. 91.

or

but

translation,
are

the

likely

most

can only

Beekman and Callow's

the

approach

replacing

less

the

made by the

choice

that

are

of

readers

being

metaphor

literal

Callow

and

p. 80,

originate",

can,

the so-called

metaphors,

can be found.

see

of

in

solutions

alternative

consequently,

While

of

problem

to

would

problem

attempting
of

first

they

that

- causes

that

in which

we can

end,

factor

"difficulties

that

maintaining

extra-linguistic

context

recognizes

by

that

confirms

to

and what

Such criteria
informal
priorities,

basis",
would

56
then

decide

metaphor

on

translation

of the original

he

what

believes

the framework

within

text

be

to

the most suitable


intention

of the

method of
functions

and

as a whole.

Contributions
One

of Beekman

factors

the

of

would

problem

metaphor

metaphor

or related

following

that

the

type

is

criterion

by Beekman
a metaphor

the

is

option.

However,

literal

writers

believe,

if

it

live

be a live

"is

be

to

ought

and

the elements
This

can be adequately

to

that

of the
approach

suggested

they

translated

literal

would

failing

is

only

at
dead.

translating

is

be

set

This

Once the

the

first

the

abandoned,

communicate

up a

all.

being

as versus

one,

translating

specified

metaphor

different
important
decision

that

to

recognized

they

Further,

better

the

the

as

meaning

of

the

p. 143.

original",

defined

precision

language.

(1974)

and Callow

being

metaphor

metaphor

of

problem

they

with

stemming from

receiving

the

that

translating

either

to the

is

of the problem.

whether

of

as

to

answers

contribution

criterion

of

problems

mean

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main contributions

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and Callow's

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translated.

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role

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the

of the translator
understood

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of metaphor.

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combined.

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receivers

of

can be carried
suggest

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as

in

the translation

But above all,


of the original

out on the form


that

well,

recognize,

as to how the translation

by the receivers.
the

that

those
the

addition,

in making up the
can be adapted
the writers

is

the purpose

to be

believe
of any

57
Finally,

they

the translator

hand,

the

following.

The

writer

defined

but he did
(1981),

not

Den Broeck's

first

biased.

the

to be a
he defined

translating

he tried,

Finally,
for

framework

theoretical

provide

language

or second

(See Den Broeck

Furthermore,
metaphor

in

translating

metaphor

translatability

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and consequently

of-

can be summarized

how to overcome them.

in general.

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approach

general

on the part

message.

hinder

might

he believes

of translatability

case

adequate

contributions

that

suggest

specifically

and flexibility
the

major

some obstacles

p. 78-81. - Moreover,

special

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that

emphasize

phenomenon

as

he claims,
of

to

metaphor

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we move on to investigate

but not least,

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Newmark (1982)
translating

and suggested
the

establishing

importance

the

recognized

that

appropriate

the right

Newmark's contributions:

"register"

of

is

register
of

meaning

the

in

metaphor

an essential

metaphor

part

in

in the second

language.

The techniques
for

the

of metaphor

translator

into

on

when

occasions

suggested

because practical

are to be translated
many

translating

advice

a second language.
a certain

method is

by Newmark
is given

on how metaphors,

In addition,
likely

helpful

are

he

specifies

or preferably

to be

used (see Newmark, 1982, p. 88-96).

Further,
tried

he

suggests

by the translator,

that

literal
but should

translating
that

is

the

first

not be adequate,

method to be
other

methods

58

are enlisted.

He recognizes
important

factor

language

into

in

relates

translation

successful

p. 91,

general

is an

from one

the sense of

the metaphor.

analyzing

to his

translating

metaphor

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what is meant by giving

He specifies

another.

between two languages

p. 47,

overlap",

as "componentially",

a metaphor
he

"cultural

that

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approach

semantic/communicatlve_.

such factors

He specifies

p. 92,

context",

of

set

intention

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text

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is

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p. 91 as
p. 92

commitment",

as

to be translated.

make up for

should

or less

so that

his

himself

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decisions

of

how

to

would be more adequate.

he

end,

translation

the translator

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of the original

metaphor

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or expressive",
and

of what is more important

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knowledge

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he suggests

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well

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hamper the

might
cases

ways

to

obstacles.

Criticism
We will
(1974)
the

work.

RL

readers
properly

by pinpointing

start

They suggest

version
so that

needs
the

understood",

points

that
to

translator
p. 137.

"the

of weakness in Beekman and Callow's


meaning conveyed

be ascertained
can
But this

find
is

to the

from a cross
out

whether

not always

readers

section
the

possible,

of

of those
figure
especially

is

59
the translator

when

would be only

literature

Another

point

translating

did
bible

useful

for

metaphor

On

the

hand,

does not offer

detailed

"the

theory

of translation

"brings

study

Another

point

retracts

it.

applications

of
these

enumerates
thorough
being

is

research

he

area,

unachievable,

p. 77.

So.,

if

he

why does he set

and

Moreover,
he says that
how

specify

metaphors
that

own words claims

of how and to what extent


a

sense

to

contributed
try

can actually

to achieve",

makes a statement

sets

what

up

he

translation]"

it

as might
in

(p. 77)

is
be

advance

them up in the first

impossible
of

use
that
place?

to
these

and then
"possible

calls

goes on to say that

however,

knows

theoretical

contradictory.

but then

applications,

to make such generalizations

practice",

their

guidelines

Den Broeck

[... of

theory

in this

to

in

and] has

that

example,

the

set

For example.

description

seem quite

of criticism
For

they

translation.

of

students

of translation

These two statements

p. 86.

as

Callow's

in all,

work is mainly

be expected

[...

theory

what

clarifying

but all

and at the end in his

can be translated,

metaphors

such

in metaphor

experience

since

on occasions.

tentative

their

in general,

(1981)

for

cannot

(p. 77),

be translated"

value

Beekman and

about

of translation

himself

contradicts

suggestion-

of the bible.

advice

Broeck

be said

to generalize

Den Broeck's

Den

his

could

students

translating

other

works of outstanding

to metaphors

for

should

that

not try

in the

work is very

those

so their

works.

of criticism
they

texts,

everyday

eith

for

appropriate

and religious

is that

work,

is dealing

as

well as

"by lack
for

of

the time

translation
goals

are

60
And lastly,

we move on to pinpoint
the

Although

work.

with are extremely

techniques

of

tell

us

(1982).

he provided

translating

metaphor

he did not

useful,

in Newmark's

some weak points

how he

us

these

reached

techniques.

The

second

is

point

that

translating

us why he thinks

G-

Deep meaning versus


is,

The question

duplicity

in life

is

'
pretty?

when

meanings

can coexist

is

clear

the surface

be

statement

accepted

he did

not

and then develop

the

do

the

To

conclusion.

plausible

for

us that

this

the

by context.

say something

&She is very

which

What is said

being

is

So two
are:

the

the surface

the deep meaning.

opposite

of

But,

literal

but actually

say,

in one statement,

in cases of irony,

reporting

what is said

often

as in cases of irony.

emeaning.

meant being

very

we could

example,

at the same time

in cases of straightforward

To literally

However,

method of translating?

a verifiable

mean 4'She is ugly"

As we have seen above,


deep meaning could

p. 88.

for

procedures

meaning

teaches

and people

we really

and

the

are]

of metaphor

to be supported.

meaning and what is really

content

what is meant,

not necessarilly

meaning,

surface

to reach

of meaning

Experience

these

techniques

so.

how can we establish

logically

argument

his

of preference",

from a generally

We have to start

[...

think,

in order

metaphor,

tell

deep

"I

he says that

translating,

when he introduces

the literal

each

other.

meaning and the


Neverthless,

and deep meanings

could

the
match

and informing.

mean something

else

relates_

as

61
to metaphor.

well
carry

coals

does

not

to Newcastle'

know what

implications

of this

To translate

this

is

for,

said

literally
is

person

This

unneeded,

to

sell

in the place

namely

of

a metpahor

proverb

for

instance

actions

of somebody to be like

he

discover

where

certain

goods where they

are most-unappreciated

where they

most

are

in

would be used

context

to Newcastle

coals

carrying

where

and

Thus

abundant.

namely-its

it

what

than what it

rather

up a situation

conjures

the

what relation

we must first

is what is meant by it,

ground

if

reader

at hand.

situation

successfully,

metaphor

"to,

and

is what is meant by the metaphor

that

trying

on the real

of the proverb
the

to

for

famous

is

Newcastle
bear

phrasing

not mean anything

might

metaphor

says.

the literal

For example,

the
This

content.
think

we

the

where they

are

most abundant.

So when we set
all

out

to translate

to discover

have

have established
that

expression

would

such as for

However,

if

the

we

instance

a..

could

not

meaning which is culturally

surface
providing

the

deep

meaning

the

with

comply

translator

find

to

try

the content.

surface

reproduce

Once we
i. e.

in

the

translation

adequate in the second langage,

only

would

be

an

i1i

f`;

meaning,

of

norms of the second

cultural

we first

Arabic,

the ground of the metaphor,

that,

language,

into

such a metaphor

acceptable

then

because

it

approximates the message intended by the original.

Thus,

starting

difference

from

metaphor,

between what is said

we

can

generalise

and what is really

the

idea

of

meant to whole texts.

the

62
H-

The Factual

Accordingly,

we

Fictitious.

The Fictitious

and

we

would
the

metaphorical

literature`".

hints.

and

Therefore,

discern

the reader

Therefore,

the

kind

literary

and

as

certain

symbolic

to

meanings

clues

such as

in order

to

make

by him.

to establish
in

elaborate

is of the highest

the
to

order

importance

in this

in literature

of meaning and form

interdependence

and what is

indirect

would be first

second

meaning which

due to the

of text

leave

of meaning intended

text

in

Fables.

or structures

the translation

of

the surface

reproduce

word order

and the

literature

such

messages,

would

writer

the duality

aim

of the

content

the

and inconventional

punctuation

involved

situations

would have hidden

texts

is

that

between what is said

%and La Fontaine's

%+

and symbolic

texts,

a difference

expect

the Factual

two groups:

in fictitious

meant due to

Literary

into

texts

one hand,

On the

general,

divide

will

generally.

On

the

other

hand,

meant due to the factual

we are

likely

illucidative

rather

is so because metaphors
of

report,
the text

text,
then

and if

function

the

in general.

scientific
of the writer,

report

is

would

linked

not,
that

to

the

for

be

as is

are symbolic,
emotions

of

and

what
that

informative

of

or vocative

nature.
and

or
This

situation

the case of a scientific

would parallel
example,

such as

The metaphors

to the context

informative

metaphors

or appeal

texts

of the metaphors

We do

texts,

between what is said

than of expressive

are closely

a text

in factual

of such texts.

situation
in such

to encounter
nature

to find

a difference

reports,

news and scientific


is

we do not expect

expect
or that
the

the function
to
express

reader,

see

of
in

the mood
because

63

scientific

is

report

reader

but

is about

texts

that

pretend

events

impartially.

its

of

in purely

Thus,

that

-due-

informative,

Moreover,

readers.

can be replaced
message--of
not
the
0.173,
text.

text-

since

claims.

talked

idioms

by non-figurative

the original,

idioms
This

the

writer

about

language
the

to the situation

figurative
or events

are dead metaphors,


they

without

is

an

of facts.

are the same

content

the

text-as

as Fraser

do not perform

are

found

of

if

reason

a whole,

being-

examples

in the
to the

explained

wording
being

text

The

in factual
loss

of-the

language

second

can be better

are encountered

*because

means that

factual

of
and

which

as illucidative

would function

being

when

bear any relevance

of-

-function

the events

literature

deep meaning only.

their

are

objectively

and deep meanings

received-in

by reproducing
the

of the

is so because even when proverbs

This

such proverbs

so that

text

to.

resemble

would be better

they

--they were translated


is

events

have to approximate-the

would only

texts

such

present

the surface

texts,

language.

in the second

views

such

there

its.

such as prejudiced

than a representation

rather.

factual

are not,

to

appealing

However,

the subjective

- they

aspect.

writer

and the translator

in

than

or about

impartially.

when they

provide

rather

writer

facts

to be factual

In this

expression

its

about

reporting

-Such texts

news reports.
certain

not

texts,
the
of

they
intended

idioms

talked
in Ortoney

any function

does

about

in

(1979),
in the

64

CHAPTER FOUR

APPLICATION OF THE APPROACH

Page
A-

Introduction

B-

Selection

of Data

C-

Metaphor

Categories

D-

Metaphor

Defined

E-

Devising
a Model to Assess Adequacy
of Translation
of Quranic Metaphors

F-

65
68
in the Quran

as a Text

Comparison and Analysis


and their

Five

69
70

73

of Ouranic Metaphors

Translations

75

65
IV

APPLICATION OF THE APPROACH


A- Introduction
People would like to view the world
contrasts

against
on

binary

is

Comparison

each other.

This

two

items

comparing
derives

metaphor
terms

by nature

in the Ouranic
in scorn).

("-"'

-'

and facial

where body positions


states

'sr

in the wider

fits

This

is explained

something
(N

metaphor:

explain

'"

1)

context

The mental

state

of turning

you turned

of the

impressionistic
feelings

portray

in

frame of

a mental

in terms

of

situation

) (...

expressions

is

which

function

one

of the human body.

position

of a physical

that

elements

are built

explain

which

two

illucidative

The

situations.

An example is metaphors

to understand

of refusing

based on putting

is

to the way metaphors

relates

from such comparisons

of another.

mind in terms

it

since

or

and

elements

1984, Volume 10, p. 653).

Britannica,

(Encyclopaedia

of binary

on the basis

away
backs

your

theatre
and

mental

of mind.

mood is

A mental
Sometimes
birds,

not

such

in terms

human

the

of

of animal

body

alone.

body parts,

like

4-04")l

is -(

(and out

of

lower to them the wing of humility).

Expressions

in

cultures.

For

expressions

terms

body parts

of

instance,

both
to

relating

have meanings different

languages.

For

example

different

by the way is

further

(to

or might
and

same

rub shoulders

of the

with

expression
idea

that

not

body

have

parts
in

between

overlap

English

from each other

from the Arabic


evidence

might

Arabic
the

expressions

completely

terms

moods are portrayed

an example

kindness,

in

expressed

their

sets
yet

of
those

respective

someone) means something


This

of
a literal

wording

could

be

66
from

divorced

same surface

meaning

Another

other.

those

in the shorter

used
different

which

English

expression

the

same

s.
(

the

are better
JJ

JI

those

yS)

it

English

as

(to

like

or feelings
indeed

had

goddesses

loved

other,

language

the

relating

to

in

addition

to

the

hand),

which

which

a kind

is

Roman gods

and

like

and

Neptune,

goddesses

the Goddess of Love and Feminine

like

just

Even languages

and hated.
qualities
things

classifying

the God of Wine.

human beings;

to

This

things.

like

they

have this

chairs

Beauty,

tendency

tables

or

Those gods and

quarrelled

with

to

as

each

personify

itself

manifests

and

are

the God of the Sea,

Aphrodite,

Bacchus,

metaphor,

of

of elements

like

is

being

the Arabic

of nature

whims

human

give

Greek

of nature

products

to

equivalent

helping

give

save face),

and (to

times.

personifications

would mean something

have expressions

Arabic

and

such

meaning,
u rte)

each

However,

who take.

somebody

over

the'

expression:

which have the same deep meaning

ancient

since

Arabic

than

have been making up personifications

People

and

is

from

different

are

have

which

expressions

have the upper hand).

hand,

surface

two

meanings

a case

such

who give

(to

body parts

certain

deep

to have the power

is

other

of

form

have

we might

their

yet

example

which means that

On

i. e.

content,

in the

masculine

or

feminine.

invented

however,

English,
personified

beings.

'she'

in English

Sam',

whilst

to refer

But ships

rather

Russia

'it'

is

than

to things

and friendly
'he'.

personified

America
o.

'Mother

as things

countries
is

to as

are referred

personified

Russia'

than

rather

as

'Uncle

by the Russians

and

67

to

referred

'The Russian

as

by many cultures.

shared

because the piano's

curtains

What

we think

signs

and. symbols

'school'.

is drawn bigger

This

reflects

his

interaction

with

expressed

in terms

as

dove

man.

them.

and
of the

stereotypes

concept

to classify

people

he lives

held

branch

olive

by

traffic

typical

femme fatale,

so

as

we

of the
hand.

environment,

are

and

very

often

and stereotypes,

such
the

or,

peace,

maid or dirty

old

of human beings.

maybe

of

experiences

symbolise

female,

and exaggerations

in categories,

sign

boy's

the

cultures

which

and the

figure

in from his

symbols

proverbs,

of metaphors,

with

mothers.

as -well

nature

of

pianos

but the

as protective

of the world

These are caricatures

the

of children,

The concepts

the

instance,

of girls

elements

animals,

the

held

game of

in our language

of the boy and clutching

that

than

the notion

Man formulates

figures

two

portrays

this

of

is.

Nature'

them of women's legs.

inherent

for

Notice,

we use.

girl

reminded

in with
legs

the

cover

around us is

of the world

It

people,

legs

to

'Mother

while
joined

Even the Victorians

They were known

personification.

by others,

Bear'

could

old

They tend
them

understand

better.

Many metaphors

represent
or animal

such as animals
represented

in

entities

abstract

Kindness

body parts.

Guranic

in terms

metaphor

of tangible

to parents

in Arabic

in terms

for

example

is

of a submissive

(and out of kindness,

humble bird:

materials

lower

to them

the wing of humilty).


While

the

represented

helplessness
in

terms

of
of

all

creatures
a

beast

in
being

the

hands

held

by

of
its

God

is

head:

68
i`c'L"")

--ar?
by

its

in many cultures,

come to symbolise

like

for

instance,

dog.

having

same

animal

the

Do not

entities

treat

men with
and turned

and violate

the ties

they

soon returned

as well

elements

play

different

stands

for

achievement

in stories,

the ungrateful
major

qualities

part

in

in different

a bad omen in Arabic,

while

in English.

metaphors
to express

and try

that

that

adopt

feelings

the technique
and

represent

examples

are:

scorn
his

back

of blood

play

White, and delicious


who drink it

---

L of Slt .C.1

heels

a part

3 L?

j-,

to unbelief

upon their

turn

Colours

it.

by animals

bear,

of the human body positions;

in terms

He frowned

they

holdeth

He

had once presented

the good-hearted

are those

Theatre

Impressionistic

abstract

instance,

interest

is of special

they

representing

wisdom and academic

symbolises

of the

but

beast,

have been related

But cultural

for

The owl,

cultures.

fox,

the cunning

loyal

What

no

stories

the qualities

snake or the

it

is

forelock).

Furthermore,
have

(There

in communicating

to those

a message,

1Qt

} i1

such as:

tZe,.

., --

We shall assemble all the sinners.


become dim with terror
Their eyes will
Translations
BThe

Selection
metaphors

are by N. J.

Dawood

of Data
from the Quran were chosen to be investigated

because they

69
important

a very

are
falling

back

cases

point
that

addressee

We aim

in

to

indisputable

cultural

to

of

translators

CIt

of

that

elements

of meaning

verses

to

the

convince

the different

translators
from the

and secondly,

we

an

establish

be true.

be

would

approach

ways

deduce methods of how to

will

great

this

of

This

derive

of the Quran

then

and

work

is

help

to

which

is

metaphors

be

preferably

of

major
five

important

and which

areas

different
because

is so,

This

are translated.

in those

from

made

comparisons

classification

inherent

should

classificaiton

these

or

critical.

way the metaphors

affects

a point

to

which
the

metaphors

them.

the

prove

keep

speakers

in the Quran

classified

translations

quote

and public

of the metaphors

emphasises

Categories

were

to

guaranteed

general

and not merely

has been found

need

metaphors,

in

This

Metaphor

which

is

say

the

metaphors

functional

writers

in the second language,

rendered

translators.

that

Speakers

view.

see what elements

chose to reproduce

translate

they

where

they

what

stock

because the

decided

their

in the translation

reproduced

it

as

well.

The Quranic

metaphors

Metaphors

ii

Metaphors

iii

abstract

representing
representing

abstract

positions

of the human body,

Metaphors

representing

enforced
Metaphors

expressing

vi

Metaphors

providing

light

the following

entities
entities

or in terms

abstract

on human or animal

into

fall

surveyed

entities

in terms
in

terms

in terms

and darkness.
of certain

of physical
of

space.
physical

of human body parts.

body parts.

examples

categories:

situations.

of physical

actions

70
However,

some

instance,

a metaphor

describe

After

these

of

could

an

provide

overlap

might

categories

the

translations

of the metaphors

in every

a summary of the techniques

given

are provided.

and examples

Metaphor

We will

in

defined

define

(1981).
a

that

text

could

also

Then we will

separate

stage
a

House (1981),
to assess

factors

is

used by the translators

to de Beaugrande

functions

that

the deep

and

we will

which

model

apply

we will

and Crystal

and Davy's

i. e.

function

meanings

devise

whether

to

original

are about.

by modifying

translations

in

method,

translations

in House (1981)

the adequacy of the Ouranic

the

the

of

and the translations

five

helps

of the text.

to Leech's

according

to the

predominant
This

mind,

to the

surface

translations

what the metaphor

is that

in

of translation

and Dressler

are usually

in a metaphor.

predominant

as appropriate

and their

to establish

original,

is

be

or closely

metaphors

The next

language

to have a strategy
freely

compared

are

category

according

as a text

metaphor

follows

translate

order

time

as a Text

It

translator

Quranic

same

light.

and investigated,

D-

the

at

and

example

For'

each other.

with

the

and

and incorporating

models.

The purpose

on the basis

of the

of the model.

According

to de Beaugrande

as a communicative

occurrence

(p. 3).

1-

These are:

Acceptability;

5-

and Dressler

(1981),

"a text

which meets seven standards

Cohesion;

2-

Informativity;

Coherence;
6-

3-

will

be defined

of textuality".
4-

Intentionality;

Situationality;

-7-

71
Intertextuality.

These seven standards


is

Analogy

relates

the different

parts

deep meaning,

of

of

from the underlining

Thirdly,
levels,

like

metaphor

flower

which

intended

and ground makes

is

because

coherent

by the reader

or situations.

our knowledge

his

expects

meaning

real

terms

world

she is not.

to go beyond the

between

etc.

softness,

of the

in real

readers

the similarity

on different

On the surface

when we know that

its

who discerns

maker to be understood

to violate

be beauty,

could

metaphor

level

the

on

meaning.

and deep meaning levels.

meaning and discover

of surface

vehicle

of surface

by its

of a metaphor

producer

together

between two objects

intended

is a flower'

'she

saying

But

is

tenor,

at hand is supplied

i. e. the surface

level,

meaning.

level

analogy

is

metaphor

of deep meaning and surface


of a metaphor

coherence,

to the situation

relevance

metaphor

structure,

on the

unit

in terms

Secondly,

its

while

a cohesive

metaphor

it

levels

on

because

to metaphor,

apply

the

both

cohesive

of textuality

according

level

woman and

to the reader's

interpretation.

in terms

Fourthly,
is
since

it

other

metaphors

for

'they

expressions
at hand

situation
shares

that

with

literary

allude

sold
as

belief

like

be true,

can not

example

such

his

suspending

actually

a metaphor,

the reader

because what he is reading

is not true

when reading

of acceptability,

the previous

to events

many tickets

texts

for

to

other

relevant

and

clues

some

that

the suspension

example
took

place

the Titanic'.

in

is a flower',
the

like

past

The reader

or

accepts
the

that

share

with

aspects.

Thus

metaphor

situations
similar

'she

of disbelief

on the part

of the

72
receiver.

Informativity,

fifth

the

of something

The sixth

else,

and provides

standard.

of

situation
that

Newcastle'

it

since
other

draws

our

for

above,

metaphor,

i. e.

can

see

a metaphor

can

we

by de Beaugrande

be categorized

can

method

translation

language
between
vital
translating

function
the

in

like

'to

by way of

carry

to

coals

to metaphor

aspects

as

of reality

as well

is

sold

An example

that

'they

be defined
Thus,

the

of

of
to

particular.

then

a metaphor
the

as a text
on the

theory

which

basis

the

of

the

well
as
many

according

to

means that

there

translation

translate
in

it.
general

to

apply

sense

suggested

language
or

and how to
of

in

informative

be decided

metaphor,

textuality

of

standards

as expressive,

would

function

importance

to

in metaphor

applies

to various

and Dressler.

metaphors
of

relevant

meanings.

It

or imaginary.

real

to de

Titanic'.

the

From the

itself

metaphorical

attention

text

according

at hand or by way of extending

situation

intertextuality.

either

situations

tickets

is

standard

in terms

situations.

a proverb

to

as well

something

which,

make

manifests

to include

meaning of the proverb

The seventh

which

This

the present

with

explains

is situationality

instance,

for

relates,

applies

from other

examples

the factors

occurrence"'9

textuality,

of

because it

textuality

of

"concerns

Beaugrande,

analogy

informative

is

Metaphor

metaphor.

standard

functions
The

vocative.

dominant

the
is

a relation

This

is

of

and metaphor

73
Devising
a Model to Assess Adequacy of Translation
Metaphors

E-

Having identified
version

deep meaning from the surface

to the following:

here by incorporating

to a model we will

devise

Crystal

models as serves

and Davy's

adequacy of Ouranic

dimensions

situational

models

here.

Crystal
the

characterizing

"A

Individuality
Dialect
Time

B
Discourse
(a) [simple/complex]

medium
(speech,

[simple/complex]

writing)

Participation
(Monologue,

Dialogue)

C
Province
Status

Modality
(see House (1981),

Singularity"

On the other

hand,

Dimensions

House's

model is:

of Language User:

1.

Geographical

2.

Social

3.

Time

class

origin

According

can be measured,

follows:

"A.

Leech's

p. 39)

and

textual

the
(see

method

according
House's

and modifying

our purpose.

translations

two

the original

provide

(b)

We disentangle

to

meaning according

translated

three. ). Then we measure the adequacy of the translation

chapter

the

its

the adequacy of

a metaphor as a text,

be measured according

could

of Ouranic

to this

but first
Davy's
functions

and

model
we will

model

of

is

as

74

Dimensions

B.

of Language Use:

1.

Medium (simple/complex]

2.

Participation

3.

Social

Role Relationship

4.

Social

Attitude

S.

Province"

(House (1981),

Due to the nature


formal
will

language

Social

variants

be

the

and

We incorporate
to the

refers
in terms

to

are bound to

translations

origin

and social

House's

1.

language

class

be

of the user

Geographical
But

origin

those

two

measure the adequacy of the translation

of

of

user.

of texts.

because we
individuality

have

five

of every

on this

dimension

"social

standing

formality,

of

of language

under the dimension

Individuality

compare

the

we omit

dimensions

used

incorporate

We will
Davy's

Therefore,
in

P. 42)

text,

and the geographical

class

could
types

other

of the Ouranic

be apparent.

not

and 2.

(simple/complex

as well

different

Crystal

Status

which

and listener/reader

intimacy,

politeness,

to

bound to appear.

and Davy's

of the speaker/writer

respect,

and

translations
is

translation

Crystal

user,

etc. "

(House,

p. 41).

we include

Moreover,
to do with
included
that
it

it
is

of the

under this

dimension

the assumed participation


participation

should

be included

a characterization
language.

under

Participation

of the receiver

the dimension

under

House's

of

the dimension

of the user of the

in the

language
of

use,

language

language

rather

which has
text.

House

but we think
user

because

than the use

75
Under the Dimensions

Language

of

Relationship

and

Social

characterized

under

Status.

which

in

text

Time

provided

it

Province

which

is

under

included

included

is

under

would

be

Medium [simple/complex]

dimension

this

of language

the Dimensions

these

of

Role

as

complex:

to be read.

to House is the

according

both

Social

be characterized

could

under

the dimensions

House's

omit

include

But we still

the case of the Quranic

feature

we

because

Attitude

spoken to be read and then written

The

Use,

and not as House

user.

"area

of the

of operation

of Language Use as originally

text"

suggested

by House.

So the new model would

Dimensions

look

of Language Use:

1.

Medium: simple/complex

2.

Time

3.

Province

Dimensions

of

1.

Individuality

2.

Status

3.

Participation

F.

Comparison
Translations

In the

Language

User:

and Analysis

following,

translations,

as follows:

we

Leech's

of Quranic

apply
method

to

each

Metaphors

and their

Five

Arabic

metaphor

and

to separate

the deep and surface

its

five

meanings

(see Chapter

Three).

down

written

their

meaning

specific

second

five

translations

step

is

that

according

and incorporating

modifying
such

characterization

third

step

is

profiles

original

the

of

to

the

establish

of

nonfrom

and the translationsdivorced

that

to the model that


House's

and Crystal

we compare the profile

of the five

every

we characterize

would make up,

on the basis

of the failure

metaphors

The purpose

would take.
is

meanings

not-

wording.

The

the

due to the huge space it

here

method is

of Leech's

the application

of deep and surface

the separation
figurative

However,

translations.

of the dimensions

of a translation.

Arabic

we have devised
and Davy's

what House calls,


of the original
The degree

and its

metaphor

earlier

models.
a profile.
metaphor

of deviation

of the model would

be the

by
Every
The
with

from the
degree

77

Metaphors

representing

in terms

entities

abstract

of physical

space:

Example 1
vgl J..

991 1

Cs

Verse 12
Sura Houd

straightened

Yusif Ali

. P q,

and thy heart feeleth


and thy breast will

become straightened
at heart

be distressed

and wilt

George Sale
JM Rodwell

and be distressed

N.J. Dawood

and thy heart should be straightened


Profile

of the original

J1`y, I

metaphor

I`

iLJI

Medium: complex,

first

from the history

of the Quran).

2.

Time : classical

Arabic

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

the Ouran,

spoken,

then written

language

a major

to be read

(as we know

of the Quran.

religious

work.

of Language User
language.

Individuality:

Figurative

A mental state

of mind is represented

which,

J. Lt

of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

M.M.Pickthall

in this

Status:
definition.

case,

The speaker
He

is

use of

in terms of physical

space

authority

by

nature

as well

as talking

is narrowness.

is

in a

providing

position

of

information

with

of
a

78
tone

3.

intimacy

of

because he is describing

addressee.

But from reading

reproaching

tone

Participation:
the

addressee,
expected

to

addressee

is

sense

audience

the prophet

we can discern

a gentle

here.

of addressee
directly

of

The

relief.

as learn

He

is

second type

of

addressed.

who are expected

as well

The first

a moral

informed,

be

to

lesson.

Translation

of Ali's

feeleth

heart

and thy

types

Mohammad, is

with

the general

with

sympathise

Profile

react

his

of

to the prophet.

two

are

prophet

inner-feelings

the whole verse,

by the speaker

There

the

straightened

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

written
English

Literary

to be read

&Loud,.
by the use of the archaic

as manifested

"thy"

and "feeleth".
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
but with
of

translation

published

reproduction

a slight

"chest"

difference,

or "breast"

that

of the surface
i. e.
usually

translation

renders

the elements

correctly,

therefore,

the

characterizing

translation.

the

original

meaning of the

the word "heart"

of the metaphor;

metaphor

of

is used instead

the Arabic

parallel

feeling

original,

tenor

and vehicle

physical

space

is reproduced

in the

narrow

category

The

79
2.

is

The speaker

Status:

in

He is providing

definition.

a tone of intimacy

position

of

by nature

authority

new information,

as talking

as well

with

of his

the inner feelings

because he is describing

of

addressee.

3.

Participation:
direct

There are two types


is

addressee

with

a sense of relief.

who

are

not

sympathise

Profile

of Sale's

the prophet

to be informed,

are expected

as learn

a moral

audience

lesson.

become straightened

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

to be read

written
English

Literary

as manifested

by the use of the archaic

of a major

translation

published

af'ua"

religious

"thy".

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

Individuality:
The

as well

the general

react

Translation

and thy breast will

1.

but

directly

and

to

expected

is

The second addressee

addressed

with

Mohammad,who_ is

the_prophet

The first

here.

of addressee

translation

renders

characterizing

the

the feeling

the

original

metaphor

speaker

is

meaning of the
of the metaphor:

elements

therefore

correctly,

vehicle

of the surface

reproduction

of a narrow
category

metaphor.
tenor

and

physical

space

is reproduced

in the

translation.

2.

The

Status:
definition.
a tone

of

He is providing
intimacy

in

position

new information,

because he is describing

of authority
as well
the

inner

by nature
as talking
feelings

of
with

of his

80
addressee.

3.

Participation:
direct

There are two types

a sense of relief.

who

are

not

Profile

is

expected

The second addressee

is

the general

directly

addressed

with

the prophet

of Rodwell's

Translation

be distressed

and wilt

are expected

but

as well

as learn

to

and
react

audience

to be informed,
lesson.

a moral

at heart

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

to be read

written
English

Literary

Dimensions

as manifested

translation

published

aLowol.by the use of the

of a major

religious

"wilt".

archaic

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

reproduction
but the translator

metaphor,

to the original

the original

Status:
definition.
a tone of
addressee.

surface

metaphor

the

speaker

deep

kept

a keyword
".

of a narrow

is

in

meaning
"heart"

physical

original

which

is related

is

in

lost

the

space characterizing

in the translation.

position

new information,

because he is describing

the

of

The metaphor

was not reproduced

He is providing
intimacy

of the

meaning "-

and the feeling

translation

2.

Mohammad who

the prophet

with

sympathise

1.

is

addressee

The first

here.

of addressee

of authority
as well
the

inner

by

nature

as talking
feelings

of
with

of the

81
3.

Participation:

there
the

addressee,

to react

expected

is

directly

with

a sense of relief
type

second

to be informed,

as learn

lesson.

Profile

addressee

Mohammad,

who are expected


a moral

of

prophet

The

unhappiness.

are two types

of N. J. Dawood's

here.

first

The

up this

and give

of addressee

is

sympathise

with

is

He

addressed.

feeling

the general

of

audience

the prophet

as well

Translation

and be distressed

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

2.

Therefore,

only.

Status:

The speaker

of

addressee.

Participation:
the Prophet

is

intimacy

deep

the metaphor

in a

He is providing

religious

position

meaning

is

of

new information

because he is describing

But the full

in the translation

with

of a major

of the

reproduction

metaphor

definition,

3.

translation

published

Individuality:

tone

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

1.

written
English

Lowd-"
0.

to be read

emotive

because of the

There are two types


Mohammad, is directly

a sense of relief

and give

lost

in the translation.

by

as well

as talking

inner

impact

of the original

loss

of the metaphor.

of addressee.

up this

original

authority

the

addressed.

the

of

is

The first

of

with

feelings

He is expected

feeling

nature

of his
not

felt

addressee,
to react

of unhappiness.

The

82
second type
be

informed,

lesson.

way they

be able

heart

Medium:

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

feeling

of

the audience
in the

addressee

same

to do in the original.

be straightened

written

English

Literary

Published

But

Status:
definition.

religious

the surface

of

as
translation

usual

The

translation

renders

correctly,

therefore

chatacterizing

the

and vehicle

reproduced

by the archaic

"thy".
work.

User

the

space

aLowoa.

of a major

but rendering

"breast".

physical

be read

as manifested

reproduction

metaphor,
".

to

translation

Language

of

Individuality:

tenor

the first

a moral

Translation

should

complex,

Dimensions

or

the

and therefore

not rendered
with

that

as learn

of Language Use

1.

was

to sympathise

of M. M. Pickthall's

Dimensions

2.

space

as well

means

metaphor

to

who are expected

audience

the Prophet

with

of the

were expected

and thy

1.

loss

physical

would not

Profile

sympathise

But the

narrow

is the general

of addressee

meaning of the original

"heart"

which

is

related

is either

of
the elements
the
original

to

"chest"

of the metaphor;

feeling

of

metaphor

narrow

category

is

nature

of

in the translation.

The speaker

is

in a

He is providing

a tone of intimacy

position

of

new information,

because he is describing

authority
as well
the inner

by

as talking
feelings

with
of his

83

addressee.

3.

Participation:

There are two types


the

addressee,

to react

expected

to be informed,

as learn

lesson.

After

the

comparing

dimensions

of

translators

have
from

deviated
the

used

word
did

original
should

have

"breast"

with

and

Language

deviated

from

the

original:

the
"heart"
not

to
"

say
the

J"i9L.

9i. Z,, ",

translation

usual

we

audience
as well

the
four

that

notice

translation

Individuality

he

where

"

original
therefore,

the

"J -'-o"

of

of

along

Ali's

of

the

feeling

the Prophet

User,

is

He

the general

First,

to

correspond

up the

translations

dimension

on the

original

which

The
translator
is

either

"chest".

dimension,

of Individuality.
of the original

the original

was lost

of the message is

lost

translation

not

be

reproduced

in

the

the emotive

which means that

affected

the

on

deep

use of language

Therefore,

who were appealed

of the metaphoric

original

the figurative

metaphor,

in the translation

of the original,

the

Because the translator

in the translation.

would

from

deviated

translation

meaning only

memorability

sympathise

Use

used

or

addressees

is

Language

Rodwell's

the

of addressee

five

first

The

addressed.

and give

the

and

original

Secondly,

of

type

second

who are expected


a moral

directly

a sense of relief

with

The

unhappiness.

Mohammad, is

Prophet

here.

addressee

of

the

to by

impact

the addressees
same

the

of

way as the

vividness

and

imagery.

Thirdly,

Dawood's

dimensions

of Time and Individuality.

translation

deviates
On

from
the

the

dimension

original
of

on
Time,

the
his

84
translation
Arabic.

is

the

imagery
the

English,

standard

deep

meaning

of
is

of the original

emotive

effect

the
lost

his

dimension,

figurative

the original's

translation

use of language.

original

only

is classical

the original

while

Measured on the Individuality

to reproduce
of

in

His reproduction

meant that

in the translation,

which

the metaphoric
implies

message is substantially

of the original

failed

that

reduced

in

the translation.

Fourthly,

Pickthall's

dimension

of

" J..uo"
to render

Individuality

as "heart"
this

translation

instead

term into

in

deviates
that

of "chest"
English.

from

the

the translator
or "breast"

original
rendered

on

the

the Arabic

which are usually

used

85
Example 2

J r9

ms`s
y
i

he was grieved
,

%'" n9

str-"'

L.05

powerless (to protect

'

rU

on their

L;J,..i L.::,.$LL419

and felt

account

himself

them),....

Yusif All

he was troubled
for them, and his
,
them.
straitened
concerning

arm was
George Sale

he grew anxious about them, for he was unable


,
them protection....

to offer

he was distressed
,

NJ

M. M. Pickthall

he was too weak to protect


and
,

1. his arm was straitened

1.

of the original

Medium: complex,
the history

2.

Time:

3.

Province;

Dimensions
1.

Dawood

and knew not how to protect

them....

Profile

Verse 77
Sura Houd

them....

concerning them.

J. M.Rodwell

Metaphor

first

spoken,

then written

to be read as we know from

of the Quran.

classical

Arabic,

language

of the Ouran.

The Quran, a major religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
represented
narrowness.

Figurative
in

terms

use of language.
of

physical

space

A mental
which

in

state
this

of mind is
case

is

86

2.

Status:

The

definition.

3.

Participation:

Profile

as well

himself

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

new information

of the Prophet

of

and describing

Lot,

whom the verse

to be informed,

are expected

as sympathise

with

powerless (to protect

to be read

written

the. prophet

learn

Lot.

them)

published

aloud..

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

English

standard

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
Therefore

Status:

of the deep meaning of the original

reproduction
the metaphor

The speaker

definition.

3.

by nature

of authority

of Language Use

1.

is

position

Translation

of Ali's

Dimensions

to

feelings

The addressees

lesson

and felt

2.

about.

moral

1.

inner

the

in

he is providing

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to the audience
is

is

speaker

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the audience

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is

is

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in a

in the translation.

position

of

he is providing
inner

only.

feelings

by

authority

new information
of the prophet

nature

of

and describing

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about.

Participation:
moral

lesson

The addressees
as well

are expected

as synpathise

with

to be informed,

the Prophet

Lot.

learn

87
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

and his arm was straitened

Dimensions

Language

of

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

1.

Use

as it

Language

reproduction

The translation

renders

religious

of the surface

the elements
therefore,

correctly,

vehicle

of a major

work.

User

Individuality:

and

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

of

to be read &Lou.c1..

written
English

standard

concerning them

the original

space characterizing

meaning of the original.

of the original
the feeling

metaphor

tenor

metaphor:

of a narrow

physical

is reproduced

category

in

the translation.

2.

The

Status:
definition.
information

speaker

well

Lot whom the verse

3.

lesson

the Prophet

Profile

is

as describing

inner

from the story

are expected
they

are told

Lot.

of N. J. Dawood's Translni. ion

Dimensions

them protection

of Language Use

Medium : complex,

the

providing
the

by nature

of authority

position

audience

feelings

of

with

new

of the Prophet

is about.

for he was unable to offer

1.

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Participation:
moral

he

Moreover,
as

in

is

written

to be read a.Lo

to be informed,
as well

derive

as sympathise

with

88

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

1.

Language

of

Individuality:

The

speaker

3.

the

moral

lost

is

in

inner

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lesson

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by nature

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verse

as sympathise

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with

learn

Lot.

translation
them

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2.

Time:

3.

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Dimensions

are expected

addressees

of M. M. Pickthall's

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Standard

to be read u.Lou. cL.

written

English

Published

as it

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
Therefore

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work.

religious

in the translation.

feelings

and knew not how to protect

1.

major

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to the audience

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reproduction
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speaker
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is

in

only.

in the translation.

position

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of authority

new information

by nature
and describing

of

89
to the audience
is
3.

inner

the

feelings

The

Participation:
lesson

addressees

verse

the Prophet

Lot.

Translation

he was too weak to protect

1. his arm was straitened

them'

concerning them

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium : complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

Dimensions

to be read alowO,.

written

as it

English

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translation

published

of a

major

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work.

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in

with

learn

to be informed,

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as well

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tenor

body of the translation,

vehicle
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information

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physical

category

original

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of a narrow

in a
he

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inner

metaphor:
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space characterizing

in the

of

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only

meaning is

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correctly

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while

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in the footnotes.

and

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of the deep meaning of the original

reproduction

main

reproduced

2.

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about.

moral

1.

of the Prophet

the

footnotes.

by

authority
the
feelings

nature

of

with

new

audience
of

the

Prophet

90

3.

Participation:

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lesson

moral

from the story

the Prophet

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of

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have

i. e.

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for

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classical

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it

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translated

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version

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along

have deviated

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User

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time

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meant to

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we

notice

meaning of the original

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power

the

power of the original

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on one
Ali's,

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from the original


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was lost

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and Rodwell's

body of the translation.


the

of

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of

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Rodwell

five

rendered

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original.

Pickthall's

consequently

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User,

original

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to

translator

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five

all

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original

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derive

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main

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be reproduced

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in the

main body of the translation.


Example 3
3

so the favour of your father


you alone

may be given to

Verse 9
Sura Yussif

Yusif Ali

91

and the face


towards you

father

of your

we may have no rivals

so that

your

favour

father's

may be all

first

from the history

of the Ouran.

Time:

3.

Province:

The Quran,

language

a major

of the Quran.

religious

work.

of Language User

represented

use of language.

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in terms of physical

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place.

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order

M. M. Pickthall

you

to be read as we know

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spoken,

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classical

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empty

for

Dawood

text

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2.

2.

in our father's

of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

face

N. J.

of the original

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George Sale

J. M. Rodwell

so that
love

Profile

be cleared

your father's

and on you alone shall


be set

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shall

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to achieve

audience.

is

in a
he

a purpose

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which

of

providing
is giving

by

nature

of

new information

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authority
us with
a

moral

lesson

to

the

92
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

The addressees

a moral

to be informed

are expected

as well

as

lesson.

Translation

of Ali's

may be given

so the favour of your father


to you alone

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Mediuw:

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

published

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translation

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Individuality:

of the deep meaning of the original

reproduction
the metaphor

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definition.
order

as it

English

standard

Therefore,
2.

to be read aLduJ-.

written

complex,

He

to achieve

is

is

is

in the translation.

lost

in a

of

with

new information

in

the

audience

of

authority

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audience
giving

which

is

by

nature

position

providing

a purpose

only.

moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

of Sale's

The addressees
lesson.

Translation

father
face
the
your
of
and
towards you.

are expected

shall

be cleared

to be informed

as well

as

93
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex, written

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Individuality:

the feeling

work.

religious

of

authority

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audience
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position

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is

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of an empty physical
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meaning of the

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1.

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

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translation.

by

nature

of

with

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in

the

audience

moral

lesson.

3.

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Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

are expected

to be informed

as well

as

lesson.

Translation

of Rodwell's

and on you alone shall

your father's

face

be set.
Dimensions

of

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Use

Language

standard

to be read. mLowl.

written
English

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of a major

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work.

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Individuality:

reproduction

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of the original
surface

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meaning that

has

by providing
the

same

in
deep

94
meaning as that

2.

Status:

The

speaker

definition.
achieve

3.

of the original.

a purpose

Profile

is

which

by nature

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teaching

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in

new information

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order

lesson.

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to be informed

are expected

of

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

of Dawood's Translation

love.

father's

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

in our

we may have no rivals

so that

1.

in

he is providing

Moreover,

Participation:
learn

is

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to be read

written
English

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

translation

published

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a.

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religious

work.

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reproduction
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is

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only.

in the translation.

lost

2.

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definition.
achieve

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a purpose

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learn

speaker

a moral

which

is

in

position

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is teaching

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by nature

of authority
new information

the audience

are expected

in

a moral

to be informed

order

of
to

lesson.

as well

as

95
Profile

of Pickthall's

Translation

favour may be all

your father's

so that
for you.

Dimensions

Language

of

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

Dimensions

1.

Individuality:

3.

By

Moreover,

a moral

comparing

the

which

is

is

work.

in

only.

in the translation.

is teaching

position

by nature

of authority
new information

the audience

are expected

in

of
to

order

lesson.

a moral

to be informed

as well

as

lesson.

profile

of the original

we can see that

the

on

translations

lost

he is providing

translations,
original

religious

of the deep meaning of the original

The addressees

Participation:
learn

of a major

User

speaker

a purpose

&Lou,

"

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

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definition.
achieve

as it

Reproduction

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Status:

English

Language

of

to be read

written

published

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2.

Use

one dimension

reproduced

five

all

the

with

translations

five
have

of Language Use which

the classical

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of the

profiles

is

deviated
Time.

of the original

as

from

All

five

standard

English.

On

the basis

of

the

Individuality

five

of the Dimensions
translations
dimension:

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have
Ali's

deviated
translation

from

the

failed

hand,
on

the

reproduce

the

original
to

four

96
original

metaphor.

original

which

Rodwell's
of

the

led

His

to the

intended

has failed

of

only

the

image.

of the original

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to reproduce

meaning

surface

the feeling

meaning from that


of physical

space

by the original.

by providing

Dawood's translation,
has deviated
metaphor

on the

led

translation

lost

by the original.

as well

only,

because the original

in the translation.

has failed

to the complete

the deep meaning of the original


dimension..

Individuality

was completely

Pickthall's
which

loss

by providing

translation,
original,

gave the deep

translation

loss

to

reproduce

of the feeling

the

original

of physical

metaphor

space invoked

97

Example 4

i. >i>

>SjtV

1,

&, elf

.9;

1,

; Lf, L-

1 L

JY1 'A L4

Verse 75
Sura Mariam

L1

v`,

(God) Most Gracious extends (the rope) to them

The Merciful

grant him a long prosperous

will

life

Yusif All

George Sale

lengthen

the God of Mercy will


length of days

The Merciful

J. M. Rodwell

bear long with

will

The Beneficent
of life

will

verily

the unbelievers

prolong

his

N. J. Dawood

span
M. M. Pickthall

of the original

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out to them a

Metaphor

i,,

\\

kj
of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

Time:

3.

Province;

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1.

classical

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The Ouran,

language

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work.

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Individuality:
represented

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to be read as we know from

of the Ouran.

the history
2.

spoken then written

first

Status:
definition.

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Figurative
in terms

speaker
Moreover,

use of

space which

of physical

is

in

language.

position

he is providing

A mental
in this

case is

of authority
new information

of mind is

state

length.

by nature
in

order

of
to

98

teach

the

audience

3. -Participation:
learn

Profile

lesson.

a moral

- The - audience

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

of Ali's

to be informed

are expected

Translation

(God) Most Gracious extends (the rope) to them

Dimensions

of Language Use-

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

2.

Individuality:.

reproduced

in the translation.

The speaker
Moreover,

the audience

Participation:

The

explanation.

plus

Status:

of the surface

reproduction

metaphor

teach

religious

of a major

work.

of Language-User

definition.

3.

translation

published

a.

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

standard-English,

Dimensions
1.

to be read

written

(_ou.-"

is

in a
he

a moral

feeling

position
is

meaning of

providing

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of

the

physical

authority
new information

original
space

by- nature
in order

is

of
to

lesson.

The addressees are expected to be informed as well as

learn a moral lesson.

99
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

The Merciful
life
Dimensions

Language

of

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

1.

3.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

reproduction
is

the metaphor

is

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Status:
definition.

He

audience

a moral

a moral

is

lost

in a

providing

in the translation.

position

of

by

authority

new information

in order

is expected

to be informed

lesson.

Translation

of Rodwell's

She God of Mercy will lengthen out to


them a length of days
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

only.

nature

of

to teach

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lesson.

The audience

Participation:

Profile

as it

adou.

d..

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Individuality:

learn

to be read

written

published

Therefore

2.

Use

English

standard

Dimensions

grant him a long prosperous

will

written
English

published

to be read
as it

translation

olou.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

as

well

as

100
Dimensions
1.

of Language User

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metaphor

reproduction
plus

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teach

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the audience

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expected

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2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

bear long with the unbelievers

will

Medium: complex,
standard

of

Therefore

definition.

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translation

wo--

of a major

religious

work.

User

reproduction

speaker
Moreover.

the audience

a.

Lo

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

of the deep meaning of the original

the metaphor is lost


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Status:

to be read

written

published

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teach

is

space

lesson.

1.

physical

of Dawood's Translation

Dimensions

2.

of

lesson.

a moral

The

a moral

in

he is providing

Moreover,

The Merciful

1.

is.

speaker

Participation:
learn

feeling

The

explanation.

meaning of the original

in the translation.

reproduced

2.

the surface

of

is

in

in the translation.
a

position

he is providing

a moral

only.

lesson.

of authority
new information

by nature
in

order

of
to

101
3.

Participation:
learn

The

The Beneficient

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

prolong his span of life

verily

to be read

written
English

Literary

Individuality:

reproduced

in the translation.

the

audience

a moral

have

deviated

which

is

the

by

new information

providing

is

space

physical

authority

of

nature
in

to be informed

is expected

five

them

different

of the

profiles

we can see that

as

have

four

translations
out

of the five

on one of the dimensions

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of

of

original

of

order

to

well

as

lesson.

a moral

from the original

Time.
All

is

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work.

meaning of

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he

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religious

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translation

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3.

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2.

as

as well

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to be informed

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is

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with
translators

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the correct

Rodwell
time

and

of the

102

original

as they

standard

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in their

on the dimensions

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deep meaning of the original-only


in their

the

of

translations.

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from the original

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rendered

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which

led

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them

have

to the

loss

103
Example

e-11

t-44

Verse 62

A-A

Ny
than it

On no soul do we place a burden greater

Sura Believers
Yusif

can bear

We will

not

impose any difficulty

to its

except according

on a soul,

George Sale

ability

its
beyond
burden
soul
a
not

We will

We charge no soul with more than it

And we task

Profile

2.

Time:

3.

Province;

classical

first

M. M. Pickthall

scope

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N. J. Dawood

then written

spoken,

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the history

1.

J. M. Rodwell

of Language Use

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Dimensions

power

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not

beyond its

any soul

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a moral

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position
is

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providing

lesson.

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in this

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case is width.

authority
new information

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nature

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in order

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104
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

The audience

a moral

as

well

Translation

of Ali's

than

can bear

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2.

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3.

Province:

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as it

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written

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on no Soul do we place a burden greater


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as

lesson.

audience

is

expected

to be informed

105
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

we will not impose any difficulty


except according to its ability
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time: Standard

3.

Province;

written

as it

English

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

to be read. olo. d_.

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

on a soul

Status:

is

the metaphor

is

The speaker

lost

only.

in the translation.

in a position
in order

new information

providing

of the deep meaning of the original

reproduction

of authority.
to

teach

the

Moreover.
audience

he is
a

moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

The

audience

is

lesson.

Translation

of Rodwell's

not burden a soul beyond its

We will

Dimensions

to be informed

expected

power

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

written
English

published

to be read
as it

translation

aLoc

.-

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

as well

as

106
Dimensions
1.

of Language User

Individuality:
the

translation

different

but

original,
feeling

of the original

reproduction

has

that

surface

the

same

from

meaning
deep meaning.

space is replaced

of physical

by providing

metaphor

by

the

that

In this

feeling

of

of

in
the

case the
physical

weight.

2.

Status:
definition.
teach

3.

is

The speaker

in a

the

of

by

authority
new information

providing

nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

a moral

audience

Participation:

is

he

Moreover,

position

The audience is expected to be informed

as

well

as

learn a moral lesson.

Profile

of Dawood's Translation

We charge no soul with more than it

Dimensions

of

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

standard

as it

English

atou. cL-

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

Individuality:
the

to be read

written

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Use

Language

1.

can bear

translation

original,
feeling
weight.

of the original

reproduction

but

a
that

of physical

different
has

the

surface
same

space is replaced

from

meaning
deep meaning.
by

the

feeling

in

by providing

metaphor

that

In this
of

of

the

case the
physical

107
2.

Status:

The speaker

definition.

is

in a
he

Moreover,

position
is

of

by

authority
new information

providing

nature

of

in order

to

teach the audience a moral lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

as

well

as

Translation

of Pickthall's
not

beyond its

any soul

scope

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

order

of

by the use of the unusual

word

of a major

religious

work.

User

of the surface

reproduction
The feeling

metaphor.

olou.

as manifested

translation

Language

Individuality:

-"

not'

published

of

to be read

written
English

'task

Province:

Dimensions

1.

to be informed

lesson.

a moral

And we task

3.

is expected

The audience

of physical

space

meaning of

(scope)

is

the

original

reproduced

in the

translation.

2.

The speaker

Status:
definition.
teach

3.

learn

a moral

in a
he

Moreover,

the audience

Participation:

is

a moral

The audience
lesson.
I

position
is

providing

of

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

is expected

to be informed

as

well

as

108
By comparing

on

by Ali,

one

of

Sale,

rendered

the

Dimensions
have

translations
Individuality.

These

the

translations

is

Time.

These

of the original

however,

User,

from

deviated

translations,

from the original

which

time

the

with

as they

English.

standard

Language

of

of the five

Use

the correct

into

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translations

have deviated

Language

of

to reproduce

classical

four

and Dawood.

Dimensions

the

different

we can see that

Rodwell

failed

translations

On

of the five

profiles

of the original,

profile
those

the

four

Sale's,

Ali's,

are

dimension

the

on

original

five

the

of

of

Rodwell's

and

Dawood's.

Sale's
has lost

the original
the

affect

reproducing
failed
original.
If

a different

the

the

Instead,
original

would have done so,


experience

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a feeling

intended
but

it

to give
did

of physical

not.

Imagery

give

a feeling

us a feeling
It

space and scope.

the

by the
weight.

weight,

it

addressees

to

of physical

intended

have

original,

of physical

to
by

Dawood's,

and

of the

only,

meant

space and scope intended

of physical

translations

these

the

Rodwell's

Ali's,

meaning from that

surface
feeling

consequently

and

metaphor

addressees.

to reflect

the deep meaning of the original

by reproducing

translation,

109
Example 6
N

ct,

(5

VN

t>

Ll

r_s'

>Zj

M.!

jj

Verse

Sura stories

But there came to be a void in the heart of the


mother of Moses

And the heart of the mother


oppressed with fear

Yusif

heart

And the heart

George

Profile

of the original

Dimensions

of

Time:

Dimensions

first

the Quran,

of

language

emptiness.

spoken,

then written

language

a major

to be read as we know from

in

of

religious

the

Ouran.

work.

user

Figurative

1. Individuality:

represented

M. M. Pickthall

use

Arabic,

Classical

3. Province:

of Moses became void

of the Quran.

the history
2.

N. J. Dawood

metaphor

language

1. Medium: complex,

Sale

J. M. Rodwell

troubled

was sorely

of the mother

Ali

of Moses became

And the heart of Moses' mother became a blank


through fear

His mother's

10

terms

use of

of

language.

physical

space

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which

state

in

this

of mind is

case

is

110
2. Status:
definition.

inner

the

the audience

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lesson

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of All's

of the mother

as sympathize

of

language

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to be informed,

the mother

learn

a moral

of Moses.

in the heart

to be read

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as it

aouo-"

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

language

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work.

user

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to

use

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aim is

of Moses

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he is

since

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of Moses.

of

nature

from the story.

is expected
with

by

authority
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providing

lesson

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of

translation

of the mother

Dimensions

feelings

came to be a void

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2. Time:

is

The audience

as well

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in a position

he

Moreover,

describing
teach

is

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of

the surface

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is reproduced

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space

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in the

translation.

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2. Status:
definition.
teach

Moreover,

the audience

3. Participation:
lesson

speaker

as well

in

position

he is providing

a moral

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as sympathize

new information

by nature

of

in

to

order

lesson.

is expected
with

to be informed,

the mother

of Moses.

learn

a moral

11.
Profile

of Sale's

translation

and the heart of the mother of Moses became


oppressed with fear

Dimensions of language use


1. Medium: complex, written
2. Time:

Standard

3. Province:

Dimensions

English

published

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

Reproduction

the same time

"heart".
but,

as it

religious

work.

of Language User

1. Individuality:
at

to be read

keeping

a key word from

The translator

he did

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not.

could

have said
is

lost

is

position

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in

he is providing

the metaphor

the surface
"she felt

The metaphor

The speaker

definition.

of the deep meaning of

in the

while

meaning which

oppressed

by

is

fear"

translation.

of authority

new information

by nature of
in

order

to

teach the audience a moral lesson.

3. Participation:
lesson

Profile

The audience

as well

as sympathise

is expected
with

to be informed,

the mother

of Moses.

translation

of Rodwell's

And the heart of Moses' mother became a


blank through fear

Dimensions

of

language

1. Medium: complex,

use

written

to be read

oloa-d.

"

learn

a moral

112
2. Time:

Standard

3. Province:

Dimensions

English

language

1. Individuality:
plus

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

of

as it

of a major

religious

work..

user

Reproduction

of

the surface

meaning of the metaphor

explanation.

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definition.
teach

language

1. Medium: complex,
2. Time:

Standard

3. Province:

of authority
new information

by nature

of

in

to

order

to be informed,

the mother

learn

a moral

of Moses.

translation

heart was sorely

His mother's

of

with

as sympathize

of Dawood's

position

is expected

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as well

Dimensions

lesson.

a moral

audience

3. Participation:

Profile

in

he is providing

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the

lesson

is

speaker

use
Aouoi.
be
to
read
-

written
English

published

troubled

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

translation

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religious

work. e.

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1. Individuality:
at

Reproduction

the same time

"heart".
which
purpose.

keeping

The translator
means

that

However,

he

the deep meaning of the original

of

a key word from the surface


could

have said

introduced

the metaphor

"she felt

meaning which
sorely

a word from the surface


is

lost

while

in the translation.

is

troubled",
meaning on

113
2. Status:

The

definition.

in

is

speaker
Moreover,

of authority

position

new information

he is providing

by nature

of

in

to

order

teach the audience a moral lesson.

3. Participation:
lesson

Profile

The audience

as well

as sympathise

of Pickthall's

to be informed,

is expected
with

learn

a moral

of Moses.

the mother

translation

And the heart of Moses' mother became void

Dimensions

of

language

1. Medium: complex,
2. Time:

Dimensions

published

of

language

1. Individuality:
the

Therefore,

to be read. a

written
English

Standard

3. Province:

use

as it

Loud.

"

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

user

Reproduction

of the surface

feeling

physical

of

meaning of the

space

is

original.
in

the

by nature

of

in

to

reproduced

translation.

The

2. Status:
definition.

speaker
Moreover,

is

in

position

he is providing

of authority
new information

order

teach the audience a moral lesson.

3. Participation:
lesson

as well

The audience
as sympathise

is expected
with

to be informed,

the mother

of Moses.

learn

a moral

114
By

the

comparing

translations,

Arabic

classical
due

to

On the

translations,
original

is

only

fair

is

not

always

by

providing

time

User,

on

to

which

it

is

They reproduced
to point

the

the

out
to

possible

hand,

other

Individuality.

the

addressees

from the

Both

imagery
is

by

two

only

have deviated

the deep meaning of the original

affect

from the

of the original.

by Dawood,

This means that

metaphor.

intended

metaphor

Sale and that

dimension

the original

of

Language

one

translations,

original

it

But,

the right

by

that
on

Time.

translation

of

have deviated

translations

English.

of the.

profiles

is

brevity

Dimensions

five

all

the five

with

of Language Use which

as standard
the

in"the

parallel

lost

that

we notice

on one dimension

original

that,

of the original

profile

of

these

only,

have
the

which

deleted

in

these

translations.

Thus the techniques


metaphors

(a)

used by the translators

to render

the physical

space

can be summed up as follows:

Reproducing
literal
rendered

the surface

translation
as closely

meaning of the metaphor

was carried
as possible,

means that

which

out and the original

metaphor

was

e. g.

Jig,
he was troubled
for
them
concerning

them,

and his

arm was straightened


(see Example 2)

115
(b)

Reproducing
itself

is

so that

just
omitted

i. e. the metaphor-

the deep meaning of the metaphor,


but the translator

reproduces

its

in our father's

we may have no rivals

meaning,

e. g.

love
(see Example 3)

(c)

Reproducing
of

the

text

the deep meaning only


while

giving

its

of the metaphor
in

meaning

surface
I

them'
and he was too weak to protect
his arm was straitened
1. literally
concerning

the

in the main body


footnotes,

e. g.

them
(see Example 2)

(d)

Reproducing

translation,

an implied

metaphor

into

an

explicit

metaphor

in the

e. g.

KAL
(God) Most Gracious

extends

(the

rope)

to them
(see Example 4)

(e)

Reproducing

the surface

And the heart

meaning of metaphor

of Moses' mother

plus

became a blank

explanation,

through

e. g.

fear

(see Example 6)

116
(f)

Reproducing

the metaphor

by providing

meaning for

a new surface

it,

e. g.

----->
y' L' Lc Y,
On no soul do we place a burden greater

than it

can bear
(see Example 5)

the feeling

We notice

here that

original

was replaced

the original
pointing

(g)

of

by a feeling

in

expressed
In effect

weight.

different

surface

the
both

meanings

the same deep meaning.

towards

the metaphor
i. e.

meaning,

space

of physical

have two

and the translation

Reproducing

physical

by combination

of deep meaning and surface

deep meaning and keeping

providing

the

body part

in

the translation

and on you alone shall

your father's

face be set
(see Example 3)

From the above it


translated

could

be said

that

the same metaphor

by many different
ways, such as:
lsi%
:D
,
he was distressed
and knew not how to protect
he was troubled
for
them.
concerning

them,

and his

and he was too weak to Protect


1. lit.

his

arm was straitened

could

be

them

arm was straightened

them 1
concerning

them
(see Example 2)

We can see that

the first

while

the second translation

last

translation

translation

reproduced

reproduced

reproduced
the

the deep

the surface

deep meaning

meaning,

meaning
however,

only,
the

in the main body of the

117
translation

while

giving

the surface

meaning as well

in the footnotes

118
II

- Metaphors

representing

state

or frame of mind in

terms

of.

of the human body or body parts.

positions

physical

a mental

Example 7
Verse 5
Sura Houd

they fold

Yusif

Do they

not double

the folds

Do they

not doubly

fold

They cover

Profile

of their

N. J. Dawood

breasts

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

Medium: Complex,

first

from the history

of the Ouran).

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Classical

of

language

represented

The

to be read

(as we know

Language of the Duran-

a major

religious

work.

user

Figurative
in

then written

spoken,

Arabic.

The Quran,

1. Individuality:

definition.

J. M. Rodwell

of Language Use

Dimensions

2. Status:

Ali

George Sale

breasts

up their

up their

of the original

Dimensions

breasts

breasts

up their

fold

now they

1.

hearts

up their

terms

speaker
Moreover,

use of

language.

of a physical

is

in

of mind Is

state

of a human body part.

position

position

he is providing

A mental

of

authority

new information

by nature
in

order

of
to

119
teach

the

Arabic

emphatic

a moral lesson.
yt"
device "
to prove

helps

the metaphor
influencing

the

fold

Dimensions

Standard

3. Province:

Dimensions

the

metaphor
not

2. Status:

as well

as

"hearts"

the speaker

the speaker

of the usual

"hearts"

is

did

not

emphatic

but

linked

to

suffer.
But

Ye"
"

device

"chest"

equivalents

the
which

or

"chest"

and

Therefore.

the

translater

did

is used to prove

is making.

is

Moreover,

instead

meaning

the Arabic

helps

work.

meaning of the original

in the translation.

was reproduced

the audience

religious

of the surface

since

surface

teach

of a major

user

However,
the

Lo v.cL.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

The speaker

definition.

as it

English

word

reproduce

the point

to be read

written

Reproduction

"breasts".
"breasts",

be informed

to

expected

use

language

1. Individuality:
using

effectively

hearts

published

of

is

audience

language

1. Medium: complex,
2. Time:

of

Translation

up their
of

purpose

of

lesson.

of Ali's

they

his

the,

imagery

The vivid

point.

to achieve

the speaker

The

a moral

Profile

his

is using

the speaker

audience.

3. Participation:
learn

Further

audience

in a
he

a moral

position
is

providing

lesson.

in achieving

of

his

new information

The vivid
purpose

by

authority

imagery

nature
in order

of the

of effectively

of
to

metaphor

influencing

120
the

addressees.

3. Participation:
learn

Profile

The audience

a moral

language

1. Medium: complex,
Literary

2. Time:

3. Province:

Dimensions

Therefore,

2.

Status:

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

point

by using
helps

influencing

3.

Participation:

his

by the use of

of a major

of

"Do they

religious

is

in

he is

a moral

not"

work.

speaker

position

of

authority

new information

Further

"Do they
to

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

providing

lesson.

the expression
the

the surface

is reproduced

the metaphor

teach

user

Reproduction

definition.

olou.

as manifested

translation

language

The

metaphor

to be read

written
English

1. Individuality:

breasts

of their

use

published

of

as

Translation

Do they not double the folds

of

well

as

lesson.

of Sale's

Dimensions

to be informed

is expected

not".

achieve

the speaker
The vivid
his

purpose

by nature
in

of

order

to

is proving

his

imagery

of the

of effectively

addressees.

The audience is expected to be informed

learn a moral lesson.

as

well

as

121
Profile

Rodwell's

of

Translation

Do they not doubly

fold

breasts

up their

Dimensions of language use


1. Medium: complex,
2. Time: Literary
3. Province:

Dimensions

English

language

1. Individuality:

2. Status:

the

point

by using

audience

influencing

speaker

position

of

achieve

in

the speaker
The vivid

not"
hi; 5

purpose

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to

is proving

his

imagery

the

of

audience-,

is

expected

to

be informed

lesson.

They cover up their

1. Medium: complex,

3. Province:

breasts

of-language

2. Time: Standard

of

order

of Dawood's Translation

Dimensions

original.

by nature

authority

new information

Further

"Do they
to

meaning of the

of

effectively

addressees.

3. Participation.
moral

work.

in the translation.

providing

expression

the

the

lesson.

a moral

the

helps

in

he is

Moreover,

teach

Profile

is

speaker

definition.

learn-a

the surface

of

the metaphor is reproduced

The

metaphor

of a major religious

user

Reproduction

Therefore,

by the use of "Do they not".

as manifested

translation

published

of

to be read- aLo u.oL.

written

written

English

published

use

to be read
as it

translation

aLvwA-

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major religious

work.

as well

as

122
Dimensions

language

of

1. Individuality:
Therefore,

Reproduction

The

definition.

helps

metaphor
influencing

The

of

Standard

3. Province:

up their

breasts

language

use

English

language

the vivid

his

achieve

in

purpose

order

imagery
of

to

of the

effectively

translation

to be informed

expected

as well

as

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

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of a major

religious

work.

user

the metaphor

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is

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

of the surface

Reproduction

1. Individuality:

definition.

Further,

to be read.

written

published

of

2. Status:

new information

of

Translation

1. Medium: complex,

Therefore,

by nature

authority

lesson.

fold

Dimensions

Dimensions

to

of

position

lesson.

audience

of Pickthall's

2. Time:

the addressees.

a moral

now they

teach

a moral

the speaker

3. Participation:

Profile

in

original.

in the translation.

he is providing

Moreover,

the audience

learn

is

speaker

meaning of the

of the surface

is reproduced

the metaphor

2. Status:

teach

user

is reproduced

is

in

lesson.

original.

in the translation.

position

he is providing

a moral

meaning of the

of

authority

new information

Further,

the vivid

by nature
in

order

imagery

of
to

of the

123
helps

metaphor
influencing

the speaker

the

By comparing

Ali,

dimension
to reproduce

the correct

On the dimensions
original

three

by all

use which
time

translations.

the

five

profiles

of the translations,

is Time.

as

from

the

of

the
by

namely those
original

These translations

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124
Example 8

>> C',
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seeking the countenance of their

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lord

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countenance

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Sura Thunder

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1.

Verse 9
Sura Ibrahim

Yusif Ali

mouths
mouths out of

George Sale

J. M. Rodwell

mouths and said...

mouths with

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JL.

vi::

hands up to their

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1 1

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N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

mouths

metaphor

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of Language Use

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130
helps

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131
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but they clapped their


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135

Example 10

Verse 94
Sura Bee

FAJ
someone's foot

it

after

may slip

was firmly

Yusif

planted
lest

foot

your

your foot

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rightly
guided

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George Sale

bath been
J. M. Rodwell

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firmly
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they

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137
Profile

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of

Translation

Lest your foot

Dimensions

slip

language

of

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2. Time:

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3. Province:

English

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definition.

imagery
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foot

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to

of
and

through

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future

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behaviour.

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slip

language

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of

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lesson

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of Rodwell's
your

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aim.

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138
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lest

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original
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141
Example

11

Verse 29

--r-

Sura rh e

-Aj-,

NighrJourne

Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard's)


to thy
neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach
And let
neither

not th,. y hand be tied up to thy neck,


open it with an unbounded expansion

And let
nor yet

not thy hand be tied up to thy


open it with all openness

neither
-Be

miserly

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N. J. Dawood

language

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his

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neck

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not thy hand be tied up to thy neck,


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143

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lesson

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the word of

Translation

And let not thy hand be chained to thy


nor open it with a complete opening
of

is

an order. -

behaviour.

of Pickthall's

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know this

as they

to learn

are expected

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lesson

translations

one translation,

original

an order.

from

this

with
which

on one dimension

the
is
of

146
Language Use namely that
the original's

of Time.
as it

time

correct

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addressees.

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147
12

Example

Verse 37

yam s')
Sura The Night

Yusif

Nor walk on the earth with insolence


Walk not

proudly

And walk

not

Do not walk
And walk

Profile

J. M. Rodwell
N. J. Dawood

on the earth

proudly

in the earth

of the original

M. M. Fickthall

exultant

metaphor

fJ1lPiJ

r9},,.

.
Dimensions

language

of

Time:

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the

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order

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the

Quran.
work.

user

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definition.
expects

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religious

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use of language.

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represented

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language

of

language

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spoken,

of the Quran.

the history
2.

y
vJt!P JLI

use

first

1. Medium: complex,

Ali

George Sale

on the earth

proudly

not

Lrey

land

in the

Journey

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is

position

in a

position

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directly

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to be heeded.

mental

state

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authority

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by

nature

of

the addressees

and

148
3. Participation:
given

is

The audience
as learn

well

as

to heed the order

expected
lesson

a moral

concerning

they

are

behaviour

their

in

future

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Profile

Translation

of Ali's

Nor walk on the earth

insolence

with

Dimensions of language use


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2. Time:

complex,
Standard

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Dimensions

language

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the

The

future

well

behaviour

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is

speaker

behaviour,

learn

in

giving

moral

his

lesson

in the land

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%as insolence.

of authority

an order

is expected

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And walk not proudly

in the translation.

position

and expects

in the future.

of Sale's

work.

meaning of the original.

the Arabic"V..,

interpreted

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as

religious

of the surface

is reproduced

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as

of a major

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is not marked as otherwise.

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that

as it

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of

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written

by nature

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concerning

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to heed the order

from this

of

order

"-

concerning

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their

149
Dimensions

language

of

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complex,

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"walk

order

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use
to be read.

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is

"proudly".

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future

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well

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learn

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lesson

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his

order

this

order

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:.:

given

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Translation

proudly

on the earth

written

complex,
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"walk

English

to be read.
as manifested

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wd-"

by the use of the unusual

not".

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translation

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of

to the audience

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from

nature

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position

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of JM

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behaviour,

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word

150
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the

that

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of

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"
--'"

is

by nature

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definition.

behaviour,

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his

to the

to heed the order

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audience

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order

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in

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thtrfuture

as well

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speaker

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concerning

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of Dawood's Translation
Do not walk

Dimensions
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2.

Time:

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Province:

language

of

complex,
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only.

is

as it

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not
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notice

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translation

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in the

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translation.

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is

by nature

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"

"proudly".

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definition.

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speaker

is

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in

giving

position
an order

of authority
to the audience

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151
%6--future

behaviour,

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as well
behaviour

Profile

moral

to heed the order

from

this

order

:..,

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concerning

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of Pickthall's
And walk not

Dimensions

of

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Translation

in the earth

language

complex,

2. Time:
"walk

lesson

to be heeded.

order

is expected

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as learn

his

and expects

use
to be read..

written

Literary

exultant

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as

aLov.

-"

by the use of the word order

manifested

not".

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original.
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well

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as

is

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moral

of
giving

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authority
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his

order

by

to the audience
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to heed the order


from

this

order

. -.

concerning

given
tWe-

152
By comparing

the five

profile

of the original,

namely

those

dimension
have

of the

we notice
and Dawood,

of Language Use which

failed

classical

by All

profiles

to reflect

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into

hand there

from the original

time

two out of the five

with

from the original

of Time.

These two

of the original

on part

on one

translations

as they

of all

on the Deminsionsof

five

the

translations,

reproduced

English.

was no deviation

when assessed

translations

have deviated

is that

the right
standard

that

different

translations

Language User.

153
Example 13
Verse 42
Sura The gave

twisting

his

and turning

hands

Yusif

Ali

he began to turn down the palms of his hands


out of sorrow

George Sale

Then began he to turn


hands

down the palms of his

and he began to wring

his

J. M. Rodwell

Then began he to wring


Profile

of the original

hands with

N. J. Dawood

grief

hands

his

M. M. Pickthall

Metaphor

`Ss
Dimensions

of

language

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the history

Dimensions
1.

of

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in

definition.

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Moreover,

helps

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user

terms

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of the Quran.

a major religious

is

he

position

of

of

influence

mental

state

a human body

by

authority
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to

position

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use of

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first

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use

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his

of

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of

mind

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part.

nature

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in order

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metaphoric

154
3. Participation:
learn

The
lesson

a moral

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of Ali's
Twisting

Dimensions
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2. Time:

language

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translation

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hands

use

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as well

Translation

complex,

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to be informed

expected

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and turning

of

is

audience

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of
the

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3. Participation:
learn

in a
he

Moreover,

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his

is

a moral
of Sale's

The
lesson

audience

is expected

from the story.

Translation

he began to turn down the palms of his


hands out of sorrow

to be informed,

as well

as

l1-5
Dimensions

of

1. Medium:

language use

complex,

2. Time:

Standard

3. Province:

Dimensions

English

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of

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plus

as it

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Law
a.
_.

to be read

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of

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by

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reproduced

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teach
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audience

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the speaker

3. Participation:

Profile

lesson

of Rodwell's

1. Medium:
2. Time:
order

lesson.

authority

new information
The vividness
influence

is expected

of the metaphoric.
his

addressees.

to be informed

as

well

as

Translation

language

complex,

down the palms

use
to be read

written

Literary

English

as manifested

o-Lo w. "
by the unusual

use of the word

"began he".

3. Province:

Dimensions

of

from the story.

Then began he to turn


of his hands
of

position

to effectively

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a moral

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in a

he is providing

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learn

is

The speaker

Published

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translation

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156
Therefore,

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in a
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a moral

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of

in the

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by

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is using

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a moral

position

is

the speaker

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learn

is

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the

of

him to effectively

is expected

nature

of

in order

to

imagery

of

influence

to be informed,

as well

as

from the story.

of Dawood's Translation

and he began to wring his hands with grief

Dimensions

of

1. Medium:
2. Time:

language

complex,
Standard

3. Province:

Dimensions

translation

language

of a major

religious

work.

user
of the surface

Reproduction

explanation

- alouoL"

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

English

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plus

to be read.

written

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of

use

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only.

the

meaning of
is

original

reproduced

in the

translation.

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definition.
teach

Moreover,

the audience

imagery

helps

is

in

he

is

providing

speaker

a moral

the speaker

lesson.

position

of authority
new information

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to effectively

influence

by nature

of

in order

to

of

the

his

addressees.

metaphoric

157
3. Participation:
learn

The
lesson

a moral

Profile

of Pickthall's

of

1. Medium:
2. Time:
in

to be informed

as well

as

Translation

language

his

hands

use

complex,
Literary

order

expected

from the story.

Then began he to wring

Dimensions

is

audience

to be read.

written
English

aL oc oL.
by the use of the unusual

as manifested

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3. Province:

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work.

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original

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of
the

surface

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of

meaning

in

reproduced

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translation.

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speaker

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Moreover,

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is

providing

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definition.
teach

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metaphor

his

addressees.

the speaker

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learn

profile

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a moral

By comparing
of

translations,

a moral

the
the

lesson

five

position

of authority

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is using

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of

in order

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of

new information

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audience

by nature

of

the

him to effectively

influence

expected

to be informed

different

translations

as well

as

from the story.

profiles

of the

original,

we

namely those

by Ali,

notice

that

three

Sale and Dawood,

out

with
of

the

have deviated

the
five
from

158

the

original

These

English,

On

one

translations,

have failed

the other

original

on

hand,

on any of

dimension
by

of Language Use,

to reflect

the right

none of the five


the

classical

reproducing

dimensions

of

namely that
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into

of Time.
standard

time of the original.

translations
Language

User.

has

deviated

from the

159
Example 14
Verse 65

'--

`
L

Sura The Prophets


Yusif Ali

Then were they confounded with shame


into

Afterwards
they relapsed
obstinacy'
1. Lit.
they were turned

But they

Profile

George Sale

heads

former

J. M. Rodwell

error

N. J. Dawood

to unbelief

soon returned

And they were utterly

down upon their


in their

became headstrong

then

former

their

M.M. Pickthall

confounded

Metaphor

of the orizinal

Las

Dimensions

1.

Language

of

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

a major

work.

religious

use of language.

Figurative

in terms of a physical

The speaker is in a

Status:
definition.

the

Language of the Ouran.

of Language User

Individuality:

teach

Arabic,

The Ouran,

represented

2.

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

of the Quran.

Classical

Dimensions
1.

first

Medium: complex,
the history

Use

the audience
metaphor

influence

he

Moreover,

the

that

a moral
the

addressees.

position

position
is

of

providing

lesson.
speaker

A mental

of mind is

of a human body part.

authority

by

new information

The vividness
is using,

state

helps

of the

nature

of

in order

to

imagery

of

him to effectively

160
3.

learn

Profile

of All's

written

to be read

2.

Time:

Literary

English

as manifested

order

in "were

Province:

Individuality:

Status:

3.

the metaphor

The speaker

learn

Profile

is

is

Moreover,

the audience

Participation:

of Sale's

of a major

religious

lost

in a
he

a moral

1.

of

position
is

of

providing

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

is expected

to be informed

lesson.

Translation

Language Use

Medium: complex, written

only.

in the translation.

Afterwards they relapsed into their former


obstinacy-'
a. Lit. They were turned down upon their heads
Dimensions

word

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

the audience

a moral

by the use of the unusual

User

Reproduction

definition.
teach

translation

Language

of

w-"

olo

they"

Published

Therefore

2.

as.

of Language Use

Medium: complex,

1.

well

confounded with shame

1.

Dimensions

as

Translation

Then were they

3.

to be informed

from the story.

lesson

a moral

Dimensions

is expected

the audience

Participation:

to be read

Lo
0

as

well

as

161
2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

the

work.

body

of the translation
in

original

is

lost

in

the

retained

in the footnotes.

Status:

The speaker

definition.

the audience

he

undermined

rendered
the effect

body

position
is

lesson.

helps

the

in

of the metaphoric

the

speaker

of

in order

to

metaphoric

to achieve

his

because

the

But

footnotes

imagery

nature

the

of

the

but still

by

new information

the addressess.

metaphor

that

means

authority

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influencing
the

This

only

the surface

reproducing

of the translation

of

providing

footnotes

the

of effectively

translator

in a

while

footnotes.

the
main

a moral

in

used

purpose

is

Moreover,

imagery

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

main

metaphor

teach

religious

of a major

of Language User

meaning of the

2.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Published

Individuality:
in

as it

English

Standard

only,

he has
intended

originally

by the speaker.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

the audience

is expected

lesson.

of Rodwell's

Translation

Then became headstrong in their

Dimensions

to be informed,

former error

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

Standard

written

to be read

English

as it

o6Lo wcL.

is not marked as otherwise.

as

well

as

162
3.

Province:

Published

translation

of a major

work.

religious

Dimensions of Language User


1.

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

Status:

the metaphor

in order

Participation:

Profile

lost

is

in a
he

Moreover,

information

learn

is

The speaker

definition.

3.

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

to teach

in the translation.

position
is

them a moral

audience

nature

of

with

new

lesson.

to be informed,

as

well

as

of Dawood's Translation

Dimensions

to unbelief

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Dimensions

Standard

Published

Individuality:

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

definition.

Reproduction of the deep meaning of the original

the metaphor is lost

The

Status:

teach

oLocuL.

of Language User

Therefore

2.

the

providing

by

authority

lesson.

a moral

But they soon returned

1.

of

is expected

the audience

only.

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

is

in

in the translation.

position

he is providing

a moral

only.

lesson.

of authority
new information

by nature
in

order

of
to

163
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

of Pickthall's

of Language Use

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

Published

Therefore

Status:

the metaphor

The

Participation:

the

profile

the

deviated
Time.

standard

religious

work.

of

of the deep meaning of the original


lost

is

in

of authority

position

new information

by nature
in

of

order

to

to be informed,

is expected

well

as

as

lesson.

five

profiles

can

by Sale.

different
see

by
to reflect

translations
four

that

Rodwell,

on one Dimension

translations,
have failed

of the
we

original,

from the original

English

lesson.

a moral

namely those

These

only.

in the translation.

he is providing

the audience

a moral

translations,

of a major

is

Moreover,

By comparing

of

speaker

the audience

learn

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Reproduction

definition.

3.

aLo "

of Language User

Individuality:

teach

as.

confounded

1.

2.

well

Translation

And they were utterly

1.

as

lesson.

a moral

Dimensions

to be informed,

is expected

the audience

out

with
of

the

reproducing
the right

classical
time

five
have

Dawood and Pickthall,


of Language Use which

the

is that

Arabic

of the original.

into

164
On the other
on

dimension

one

five

hand,

all

power

given

the surface

and if

the original

reason

why

translation.

it

have deviated

which

is that

from the original


Individuality.

of

in the

portrayed

the addressees.

is

This

meaning of the original

not

could
be

be given

reproduced

in the
in

its

because all

five
Sale

In the footnotes,

footnotes,

the

But

only.

metaphor

all
with

original

the deep meaning of the original

metaphor

should

user

the metaphor

meant to affect

of them have reproduced


has

translations

of language

of them have lost

emotive

five

main

is no

there
body

of

the

165
Example 15
.
L5

. J

p nJ qJl))..,, --J-e-J

disdainfully

.1

L^

Verse9

Sura The Pilgrimage

Yusif Ali

bending his side

Proudly turning his sides


1. Lit. That is "turning aside in scorn"
Turning

backs in scorn

of Language Use
first

Medium: complex,
the history

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

LanzuaRe

Individuality:

a major

User

Moreover,

the audience
metaphor

influence

language.

use of

in terms of a physical

definition.

the

that

work.

religious

The speaker is in a

Status:

the

Language of the Quran.

Figurative

represented

teach

Arabic,

The Quran,

of

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

of the Duran.

Classical

Dimensions

2.

M. M. Pickthall

Metaphor

of the original

Dimensions

1.

N. J. Dawood

away in pride

Turning

1.

J. M. Rodwell

in scorn

aside

They turn their

Profile

George Sale

he

a moral
the

addressees.

position

position
is

of

providing

lesson.
speaker

A mental

of mind is

of a human body part.

authority

by

new information

The vividness
is using,

state

helps

of the

nature

of

in order to
imagery

him to effectively

of

166
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

lesson

a moral

of Ali's

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

Status:

the metaphor

The speaker

that

metaphor

religious

work.

is

in a

the

of

speaker

by

authority
new information

providing

lesson.

a moral

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

position
is

he

the audience
lesson

a moral

of Sale's
Proudly

of the surface

The vividness
is using,

helps

of the

nature

of

in order

to

imagery

of

him to effectively

the addressees.

Participation:

i. Lit.

of a major

is reproduced

Moreover.

influence

Profile

is not marked as otherwise.

Reproduction

the audience

learn

o'LoacL"

of Language User

definition.

3.

as it

translation

published

therefore

the

as'

side

to be read

written
English

Individuality:

teach

well

of Language Use

Medium: complex,

2.

as

from the story.

bending his

1.

1.

to be informed

Translation

Disdainfully

Dimensions

is expected

the audience

is expected

from the story.

Translation

turning

his

side'

That is "turning aside in scorn".

to be informed

as

well

as

167
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex, written

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

to be read
as it

English

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

cLou. cL.

of a major

religious

work.

Dimensions of Language User


1.

Individuality:
Therefore

Reproduction
the

is

metaphor

meaning of the
in

reproduced

the deep meaning of the metaphor

reproducing
that

means

of the surface

the

is

metaphor

the

translation

In the
in

reproduced

original.

the

while

footnotes.

This

main body of the

translation.

2.

Status:

The speaker

definition.
teach
the

he

that

metaphor

is

the

providing

lesson.

a moral

of

position

speaker

in

influence

helps

by

the deep meaning of the metaphor

giving

the addressees

Participation:

Profile

a moral

Turning

of

is expected

Translation
in scorn

Language

Medium: complex,

Use

written

the

main

to be read. & Lav--"

nature

of

in order

to

imagery

of

body

of

the addressees,
in the

the
while

footnotes,

to be informed

lesson.

aside

of the

to get the message of the metaphor

the audience

of Rodwell's

Dimensions

him to effectively

new information

The vividness
uses

by

authority

translation

learn

1.

in a

Moreover,

the audience

helping

3.

is

he is

clearly.

as

well

as

168
2.

Time:

Standard

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Published

Individuality:

The

speaker

the audience

Profile

lost

is

in

a moral

work.

religious

only.

in the translation.

position

by nature

of authority
new information

in

of

order

to

well

as

lesson.

the audience

a moral

is expected

to be informed,

as

lesson.

of Dawood's Translation
They turn

Dimensions

their

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

backs in scorn

of Language Use

1.

1.

is

he is providing

Moreover,

Participation:
learn

of a major

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

definition.

3.

translation

the metaphor

Status:

teach

is not marked as otherwise.

of Language User

Therefore

2.

as it

English

Standard

written

as it

English

Published

to be read

LeuzL,.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
which

metaphor
original

Reproduction
has

but showing

translator

"in scorn".

provided

of the original

different

surface

metaphor

another

meaning from that

the deep meaning of the original.


an explanation

into

of the surface

of the

Moreover.
meaning

which

the
is

169
2.

Status:

The

definition.
teach

the

audience

a moral

the

position

Further

in

of the

he provides

the

message

to

imagery

of

influence
inidcates

of

of

order

him to effectively

the explanation
to understand

audience

The vividness

helps

by nature

of authority

new information

lesson.

is using

the speaker

addressees.

he intends

in

he is providing

Moreover,

the metaphor
the

is

speaker

the

that

metaphor

clearly.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Status:

as it

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction
the metaphor

The

definition.

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

Participation:
learn

English

of Language User

Therefore

3.

to be read aLou. d..

written

Published

Individuality:

teach

as

away in pride

Dimensions

2.

well

Translation

of Pickthall's
Turning

1.

as

lesson.

a moral

Dimensions

to be informed,

is expected

the audience

a moral

is

lost

is

in

the audience
lesson.

in the translation.
a

position

he is providing

a moral

only.

of authority
new information

by nature
in

of

order

to

well

as

lesson.

is expected

to be informed,

as

170
By

deviated

By reproducing
the

not reflect

However,

the

on

deviated

Pickthall's

have lost

only,
that

the

is

addressees,

However,

Dawood's

in these

metaphor

could

certainly

not

original

intended

saying

'gis

be

three

translations

with

its

These

Rodwell's

text.

This

a surface

the

meaning different

to the same effect

as the original

metaphor,

This

by the original.

could

means

as well.

Although

it

and

power meant to affect

emotive

translations

say 'They turn

have

Individuality.

of

a new metaphor.

to

did

they

has created

intended

cwt',

English

in the original

by reproducing

translation,

of the original,

standard

the deep meaning of the original

portrayed

imagery

from that

have

translations

Dawood and Pickthall.

by reproducing

the metaphor

lost

dimension

the

by Rodwell,

metaphoric

into

Language User,

of
on

translations,

the

with

of the original.

Dimension

are those

five

all

Arabic

classical

from the original

translations

translations

on one dimension of Language Use which is that

time

right

that

we can see

from the original

Time.

of the different

profiles

of the original,

profile

of

five

the

comparing

their

have said

so.

is
backs

so

because,

in scorn',

this

new

it

was

had
instead

the
of

171
Example 16

WNl'

1)l,ao.,

crN

they turn on their

faces

he turneth

himself

round

he turneth

his round (to infidelity)

they

turn

Profile

SUPf-

3.

Province:

71P

w'

"--"

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

Arabic,

The Quran,

Language of the Quran.

a major

work.

religious

of Language User

Dimensions

Individuality:
represented

Status:

The

definition.

the

N L- --'

of the Ouran.

Time: Classical

teach

M. M. Pickthall

first

Medium: complex,

2.

2.

N. J. Dawood

Use

Language

the history

1.

J. M. Rodwell

Metaphor

l. 41 i
v

, yo,, -

of

George Sale

away utterly

of the original

Dimensions

Yusif All

heels

upon their

he falleth

1.

Verse 11
Sura The Pilgrimage

Figurative
in terms

speaker

addressees.

of a physical

speaker
Moreover,

the audience
is

use of

is

of authority
new information

The vivid
him

to

of mind is

state

of a human body part.

position

lesson.
helps

A mental

position

he is providing

a moral
using,

in

language.

imagery

effectively

by nature
in

order

of
to

of the metaphor
influence

the

172
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

the audience

a moral

as

well

as

from the story.

Translation

of Ali's
They turn

Dimensions

lesson

to be informed

is expected

faces

on their

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

to be read

written

as it

English

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

Lou. 4-

of a major

religious

work.

Dimensions of Language User


1.

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

the

3.

teach

the audience

helps

the speaker

Profile

a moral

of Sale's
he turneth

a moral

lesson.

Translation
himself

round

of

position
is

providing

lesson.

to effectively

The audience

Participation:
learn

he

meaning of the
in

reproduced

in a

is

Moreover,

definition.

is

metaphor

The speaker

Status:

of the surface

Reproduction

is expected

translation.

by

authority
new information

The vivid
influence

the

original.

imagery

nature

of

in order

to

of the metaphor

the addressees.

to be informed

as

well

as

173
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

to be read.

written
English

as

alvvoL.
by

manifested

use of the archaic

the

"turneth".
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Published

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

translation

is

The speaker

providing

new

only.

in the translation.

lost

is

the metaphor

Status:

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

in a position

Moreover,

of authority.

information

in

the audience

is expected

order

to teach

the audience

he is
a moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

he turneth

Dimensions

as

his

as

Translation
round

(to

infidelity)

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

written
English

to be read
as

,
c-l.ou, -

manifested

by

the

use of the archaic

"turneth".

3.

well

lesson.

Rodwell's

of

to be informed,

Province:

Published

translation

of a major religious

work.

174
Dimensions
1.

of Language User

Individuality:
the

Therefore

2.

Status:

is

metaphor

is

The speaker

providing

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

in the translation.

lost

in a position
in

information

new

only.

order

to teach

he is

Moreover,

of authority.

the audience

a moral

lesson.

3.

-.

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

of N. J.
They turn

Dimensions

lesson.

as

heels

of Language Use

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

to be read
clouk.
.

written

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

English

translation

published

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
metaphor

of the original

Reproduction
which

has

different

but sharing

Status:

The speaker is in a

definition.

Moreover,

the audience

into

metaphor

surface-

meaning from that

another
of the

the deep meaning of the original.

original

teach

well

upon their

Medium: complex,

2.

as

Dawood's'Translation

1.

1.

to be informed,

is expected

the audience

he

a moral

position
is

providing

lesson.

of

authority

by

new information

nature

of

in order to

175
3.

The audience is expected to be informed

Participation:

as

as,

well

learn a moral lesson.

Profile

of Pickthall's

he falleth

Dimensions

Translation

away utterly

of Lanzuage Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

dL.
lou.
o

to be read
as

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"falleth".
3.

Dimensions
1.

Published

Province:

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

translation

Status:

the metaphor

The speaker

providing

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

new

is

is

only.

in the translation.

lost

in a position

Moreover,

of authority.

information

in

to teach

the audience

is expected

order

the

audience

he is
a moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

a moral

By comparing

Ali

and

the five

Dawood,

Language Use which

as

well

as

lesson.

profiles

of the original,

profile

to be informed,

have

of the

we notice

that

deviated

from

is Time.

different

By rendering

translations

classical

the

namely those

by

on one dimension

of

two translations,
the original

with

Arabic

into

standard

176
English

these

have failed

two translators

time

the correct

to reflect

of,

the original.

hand,

On the other
of the five

translations,
have

Pickthall,
Individuality.

one it
had

new

Arabic

original

for

Rodwell,

Sale,

out

Dawood

and

dimension

the

original

on

instance,

by providing

has created

be to the same effect


by the original.

meant to say 'they

four

of Language User,

turn

This

of

a surface

a new metaphor.
as the original
is

upon their

so

because,

heels',

it

so.

Rodwell's

and Pickthall's

meaning of the original


emotive

could

intended

not

the

by

of the original,

metaphor

was certainly

would have said

Sale's,

from

deviated

from that

this

the

namely those

Dawood's translation,

meaning different
Although

to the dimensions

according

only,

power meant to affect

translations,

have deleted
the addressee.

by providing

the original

metaphor

the
with

deep
its

177
Example 17
LiS 1

U-IS-"-

''

Verse 66

Sura The Believers


but ye used to turn back on your heels

Yusif

Ali

but ye turned back on your heels

George Sale

but ye turned back on your heels

J. M. Rodwell

but you turned

your

backs in scorn

N. J. Dawood
M. M. 'Pickthall

but ye used to turn back on your heels


Profile

of the original

metaphor

Dimensions of language use


1.

Medium:

from the history

2.

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Arabic,

Language of the Ouran.

Figurative

use of

in terms of a physical

formal

tone.

work.

language.
position

Participation:
They

the audience
are

expected

of mind is

state

of a human body part.

as he is

using

of imagery lends a strong

tone of the speaker.

is directly
to give

A mental

of authority

The vividness

emotive charge to the reproaching

tone.

to be read as we know

of the Ouran.

The speaker is in a position

reproaching

3.

then written

of Language User

Individuality:

Status:

spoken,

The Ouran, a major religious

represented

2.

first

Complex,

addressed

up the practices

with
that

a reproaching
gave rise

to

178

this

reproach on the part of the speaker as well

as

learn

moral-

lesson.

Profile

of All's

Translation

but ye used to turn back on your heels

Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

Literary

to be read. &kowo. "

English

as

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

Wye".
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Published

Individuality:

Reproduction
The translation

and vehicle
represent
metaphor

Status:

correctly.
a

mental

category,

religious

the surface

of

work.

Therefore
state

Participation:

formal

of the metaphor

tenor

the use of human body positions

of mind,

is reproduced

meaning of the original

the elements

renders

which

characterizes

to

the original

in the translation.

The speaker is in a position

a reproaching

3.

of a major

of Language User

metaphor.

2.

translation

of authority

because he is using

tone.

The audience is directly

tone. Th oe expected to give up

the

addressed with a reproaching


practices

reproach as well as learn a moral lesson.

that

led

to

this

179
Profile

of Sale's

Translation
on your heels

but ye turned

of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time: Literary

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Individuality:

Reproduction
The translation

a
is

category,

Status:

work.

to

the original

which characterizes

is

in a position

of authority

because he is using

formal tone.

Participation:

The audience

tone. They are expected


reproach

tenor

in the translation.

reproduced

a reproaching

of the metaphor

the use of human body positions

of mind,

state

meaning of the original

the elements

Therefore

mental

The speaker

the surface

of
renders

correctly.

represent

Profile

of a major religious

"ye".

of Laneuage User

and vehicle

3.

by the use of the literary

as manifested

Published translation

metaphor.

2.

English

to be read. oJ-O

as well

of Rodwell's

to give

as learn

is directly
up

a moral

the

addressed
practices

with
that

a reproaching
led

to

this

lesson.

Translation

but ye turned back on your heels

Dimensions of Language Use


1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time: Literary

3.

Province:

written

English

to be read

as manifested

Published translation

a
Q, u

by the use of the literary

of a major religious

work.

"ye".

ISO
Dimensions

of Language User

Individuality:

1.

Reproduction
The translation

metaphor.
and vehicle
represent

2.

Status:

mental

formal

Participation:

Profile

to

the original

which characterizes

in a position

because he is using

of authority

to

is

give

as learn

directly

addressed

the

up

with

a reproaching
led

that

practices

to

this

lesson.

a moral

of Dawood's Translation
but you turned

Dimensions

of Language

Medium: complex,

2.

Time: Standard

3.

Province:

Dimensions

to be read.

English

as it

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

aLou-*l--

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

metaphor

with

original

metaphor
vehicle

Use

written

Individuality:

the

backs in scorn

your

1.

1.

the use of human body positions

of mind,

The audience

as well

tenor

tone.

tone. T ey owe expected


reproach

of the metaphor

in the translation.

is

The speaker

a reproaching

3.

state

is reproduced

category,

the elements

renders
Therefore

correctly.

meaning of the original

the surface

of

Reproduction
a different
and

surface

the translation

in the translation
from that

of

has

of the original

the

original

into

metaphor

meaning plus

another
however,

explanation,

share the same deep meaning.


different
in addition

tenor

and

to having

The

different

the ground of

181
metaphor

(in

different

from the original

scorn)

spelt

out.

Although

one,

it

is

the translated

is.

metaphor

to the same effect

and uses a

to express a mental frame of mind as the original

human body position


did.

2.

Status:
a formal

3.

tone.

are

as well

as learn

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time: Literary

3.

Province:

1.

with'a

up the practices

reproaching
led to this

that

lesson.

a moral

back on your heels

of Language Use

1.

Dimensions

addressed

Translation

but ye used to turn

Dimensions

to give

expected

of Pickthall's

because he is using

of authority

are directly

The audience

They

reproach

in a position

tone..

reproaching

Participation:

Profile

is

The speaker

to be read

written

English

Published

as manifested

translation

o-L

u-"

by the use of the archaic

of a major

religious

"ye".

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
metaphor.

Reproduction
The translation

and vehicle
represent
metaphor,

mental

state

is reproduced

the surface
the elements

renders
Therefore

correctly.
a

of

meaning of the original


of the metaphor

tenor

the use of a human body position

of mind,

which characterizes

in the translation.

the original

to

182
2.

formal

a reproaching

3.

is

The speaker

Status:

in a position

tone.

tone. The are expected

After
that
on

the original

comparing
only
two

dimension

to give

with
that

one translation,
dimensions,

that

of

Time

that

and

deviated

English.

as standard

to point

out that,

due to the brevity

of

possible

to reflect

in the translation

the right

the

that

was

translation

as another

translator

thought

understand

in

the

by

an

certainly

not

intended

original

intended

explanation.

to

but to

the

metaphor

Language,

Second

followed

saying

the

that

it

is

The

"You

same

he

new

turned

This
your

is

is only
not

fair

always

of the original.

the

reproduced

into

the

Probably

the

effect.

would be easier
the

created
so,

metaphor

to
was

by Dawood was

because,

backs in scorn"

would have done so.

he

from

as

metaphor

that

deviation

provided

especially

by the original.
say

it

time

On the
in

it

was

identify

from the original

However,

metaphor,

metaphor

original

metaphor

we could

Individuality.

the translator's

of Individuality,

to this
lesson.

a moral

from the original

classical

original

of

a reproaching

gave rise

translations,

rendered

On the dimension

that
as learn

as well

the five

with

by Dawood, has deviated

of Time the translator


Arabic

addressed

up the practices

of the speaker

on the part

reproach

is directly

The audience

Participation:

because he is using

of authority

had
instead

the
of

183
Example 18
ULi

`'1

Verse 74
Sura Fourkan

W'

Yusif

the comfort of our eyes


the satisfaction

George Sale

of our eyes

J. M. Rodwell

the joy of our eyes

N. J.

give us joy in our wives and children


of our wives

vouch safe us comfort


our children
Profile

of the original

Dimensions
1.

the history

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

first

Arabic,

Language of the Quran.

a major religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

definition.

use of language.

Figurative

in terms of a physical

The speaker

Status:

teach

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

The Quran,

represented

2.

and of

of the Quran.

2.

1.

Dawood

of Language Use

Medium: complex,

Dimensions

Ali

Moreover,

the audience

is

in a
he

a moral

position

position
is

providing

lesson.

of

A mental

state

of mind is

of a human body part.

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

184
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

lesson

a moral

of Ali's

as

well

as.

from the story.

of our eyes

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

translation

Published

wLo u--"

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

to be informed

Translation

the comfort

Dimensions

is expected

the audience

Individuality:

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface

keeping

the same time

i. e.

meanings,

metaphor

by a combination

the deep meaning but at

providing

a key word of the surface

Is

the

nature

of

in order

to

meaning which

body part.

2.

The speaker

Status:
definition.
teach

3.

Moreover,

the audience

Participation:
learn

Profile

is

a moral

of Sale's
the satisfaction

in a
he

a moral

position
is

providing

of

authority
new information

by

lesson.

the audience
lesson.

Translation
of our eyes

is expected

to be informed,

as

well

as

185
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

to be read. o Lou-

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

Published

deep

the

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
of

is not marked as otherwise.

Reproduction

and surface

the

original

i. e.

meanings,
a key

keeping

same time

of

word

metaphor
the

providing
of

the

surface

by a combination

deep

meaning

meaning

which

but
is

at
the

body part.

2.

Status:
definition.
teach

3.

Moreover,

the audience

Participation:
learn

Profile

a moral

the joy

in a
is

he

a moral

position
providing

is expected

new information

nature

of

in order

to

to be informed,

as

well

Translation

of our eyes

of

Use

Language

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

1.

by

authority

lesson.

1.

Dimensions

of

lesson.

the audience

of Rodwell's

Dimensions

is

The speaker

Standard

of

Individuality:

Published

LanAuaxe

translation

aLou-d-.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

User

Reproduction

of the original

metaphor

by a combination

as

186
of

deep

the

and surface

keeping

same time

i. e.

meanings,
a key

word

the

providing
of

the

surface

deep

but

meaning

meaning

is

which

at
the

body part.

2.

Status:
definition.
teach

3.

Profile

the audience

us joy

Dimensions

by

authority
new information

providing

nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

a moral

in our wives

is expected

to be informed,

as

well

as

2.

Time: Standard

3.

Province:

Dimensions

and children

of Language Use

Medium: complex,

L-ocuL"
be
to
read. oa.

written

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

English

translation

published

of a major

religious

worts.

of Laneuage User

Individuality:
Therefore

Status:

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction
the metaphor

The speaker

definition.
teach

of

lesson.

1.

2.

is

he

the audience

a moral

position

of Dawood's Translation

give

1.

in a

Moreover,

Participation:
learn

is

The speaker

Moreover,

the audience

is

is

i:
he

a moral

lost

in

position
is

the

providing

lesson.

only.

translation.

of

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

18/
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

as

of our wives

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

to be read

written

Standard

as it

English

-"

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Published

t.
a. o

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

well

as

Translation

of Pickthall's

vouch safe us comfort


and of our children

1.

to be informed

lesson.

a moral

Dimensions

is expected

The audience

is

the metaphor

The speaker

Status:

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

new

providing

is

only.

in the translation.

lost

in a position

information

in

to teach

the audience

is expected

order

he is

Moreover,

of authority.

the audience

a moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

By

a moral

the

comparing

original-;,
original

five

reflected

the

right

as

of

profiles

on one dimension
Arabic

as

well

as

lesson.

we can see that

classical

to be informed,

five

all
of

time

of

the

different

translations

Language

standard

the

have

Use which

English,

these

original.

But

translations

is

deviated

Time.

is

not

from

the
the

By reproducing
have

translations
it

with

always

not

possible

188
to reflect
brevity

the right

on

the Dimensions

of Language User,
have deviated

by Dawood and Pickthall,

dimension

Individuality.

of

meaning only
these

in the translation

of the original

due

to

the

of metaphor.

However,
those

time

of the original,

translations

addressees.

as well

Both

of

therefore
as its

two translations,
from the

them

have

the original

imagery

intended

namely

original

on

the deep

reproduced
metaphor
to

the

was lost

appeal

to

in
the

189
Example 19
ic)y
t-PU "y-> L

Cri V> v-

Verse 51
Sura The Cave

nor is it for me to take as helpers such as


lead (men) astray
did
neither
assistants

I take

did

I take

neither

those

seducers

for

Yusif

my
George Sale

as my helpers

seducers

J. M. Rodwell

nor was I to seek the aid of those who were


to lead mankind astray

Profile

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

Dimensions

Arabic,

The Quran,

Language of the Quran.


work.

a major religious

of Language User

Individuality:
represented

Status:

Figurative

of

use

language.

An abstract

entity

is

by

nature

of

in order

to

in terms of a human body part.

The speaker

definition.
teach

to be read as we know from

then written

spoken,

of the Ouran.

2.

2.

first

Medium: complex,
the history

1.

r, P, y t

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

y,

M. M. Pickthall

Metaphor

of the original
,. -

N. J. Dawood

(my) helpers

for

nor chose I misleaders

Ali

Moreover,

the audience

is

in a
he

a moral

position
is

providing

lesson.

of

authority
new information

190
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

lesson

a moral

of All's

to be informed

is expected

the audience

as

well

as

from the story.

Translation

nor is it for me to take as helpers such


as lead (men) astray
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Published

Individuality:
Therefore

2.

English

as it

9J-,O

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

to be read

written

Status:

the metaphor

The speaker
new

providing

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

is

is

only.

in the translation.

lost

in a position

of authority.

information

in

to teach

the audience

is expected

order

he is

Moreover,
the audience

a moral

lesson.
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

lesson.

a moral

Translation

of Sale's
did
neither
assistants

Dimensions

to be informed,

I take

those seducers

for

my

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written
English

Published

to be read - o. Lou-"
as it

translation

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

as

well

as

191
Dimensions

1.

Individuality:

Status:

User

the metaphor

is

The speaker

providing

of the deep meaning of

Reproduction

Therefore

only.

2.

Language

of

is

lost

original

in the translation.

in a position
in

the audience

is expected

to teach

order

he is

Moreover,

of authority.

information

new

the

the audience

a moral

lesson.

3.

Participation:
learx,

Profile

as

did I take seducers as my helpers

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

of

Therefore

Status:

Language

translation

of

of
lost

is

metaphor

is

Moreover,

the audience

not

marked

a major

as otherwise.
religious

work.

User

Reproduction
the

is

as it

English

The speaker

definition..

to be read OL. o a-o%.

written

Published

Individuality:

teach

well

Translation

of Rodwell's

Dimensions

2.

as

lesson.

a moral

neither

1.

to be informed,

in a
he

a moral

the
in

deep meaning
the

the

original

only.

translation.

position
is providing

lesson.

of

of

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

192
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

is expected

the audience

to be informed,

as

well

as

lesson.

a moral

of Dawood's Translation

nor was I to seek the aid of those who


were to lead mankind astray
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard

the metaphor

The speaker

Status:

the audience

Profile

a moral

is

Moreover,

Participation:
learn

of a major

religious

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

is lost

in a

position

of

authority
new information

is expected

to be informed,

lesson.

Translation

for

(my) helpers

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

written

by

nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

the audience

nor choose I misleaders

only.

in the translation.

is providing

he

a moral

of M. M. Pickthall's

Dimensions

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Reproduction

definition..

3.

as it

aLc, "I.

of Language User

Individuality:

teach

English

Published

Therefore

2.

to be read.

written

to be read a.l. a4-d.

Standard English. as it

is not marked as otherwise.

as

well

as

193
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Individuality:

Status:

3.

The speaker

a moral

of

the

deviated

from the original

we

original

because

However,

due to the brevity

have failed
its

deep

emotive

they

as 'nor

lead men astray'.

of

in order

to

as

well

as

of metaphor

all

Arabic
is

not

all

five

the metaphor

of the original

The original
it

for

time

right

as standard
always

the
have

translations

translations

of Individuality.

This

five

with

is that
of

the

English.

possible

to

in the translation.

on the dimension

only.

is

it

translations

the

classical

reproduced

means,

power meant by the original

reproduced

nature

of Language Use which

reflected

of Language User,

to reproduce

the translations.

that

see

time of the original

original

meaning

can

of them have not

original

the

to be informed,

different

on one Dimension

All

from

new information

is expected

of the

profiles

of Time.

On the Dimensions

by

authority

lesson.

profile

the right

only.

lesson.

the audience

the-five

five

of

position
is providing

he

a moral

By comparing

reflect

work.

in the translation.

in a

is

Moreover,

the audience

lost

is

the metaphor

Participation:
learn

religious

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

definition..
teach

of a major

of Language User

Therefore

2.

translation

Published

too,

to affect

metaphor

could,

me to take as a

that

have
five

All

they

as
the

of them
provided

imagery with

the addressees
in our point
supporting

deviated

arm

its

lost"

in

of view,

be

is

those

who

194
From the

above,

techniques

of metaphors representing

used by the translators

a mental state

the category.

to render

in terms of

positions

physical

of the human body or body parts could be summedup as follows:

(a) Reproducing
translation

meaning of the metaphor,

the surface
is

carried

out,

i. e. a close

e. g.

''

now they fold

up their

literal

.,;..

V1

breasts
(see Example 7)

(b)

Reproducing
the metaphor

the deep meaning of the metaphor


omitting

the metaphorical

out of a sincere

desire

only,

use of

to please their

i. e. the sense of

language;

eL!

e. g.

lord
(see

Example

8)

195
(c)

Reproducing

the

surface

meaning of the metaphor

plus

explanation,

e. g.

but they clapped their hands to their


of indignation
and said...

mouths out

(see Example 9)

(d) Reproducing

the surface

the form of a simile,

meaning of the metaphor

1?,1 ; Jyl:

(like
hand
tied
thy
a niggard's)
make not
its
forth
it
to
utmost
stretch
neck. nor

the

while providing

deep

meaning

to thy
reach
(see Example 11)

in the main body of

the translation

the surface meaning in the footnotes,

e. g.

former obstinacy'
into their
they relapsed
Afterwards
heads.
1. Lit.
they were turned down upon their

(f)

Reproducing

in

explanation

e. g.

(e) Reproducing

plus

the first

language

metaphor

into

but to the same effect,

second

language

surface

meaning from the original

e. g.

they turn upon their heels

but with

another

i. e.

(see Example 14)

metaphor

providing

the

same

in

the

a different
deep

meaning,

Lj

(see Example 16)

196
(g)

Reproducing
second

the

language

meaning

from

meaning,

e. g.

first

language

i. e.

explanation,

plus

the

metaphor

into

another

original

a different

providing

plus explanation
.L

the first

and the surface

metaphor

in

language
i. e.

meaning,

addition

to

metaphor
providing

in

the

surface

but with the same deep


UC'

but you turned your backs in scorn

(h) Reproducing

metaphor

(see Example 17)

by combining

the deep meaning

deep meaning of the original

keeping the body part

in the translation,

e. g.

.LsL%
the comfort

of our eyes

w--? ,

<
%
t,..
-,
(see Example 18)

197
III

Metaphors
-

representing

on human or animal

enforced

action

an abstract

in

entity

terms

of

physical

body parts:

Example 20 I,

-ts

.i
",,

1JCS

)"

y
`S

and send hardness to their


and harden their

hearts

and harden

their

hearts

and harden

their

hearts.

and harden

their

hearts

Profile

of the original

.,

Js

1 % 1Liy
Je I1i

AL

Verse 88
Sura Jona

-' -.. s

hearts

Yusif All
George Sale
J. M. Rodwell

N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor
eA;

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions

1.

Classical

Arabic,

The Quran,

Language of the Quran.

a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

Figurative

is represented

in-terms

part.

to be read as we know from

of the Quran.

the history
2.

spoken then written

first

use of language in which an abstract


of physical

action

enforced on a

entity

human body

198
2.

Status:

The

definition.

him

3.

to

order

his

total

heart

Profile

by nature

of authority
about

ofto

addressed

a prayer

mankind.

is expected

behaviour

to

learn

of God in

as have the fear

as well

lesson

moral

times.

at all

Translation

of Ali's

hearts

to their

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written

to be read.

English

as it

Published

translation

aLow0..

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

work.

religious

of Language User

Dimensions

Individuality:

same time

reproduced
"harden

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface


the

over all

future

and send hardness

1.

position

them a moral lesson as well as inform them

teach

the audience
Thai-

concerning

the audience

authority

Participation:

their

in

He is telling

in

about

is

speaker

i. e. the deep meaning

meanings,

a key word of the surface

in

the

metaphor

The

translation.

them" but he chose to give

by a combination
is given

meaning which
translator

a combination

is

could

while

"hearts"
have

at
is
said

of deep and surface

meanings.

2.

Status:

The speaker

definition.
order

The

to teach

absolute

is

in a

audience

them a moral

authority

over

all

position

is told
lesson

of

about
as well

human beings.

authority

a prayer
as to

by

nature

addressed
inform

them

of

to him in
of

his

199
3.

Participation:

hearts

their

Dimensions

of

hearts

Language

Use

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written

to be read

English

as it

Lou-d-o.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Published

Individuality:

of a major

same time

religious

work.

"harden

The

translation.

the

by a combination

metaphor

i. e. the deep meaning is given

meanings,

a key word of the surface

in

reproduced

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface


the

in

of God

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

as have the fear

as well

lesson

a moral

Translation
their

and harden

behaviour

learn

to

expected

times.

at all

of Sale's

is

audience

future

their

concerning

Profile

the

them" but he chose to give

meaning which
translator

a combination

is

could

while

"hearts"
have

at
is
said

of deep and surface

meanings

2.

The speaker

Status:
definition.
order

to teach

absolute

3.

The

concerning

their

over all

audience

future

hearts at all

position

is told

them a moral

the
their

in a

audience

authority

Participation:

is

lesson

about

authority

a prayer

as well

as to

by

nature

to him in

addressed
inform

of

them

of

his

human beings.

is

behaviour

times.

of

expected
as well

to

learn

a moral

as have the fear

lesson

of God

in

200
Profile

of Rodwell's
and harden

Dimensions

Translation
hearts

their

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

Individuality:

translation

of a major

religious

same time

work.

"harden

the

The

translation.

them" but he chose to give

by a combination

metaphor

i. e. the deep meaning

meanings,

a key word of the surface

in

reproduced

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface


the

is not marked as otherwise.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Published

J_ou-d-"

is given

meaning which
translator

a combination

is

could

while

at

"hearts"
have

is
said

of deep and surface

meanings.

2.

The speaker

Status:

The

definition.
order

to teach

absolute

3.

concerning

their

over

hearts at all

all

audience

future

position

is told

them a moral

the
their

in a

audience

authority

Participation:

is

lesson

authority

a prayer

as well--as

by

nature

to him in

addressed

to inform

of

them

of

his

human beings.

is

behaviour

times.

about

of

expected
as well

to

learn

a moral

as have the fear

lesson

of God

in

201
Profile

of Dawood's
and harden

Dimensions

Translation
hearts

their

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

to be read

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

Individuality:

translation

of a major. religious

same time

work.

meanings,

The

translation.

the

them" but he chose to give

by a combination

metaphor

i. e. the deep meaning

a key word of the surface

in

reproduced
"harden

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface


the

is not marked as otherwise.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Published

olou-1-

is given

meaning which
translator

a combination

is

could

while

at

"hearts"
have

is
said

of deep and surface

meanings.

2.

The speaker

Status:

The

definition.
order

to teach

absolute

3.

concerning

their

over

hearts

at all

all

audience

future

position

is told

them a moral

the
their

in a

audience

authority

Participation:

is

lesson

about

authority

a prayer

as well

by

nature

of

to him in

addressed

as to

inform

them

to

learn

a moral

of

his

human beings.

is

behaviour

times.

of

expected
as well

as have the fear

lesson

of God

in

202
Profile

of Pickthall's
and harden

Dimensions

Translation
hearts

their

of Language Use

1.

Medium: complex, written

to be read. a.LowoL-

2.

Time:

as it

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

English

Published

translation

of a major

work.

religious

of Language User

Individuality:

in

reproduced

meanings,

the

by a combination

metaphor

i. e. the deep meaning

a key word of the surface

same time

"harden

of the original

Reproduction

of deep and surface


the

is not marked as otherwise.

The

translation.

them" but he chose to give

is given

meaning which
translator

is

while

"hearts"

is

have

could

at

said

of deep and surface

a combination

meanings.

2.

The

definition.
order

3.

authority

the

Participation:
their

concerning
their

hearts

By comparing

deviated

from the original


did

is

behaviour

of the

profiles

of

They

about

by

authority

a prayer
as to

as well

nature

to him in

addressed
inform

of

them

his

of

to

expected

learn

a moral

as have the fear

as well

lesson

of God

in

times.

profile

Time.

of

human beings.

audience

future

at all

the five
the

lesson

all

over

position

is told

audience

them a moral

to teach

absolute

in a

is

The speaker

Status:

original

not reflect

we

notice

different
that

on one dimension
the right

time

translations
all

of

five

with

translations

Language

of the original

Use

which

the
have
is

because they

203
reproduced

On

Arabic

classical

of Language User,

the dimensions

from the original


the

reflect

on the dimension.

original

metaphor

on a human body part.

The loss

implies,
original

too,

that

to affect

The

original

"tie

up their

the

hearts

all
of

of

imagery

the
with

in

emotive
in the

of view,

failed

They

a physical

metaphor
its

have deviated

translations

Individuality.

was lost

from our point

in hardness".

five

which portrays

the addressees,

metaphor,

English.

as standard

action
the

enforced

translations

power meant by the

translations
could

to

as well.

be reproduced

as

204
Example 21
S(,
J;
vln
ef
,

LA

Verse 35
Sura Stories

3Cj I
N".

thy arm through

strengthen

we will certainly
thy brother

arm by thy brother


arm with

we will

strengthen

thine

we will

strengthen

thine

we will

give you your brother

we will
Profile

strengthen

of the original

Yusif All
George Sale

thy brother

J. M. Rodwell

to help you

N. J. Dawood

thine arm with thy brother

M.M. Pickthall

metaphor

eAP

LA

Dimensions of Languase Use


1.

Medium: complex,
the history
Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

of the Ouran.
Arabic,

Classical

2.

first

The Quran,

Language of the Quran.

a major

work.

religious

of Language User
Figurative

Individuality:
represented

use

language.

of

in terms of a physical

action

An abstract

enforced

on

entity
human

is
body

part.

2.

Status:
definition.
purpose

The speaker
Moreover,
of giving

is

in a
he

a moral

position
is

lesson.

providing

of

authority
new information

by

nature
for

the

of

205

3.

Participation:

the

is

not addressed

about

a story.

They are expected

to be informed

moral

lesson

Profile

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Literary

as derive

as well

thy arm through

strengthen

to be read

written
English

aLe u. cL.
by the use of the archaic

as manifested

translation

Published

Individuality:

of a major

Reproduction

religious

"thy"

work.

original

is given

metaphor

"strengthen

with

you

deep and surface

definition.

is

the deep meaning of

translator

position
is

telling

of
a

story

have

said
the

by
for

nature

the purpose

of
of

lesson.

the

is

not addressed

about

a story.

They are expected

to be informed

moral

lesson

we will

could

authority

Participation:

of Sale's

the

a key word of the original

but he chose to combine both

brother"

in a
he

Moreover,

a moral

giving

thy

The

of the deep

meanings.

The speaker

Status:

i. e.
keeping

while
"arm".

is

meaning which

surface

by a combination

of metaphor

meanings of the original,

and surface

Profile

told

of Language User

Dimensions

3.

is

of Language Use

1.

2.

but

Translation

We will
certainly
thy brother

1.

directly

from the story.

of Ali's

Dimensions

audience

audience

from the story.

Translation

strengthen

thine

arm by thy brother

directly
as well

but

is told

as derive

206

Dimensions
1.

of Language Use

Medium:

2. Time:

complex,

Literary

written

English

Lo
m. wd-

be read.

to

by the use of the archaic

as manifested

"thine"

and"thy"
3.

Province:

Dimensions

Published

Reproduction

metaphor

surface

meaning which

"strengthen

definition.

Profile

Dimensions
1.

in a
he

expected

are

The

the deep meaning of

the

a key word of the original

translator

could

have

but he chose to combine both

said
the

position
is

telling

of
a

by

authority
story

for

nature

the purpose

is not addressed
to be informed

directly
as well

but

is told

as derive

Translation

strengthen

thine

arm by thy

brother

of Language Use

Literary

and"thy"

of
of

written

English

to be read.. o Lou.
as manifested

by the use of the archaic

a moral

from the story.

Medium: complex,

2. Time:

is

the audience

of Rodwell's
we will

keeping

of the deep

a moral lesson.

They

lesson

i. e.

brother"

your

Moreover,

Participation:
story.

work.

meanings.

The speaker

Status:

while
"arm".

is

by

you

deep and surface

3.

is given

original

giving

religious

by a combination

of metaphor

meanings of the original,

and surface

2.

of a major

of Language User

Individuality:

1.

translation

"thine"

207
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Published

Individuality:

original

Reproduction

you

deep and surface

Status:

They

The

the deep meaning of

the

a key word of the original

translator

could

have

said

but he chose to combine both

the

meanings.

in a

is

he

position
is

of

telling

by

authority
story

for

nature

the purpose

of
of

is not addressed

the audience
are

to be informed

expected

directly
as well

but

is

as derive

told

of Dawood's Translation
give

Dimensions

you your

brother

to help

Medium: complex,

written

to be read.

2.

Time:

English

as it

3.

Province:

Dimensions

you

of Language Use

1.

Standard

Published translation

aLo--d,.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
Therefore

Reproduction
the metaphor

is

of the deep meaning of the metaphor


lost

in the translation.

a moral

from the story.

we will

1.

keeping

of the deep

lesson.

Participation:
story.

i. e.

brother"

your

Moreover,

a moral

giving

while
"arm".

is

by

The speaker

definition.

Profile

is given

meaning which

"strengthen

lesson

work.

religious

by a combination

of metaphor

meanings of the original,


metaphor

surface

3.

of a major

of Language User

and surface

2.

translation

only.

208
2.

Status:

is

The speaker

definition.

in a

position

he is telling

Moreover,

of
for

a story

by

authority

the purpose

nature

of.

of giving

moral lesson.

3.

Participation:

the

about

a story.

moral

lesson.

Profile

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

learn

-a

arm with thy brother

thine

written
English

Published

Lou.
d-.
o.

to be read,

by the use of the archaic

as manifested

translation

of a major

religious

deep and surface

"thy".

work.

said

surface
"strengthen

is

meaning which
you by your

the deep and surface

meanings.

Status:

Is in a

The speaker

definition.

Moreover,

a moral

lesson.

he

is

"arm".

brother",

position
is

telling

of the

the deep meaning

keeping

while

given

by a combination
i. e.

meaning of the original,


metaphor

original

original

of the metaphor

Reproduction

Individuality:

giving

as

of Language User

Dimensions

2.

as well

of Language Use

1.

the

but are told

Translation

strengthen

Dimensions

1.

directly

to be informed

They are expected

of Pickthall's

We will

is not addressed

audience

of

a key word of the

The translator

could

have

but he chose to combine both

of
a

by

authority
story

for

nature

the purpose

of
of

209
3.

Participation:
about

is Time.

Use which

five

from

as

it

This

remaining
meanings

have

the

metaphor

intended
our

'with

thine

to reflect

enforced
the

point
brother,

of

the right

of the original.

time

view,
we will

lost

the original
tighten

of deep

thine

metaphor
Thus,

imagery
too
metaphor

with
in

with
which

could

arm in strength'.

and

which

these

have

metaphor

While

only.

as

Dawood's

the original

a combination

is

User,

Individuality.

of

the original

Arabic

Language

of

to reproduce

power of the

the addressees

Language

of

classical

on a human body part.

emotive

namely that

by reproducing

on the dimension

by providing

failed

to affect

From

the

with

on one dimension

to Dimensions

has failed

translations

deep meaning of the original

the

translations,

action

to reflect

according

instance,

provided

physical

translation,

the original

for

translation,

as learn

as well

one translation,

only

from the original

translations,

deviated

that

we notice

has failed

English

standard

of the different

profiles

has deviated

by Dawood,

All

five

of the original,

profile

told

from the story.

the

comparing

to be informed

is

but

directly

is not addressed

They are expected

story.

lesson

moral

By

the audience

the

the

four

surface

portrays
loss

a
of

the original
translations.

be reproduced

as

21J
Example 22
3;
,

L,

a..

CJ)JCs

r-

",
,

I
,

Yusif

but He holdeth it

All

by
George Sale

beast is there
No single
not by its forelock

which He holdeth
J. M. Rodwell

There is not a living


on the earth
creature
He does not control
whose destiny

No an animal but He doth grasp it

N. J. Dawood

by the
M. M. Pickthall

forelock

Profile

Sura Houd

but he hath

There is not a moving creature,


grasp of its forelock
There is no beast,
its forelock

Verse 56

of the original

metaphor

v
"D

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium : Complex,

first

from the history


Classical

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

The Quran,

Individuality:

Status:

to be read as we know

then written

of the Ouran.
Language of the Quran.
religious

a major

work.

of Language User

represented

2.

Arabic,

spoken,

Figurative

use

in terms of physical

The speaker is in a

of

language.

action

position

enforced

of

An abstract
on animal

authority

by

entity

is

body part.

nature

of

211
definition.
teach

3.

the

audience

Participation:
learn

is

of Ali's

in order

new information

providing

to

lesson.

a moral

The audience

a moral

Profile

he

Moreover,

is expected

to be informed

as

well

as

lesson.

Translation

but he hath

There is not a moving creature,


grasp of its forelock
of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

Literary

to be read, aLov. -d-"

English

as

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"hath".

3.

Dimensions
1.

Published translation

Province:

the metaphor

The

Status:
definition.

3.

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

Participation:
learn

of the surface

Reproduction

Individuality:

teach

work.

of Language User

Therefore,

2.

of a major religious

a moral

is reproduced

is

lesson.

original.

in the translation.

position

he is providing

a moral

The

in

meaning of the

by nature

of authority
new information

in

of

order

to

as well

as

lesson.

audience

is

expected

to be informed

212
Profile

of Sale's.

Translation

There is no beast,

but He holdeth it

forelock

by its

Dimensions of Language Use


1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

Lo&&oL.
a.

to be read
as

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"holdeth".
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Published

Individuality:

Status:

3.

Profile

The

the audience

position

he is providing

translation.

by nature

of authority
new information

in

order

to

is

to be informed

expected

as well

as

Language

Translation
is

there

which He holdeth

not

Use

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

to be read,
as

o-Loc. -dt-"

manifested

by

the

use of the archaic

"holdeth".

Province:

of

lesson.

audience

1.

3.

original.

lesson.

beast
No single
by its forelock

Literary

in

a moral

The

of Rodwell's

of

is

speaker
Moreover,

a moral

Dimensions

work.

meaning of the

in the

is reproduced

the metaphor

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There is not a living


on the earth
creature
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whose destiny
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214
Profile

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by the forelock

Not an animal but He doth grasp it

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216
Example 23

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Verse 10
Sura Story

her heart (with faith)

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had we not strengthened

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had we not armed her heart with constancy

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218
Dimensions

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219
Dimensions

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her strength

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221
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222
Example 24
'.tls
sue
,
.

We gave strength

to their

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Medium : Complex,

2.

Time: Classical

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of heart

J. M. Rodwell
N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

first

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And we made firm

Verse 14
Sura The Cave

hearts

And we had made them stout


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224
Profile

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And we fortified

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by combination

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We put courage in their

Dimensions

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226
is

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227
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has

Rodwell

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was lost

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be pointed

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up their

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terms

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by

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contancy".

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all

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enforced

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on

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of

action

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of

the

hearts

with

the category
physical

of

action

228
enforced

on human or animal

(a) Reproducing

and

the

the first

surface

language

the deep meaning of the

providing

the body

the deep meaning

part

in

the

translation,

1'y

yl1
And send hardness

by combining

metaphor

to keeping

be summed up as follows:

could

i. e.

meaning,

in addition

original

body parts

to their

hearts
(see Example 20)

(b)

Reproducing

the

deep

meaning of the first

language

metaphor

only,

e. g.

L'
,ter'

We will

give you your brother

to help you
(see Example 21)

(c)

Reproducing

the surface

meaning of the

first

language

tits

-P

There is not a moving creature,


grasp of its forelock

c.1

metaphor,

e. g.

Jvl

but He hath
(see Example 22)

(d)

Reproducing
combining
metaphor

the
the

plus

original

metaphor

into

deep meaning and the surrface


explanation,

e. g.

the

second

language

meaning of the original

by

229
had we not

strengthened

her heart

(with

faith)
(see Example 23)

230
IV - Metaphors

representing

an abstract

in

entity

terms

of

animals

or

body parts.

animal

Example 25

SAP

>_'

o. -s

Lo

vI
1,

Lp

^
._LI:
rte
.
_,

Every man's fate we fastened on his own neck

1. Lit

have we fastened about


J. M. Rodwell

of each man we have bound about

And every man's augury have we fastened


own neck
Profile

George Sale

bird

The fate

of the original

Sura The Night


Journey

Yusif Ali

The fate of every man have we bound about


his neck
And every man's fates
his neck

Verse 13

his

neck

N. J. Dawood

to his
M.M. Pickthall

metaphor

LL2)1
Lp

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium : Complex,

first

from the history


Classical

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Arabic,

The Ouran,

spoken,

then written

of the Quran.
Language of the Quran.

a major

religious

work.

to be read as we know

231
Dimensions

1.

of Language User

Individuality:
represented

2.

Status:

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3.

in a
he

Moreover,

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An abstract

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is

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by

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nature

of

in order

to

lesson.

a moral

to be informed

is expected

as

well

as

lesson.

a moral

of Ali's

position
is

The audience

Participation:

Profile

is

The speaker

the audience

learn

of

in terms of an animal.

definition.
teach

use

Translation

Every man's fate we fastened on his own neck

of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

Time:

3.

Province:

is not marked as otherwise.

it

translation

Published

Individuality:
surface
is given

2.

as

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

kept

English

Standard

2.

1.

to be read. aloud..

Medium: Complex, written

Reproduction

meanings.
while

This

by combination

of the original

means that

at the same time

the deep meaning of

key words

of the

of deep and
the

original

meaning are

surface

in the translation.

Status:
definition.

The

speaker
Moreover,

is

in

he is

position

providing

teach the audience a moral lesson.

of authority
new information

by nature
in

order

of
to

232
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

The

a moral

of Sale's

is

audience

expected

lesson.

Translation

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

to be read

2.

Time:

English

as manifested

Literary
of

"have we"

Province:

Published

translation

Individuality:

Reproduction
This

meanings.

surface

in the translation.

Status:

The

definition.

3.

religious

word

work.

speaker
Moreover,

the audience

Participation:

is

in

of deep and

the deep meaning of the original

words

position

of

the

surface

of authority
new information

meaning

by nature
in

order

of
to

lesson.

The audience

learn a moral lesson.

he is providing

a moral

by combination

of the original
means that

are kept

teach

by the use of the unusual

of a major

is given while at the same time key

2.

aLou. o-"

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

as

of Language Use

Dimensions

3.

as well

of every man have we bound about his neck

The fate

order

to be informed

is

expected to be informed as well as

253
of Rodwell's

Profile

Translation

And every man's fate have we fastened about his neck


of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

Medium: Complex, written

..
be
to
read. xLou.

2.

Time:

as manifested

"have we"

Province:

Published

Dimensions
1.

Individuality:

Reproduction

The

Status:

Profile

work.

the audience

in

a moral

The

of deep and

by combination

body

main

the

of

translation,

in

new information

audience

is

to be informed

expected

lesson.

bound
have
about
we
man
of each

his

neck

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written

to be read

English

as it

Published

of

order

to

as well

as

lesson.

of Dawood's Translation
The fate

while

by nature

of authority

position

he is providing

Moreover,

a moral

Dimensions

word

meaning in the footnotes.

is

speaker

Participation:
learn

religious

of a major

of the original

the

the surface

definition.

3.

In

meanings

reproducing

teach

translation

by the use of the unusual

of LanxuaRe User

surface

2.

English

of

order
3.

Literary

translation

LotA...
a.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

234
Dimensions
1.

of Language User

Individuality:
surface

Reproduction
This

meanings.

the deep meaning of

means that

is given while at the same time key words of the


kept

2.

in the

Status:

The

definition.
teach

3.

Participation:

in

position

he is providing

surface

original

meaning are

by nature

of authority
new information

in

of

order

to

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

The

audience

is

expected

to be informed

lesson.

of Pickthall's

Profile

is

speaker
Moreover,

a moral

the

translation.

the audience

learn

of deep and

by combination

of the original

Translation

and every man's augury have we fastened to his own neck

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

English

as manifested

"have we"

Province:

Published

Individuality:
surface
is given
kept

translation

aLou. oL .
by the use of the unusual

of a major

religious

word

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

1.

to be read.

of

order
3.

written

Reproduction

meanings.
while

of the original

This means that

at the same time

in the translation.

by combination

the deep meaning of

key words of the

surface

of deep and

the

original

meaning are

235
2.

Status:

The

definition.

is

speaker

in

he is providing

Moreover,

by nature

of authority

position

in

new information

of

order

to

as well

as

teach the audience a moral lesson.

3.

Participation:
learn

By

five

the

of the original

profile
and

use which

is

reflect

the right

time

from

providing

a combination

reproduce

the original

the

be pointed

reproduced

the

with

namely those
on one dimension

translations

have

rendered

by
of

failed

to.

Arabic

classical

English.

deviated

language

of

original

the

on

of deep and
metaphor

out however,

in the footnotes.

be reproduced

the original

as they

of the original

to the dimensions

metaphor

from

translations

two translations,

Both of these

Time.

According

should

that

deviated

have

Dawood,

standard

to be informed

expected

of the different

profiles
we notice

language

into

is

audience

lesson.

a moral

comparing

All

The

in the footnotes,

user,

all

dimension

surface

Rodwell

From our point


there

of

have

Individuality.

By

has reproduced
of view,

failed

to

as a bird.

It

they

man's fate

is no reason

in the main body of the translation.

translations

meanings,

which portrays
that

five

the

original

if

a metaphor

why it

should

could

not

be

236
Example 26
/ c!

>a ref

And out of kindness,


of humility

J J1

'

L;

crem

Verse 24
Sura The Night
Journey

lower to them the wing


Yusif

And submit to behave humbly towards them out


of tender affection

George Sale

And defer humbly to them' out of tenderness


lower a wing of humility
1. Lit.

Treat them with humility

1.

of Language Use

from the history

first

Time:

3.

Province:

spoken,

to be read as we know

then written

of the Ouran.
Arabic,

Classical

2.

1.

metaphor

Medium : Complex,

Dimensions

N. J. Dawood

and tenderness

M. M. Pickthall

of the original

Dimensions

J. M. Rodwell

them the wing of submission

And lower unto


through mercy

Profile

All

The Ouran,

Language of the Quran.

a major

religious

work.

of Language User
Figurative

Individuality:
represented

in

terms

use of
of

language.

physical

action

entity

is

on animal

body

An abstract
enforced

positions.

2.

Status:

The speaker

is

in a position

of

auttzority

by

nature

of

237

3.

definition.

He

the

a moral

audience

is giving

Participation:
to

listening

to the word of God.

comply

of Ali's

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

lower

imagery

The vivid

of complying

with

are

know they

are

of the metaphor

is

they

the order.

to them the wing of humility

to be read

written

as it

English

Published

o-tom..oi.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:
metaphor.
rendered

is

because

order

they

and

of Language Use

Medium: Complex,

kept

addressed

Translation

1.

1.

the

with

them in favour

And out of kindness,

Dimensions

directly

is

expected

Profile

to teach

lesson.

The audience

meant to affect

in order

to the addressee

orders

Reproduction
The elements
In

correctly

the correct

of

the

meaning of the original


tenor

metaphor,

category

and

therefore

the translation,

metaphor

the representation

of the surface

entity

in a position

of

are

the translation

of the Ouran which

of an abstract

vehicle

in terms

in

this

of animal

case
body

positions.

2.

Status:

The speaker

definition.
teach

He

is

them a moral

vividness

helps

is

directly
lesson.

the speaker

the

ordering
The imagery
to affect

authority

by

addressees

of the metaphor

the minds of his

nature

of

in order

to

through
addressees.

its

238
3.

Participation:
are expected
listening

Profile

The audience

is directly

to comply with

the order

addressed
because

and ordered.

They

know

are

they

they

to the word of God.

of Sale's

Translation

And submit to behave humbly towards them


out of tender affection
of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard

Published

Individuality:

3.

He

is

them a moral

is

directly

religious

that

the emotive

is not present

are expected

are listening

cLe.e p
is

lost

of

work.

loss

of

charge

of the order

The audience

is directly

to comply with

the order

by

authority

addressees
the

This

to the word of God.

Translation

And defer humbly to theme out of tenderness


l. Lit. lower a wing of humility

nature

of

in order

to

in

the

imagery

lessens,

of

to a

on the addressees.

addressed
given

of the

only

metaphor

of the vivid

in the translation.

the power and effect

of Rodwell's

meaning

in the translation.

the

ordering
But the

the original

Participation:

the

lesson.

means

deal,

of

in a position

translation

Profile

of a major

i. e. the metaphor

The speaker

definition.

great

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Reproduction

metaphor,

Status:

teach

as it

of Languaze User

'original

2.

English

a. Low-cL

to be read

written

and ordered.

because they

know

They
they

239
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Literary

English

in

the

body

main

But

In

the

of

text

tenor

metaphor

of

representation

to reproduce

was able

it

reproduced

Status:

The

definition.

in the translation.

the metaphor

speaker

is

correctly

of

the

In

the
the

category

-terms
Since

in the footnotes,

of animal
the

body

translator

he should

have

in

to

a position

ordering

the

is directly

comply with

the order

to the word of God.

Dawood's

of authority
addressees

by nature
in

order

of
to

lesson.

The audience

expected

in

entity

the surface

the elements

metaphor

in the

in the main body of the translation.

them a moral

of

abstract

He is directly

3. Participation:

Profile

an

right

in

only

was lost

reproduced

rendered

in the

time

another

Moreover,
were

the

was maintained

positions

listening

vehicle

and

he

twice,

metaphor

i. e. the metaphor

metaphor.

therefore

translation,

and

footnotes,

the

meaning of the original

are

work.

the deep meaning of the metaphor

He reproduced

translation.

the original

rendered

the main body of the translation,

give

use of "defer".

the

of a major religious

The translator

footnotes.

2.

by

manifested

Published translation

Individuality:
once

as

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Lad-.
a

to be read

Translation

Treat them with humility

and tenderness

addressed

and ordered.

because they

know they

They
are

240
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

Standard

to be read. a.LoucL.

English

as

by

manifested

the

plain

use

the

of

language.
3.

Province:

2.

Individuality:

Reproduction

original

metaphor,

Status:

The

lesson.

the emotive

are expected

ordering
loss

the
charge

work.

This

of the order

of the

only

In the translation.

by nature

of authority

the addressees

of the vivid

to teach

of

them

in the translation

imagery

of

lessens,

the

original

to a great

deal,

on the addressees.

is directly

to comply with

the order

addressed
given

and ordered.

because they

know

They
they

to the word of God.

of Pickthall's

And lower unto


through mercy

lost

meaning

of the metaphor

The audience

are listening

is

position

in the translation.

not present

Participation:

Profile

in

is

However

the power and effect

3.

religious

deep

the

of

He is directly

means that
is

of a major

i. e. the metaphor

speaker

definition.
moral

translation

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Published

Translation

them the wing of submission

Dimensions of Language Use


1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time: Literary

3.

Province:

English

to be read
as manifested by the use of the archaic

Published translation

of a major religious

work.

"unto"

241
Dimensions
1.

of Language User

Individuality:

Reproduction

metaphor.

The

rendered

correctly

kept

the.

elements

an

the

in

terms

are

translation
is here the

of the Ouran which

entity

original

and vehicle

therefore

category

abstract

tenor

metaphor,

translation,

metaphor

of

representation

the

of

in the

correct

meaning of the

of the surface

body

animal

of

positions.

2.

is

The speaker

Status:

is

He

definition.

in a position

directly

of

the

ordering

by

authority

addressees

nature

of

in order

to

teach them a moral lesson.

3.

The audience

is directly

to comply with

the order

Participation:
are expected

that

All's

with

translation

deviated

The translation

Arabic.

However,

Sale's

be easily

figurative

They

know

are

they

standard

they

the
use

deviates

of Time,

classical

translator

did

meaning of the original

of metaphor

from the original

to reflect

of

English

it,

of

we

notice

on the dimension
to

reflect

the right

of

classical
time

can not

in the translation.

On the dimension

English

translations

from the original

to the brevity

reflected

and Individuality.

Individuality

reproduced
due

translation

standard

the five

the original

Time.

always

because

and ordered.

to the word of God.

listening

By comparing

addressed

language

only.

of

Arabic,

not reproduce
the original

on the dimensions
the translator
while
in

of Time

reproduced

on the dimension
his

translation

but gave instead

of
the

the deep

242
Rodwell's

translation

Individuality

deviated

of language of the original,

and

rendered

not

classical

the figurative

of'
use

in the footnotes.

on the dimensions

on the dimension

of Time,

into

plain

translation

is

Arabic

dimension

the

on

reproduce

from the original

Measured

the original's

original

although he did that

deviated

Individuality.

did

the translator

where

Dawood's translation

from the

his

standard

of Time

translation
English

in

the translation.

On the
from

individuality
the original

was not reproduced,

dimension,
in that
but

his

the figurative

instead,

use of

found

language

to have deviated
of the original

the deep meaning of the original

only.

243
Example 27
1)

Js

fr...,

aj

1J
%)

Verse 32

e)

Sura The Story

"_,f

(to
draw
hand
thy
to
thy
side
guard)
close
and
against fear

Yusif

and draw back thy handy unto thee which then


stretchest
1. Lit.
thy

for

forth
wing

fear

and draw back thy hand to thee without

All

George Sale

fear

J. M. Rodwell

Now draw back your hand, and do not stretch


it

out

in consternation

N. J. Dawood

hand into the bosom of thy robe,


Thrust'thy
hurt.
And
it will
white without
come forth
guard thy heart from fear

Profile

of the original

Dimensions

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

of Language Use

I. - Medium : Complex,
from the history
2.

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

first

spoken,

to be read as we know

then written

of the Duran.
Language of the Quran.

Arabic,

The Quran,

a major

work.

religious'

Dimensions of Language User


1.

Individuality:
is

2.

fear

Status:
definition.

Figurative.

is represented

use of language.

in terms orwanimal

The speaker is in a
He is giving

position

a direct

An abstract

entity

which

body part.

of

authority

by

nature

order to Moses as well as telling

of

244
the general

3.

addressees

Participation:
learn

Profile

about that

The addressees

order

to teach

them a moral

to be informed

are expected

lesson.

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

Translation

of Ali's

and draw thy hand close


fear
(to guard) against

to thy side

of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

English

Literary

l.
a. owoL.

to be read

written

as

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"thy".
3.

Dimensions
1.

Published

Province:

Individuality:

Status:

the metaphor

Z he speaker

the general

He

Profile

a moral

of Sale's

is

is

lost

in a

is giving

audience

Participation:
learn

religious

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

definition.

3.

of a major

of Language User

Therefore,

2.

translation

about

in the translation.

position

a direct
that

The addressees

of
order

order

authority

are expected

Translation

and draw back thy hand' unto thee which


than stretchest
forth for fear

by

to Moses as well

to teach

lesson.

i. Lit thy wins

only.

them a moral

to be informed

nature

of

as telling
lesson.

as well

as

245
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

Literary

English

"thy",

"thee"

3.

Province:

to be read.
as

Published

translation

Individuality:

The

Status:

of a major

audience

a moral

only

the

position

of authority

by nature

order

to Moses as well

surface

about

that

to teach

order

are expected

as

them a moral

to be informed

of

telling
lesson.

as well

as

lesson.

of Rodwell's

Translation

and draw back thy

hand to thee without

fear

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

3.

work.

reproducing

while

a direct

The addressees

Participation:

Dimensions

in

He is giving

the general

Profile

religious

in the footnotes.

is

speaker

definition.

learn

use of the archaic

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

meaning of the original

3.

the

and "stretchest".

in the main body of the translation

2.

by

manifested

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

LLou
a.

Literary

English

"thy"and

"thee".

Province:

Published

to be read
as

translation

c..
L
a, ou.

manifested

by

the

of a major religious

use of the archaic

work.

246
Dimensions

1.

of Language User

Individuality:

the metaphor is lost

Therefore

2.

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

Status:

The

in

is

speaker

in the translation.

a direct

He is giving

definition.

only.

by nature

position

of authority

order

to Moses as well

as

of

telling

the general audience about that order to teach them a moral lesson.

3.

The addressees

Participation:
learn

a moral

are expected

to be informed

as well

as

lesson.

of Dawood's Translation

Profile

Now draw back your hand, and do not


stretch it out in consternation
of Language Use

Dimensions

1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard English

Individuality:

Status:

of a major religious

work.

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction
the metaphor

The speaker

the general

He

a moral

is

is

lost

in a

is giving

audience

Participation:
learn

is not marked as otherwise.

of Language User

definition.

3.

as it

Published translation

Therefore,

2.

to be read- aloml.

about

The addressees
lesson.

in the translation.

position

a direct
that

only.

order

of
order

authority

to Moses as well

to teach

are expected

by

them a moral

to be informed

nature

of

as telling
lesson.

as well

as

247
Profile

of Pickthall's

Translation

Thrust thy hand into the bosom of thy robe


it will come forth white without hurt

And guard thy heart from fear.


of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

to be read

written
English

Literary

as

by

manifested

use of the archaic

the

"thy".

3.

Province:

the metaphor

audience

the

By comparing

by Dawood,

work.

five

profiles

is Time.

which

this

translation

of

position

that

order

order

by

authority

nature

to Moses as well

to teach

are expected

of the

we notice

has deviated

Use

in the translation.

a direct

about

only.

of

as telling

them a moral

lesson.

to be informed

as well

translations

with

as

lesson.

of the original

profile

in a

The addressees

Participation:
a moral

lost

is

is giving

He

the general

learn

is

The speaker

Status:
definition.

3.

of a major religious

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

Individuality:
Therefore,

2.

translation

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

Published

that

different

has failed

classical

to reflect

of Language User,

to the dimensions

deviated

from

providing

the deep meaning of the original

original

Arabic

the right

According

the

on one dimension

from the original

By rendering

one translation,

only

on

the

time

all

dimension
only,

into

five
of
all

the

namely that
of

standard

Language
English,

of the original.

translations

have

Individuality.

By

five

translations

248
have failed

to reproduce

as a wing.

It

reproduced

the

metaphor
should

could

not

be pointed

be reproduced

that

a man's arm

portrays

Sale's

has

translation

in the footnotes.

effectively

in the footnotes,

If

is no reason

there

why it

in the main body of the translation.

used by the

translators

an abstract

representing

which

metaphor

out however,

metaphor

original

be reproduced

So the techniques
metaphors

should

the original

to,

entity

the

render

in terms

category

of animal

of

body parts

could be summedup as follows:

(a)

Reproducing the surface meaning of the first

And out of kindness,


of humility.
(b)

Reproducing

main

body

footnotes,

lower to them the wing


(see Example 26)

the deep meaning of the first

of

the

language metaphor, e. g.

text

while providing

language

metaphor

the surface

in

the

meaning in the

e. g.

And defer to them' out of tenderness


lower a wing of humility
l. Lit.
(c)

Reproducing

the deep meaning of the first

language

(see Example 26)


metaphor
only,

eASJ

Lp

e--,j

fir.
and draw thy hand close to thy side
against fear

(to guard)
(see Example 27)

249
(d)

Reproducing

the

first

language

meaning and the surface

meaning,

metaphor

by

e. g.

Every man's fate we fastened on his own neck

Reproducing
meaning
while

the deep

L>

Ci

(e)

combining

the

language

first

and the surface

reproducing

by

combining

the

deep

meaning in the main body of the translation

the surface

And every man's fate'


his neck
1. Lit.
bird

metaphor

(see Example 25)

meaning in the footnotes,

have we fastened

e. g.

about
(see Example 25)

250
V-

Metaphors

and darkness.

light

representing

Example 28

r,
,'" oD.

faces

Their

Verse 27
Sura Jona

pieces from

as it

be covered

will

depths

the

were,

with

of the darkness of

Yusif

night
faces were covered
as though their
profound darkness of the night

Profile

of darkest

1.

2.

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

2.

N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

first

spoken,

Arabic,

The Ouran,

to be read as we know

then written

of the Quran.

from the history

1.

the

of Language Use

Medium : Complex,

Dimensions

with

night

of the original

Dimensions

deep

with

faces had been covered with a

their

cloak

George Sale

J. M. Rodwell

faces were veiled


as though their
black darkness
night's

as if

the

with

were darkened

faces

as though their
murk of night

All

Language of the Ouran.

a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

use of language portraying

Figurative

in terms

of darkness.

Status:

The speaker is in a

definition.

Moreover,

he

position
is

of

threatening

authority
as well

God's punishment

by

nature

as providing

of
the

251
audience
The

new information

with

is

imagery

powerful

in order

to teach
to

meant

lesson.

them a moral
influence

effectively

the

addressees.

3.

Participation:

The addressees

Profile

behaviour

future

change their

in order

are threatened
as learn

as well

a moral

to

them

make

lesson.

Translation

of Ali's

Their faces will be covered as it were, with pieces


from the depths of th. darkness of night.
of Language Use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

2.

English

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Published

Individuality:

Reproduction

This

the original

means that

Status:

The

speaker

definition.
audience
The

it

as

aLouo,.

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions
1.

to be read.

written

Moreover,
with

powerful

is

of the surface

he is

is

position

threatening
in order

new information
imagery

is reproduced

simile

in

meant

meaning of the original.

to

in the translation.

by nature

of authority
as well
to teach

as

effectively

the

providing

them a moral

of

lesson.

influence

the

addressees.

3.

Participation:
change their

The addressees
future

behaviour

are threatened
as well

as learn

in order
a moral

to

make

lesson.

them

252
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

as though their faces were covered with the profound


darkness of the night
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

1.

2.

English

Published

Language

of

to be read

written

This

the simile

The

definition.

The

speaker
Moreover,

audience

with

religious

is

of the surface
is reproduced

in

work.

position

in order

is

meant

to

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

he is threatening

new information
imagery

powerful

of a major

User

Reproduction

Status:

aL0.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

Individuality:
means that

it

as

L.

by nature

of authority
as well

to teach

as

the

providing

them a moral

lesson.

influence

effectively

of

the

addressees.

3.

change their

Profile

future

of Rodwell's

behaviour

as well

as learn

in order
a moral

to

were darkened

with

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written
English

Published

to be read.
as

translation

it

aUcLaL"

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

make

lesson.

Translation

faces
as though their
deep murk of night
Dimensions

are threatened

The addressees

Participation:

work.

them

253
Dimensions
1.

2.

of Language User

Individuality:

Reproduction

This

the simile

means that

Status:

The

speaker

definition.

The

is reproduced
in

is

he is

Moreover,

audience

of the surface

imagery

powerful

is

in the

position

in order
to

meant

translation.
by nature

of authority

threatening

new information

with

meaning of the original.

as well

as

to teach

of
the

providing

them a moral

lesson.

influence

effectively

the

addressees.

3.

Participation:

The addressees
future

change their

Profile

of Dawood's

faces

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

with

were veiled

lesson.

the night's

written
English

Published

Louc_
a.

to be read

is not marked as otherwise.

it

as

translation

Individuality:

Reproduction

This

the simile

means that

Status:

The

definition.
audience
The

a moral

them

religious

of a major

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

2.

as learn

as well

make

of LansuaRe Use

1.

1.

behaviour

to

Translation

as though their
black darkness
Dimensions

in order

are threatened

Moreover,
with

powerful

addressees.

speaker

is

of the surface
is reproduced

in

position

he is threatening

new information
imagery

is

in order
meant

to

meaning of the original.

in the

translation.

of authority
as well
to teach
effectively

as

by nature
providing

them a moral
influence

of
the

lesson.
the

254
3.

Participation:

The addressees
future

change their

Profile

of Pickthall's

in order

are threatened

behaviour

as learn

as well

to

them

make

lesson.

a moral

Translation

as if their faces had been covered with a


cloak of darkest night
Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

written

Standard

English

Published

1. -Individuality:

2.

means that

. The

Status:

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

audience

Reproduction

of the surface

the simile-is

kept

is

speaker

definition.

The

it

as

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

This

d.
Lou
a
"

to be read.

he is

Moreover,
with

is

in the translation.

position

in order
meant

to

by nature

of authority

threatening

new information
imagery

powerful

in

meaning of the original.

as well
to teach

as

the

providing

them a moral

lesson.

influence

effectively

of

the

addressees.

3.

Participation:

The addressees

change their

By

comparing

profile
deviated
of Time.

behaviour

five

the

of the original

we

By rendering
the right

of metaphor

see

one dimension
Arabic

classical

or simile,

that

of
it

the

into

all..

to

make

translations
five

with

original.

is not always

English,

However,
possible

due

the
have

translations

of Language Use which


standard

them

lesson.

a moral

of the different

can

time

as learn

as well

profiles

from the original-on

not reflected
brevity

future

in order

are threatened

is

that

they

have

to

the

to mark it

with

255
the right

time

of the original.

But on the dimensions of Language User, there was no deviation


these

translations

from the original.

by any of

256
Example 29
Verse 107
Sura Joseph

of the covering

Profile

shall
overwhelming
affliction
as a punishment from God

fall

the overwhelming

of God

scourge

a pall

of Allah's

Medium : Complex,

Time: Classical

3.

Province:

metaphor

first

Arabic,

The Ouran,

spoken,

then written

to be read as we know

of the Quran.
Language of the Ouran.

a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

use of language

Figurative

in terms

of darkness.

Status:

The

definition.
audience

M. M. Pickthall

of Language Use

2.

2.

J. M. Rodwell

punishment

from the history

1.

on them,

N. J. Dawood

of the original

Dimensions

Yusif All

George Sale

chastisement

Allah's

Dimensions
1.

of the wrath of God

veil

speaker
Moreover,

with

The powerful

is

in

he is

new information
imagery

position

threatening
in order

is meant to affect

God's

portraying

of authority
as well
to teach

as

punishment

by nature
providing

them a moral

the addressees

deeply.

of
the

lesson.

257
3.

Participation:

The

addressees

assumed to be listening.
threatened.

new information,

with

is meant to make them change their

and

behaviour

of the wrath of God

veil

of Language Use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

written
English

Published

Loud-.
o.

to be read
it

as

is not

translation

marked as otherwise.

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Dimensions

Individuality:

Reproduction

metaphor,

i. e.

reproduced

in the translation.

Status:

The

powerful

of

speaker

imagery

is

the surface

meaning of the original

of the metaphor,

the elements

new information,

providing
The

but are-

addressed

Translation

of Ali's

Dimensions

2.

They are provided

The threat

of the covering

1.

directly

not

future.

in the

Profile

are

in

position

as well
is

to

and vehicle

effectively

are

because he is

of authority
threatening

as

meant

tenor

the

addressees.

influence

the

addressees.

3.

Participation:

to be listening.

assumed
threatened.
in the

The addressees

future.

The threat

are "-

not directly

They are provided

with

addressed

but are

new information

is meant to make them change their

and

behaviour

258
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

overwhelming affliction
shall
as a punishment from God.
Dimensions

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

English

Published

as

it

aLo"k-

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

Individuality:

Reproduction

only,

Status:

The speaker
Moreover

threatening

the

translation

meant that

is

in

he

the emotive
loss

Participation:

The addressees

threatened.

The threat

of

loss

the
impact

of

1.

of the metaphoric

are are not directly


with

Translation

of God

written

to be read

(.
0. o

."

nature
as

well
in

metaphor

of the threat

of Language Use

Medium : Complex,

the

is

not

addressed

of
as
the

as strong

imagery.

but

new information

is meant to make them change their

the overwhelming chastisement

Dimensions

by

information,

in the future.

of Rodwell's

of the original

authority

new

They are provided

to be listening.

meaning

in the translation.

position

But

due to the

lost

providing

addressees.

as the original

assumed

is

is

deep

the

of

i. e. the metaphor

metaphor

Profile

work.

of Language User

definition.

3.

to be read

written

Standard

Dimensions

2.

on them,

of Language Use

1.

1.

fall

are
and

behaviour

259
2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

Standard

Published

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of Language User

Individuality:

Reproduction

metaphor

only,

Status:

The

speaker
Moreover

threatening

the

he

is

providing

due to the

Participation:

The

loss

addressees

assumed to be listening.

loss

impact

information
the

of

not

They are provided

as
metaphor

of the threat

directly
with

is not

new information,

in the future.

of Dawood's Translation

Profile

Allah's

Dimensions

scourge

of

Language

Use

1.

Medium : Complex,

2.

Time: Standard English

3.

Province:

written

to be read

as it

Published translation

of

well

as

in the

as strong

but are

addressed

is meant to make them change their

The threat

nature

imagery.

of the metaphoric

are

original

by,

authority

of
new

the

the

of

in the translation.

position

but

the emotive

meaning

lost

in

as the original

threatened.

is

is

addressees.

meant that

deep

of the

i. e. the metaphor

definition.

translation

3.

as it

English

(owd,.
a,

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major religious

work.

and

behaviour

260
Dimensions
1.

2.

of Language User

Individuality:

Reproduction

only,

Status:

The speaker

definition.

Moreover

threatening

the

translation

meant that

he

due to the

loss

new
loss

the
impact

not

the

of

of

as

well

as

metaphor

in

the

is

of the threat

addressed

with

is meant to make then

not as strong

imagery.

directly

They are provided

The threat

nature

information

of the metaphoric

are

by

authority

of

providing
But

of the original

meaning

in the translation.

position

the emotive

to be listening.

threatened.

is

The addressees

Participation
assumed

in

addressees.

as the original

3.

is

lost

is

i. e. the metaphor

metaphor

deep

the

of

but

new information

change their

are
and

behaviour

in the future.

Profile

of MM Pickthall'Translation
of Allah's

A pall

Dimensions

of Language Use

1.

Medium : Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

punishment

Standard

written

English

Published

to be read

as it

translation

LowcL.
p.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

of Language User
Reproduction

Individuality:
metaphor,

i. e.

the elements

reproduced

in the translation.

of the surface

meaning of

of the metaphor,

tenor

the

original

and vehicle

are

261
2. Status:
Moreover

he

is

in a position

providing

Participation

The addressees

to be listening.

assumed

as threatening

as well

"pall"

metaphor

are

directly

not

They are provided

is

the

meant

but

addressed

with

are

new information

is meant to make then change their

The threat

threatened.

the

of

of defintion.

deeply.

the addressees

affect

by nature

of authority
information

new

imagery

The powerful

addressees.

3.

is

The speaker

and

behaviour

in the future.

After

comparing

dimensions

Language

of

have deviated

translations
Use, namely,

Time.
did

the translations

Rodwell

The

Individuality.
figurative
metaphor

and

use of
only.

from the original

By reproducing
not reflect

Dawood

classical
the right

have

translators

language

different

Use and Language User,

of Language User,

On the dimensions
Sale,

and the five

the original

as they

three
deviated

have failed
provided

translations
that

we notice

on one dimension
Arabic
time

the

on
all

five

of Language

as standard

English,

of the original.

namely those

translations,
from

the

to reproduce
the

deep

original

by
on

the original's
meaning

of

the

to

262
Example 30

tlJ

% --e>,Sts

C1,
., il ,. rL

Wi-----

with

""'

Yusif

J. H. Rodwell

proof

knowledge

sure

N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

with sure knowledge


Profile

of original

Ali

George Sale

demonstration

on a clear

resting

' -

as the seeing with one's eyes

on evidence clear
by an evident

Verse 108
Sura Joseph

metaphor
Cll. --..
Ls-

Dimensions
1.

language

of

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Arabic,

The Quran,

language

of

Individuality:
terms

2.

Classical

as we know

to be read,

spoken then written

of the Quran.

from the history

1.

first

Complex,

Medium:

Dimensions

use

of the Quran.

language

a major

work.

religious

user
use of language

Figurative

portraying

God's

authority

by

favour

in

of enlightenment.

Status:

The speaker

definition.

Moreover,

teach

the audience

God's

favour

is

in a
he

a moral

of

position
is

providing

lesson.

by the image of being

new information

The audience
enlightened.

is

nature

of

in order

to

to be

in

tempted

263
3.

There are two types

Participation:
the Prophet

Mohammad who is

general
expected

to be informed

Profile

on evidence clear

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

1.

2.

Individuality:

3.

translation

of a major

of the surface

Reproduction

metaphor

Status:

The

is

speaker
Moreover,

the audience
favour

by the

the

Prophet

general
expected

in

lesson.

a moral

image of being

'Mohammed who

audience

work

who

to be informed

are

new information
The audience

as well

the

is

original

by nature
in

of
to

order

tempted

to be in

enlightened.

of addressees

is directly

assumed

meaning of

of authority

position

he is providing

There are two types

Participation:

religious

user

in the form of 6 simile.

God's

lesson.

a moral

is not marked as otherwise

as it

but

teach

They are

to be read a. LoLcL"

written

language

definition.

in.

use

Published

of

as learn

as well

listening

as the seeing with one's eyes

English

Standard

Dimensions

be

assumed to

the

secondly

and

addressed,

first,

case:

Translation

of Ali's

Dimensions

directly

who are

audience

in this

of audience

to

as learn

in this

addressed,
be

and secondly

listening

a moral

case:

lesson.

in.

They

first
the
are

264
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

by an evident

Dimensions

demonstration

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

2.

as it

English

of a major

religious

work

user

Individuality:

Reproduction

of the deep meaning of the original

This

the metaphor

is

means that

Status:

God's

favour

by the

a moral

the Prophet

image of being

Mohammadwho is

audience

expected

to be informed

on a clear

of

language

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3..

Province:

Standard

is

tempted

of addressees
addressed,
be

to

as learn

in this
and

translation

in order

to

to be

in

listening

a moral

secondly
in.

lesson.

to be read o_(o i.. cL.


as it

of

case:

use

English

nature

enlightened.

proof

written

Published

as well

new information

The audience

directly
assumed

by

authority

Translation

J. M. Rodwell's

Dimensions

is

who

general

resting

lesson.

only

translation.

of

providing

There are two types

Participation:

in the

lost

position
is

he

Moreover,

the audience

of

in a

is

The speaker

teach

Profile

is not marked as otherwise

translation

language

of

to be read aLo uoL.

written

Published

definition.

3.

use

is not marked as otherwise


of a major

religious

work

first
the

They are

265
Dimensions

1.

2.

language

of

Individuality:

Reproduction

This means that

the metaphor is lost

Status:

is

The speaker

definition.

3.

user

Moreover,

teach

the audience

God's

favour

to be informed

sure

Dimensions

who

is

tempted

nature

of

in order

to

to be

in

enlightened.

in this

of addressees
addressed,
be

to

as learn

and

secondly

listening

a moral

case:

in.

first
the

They are

lesson.

Dawood's Translation
knowledge

language

of

assumed

as well

new information

The audience

directly

is

by

authority

of

providing

lesson.

Mohammad who is

expected

with

is

only

in the translation.

position

There are two types

audience

of N. J.

he

a moral

general

Profile

in a

by the image of being

Participation:
the Prophet

of the deep meaning of the original

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

use

written

as it

English

Published

to be read o. Lou. oL.


is not marked as otherwise

translation

of a major

religious

work

Dimensions of language user


1.

2.

Individuality:

Reproduction

of the deep meaning of the original

This

the metaphor

is

means that

Status:
definition.

The speaker
Moreover,

is

in a
he

lost

in the

position
is

providing

of

only

translation.

authority
new information

by

nature

of

in order

to

266

3.

teach

the

God's

favour

audience

audience
informed

Profile

as learn

language

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

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Standard

Dimensions

They are expected

Translation

to be read

written

cuLou..

"

is not marked as otherwise

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English

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language

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religious

user

Reproduction

of the deep meaning of the original

This

the metaphor

is

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definition.

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teach

the audience

God's

favour

by the

in a
he

a moral

providing

lesson.

image of being

Mohammed who is

audience

who

is

of

position
is

by

authority
new information

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is

nature

of

in order

to

to be

in

tempted

enlightened.

of addressees

directly
assumed

only

in the translation.

lost

There are two types

Participation:

general

is

The speaker

the Prophet

be

to

lesson.

Individuality:

Status:

the

the general

and secondly

in.

first

use

Published

of

case:

in,

to be

knowledge

sure

of

a moral

tempted

in this

addressed,

who is assumed to be listening

1.

3.

of audienc

as well

Dimensions

2.

There are two types

of M. M. Pickthall's
with

1.

enlightened.

Mohammad who is directly

Prophet

is

The audience

image of being

by the

Participation:

lesson.

a moral

addressed,
to

be

in this
and

listening

case:
secondly
in.

first
the

They are

267
to be informed

expected

By comparing the five


the

of

deviated

from the original

Time.
English.

translations,
deviated

from

the
the

deep

have failed

the metaphor

entails

original

rendered

intended

meaning
to retain

too,
to affect

that

it

Rodwell,
the
of

the addressees

language

use

is

standard

not always

four

possible

out

the

of

Dawood and Pickthall,

only,

metaphor.

power of the
lost

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these
The

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five
have

Individuality.

of

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is

have

which

into

Arabic

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of the original.

the original

the emotive

translations

is

dimension
the

with

five

classical

User,

Language

on

of

time

lesson.

translations
all

of metaphor

by Sale,

original

translations

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the correct

of

namely those

reproducing

have

translation

to the dimensions

According

different

notice

due to the brevity

in the

a moral

on one dimension

them

of

But,

to reflect

we

original,

five

All

of the

profiles

profile

as learn

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four
of

which the

in the translation.

268
Example 31

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I-P

111 "-"

maL .`_.

e
1
,. _..

Verse 35
Sura Light

light
the
God is
of the heavens and the earth.
there
is as if
were a
The parable of His light
in
lamp
lamp;
the
it
enclosed
a
niche and within
lit
brilliant
it
star;
the
a
were
glass as
glass;
the
from a blessed tree,
of
neither
an olive,
is
West,
well nigh
the
oil
East
whose
nor
of
Light
luminous,
though fire
scarce touched it.
to His
God doth guide whom He will
upon light!
light.
God doth set forth parables for men, and
God doth know all things.

Yusif

the
light
God is
the
of heaven and earth,
in
is
light
a wall,
His
a
niche
as
of
similitude
lamp
the
is
lamp
enclosed
and
placed,
wherein a
the glass appears as it were
in a case of glass,
the
lighted
It
is
with
oil of
a
star.
shining
a
East,
the
nor
of
blessed tree,
neither
an olive
but
that
the
little
it
oil
West,
the
wanteth
of
fire
light,
no
although
thereof
give
would
God
Thus is light
touched it.
added unto light.
he
God
light
his
pleaseth.
direct
whom
unto
will
knoweth
for
God
men,
unto
propoundeth parables
all things.

George Sale

light
the
God is
of the heavens and the Earth.
is like a niche in which is a lamp, the
His light
the glass,
lamp encased in glass,
as it were,
a
it
tree
is
blessed
From
a
star.
glistening
lighted,
the olive neither
of the East nor of the
even
West,
whose oil would well nigh shine out,
It is light
it
touched
upon
fire
not.
though
His
light,
to
light.
God guideth whom He will
for
to
God
forth
men,
God
parables
setteth
and
knoweth all things.

J. M. Rodwell

the
heavens
the
and
earth,
Allah is the light
of
to
that
be
a
niche
light
His
compared
may
lamp
the
lamp,
a crystal
within
or
a
enshrines
lit
from
blessed
It
is
brilliance.
a
star-like
Its
Western.
Eastern
very
nor
tree
neither
olive
forth,
fire
though
no
shine
oil would almost
Allah guides to
it.
Light
touched
upon light.
for
Allah
He
coins
metaphors
His light
will.
whom
things.
knowledge
has
He
of
all
men.

N. J. Dawood

Ali

269
is the light
Allah
of the heavens and the earth.
is as a niche wherein
The similitude
of His light
The glass is
is a lamp.
The lamp is in a glass.
(This lamp is) Kindled
star.
as it were a shining
from a blessed tree,
of the East
an olive neither
almost
slow
would
whose oil
nor of the West,
touched it.
forth
(or
itself)
though
no fire
light
His
Allah guideth unto
Light upon light.
And Allah speaketh to mankind in
whom He will.
for Allah is knower of all things.
allegories
Profile
01

L.

of original
%

".

r,;

Gi1 . 1: eJ S

metaphor

9y

VavIo

cS.

C:"-...

of the Quran

2.

Time:

Arabic,

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

language

of

The speaker

Status:

know

work

user
language,

use of

God in terms

portraying

Participation

objects.

in a position

of
light

his

portraying

The powerful

the audience

deeply

by

authority

nature

to the audience
and symbolizing

as wellasbeing

an

of

in terms
imagery

is

individualistic

of the speaker.

expression

and

is

can understand.

meant to affect

examples

is

He

they

which

try

to be read as we

of the Ouran

religious

a major

light.

definition.

3.

l,

JL: iI
1:.
l1
.r--r

language

Figurative

Individuality:
of

2.

The Quran,

Sts

}S, a1J
,

from the history


Classical

-`(1

spoken then written

first

Complex,

Medium:

to

9. i S

"''

iJ

Pias

",

l. s sue:..
1.

M. M. Pickthall

The

portraying
understand

is

audience
God's

light.

these

from the environment.

expected
Moreover,

examples

to be influenced
they

presented

are

by the

expected

to them in terms

to
of

270
Profile

Translation

of Ali's

light
the
God is
of the heavens and the earth.
is as if
there
The parable of His light
were a
it a lamp;
the lamp enclosed in
niche and within
lit
the glass as it were a brilliant
star;
glass;
the
from a blessed tree,
neither
an olive,
of
West,
the
East
whose oil is well nigh
nor
of
Light
luminous,
though fire
scarce touched it.
to His
God doth guide whom He will
upon light!
light.
God doth set forth
parables for men, and
God doth know all things.
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

use
to be read a. 1cu.

written

Literary

English

by the use of the archaic

as manifested

"doth"
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

language

of

Individuality:
This

The

3.

which

they

meant

to

of the surface
is kept

the simile

in

is

speaker
He is

definition.

portraying

the

Participation:

The audience

try

and understand

objects

God's
these

his

light

by nature

of authority
to the audience
and

deeply

in terms

symbolic
as

well

of

as

imagery

is

being

an

of the speaker.

expression

portraying

work

translation.

a position

audience

individualistic

examples

religious

meaning of the original.

in the

The powerful

can understand.
affect

of a major

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

translation

Published

is expected
light.

examples

from the environment.

to be

Moreover,
presented

influenced
they

to

them

by

are expected
in

terms

the
to
of

271
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

God is
light
heaven and earth,
the
the
of
Is as a niche in a wall,
similitude
of His light
wherein a lamp is placed,
and the lamp enclosed
In a case of glass,
the glass appears as it were
It is lighted
a shining
star.
with the oil of
a
blessed tree,
an olive neither
of the East,
nor
it wanteth little
but that the
of the West,
oil
light,
thereof
would
although
give
no fire
touched it.
Thus is light
God
added unto light.
direct
God
will
whom he pleaseth.
unto his light
God knoweth
propoundeth
parables unto men, for
all things.
Dimensions

language

of

use
to be read al. o u--.

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

"wanteth",
3.

Dimensions
1.

2.

language

of

Individuality:
This

The

which they
meant

3.

is kept

in

is

speaker

portraying

affect

the

Participation:

The audience

try

and understand

objects

God's
these

his

light

by nature

of authority
to the audience
and

deeply

in terms

imagery

is

as

being

an

influenced

by

symbolic
as

of

well

of the speaker.

expression

portraying

work

translation.

a position

audience

individualistic

examples

religious

meaning of the original.

in the

The powerful

can understand.

to

of a major

of the surface

the simile

He is

definition.

and "knoweth"

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

translation

Published

by the use of the archaic

manifested

"propoundeth"

"pleaseth",

Province:

as

is expected
light.

examples

from the environment.

to be

Moreover,
presented

they
to

them

are expected
in

terms

the
to
of

272
Profile

of Rodwell's

Translation

light
God is
the
of the heavens and the Earth.
is like a niche in which is a lamp, the
His light
lamp encased In glass,
the glass,
as it were,
a
it
Is
From a blessed
tree
glistening
star.
lighted,
the olive neither
of the East nor of the
West,
whose oil would well nigh shine out,
even
It is light
fire
it
though
touched
not.
upon
light,
light.
to His
God guideth whom He will
forth
and God setteth
parables to men, for God
knoweth all things.
Dimensions

lanzuaRe

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

language

The

3.

which

they

meant

to

in

is

speaker

the

The audience
portraying

and understand

religious

work

God's
these

his

light

by nature

of authority
to the audience
and

deeply

in terms
imagery

is

as

being

an

influenced

by

symbolic
as

of

well

of the speaker.

Participation:

objects

in

word order

translation.

a position

audience

expression

try

archaic

meaning of the original.

in the

The powerful

can understand.
affect

of a major

is kept

the simile

individualistic

examples

the

of

as the unusual

of the surface

He is portraying

definition.

use

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

as well

etc.,

translation

Published

of

by the

as manifested

not"

Individuality:
This

2.

it

Province:

Dimensions
1.

English

"setteth",

"touched

d-.
Lot.,
a.

to be read

written

Literary

_guideth",

use

is expected
light.

examples

from the environment.

to be

Moreover,
presented

they
to

them

are expected
in

terms

the
to
of

273
Profile

of Dawood's

Translation

Allah is the light


earth,
of the heavens and the
light
that
His
a niche
may be compared to
the lamp within
or
a crystal
a lamp,
enshrines
lit
from
blessed
It
is
brilliance.
a
star-like
Its-very
Eastern nor Western.
tree neither
olive
forth,
though
no fire
shine
oil would almost
Allah guides to
it.
Light
touched
upon light.
Allah coins metaphors for
His light
whom He will.
men. He has knowledge of all things.
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

1.

This

2.

Status:

3.

of the surface
is kept

the simile

in

is

The speaker

which

they

meant

to

the

affect

audience

Participation:

The audience

try

and understand

objects

Profile

work

God's
these

translation.

light

to the
and

deeply

audience

as

in terms

imagery

is

as

being

an

influenced

by

symbolic
well

is expected
light.

examples

to be

Moreover,
presented

they
to

them

from the environment.

of M. M. Pickthall's

by nature of

of authority

of the speaker.

expression

portraying

in the

The powerful

can understand.

individualistic

examples

religious

meaning of the original.

a position
his

He is portraying

definition.

of a major

user

Reproduction

means that

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

language

Individuality:

as it

English

Published

of

to be read al. ou cl. "

written

Standard

Dimensions

use

Translation

is the light
Allah
of the heavens and the earth.
is as a niche wherein
The similitude
of His light
is a lamp.
The lamp is in a glass.
The glass is
(This lamp is) Kindled
as it were a shining
star.

are expected
in

terms

the
to
of

274
from a blessed tree,
neither
of the East
an olive
would
almost
whose oil
glow
nor of the West,
touched it.
forth
itself)
(or
though
no fire
light
His
Allah guideth unto
Light upon light.
And Allah speaketh to mankind in
whom He will.
for Allah is knower of all things.
allegories
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

and "speaketh".

Province:

Published

language

Individuality:
This

2.

Status:

The

they

meant

to

objects

By comparing

the

the five

to the audience
and

deeply

audience

in terms

symbolic
as

well

imagery

is

being

an

as

of the speaker.

God's
these

light

of

is expected
light.

to be

Moreover,

examples

presented

influenced
they

to

by

the

are expected

them

in

terms

to
of

from the environment.

the

five

of the original,

profile

his

by nature

of authority

The powerful

The audience

and understand

work

translation.

a position

portraying

Participation:

try

the

in

is

expression

portraying

archaic

meaning of the original.

in the

is kept

individualistic

examples

the

of

religious

of the surface

can understand.
affect

of a major

use

user

speaker
He is

which

translation

the simile

means that

by the

as manifested

Reproduction

definition.

3.

English

"guideth"

of

to be read o. Lou,
_cL.

written

Literary

Dimensions
1.

use

translations

dimensions

of

profiles

of the

we notice

different

that

on the dimensions
language

use,

only

there
of

translations

with

was no deviation

language

one translation

user.

the

by any of
However,

which

is

that

on
of

275
Dawood has deviated
reproducing

failed

from the

classical

to reflect

original

Arabic

the right

into

on
Standard

the

dimension

English,

time of the original.

of

Time.

the translator

By
has

276
Example 32

Verse 40
Sura Light
ij,
"

,. r

su
ice; aJ ,, }.

Or (the unbelievers'
is
state)
darkness
In a vast deep ocean,
billow,
by billow,
topped
depths
clouds;
of darkness,
If a man streches out his hand,
it!
for any to whom God giveth
no light.

-., -

like the depths of


overwhelmed with
by (dark)
topped
one above another.
he can hardly see
there is
no light,

Or,
covered by
as the darkness in a deep sea,
above which
are clouds
waves riding
on waves,
being
of darkness one over the other,
additions
he is
hand,
forth his
far
when one stretcheth
from seeing
it.
And unto whomsoever God shall
he shall enjoy no light
mot grant His light,
at
all.

Or like the darkness on the deep sea when covered


by billows
above which
are
upon billows,
riding
darkness
when a man
upon darkness,
clouds,
reacheth forth his hand, he cannot nearly see it!
He to whom God shall not give light,
no light
at
all hath he!

Yusif

George Sale

J. M. Rodwell

Or like
darkness
on a bottomless ocean spread
billows
with
clouds,
and overcast
with clashing
If he stretches
darkness
out his
upon darkness.
Indeed
hand he can scarcely
the
see it.
man
His light
from whom Allah withholds
shall find no
light

at

all.

There
Or as darkness
abysmal sea.
on a vast,
covereth him a wave, above which is a wave, above
Layer upon layer of darkness.
which is a cloud.
When he holdeth
out his hand he scarce can see
bath
it.
And he for whom Allah
not
appointed
light,
for his, there is no light.

Ali

N. J.

Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

277

Profile

of the original

metaphor

Lr-w a.-

1.

Medium:

first

Complex,

of the Quran

2.

Time:

Arabic,

3.

Province:

Classical

1.

The Quran,

language

of

Individuality:

2.

Status:

language

a major

in

terms

Ouran

work

religious

is

language,

in a position

He is providing

audience

lesson.

moral

of

use

definition.

threaten

the

new information
The

by

of authority
in order
imagery

powerful

and make then change their

the audience

God 's

portraying

darkness.

of

The speaker

of

know

user

Figurative

punishment

to be read as we

spoken then written

from the history

Dimensions

- `:

nature

of

to teach

the

is

meant

behaviour

in

to
the

future.

3.

Participation
learn

Profile

a moral

of Ali's

The
lesson

audience
from

the

is

expected

threatening

to

be informed

imagery.

Translation

Or (the unbelievers'
state) is like the depths of
darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with
topped by (dark)
billow,
topped by billow,
depths of darkness, one above another.
clouds;
If a man streches out his hand. he can hardly not
there is
itl for any to whomGod giveth no light,
no light.

as well

as

278
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

use
to be read aLouL.

written

as manifested by the

English

use

the

of

archaic

"giveth".

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

of language

Individuality:
This

2.

Published

The

3.

is kept

speaker

is

in

definition.

He is providing

audience

lesson.

the audience

as learn

Profile

of Sale's

a position

lesson

meaning of the original.

by nature

of authority

new information

in order

imagery

The powerful

The audience

a moral

work

in the translation.

and make them change their

Participation:

religious

of the surface

the simile

a moral

of a major

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

translation

is expected

the

is meant to threaten

behaviour

to be

from the threatening

to teach

of

in the future.

informed

as well

imagery.

Translation

deep
in
darkness
Or,
the
sea,
covered by
a
as
are clouds
above which
waves riding
on waves,
being
of darkness one over the other,
additions
hand,
he is
forth his
far
when one stretcheth
fron
it.
And unto whomsoever God shall
seeing
he shall enjoy no light
not grant His light,
at
all.
Dimensions

of language use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

written
English

to be read wLoLcL.
as manifested

by the

use

of

the

"stretcheth".
3.

Province:

Published

translation

of

a major

religious

work

archaic

279
Dimensions
1.

of language

Individuality:

user

Reproduction

is kept in the translation.

This means that the simile

2.

audience

lesson.

moral

the audience

The

by

of authority

new information

He is providing

definition.

threaten

in a position

is

The speaker

Status:

meaning of the original.

of the surface

in order
imagery

powerful

nature

of

to teach

the

is

behaviour

and make them change their

meant
in

to
the

future.

3.

as learn

Profile

is expected

The audience

Participation:

of Rodwell's

informed

as well

imagery.

from the threatening

lesson

a moral

to be

Translation

Or like the darkness on the deep sea when covered


above which
are
by billows
upon billows,
riding
darkness
when a man
upon darkness,
clouds,
it!
he
hand,
his
forth
nearly
see
cannot
reacheth
no light
at
He to whom God shall not give light,
all hath he!
of language use

Dimensions
1.

Medium: Complex, written

2.

Time:

Literary

"reacheth"
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

English

to be read oLoul.
as manifested

by the

use

of

the

archaic

and "hath".
Published

translation

of a major

religious

work

of language user

Individuality:
This means that

Reproduction
the simile

of the surface
is kept

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

280
2.

Status:
definition.

He is

audience

threaten

in

is

The speaker

a position

lesson.

by

authority
in

new information

providing

moral

of

The powerful

of

teach

the

to

order

imagery

is

meant to
in

behaviour

and make them change their

the audience

nature

the

future.

3.

Participation:
as learn

Profile

is expected

The audience
lesson

a moral

to be

from the threatening

informed

as well

imagery.

of Dawood's Translation

darkness
Or like
on a bottomless
ocean spread
billows
and overcast
with
clouds,
with clashing
If he stretches
darkness
upon darkness.
out his
Indeed
the man
hand he can scarcely
see it.
His light
find no
from whom Allah withholds
shall
light
at all.
Dimensions

of language use

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard

written

as it

English

Published

translation

Reproduction

Individuality:

Status:

the simile

The speaker

He is providing

audience

lesson.

future.

of a major

moral

the audience

of the surface

religious

work

by

of authority

new information
The

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

is kept

is in a position

definition.

threaten

is nok marked as otherwise

of language user

This means that

2.

Lvud..
be
to
read o.

powerful

in order
imagery

and make them change their

nature

of

to teach

the

is

behaviour

meant
in

to
the

281
3.

Participation:
as learn

Profile

The audience
lesson

a moral

to be

from the threatening

M. M. Pickthall's

of

is expected

informed

as well

imagery.

Translation

Or as darkness
There
on a vast,
abysmal sea.
covereth him a wave, above which is a wave, above
Layer upon layer of darkness.
which is a cloud.
When he holdeth
out his hand he scarce can see
it.
hath
And he for whom Allah
not
appointed
light,
for him, there is no light.
of language

Dimensions
1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

Complex,

1.

Published

language

of

Individuality:

Status:

by the use of the archaic

manifested

translation

audience

of a major

religious

work

user

the simile

is

The speaker

definition.

threaten

as

Reproduction

This means that

2.

English

OLlot-oL.

and "holdeth"

Province:

Dimensions

be read

to

written

Literary

"covereth"
3.

use

in

He is

providing

moral

lesson.

meaning of the original.

of the surface

in the translation.

is kept

a position

of

new information
The

in

order

imagery

powerful

and make them change their

the audience

by

authority

nature

of

teach

the

meant

to

to
is

behaviour

in

the

future.

3.

Participation:
as learn

By comparing

a moral

The audience
lesson

the profiles

is expected

to be

from the threatening

of the five

different

informed

as well

imagery.

translations

with

the

282
of the original

profile

by Dawood, has

By rendering
failed

According

deviated

classical

to reflect

we notice

one translation,

only

from the original

the right

translations

namely that

on one dimension,

Arabic into standard English,

to the dimensions

any of the five

that

this

i. e.

translation

Time.

has

time of the original.

of Language User,
from the original

there

was no deviation

on any dimension.

by

283

Example 33

;_ 1. s i

["e1ca

s9

sstswl

Verse 7
Sura The Cow

eyes is a veil

and on their

a dimness covereth their

sight

is dimmed

and on their

eyes there

Profile

of original

1.

use

Complex,

first

from the history


2.
3.

is a covering

M. M. Pickthall

19 uts ct JUI
1qjs W5

spoken then written

to be read,

as we know

of the Quran.

language

of

Individuality:

The

Status:
definition.
teach

the

effectively

user
Figurative

in

punishment

2.

J. M. Rodwell

language of the Quran.


Arabic,
Time: Classical
1
Province:
work.
The Quran, a major religious

Dimensions
1.

Sale

N. J. Dawood

UrCs

of language

Medium:

Ali

metaphor
U-U

Dimensions

George

sight

eyes is a covering

and over their


their

Yusif

terms

a dark

of

is

speaker
Moreover,

use

of

portraying

God's

veil.

in a position

he is providing
lesson.

audience

influence

the addressees.

moral

language

of authority

by nature

of

in order

to

meant

to

new information
The

image

is

284
3.

Participation:
learn

Profile

The audience

of Ali's

eyes is

of language

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Status:

The

as it

a.Lou. oL.

is not marked as otherwise

translation

of a major

the

is kept

is

speaker

religious

work

he is providing
moral

lesson.

influence

the addressee.

a moral

The audience

is expected

lesson.

Translation

a dimness covereth their

night

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

in a position

audience

Participation:

of Sale's

of the surface

the metaphor

Moreover,

effectively

Profile

to be read

written

Reproduction

definition.

learn

use

published

This means that

3.

a veil

English

Individuality:

teach

as

of language user

Dimensions

2.

as well

Translation

and on their

1.

to be informed

lesson.

a moral

Dimensions

is expected

of authority

by nature

of

in order

to

meant

to

as well

as

new information
The

image

is

to be informed

285
Dimensions

of lanzuaxe

1:

Medium: - complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

use

written
English

to be read

Lou.
O.
ca.

as manifested

by'

the

use

the

of

archaic

"covereth"
3.

Province:

Dimensions

of language

Individuality:

1.

This

2.

means that

Status:

The

teach

the

speaker

effectively

learn

Profile

1.

he is

work.

kept

in

meaning

the

of

the

of

translation.

by nature

authority

new information

providing
lesson.

The

original.

in

image

order

to

meant

to

as well

as

is

is expected

to be informed

lesson.

Translation

eyes is a covering

of language use

Time: =Standard

3.

Province:

written

English

published

d
Lou.
to be read, a.
.
is not marked as otherwise.

as it

translation

of a major

religious

work.

of language user

Individuality:
This means that

of

addressee.

The audience

Rodwell's

2.
.

1.

religious

surface

a-position

the

-Medium: complex,

Dimensions

in

influence

and over their

Dimensions

is

a- moral-

a moral

of

is

audience

Participation:

the

of

metaphor

Moreover,
the

of a major

user-

Reproduction

definition.

3.

translation

published

Reproduction
the metaphor

of the surface
is kept

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

286
2.

Status:

The

definition.
teach

the

influence

the addressee.

to

The

image

meant

to

as well

as

is

to be informed

is dimmed

sight

of language

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time: Standard

3.

Province:

effectively

learn

he is

audience

influence

the

Participation:
a moral

in

is

Moreover,
the

religious

work.

moral

is kept

in the translation.

a position
providing
lesson.

of

by nature

authority

new information
The

image

in
is

of

order

to

meant

to

as well

as

addressee.

The audience
lesson.

meaning of the original.

of the surface

the metaphor

speaker

definition.

of a major

user

Reproduction

The

cL .

aLo.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

published

This means that

teach

to be read
as it

English

Individuality:

Status:

use

written

of language

Dimensions

3.

in order

lesson.

a moral

their

'2.

of

new information

is expected

The audience

by nature

of Dawood's Translation

Profile

1.

moral

of authority

lesson.

audience

Participation:
learn

in a position

he is providing

Moreover,

effectively

3.

is

speaker

is expected

to be informed

287
Profile

of Pickthall's

eyes there is a covering

and on their

Dimensions

of

language

1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time: Standard

3.

Province:

Dimensions

This

2.

The

definition.

effectively

3.

reproduce
metaphor,
original

it

the

is

of

in order

to

meant

to

as well

as

is

to be informed

different

of the five

namely those

the right

by nature

lesson.

original,

By rendering

image

The

is expected

The audience

the

Time.

moral

meaning of the original.

new information

lesson.

the addressee.

profile

from

work

of authority

he is providing

influence

the profiles

deviated

religious

in the translation.

in a position

By comparing

translations,

is kept

audience

a moral

of

of the surface

is

speaker

Participation:
learn

of a major

the metaphor

Moreover,

the

is not marked as otherwise

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

as it

translation

language

Loc. d..
a,

to be read

written

published

of

teach

use

English

Individuality:

1.

Translation

see

can

we

by All,

original

on

classical

Arabic

always

in the translation.

that

Rodwell,

four

into

possible

out

with
of

the

Dawood and Pickthall

one dimension

time of the original.


not

translations

five
have

of language

use which is

English,

they did not

standard
However,
to reflect

the

due to the brevity


the right

of

time of the

288
But,

has deviated

translations

So

to the dimensions

according

the

metaphors

techniques

user,

none

of

the

five

from the original.

by

used
light

representing

of language

the

translators

and darkness

to render
be

could

the category

summed up

in

of
the

following:
(a)

Reproducing

the surface

meaning of simile,

be covered, as it were,
Their faces will
from the depths of the darkness of night

e. g.

with

pieces
(see Example 28)

(b)

Reproducing

the surface

of the covering

(c)

Reproducing

veil

meaning of metaphor,

of the wrath of God

the deep meaning of metaphor


cll..

with

sure

e. g.

(see Example 29)

only,

e. g.
3'

knowledge
(see Example 30)

289
Vi - Metaphors

giving

examples:

Example 34
rU3
[ "
jS
_,
"

fo

LJ J1

Ls1
y; tf

->

li If

Ls

Verse 14
sura"3"h., d ew

L.
--.,

For Him (alone)


is prayer in truth;
any others
that they call upon besides
hear
His
them no
if
they
forth
their
more than
were to stretch
hands for water to
their
but
it
reach
mouths
reaches them not, for the prayer of those without
faith
is
nothing but (futile)
wandering (in the

mind).

Yusif All

It is He who ought of right


be Invoked,
to
and
idols
the
which they invoke besides Him,
shall
than
not hear them at all,
otherwise
as he is
heared,
forth
his
hand to the
who stretcheth
water that it may ascend to his
mouth when it
the supplication
ascend thither,
cannot
of the

unbelievers

Prayer is
they pray
than
as
hands to
when it
infidels

is utterly

George Sale

erroneous.

but those deities


His of right,
to whom
besides Him give no answer,
otherwise
he is answered who stretcheth
forth
his
his
the water that it may reach
mouth,
it!
The prayer
cannot
reach
of the
only wandereth and is lost.

The idols to
His is the true prayer.
They
pagans pray give them no answer.
out his hands to the
man who stretches
it cannot
bids it rise to his mouth,
Vain are the prayers of the unbelievers.

J. J. Rodwell

the
which
are like a
water and
it!
reach
N. J.

Dawood

Those unto whom


Unto Him is
the
real prayer.
to
they pray beside Allah respond
them not
at
to)
the
response
all,
save
as (in
one who
hands toward
his
forth
the
stretcheth
water
(asking)
that it may come unto his mouth,
and it
itl
The
the
prayer.
will
never
reach
of
disbelievers
M. M. Pickthall
astray.
goeth (far)

290
Profile

of the original

metaphor
;

yt
Ls

Ll

ILJ

.
o
ys

.
,.
-Al
--j,
_J,
jk

o ys - aJ

'

1
l.
s

1>

iah

J; c:p py%
Dimensions
1.

language

of

Medium:

2.

Time:

Classical

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Status:

a major

terms

to the

The speaker

use of

in order

situation

is

to teach

is meant to deeply

purposes

of the speaker.

learn

Profile

a moral

of Ali's

is

The audience

is not

of

influence

in order

to

accessible

readily

by

authority
the

moral

audience

lesson.

the addressees

is expected

is

situation

known to them.

providing

them

as an example

that

position

he

in which

situation

previously

in a

imagery

Participation:

work.

language

a situation

Moreover,

information

of the Quran.

religious

of another

audience

of another

definition.

as we know

user

Figurative
in

in terms

language

Arabic,

Individuality:

to be read,

spoken then written

of the Duran.

language

of

explain

3.

first

The Ouran,

described

2.

use

Complex,

from the history

-, rteLfi

Translation

For Him (alone) is prayer in truth;


any others
that they call upon besides Him hear them no
they were to stretch forth their
more than if
hands for water to reach their
mouths but it
reaches them not, for the prayer of those without

of

with

new

The

powerful

in favour

to be informed

lesson.

nature

as well

of the

as

291
faith
mind).

is

but

nothing

(futile)

(in

wandering

the

Dimensions of language use


1.

Medium: complex, written

2.

Time:

Literary
"it

order
3.

Dimensions

1.

English

translation

published

language

of

Individuality:

The

Status:

Reproduction

information
imagery

in

Profile

religious

work

order

of the surface

meaning of the original.

is

in
he

to

a
is

teach

position

of authority
the

providing

them a moral

influence

of

with

new

audience

lesson.

the addressees

by nature

The powerful

in favour

the

of

of the speaker.

The audience

Participation:
learn

of a major

is kept in the translation.

is meant to deeply

purposes

3.

speaker
Moreover,

definition.

word

user

This means that the simile

2.

by the use of the unusual

as manifested

them not"

reaches

Province:

to be read o,.l. nc-aL-

a moral

of Sale's

is expected

to be informed

as well

as

lesson.

Translation

be invoked,
to
It Is He who ought of right
and
idols
the
shall
which they invoke besides Him,
than
otherwise
as he is
not hear them at all,
his
forth
hand to the
heared,
who stretcheth
his
mouth when it
water that it may ascend to
the supplication
of the
cannot
ascend thither,
is utterly
erroneous.
unbelievers
Dimensions

of

1anEuaxe use

1.

Medium: complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

to be read
as

Loot

manifested

by

the

use of the archaic

292
"stretcheth"
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

language

of

Individuality:
This

Status:

The

speaker

in

purposes

Profile

order

of

language

2.

Time:

English

1.

influence

Literary

of

Individuality:

the

providing

them a moral

of

with

new

audience

lesson.

the addressees

by nature

The aowerful

in favour

the

of

is expected

to be informed

as well

as

use

written

Province:

teach

of authority

but those deities


to whom
His of right,
besides Him give no answer,
otherwise
forth
his
he is answered who stretcheth
his
the water that it may reach
mouth,
it!
The prayer
of the
reach
cannot
only wandereth and is lost.

Medium: complex,

"stretcheth"

is

position

Translation

1.

Dimensions

to

in the translation.

lesson.

of Rodwell's

Prayer is
they pray
than
as
hands to
when it
infidels

3.

he

The audience

a moral

Dimensions

in

is

meaning of the original.

of the speaker.

Participation:
learn

is kept

is meant to deeply

imagery

work

religious

of the surface

the simile

Moreover,

information

of a major

user

Reproduction

means that

definition.

3.

translation

published

to be read aloud..
as

manifested

by

the

use of the archaic

and "wandereth".

published

lansuaze

translation

of a major religious

work

user

Reproduction

of the surface

meaning of the original.

293
This

2.

Status:

The

speaker

definition.

he

in

to

order

in the translation.

is

influence

new

The powerful
the

of

to be informed

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

of Dawood's Translation

Dimensions

language

of

Medium: complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions

language

means that

The

definition.

imagery

the simile

speaker

in

of a major

religious

work

user

is

Moreover,

information

is not marked as otherwise.

it

as

Reproduction

Individuality:

Status:

to be read o-Lou. Qi.

translation

published

of

the
which
are like a
water and
it!
reach

use

1.

2.

of

with

in favour

the addressees

is expected

The audience

Participation:

This

audience

lesson.

them a moral

The idols to
His is the true prayer.
They
pagans pray give them no answer.
his
hands
to
the
out
who
stretches
man
it cannot
bids it rise to his mouth,
Vain are the prayers of the unbelievers.

1.

the

providing

teach

by nature

of authority

position

of the speaker.

purposes

Profile

in

is meant to deeply

imagery

learn

is

Moreover,

information

3.

is kept

the simile

means that

order

of the surface
is kept

in
he

to

is meant to deeply

a
is

teach
influence

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

position
providing

of authority
the

them a moral

with

audience

lesson.

the addressees

by nature

of
new

The powerful

in favour

of

the

294
purposes

3.

of

the

Participation:
learn

Profile

speaker.

to be informed

is expected

The audience

as well

as

lesson.

a moral

Translation

of Pickthall's

the
Those unto whom
Unto Him is
real prayer.
they pray beside Allah respond
to
them not
at
the
to)
response
all,
save as (in
one who
hands toward
his
forth
the
stretcheth
water
(asking)
that it may come unto his mouth,
and it
it!
The
the
reach
prayer
never
will
of
disbelievers
astray.
goeth (far)
of language

Dimensions
1.

Medium: complex,

2.

Time:

1.

2.

language

of

The

speaker

in

information

of a major

of the surface

order

in

is

he
to

a
is

teach

position
providing

meaning of the original.

of authority
the

by nature

audience

lesson.

with

of
new

The powerful

the addressees in favour of

the

of the speaker.

Participation:
learn

work

religious

them a moral

imagery is meant to deeply influence

3.

use of the archaic

in the translation.

is kept

the simile

Moreover,

definition.

purposes

the

user

Reproduction

means that

Status:

by

manifested

translation

published

Individuality:
This

as

o(..

and "goeth".

Province:

Dimensions

to be read "ou.

written
English

Literary

"stretcheth"
3.

use

a moral

The audience
lesson.

is expected

to be informed

as

well

as

295
By

comparing

Dawood,

Use which
this

is

translation

According
the original

has

we notice

deviated

Time.

of the five

profiles

of the original

profile
by

the

to the dimensions

on one dimension

of language

by any of the five

into

Arabic

classical

to reflect

translations

one translation,

only

from the original

By rendering

has failed

that

different

the right

user,

translations.

time

there

standard

with

the

namely that
of Language
English,

of the original.

was no deviation

from

296
Example 35

I I.,,'? iv,

cs

..

sue
(J
,

-d

i j1

Verse 35
de^
rj
Sura.

The parable of the garden which the righteous


are
beneath it flow rivers,
is
promised,
perpetual
the enjoyment thereof
and the shade therein;
such
is
the
the
righteous,
end of
and the end of

unbelievers

is the fire.

Yusif

This is
the description
Is
of paradise
which
It is watered by rivers,
to the pious.
promised
its food is perpetual,
this
and its shade also,
be the reward of those who fear God. But
shall
the reward of the infidels
shall be hell fire.

All

George Sale

A picture
of the paradise which God hath promised
The rivers
flow
to them that fear Him.
beneath
its bowers, its food and its shade are perpetual.
This is the reward of those who fear God, but the

reward of the unbelievers

is the fire.

J. M. Rodwell

have
is
This
the
which the righteous
paradise
it is watered by running streams,
been promised;
fruits,
its
are its
and eternal
are
eternal
the
Such is the
of
righteous.
reward
shades.
is the fire
But the reward of the unbelievers
of
Hell.

N. J. Dawood

is
the
A similtitude
which
promised
garden
of
(to
duty
Allah);
those
who keep their
unto
its
food
flow,
is
it
underneath
rivers
is
the reward of
this
its
shade,
everlasting
and
duty,
those who keep their
while the
reward
of
disbelievers
is the fire.

Profile

of the original

I.J) ts'

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

1c': s

ire
1
cr

e. A

297
Dimensions
1.

language

of

Medium:

first

Complex,

from the history


2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Classical

Dimensions
1.

language

is

that

previously

known situation.

The

definition.

lesson

The audience

Profile

to

position

the audience

terms

they

qualify

of Ali's

is expected

1.

Medium:

of

to

another

by nature

of

through

an

lesson

for

to them.

and tempt

the promise

to be informed,

the audience

of God of this

to

Complex,

use
written

to be read

alov-ct.

be

wonderful

Translation

language

and learn

The powerful

The parable of the garden which the righteous are


beneath it flow rivers,
is
promised,
perpetual
the enjoyment thereof and the shade therein;
such
is the and of the righteous,
and the and of
unbelievers is the fire.
Dimensions

of

of authority
a moral

order

to them one

explain
in

accessible

from the example given


is meant to lure

the simile
that

and

in

example

is

example.

Participation:
moral

in

in which a situation

as an

lesson

readily

is

speaker

situation

moral

not

language

of

use

He aims to teach

informing

3.

audience

situaticn

Status:

work.

user

Figurative

the

of the Quran.

religious

a major

in terms of another

described

2.

language

Arabic,

Individuality:

as we know

to be read,

spoken then written

of the Quran.

The Quran,

of

teach

use

imagery

of

Godly

so

paradise.

2)8
2.

3.

"thereof"

and "therein"

Province:

Published

Dimensions
1.

2.

language

of

as

This

the simile

Status:

The

speaker

the

Profile

of the surface

is

in

meaning of the

original.

in the translation.

is kept

of authority

position

the audience

is expected

The audience

lesson

from the example given


is

simile
for

qualify

work.

a moral

lesson

by nature

of

through

an

example.

Participation:
moral

of a major religious

He aims to teach

informing

use of the archaic

the

user

Reproduction

means that

by

manifested

translation

Individuality:

definition.

3.

English

Literary

Time:

meant to tempt

the promise

of Sale's

to be informed,

to them.

the audience

of God of this

The powerful

and learn
imagery

to be Godly so that

wonderful

a
of

they

paradise.

Translation

is
description
the
This is
paradise which
of
by
is
It
to
the
rivers,
watered
pious.
promised
this
its food is perpetual,
and its shade also,
fear
God.
But
those
be
the
who
reward-of
shall
the reward of the infidels
shall be hell fire.
Dimensions
1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

language

of

Complex,
Standard

of

Individuality:
in the

use

English

Published
language

to be read

written

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

translation

of a major

religious

work.

user

Reproduction

form of a metaphor.

of the surface

meaning of the simile,

but

299
2.

Status:

The

informing

lesson

the

Profile

The audience

position

of authority

the audience

a moral

lesson

by nature

of

through

an

for

meant to tempt

the promise

of Rodwell's

imagery

The powerful

to them.

to be Godly so that

the audience

of God of this

and learn

to be informed,

is expected

from the example given


is

simile

qualify

example.

Participation:
moral

in

He aims to teach

definition.

3.

is

speaker

wonderful

a
of

they

paradise.

Translation

A picture
of the paradise which God hath promised
flow
to them that fear Him.
The rivers
beneath
its bowers, its food and its shade are perpetual.
This is the reward of those who fear God, but the
is the fire.
reward of the unbelievers
Dimensions
1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

of language

use

Complex,

written

Published

3. Province:

Dimensions
1.

language

of

means that

Status:

The

definition.
informing

3.

Participation:

as manifested

translation

l.
a. ou....
by the use of the archaic

of a major

religious

"hath".

work.

user
of the surface

Reproduction

Individuality:
This

2.

English

Literary

to be read

the simile

speaker

is

is kept

in

He aims to teach

meaning of the

original.

in the translation.

position

the audience

of authority
a moral

lesson

by nature

of

through

an

example.

The audience

is expected

to be informed,

and learn

300
lesson

moral
the

is

simile

to them.

The powerful

imagery

to be Godly so that

meant to tempt the audience

for the promise of God of this

qualify

Profile

from the example given

wonderful

of

they

paradise.

of Dawood's Translation

have
is
This
the
which the righteous
paradise
it is watered by running streams,
been promised;
its
fruits,
and eternal
are
are its
eternal
the
Such is the
reward
of
righteous.
shades.
is the fire
But the reward of the unbelievers
of
Hell
Dimensions

Complex,

1. Medium:

Dimensions

Individuality:

simile

2.

Lou.
oL.
&.

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

Status:

user

Reproduction

The

of

speaker

is

in

He aims to teach

informing

the surface

position

the audience

of authority
a moral

The audience

is expected

lesson

to be informed,

moral lesson from the example given to them.


simile

qualify

meaning of the original

by nature

of

through

an

example.

Participation:

the

work.

but in the form of a metaphor.

definition.

3.

as it

translation

language

of

to be read

written

Published

3. Province:

use

English

Standard

2. Time:

1.

language

of

is

The powerful

and learn

imagery of

meant to tempt the audience to be Godly so that

for the promise of God of this

wonderful

paradise.

they

301
Profile

of Pickthall's

Translation

is
A similititude
promised
garden
which
of the
duty
(to
Allah);
those
who keep their
unto
food
is
its
flow,
it
rivers
underneath
this is the reward of
and its shade,
everlasting
duty,
those who keep their
of
while the
reward
is the fire.
disbelievers
Dimensions

language

of

Complex,

1. Medium:

Dimensions

language

of

This

The

2. Status:

The audience

By

for

of authority

the audience

lesson

a moral

five

the

Sale and Dawood,

to be informed,

is expected

to them.

of God of this

the promise

of the original,

we notice

have deviated

Use,

i. e.

English,

these

two translations

Time.

By

The powerful

original.

by nature

of

through

an

and learn

that

wonderful

from the original

have failed

of

they

paradise.

translations

two translations,

rendering

imagery

to be Godly so that

of the different

profiles

Language

the original.

position

meant to tempt the audience

is

simile

comparing

profile

meaning of the

in the translation.

from the example given

lesson

qualify

work.

example.

3. Participation:

the

He aims to teach

informing

moral

in

is

speaker

definition.

religious

of the surface
is kept

the simile

means that

of a major

"unto".

user

Reproduction

1. Individuality:

by the use of the archaic

as manifested

translation

Published

3. Province:

Loos,.
o

to be read

written

English

Literary

2. Time:

use

on

classical
to reflect

one
Arabic

with

the

namely those

by

dimension

of

into

the right

standard
time

of

302
According
the original

to the dimensions

of Language User,

by any of the five

translations.

there

was no deviation

from

303
Example 36
Verse 26
Sura Ibrahim

And the parable of an evil word is that of an


It is torn up by the root from the
evil tree.
it

of the earth;

surface

has no stability

Yusif

Ali

And the likeness


of an evil word is as an evil
tree, which is torn up from the face of the
and hath no stability
earth,

George Sale

And an evil word is like an evil tree torn


from the face of the earth,
and without
to stand
strength

up
J. M. Rodwell

But an evil word is like an evil tree torn


of the earth and shorn of all its roots

out

And the similitude


of a bad saying
tree,
uprooted from upon the earth,

N. J. Dawood

is as a bad
possessing

M.M. Pickthall

no stability
Profile

of the original

metaphor

-vu

Dimensions
1.

of

language

Medium: Complex,
the history

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

use
spoken then written

first

to be read as we know from

of the Quran.

Classical

Arabic,

The Quran,

language

a major

of the Quran.

religious

work.

304
Dimensions
1.

language

of

Individuality:
described
teach

Figurative
in terms

use

of another

the audience
is

that

user

a moral

not readily

language

of

situation
lesson

of another

is

a situation

example

and to explain

in terms

accessible

as an

in which

in

order

to

to them a situation
known

previously

situation.

2.

The

Status

He aims to teach

definition.
informing

3.

position

of

the audience

authority

a moral

lesson

by nature

of

through

an

example.

The audience

Participation:
lesson

moral

in

is

speaker

is expected

from the example given


is meant to encourage

the simile

to be informed,

to them.

The powerful

the audience

to

learn

and learn
imagery
this

of Ali's

Translation

And the parable of an evil word is that of an


It is torn up by the root from the
tree.
evil
it has no stability
surface of the earth;
Dimensions

of

language

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard

of

use
to be read

written

English

Published

language

as it

d..

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

user

Individuality:

Reproduction

This

the simile

means that

aL
ou.
.

of the surface
is reproduced

meaning of the original.

in the

translation.

of

moral

lesson.

Profile

305
2.

3.

Status:
definition.

He

informing

example.

in a

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

lesson

position

aims to teach

The aud. ence is expected

Participation:
lesson

moral

is

The speaker

from the example given


is meant to encourage

the simile

to be informed,

to them.

The powerful

the audience

to

learn

nature

of

through

an

and learn

imagery
this

of

moral

'esson.

Profile

Translation

of Sale's

And the likeness


of an evil word is as an evil
tree,
which is torn up from the face of the
and bath no stability
earth,
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

1.

2.

3.

Published

language

of

translation

This

the simile

The speaker

definition.

He

informing

example.

Participation:
moral

lesson

the simile

of a major

religious

"hath"

work.

user

Reproduction

Status:

by the use of the archaic

as manifested

Individuality:
means that

l.
a. o

to be read

written

English

Literary

Dimensions

use

is

of the surface
is kept

in a

The audience

in the translation.

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

lesson

position

aims to teach

meaning of the original.

is expected

from the example given

to be informed,

to them.

is meant to encourage the audience

The powerful

to

learn

nature

of

through

an

and learn. a
imagery

this

of

moral

306
lesson.

Profile

Translation

of J. M. Rodwell's

And an evil word is like an evil tree torn


from the face of the earth,
and without
to stand
strength
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

3.

The speaker
He

informing

example.

moral

the simile

is

in a

religious

work.

aims to teach

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

lesson

is expected

is meant to encourage

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

position

from the example given

lesson

a major

as otherwise.

of the surface
is kept

The audience

Participation:

marked

user

the simile

definition.

not
of

Reproduction

means that

Status:

is

as it

translation

language

of

Loa..
al..
a.

to be read

written

Published

Individuality:
This

use

English

Standard

up

to be informed,

to them.

the audience

The powerful
to

learn

lesson.

Profile

of Dawood's Translation

But an evil word is like an evil tree torn out


of the earth and shorn of all its roots
Dimensions-of-language
1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Standard

use
written
English

to be read
as it

Dowd-

is not marked as otherwise.

nature

of

through

an

and learn

imagery
this

of

moral

307
3.

Province:

Published

translation

of a major

religious

work.

Dimensions of language user


1.

Individuality:

He

definition.
informing

3.

in the translation.

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

lesson

position

aims to teach

meaning of the original.

nature

of

through

an

and learn

example.

The audience

Participation:
lesson

moral

in a

is

The speaker

Status:

of the surface
is kept

the simile

means that

This

2.

Reproduction

is expected

from the example given


is meant to encourage

the simile

to be informed,

to them.

The powerful

the audience

to

learn

imagery
this

of

moral

lesson.

Profile

of Pickthall's

Translation

And the similitude


of a bad saying
tree,
uprooted from upon the earth,
no stability
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

2.

to be read
as it

English

language

of

use

written

Published

translation

Reproduction

This

the simile

Status:
definition.

The speaker
He

alo aA"

is not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

user

Individuality:
means that

is as a bad
possessing

is

of the surface
is

in a

aims to teach

kept

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

lesson

position

nature

of

through

an

308
informing

3.

example.

Participation:

The audience

from the example given

lesson

moral

is expected

is meant to encourage

the simile

to be informed,

to them.

and learn
imagery

The powerful

the audience

to

learn

this

a
of

moral

lesson.

By

the

of

profile

translations,

All

original

But,

four
as they

according

from the original

we

original,

namely

of

of the different

profiles

those

from the original

deviated
Time.

five

the

comparing

them

rendered

can

by Ali,

Rodwell,

on one dimension
have

failed
Arabic

classical

to the dimensions

four

that

see

out

with

language

of

to reflect
into

translations.

use

the right

standard

there

the
five

the

of

Dawood and Pickthall

of Language User,

by any of the five

translations

have

which
time

is

of the

English.

was no deviation

309
Example 37
Verse 45
Sura The Cave

Set forth
to them the similitude
of the life
It is like the rain which
of this world.
we
down from
the
the
send
skies,
earth's
but soon it
becomes
vegetation
absorbs it,
dry stubble.
it
which the winds do scatter,
is (only) God who prevails
over all things.

Yusif

to
And propound
them a similitude
of the
It is like water which we send
present life.
down from heaven,
and the herb of the
earth
is
it hath been
therewith,
mixed
and after
in the morning
it
green and flourishing,
becometh dry stubble,
which the winds scatter
abroad, and God is able to do all things.

George Sale

All

before
And set
them a similitude
of the
It is as water which
present life.
we send
down from heaven,
and the herb of the earth
is mingled with it,
and on the morrow it
becometh dry stubble which the winds scatter;
for God hath power over all things.

J. M. Rodwell

Coin
for
It
them a simile
about this life.
flourish
is like the green herbs
that
when
by the
into
watered
soon turning
rain,
Allah
stubble
abroad.
when the wind scatters
has power over all things.

N. J. Dawood

And coin for them the similitude


life
of the
of the world as water which we send down from
the
sky,
and the
vegetation
of the earth
mingleth
twigs
with it and then becometh dry
that
the winds scatter.
Allah is able to do
all things.

M. M. Pickthall

310
Profile
fl

of the original
-,

r---

metaphor

) J L21 J1 (J 1(%
", o

Wj,

CrP,

1.

language

of

the history
Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

language

Individuality:
in

the audience

that

is

3.

The speaker
the audience

other
be

religious

Ouran.
work.

use of language

of

another

a moral

in which

situation

lesson

in

terms

is

situation
in order

as an example

and to explain

accessible

is

in a position

a moral

the Prophet

expected

to

to them a

situation

another

situation

because he

aims

of

lesson

of authority

of addressee

informed

and learn
they

by the powerful

an informing

through

of

addressees

who is asked to inform

to comply as he knows this

type

Moreover,

the

of

There are two types


is

addressee
is

to be read as we know from

known to them.

Participation:

He

a major

readily

not

previously

teach

1
f1
...

user

terms

teach

Status

language

Figurative

described

2.

spoken then written

Arabic,

The Quran,

of

eL

pi;.

of the Quran.

Classical

2.

'

`-

use

first

Medium: Complex,

yIv(,,.

'r-^^c?! JCs ci)I

1
Dimensions

is the general
a rc-ral

lesson

audience

of the simile.

The

to

first

of an example.

the word of God.


who are

expected

from the example given

are meant to be encouraged


imagery

is

example.

here.

others

learn

to

the moral

The
to

to them.
lesson

311
Profile

of Ali's

Translation

Set forth
to them the similitude
of the life
It is like the rain which
we
of this world.
down from
the
the
send
skies,
earth's
but soon it
becomes
vegetation
absorbs it,
it
dry stubble.
which the winds do scatter,
is (only) God who prevails
over all things.
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

of

language

Status

The speaker

informing

3.

other
be

work.

vehicle

is kept

in

position

is

i. e.

meaning of the simile,


and the

which means that

the

"like"

device

correct

are

metaphor

in the translation.

of

authority

by

the audience

a moral

There are two types

expected

of addressee

informed

and learn
they

by the powerful

of

addressees

who is asked to

to comply

type

Moreover,

tenor,

examples,

is the Prophet

addressee
is

religious

nature

of

lesson

through

an

here.

The

example.

Participation:

He

of the surface

aims to teach

He

definition.

of a major

user

in the translation
providing

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of the simile

elements

category,

as it

Reproduction

reproduced

2.

English

Lou.
oL.
a.

to be read

written

Published

Individuality:
the

use

as he knows this

is the general
a moral

lesson

of the simile.

others

of an example.

is the word of God.

audience

who are

expected

from the example given

are meant to be encouraged


imagery

inform

first

to learn

the moral

The
to

to them.
lesson

312
Profile

of Sale's

Translation

And propound
to
them a similitude
of the
It is like water which we send
present life.
down from heaven,
and the herb of the
earth
is
it hath been
therewith,
mixed
and after
in
it
the morning
green and flourishing,
becometh dry stubble,
which the winds scatter
abroad, and God is able to do all things.
Dimensions
1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

language

of

Complex,

use

English

Literary

be read

to

written

as

&L

by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"becometh".
3.

Dimensions
1.

Published

Province:

language

of

because

explanation
life

of a major

religious

work.

user

Reproduction

Individuality:

present

translation

of the surface

to water

similar

did

the original

meaning of the simile


in what way is

not explain

from heaven

sent

plus

and

the

with

the

nature

of

lesson

by

mixed

herb of the earth.

2.

Status

is

in

aims

to

teach

The speaker

definition.
providing

He

position
the

an example of two situations

of

by

authority

audience

that

similar

are

moral

in

certain

ways.

There are two types

3. Participation:
is

the Prophet

expected
type

to

who is
comply

of addressee

informed

and

The explanation

is

learn

asked to

of addressees.

inform

as he knows this
the general
a

provided

moral

others

by the speaker

an

example.

is the word of God.

audience
lesson

of

The first

who

are

expected

from the example given


about

the similarity

addressee
He

is

The other
to

be

to them.
between

313
the

two

is

situations

of the example.

understanding

lesson by the powerful

Profile

of Rodwell's

facilitate

to

meant

the

They are encouraged

imagery of the simile

addressees

to learn

moral

as well.

Translation

And met before


them a similitude
of the
It is as water which
present life.
we send
down from heaven,
and the herb of the earth
is mingled with it,
it
and on the
morrow
becometh dry stubble
which the winds scatter;
for God hath power over all things.
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

use
to be read

written

Literary

English

oAacAx-by

as manifested

the

the

of

use

archaic

"becometh".
3.

Dimensions
1.

Published

Province:

language

of

category

2.

providing

The

Status

informing

speaker

in

is kept

device

correct

are

metaphor

in the translation.

position

the audience

There are two types

the Prophet

He is expected
other

the

"like"

i. e.

of

authority

a moral

by nature

of

through

an

lesson

example.

Participation:
is

an example

is

and the

vehicle

which means that

He aims to teach

definition.

3.

tenor,

in the translation

reproduced

work.

religious

meaning of the simile,

of the surface

of the simile

elements

of a major

user

Reproduction

Individuality:
the

translation

type

who is directly

of addressees.

asked to

to comply as he knows this


of addressee

is the general

inform
is

the

audience

The first
others
word

addressee

of an example.
of

God.

who are expected

The
to

314
be informed

and learn

Moreover,
lesson

the

lesson

a moral

to learn

is meant to be encouraged

audience

imagery

by the powerful

from the example given

to

them.

the moral

of the simile.

of Dawood's Translation

Profile

It
for
them a simile
Coin
about this life.
flourish
that
is like the green herbs
when
Into
by the
soon turning
rain,
watered
Allah
abroad.
stubble when the wind scatters
has power over all things.
Dimensions

language

of

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

Dimensions
1.

language

herbs".

from that

vehicle

the original

"water"

is

is mixed

category

metaphor

religious

work.

which

the

with

meaning of the simile

but

i. e.

the

the

of

but

is present

But the new vehicle


because it

of a major

of the surface

Reproduction

in

vehicle

translation

user

a different

providing

Lcu.
cL
a.

is not marked as otherwise.

as it

English

Published

of

to be read

written

Individuality:

simile

use

original,

in the original
water.

Is providing

is

"green

imagery

of the

in the translation

Moreover

the

is still

examples

correct

kept

in the

translation.

2.

Status

The

definition.

informing

speaker

in

He aims to teach

position

the audience

of

authority

a moral

lesson

by nature

of

through

an

example.

3. Participation:
is

is

the Prophet

There are two types


who is directly

of addressees.

asked to

inform

The first
others

addressee

of an example.

315
He is expected
type

other

lesson

Profile

is

of addressee

be informed
Moreover,

to comply as he knows this

and learn
the

lesson

word

imagery

God.

of

The.
to

who are expected

audience

from the example given

is meant to be encouraged

audience

of Pickthall's

the general

a moral

by the powerful

is the

to

to learn

them.

the moral

of the simile.

Translation

life
And coin for them the similitude
of the
of the world as water which we send down from
the
of the earth
vegetation
sky,
and the
twigs
with it and then becometh dry
mingleth
Allah is able to do
that
the winds scatter.
all things.
Dimensions
1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

language

of

Complex,

1.

Published

of

language

category,

The

informing

3.

speaker

the

use

of

the

archaic

religious

work.

user
of the surface
tenor,

examples,

is

in

vehicle

meaning of the simile,


and the

which means that


is kept

"like"

device

the correct

i. e.
are

metaphor

in the translation.

position

of

by nature

authority

He aims to teach the audience a moral lesson through

of

an

example.

Participation:
is

of a major

the translation

providing

definition.

translation

of the simile
in

reproduced

Status

wA-

by

as manifested

Reproduction

Individuality:
the elements

2.

aLv

and "becometh".

"mingleth"

Dimensions

be read

to

written

English

Literary

3. Province:

use

the Prophet

There are two types


who is directly

of addressees.

asked to inform

The first
others

addressee

of an example.

316

He is expected
other

type

and learn

Moreover,

After

the

Language

Use

deviates

from

rendered

the

imagery

Language

User,

original

on

the

Arabic

classical

word

audience

The'

who are expected

from the example given

translations
we

the

can

on

to

to learn

to

them.

the moral.

dimensions

the

that

see

Ali's

dimension.

Time

the

of

God.

of

of the simile.

and the

original

and

lesson

is the

is meant to be encouraged

audience

the

the general

a moral

by the powerful

comparing

is

of addressee

be informed

lesson

to comply as he knows this

original

translation

The

translator

English

as standard

of

in

the

translation.

Sale's

dimension.

The

from

deviated

translation

translator

between

of similarity

original.

Maybe the translator,

do that

so the expression

original

the

two

from his
could

on

in the translation

provided

the points

to

the

Individuality

an explanation

of

in

the

compared

situations

found

perspective,

be better

the

understood

it

necessary

in the receiving

culture.

deviated

Dawood's translation

vehicle
but

into

Arabic

classical

Individuality

of Time,

On the dimension

and Individuality.
original's

from the original

the translator

from that

of the original:

in the translation

it

is

"green

the translator

English.

standard

provided,

on the dimensions

On the

in the translation,

the vehicle
herbs".

in the original

of Time

rendered

the

dimension

of

a different
is

"water"

317
Example 38

Le I

cis c.,1

%,.t>,.ru

-;R:

a :.- G.o

"

f.

Verse 11
-P

There are among men some who serve


God, as it
If
the
were,
them,
on
verge.
good befalls
they are therewith
but if a trial
well content,
faces,
they turn on their
comes to them,
they
lose both this world and the hereafter,
that is
loss for all to see.
There
are
some men who serve God in a wavering
manner standing,
as it were, on the verge of the
true religion.
If good befall
them,
he
one of
but
if
therein,
resteth
satisfied
any
tribulation
he turneth
himself
befall
him,
round,
with the loss both of his world,
and of
the life
to come. This is manifest
perdition
There are some who serve God in a single
point,
if good came upon one of them, he resteth
in it,
him round
but if trial
come upon him, he turneth
(to infidelity)
with the loss both of this world
This same is the clear ruin!
and of the next.
Some profess to serve Allah and yet stand
When
fringe
true faith.
the
very
of
but
they are content,
with good fortune,
them they turn upon their
ordeal befalls
forfeiting
this life
and the hereafter.

Sura The Pilgrimage

Yusif

Ali

George Sale

J. M. Rodwell

on the
blessed
when an
heels,

he who worshipped
Allah
And among mankind is
upon a narrow margin so that if good befalleth
if
but
him he is content
therewith,
a trial
befalleth
him,
he falleth
He
away utterly.
hereafter.
loseth both the world and the
That
is the sheer loss.

N. J. Dawood

M. M. Pickthall

318
Profile

of the original

metaphor

Lip)

L. v

P .,.
1.
-.

VIA

..,

L(-Lr

lN

_..

J .,...

V--""

LIP) 11-9
.
Dimensions
1.

language

of

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

language

Individuality:

1.

use

in terms of another

in

to teach

The

definition.
through

not

is

speaker

lesson

The

Profile

lesson

of Ali's

readily

a moral

for

in which

purpose

lesson

accessible

in

position

he aims to teach

a situation

of

is

illustration

and to explain

to them

in

another

terms

of

of

by nature

authority

the audience

a moral

of

lesson

example.

audience

are expected

from the metaphor.

is meant to facilitate
moral

language

of

situation.

Moreover,

Participation:
moral

is

an informing

Quran.
work.

situation

the audience

experienced

previously

Status

that

the

user

described
order

of

religious

a major

Figurative

a situation

3.

language

Arabic,

The Quran,

of

to be read as we know from

spoken then written

of the Quran.

Classical

Dimensions

2.

first

Medium: Complex,
the history

use

learning

to be informed

The powerful

imagery

the new information

by the audience.

Translation

There are among men some who serve God, as it


If
were,
the verge.
on
good befalls them,
they are therewith well content,
but if a trial
comes to them, they turn on their faces,
they

and learn

of the metaphor
as well

as

the

319
lose
loss

both this world


for all to see.

and the hereafter,

is

that

Dimensions of language use


1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

to be read
as

aLoN. o-.
by

manifested

the

use of the archaic

"therewith"
3.

Province:

2.

Individuality:

Status:

The speaker

an informing

moral

Profile

he

position

lesson

of Sale's

meaning of the original

of

by

authority

aims to teach

the audience

is expected

to be informed,

nature

a moral

lesson

facilitate

The powerful

learning

imagery

the new information

and learn

of

as well

as the

by the audience.

Translation

language

use

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

to be readas

r,

manifested

LoL&I
by

the

of the metaphor

There
are
some men who serve God in a wavering
manner standing,
as it were, on the verge of the
true religion.
If good befall
them,
he
one of
therein,
but
if
resteth
satisfied
any
tribulation
him,
he turneth
befall
himself
round,
with the loss both of his world,
and of
the life
to come. This is manifest
perdition
Dimensions

of

example.

from the metaphor.


to

meant

of the surface

in a

The audience

Participation:

is

is

Moreover,

lesson

work.

in the form of a simile.

but

moral

religious

user

metaphor

through

of a major

Reproduction

definition.

3.

translation

of language

Dimensions
1.

Published

use of the archaic

320

3.

"resteth"

and "turneth".

Province:

Published

Dimensions
1.

translation

language

of

Individuality:
metaphor

work.

religious

user

its

deep

of the

Reproduction
plus

of a major

surface

meaning

in

the

of

meaning

original

form of a simile

the

with

explanation..

2.

Status:
definition.

is

moral

Profile

is expected

lesson

by

authority
the

audience

nature

a moral

to be informed,

The powerful

learning

facilitate

to

of

aims to teach

from the metaphor.

lesson

meant

position

lesson

imagery

the new information

and learn

as well

as the

Translation

There are some who serve God in a single


point,
in it,
if good came upon one of them, he resteth
him round
but if trial
come upon him, he turneth
(to infidelity)
with the loss both of this world
This same is the clear ruin!
and of the next.
Dimensions

of

language

use

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

3.

Literary

"resteth"

and "turneth".

Province:

Published

c.
to be read. o-Lo u. "
as

translation

manifested

of a major

by

the

religious

of the metaphor

by the audience.

of Rodwell's

of

example.

The audience

Participation:
moral

in a
he

Moreover,
an informing

through

3.

is

The speaker

use of the archaic

work.

321

Dimensions

language

of

Individuality:

1.

2.

Status:
definition.

3.
.

an informing

is

moral

Profile

lesson

in the translation.

of

position

the audience

is expected

to be informed,

The powerful

1.

Medium:

2.

Time:

2.

lesson

imagery

and learn

of the metaphor
as well

as the

by the audience.

language

of

Complex,

Standard

Province:

Dimensions
1.

of

of Dawood's Translation

Dimensions

3.

nature

a moral

the new information

learning

facilitate

on the
blessed
when an
heels,

Some profess to serve Allah and yet stand


When
faith.
true
fringe
the
of
very
but
they
fortune,
content,
are
with good
their
turn
they
befalls
then
upon
ordeal
forfeiting
this life
and the hereafter.

by

authority

aims to teach

from the metaphor.

to

only.

example.

The audience

lesson

meant

in a
he

Moreover,

Participation:
moral

is

lost

is

the metaphor

The speaker

through

of the deep meaning of the original

Reproduction

means that

-This

user

use
to

English

as it

translation

Published

language

of

Individuality:

Reproduction

with

Status:

The speaker

through

is

ol. ovd..

not marked as otherwise.


of a major

religious

work.

user

metaphor

definition.

be read.

written

of the surface

meaning of

the

original

explanation.

Moreover,
an informing

is

in a
he

example.

position

of

aims to teach

authority
the audience

by

nature

a moral

of

lesson

322
3.

Participation:
lesson

moral

is

lesson

moral

Profile

from the metaphor.

The powerful

imagery

and learn

of the metaphor

the new information

learning

facilitate

to

meant

to be informed,

is expected

The audience

as the

as well

by the audience.

of Pickthall's

Translation

he who worshipped
Allah
And among mankind is
upon a narrow margin so that if good befalleth
if
but
him he is content
therewith,
a trial
He
befalleth
he falleth
him,
away utterly.
hereafter.
That
loseth both the world and the
is the sheer loss.
Dimensions

language

of

use

1.

Medium: Complex,

written

2.

Time:

English

Literary

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

Published

language

of

by

translation

of a major

of the surface

This

the metaphor

is

Status:

through

is

moral

lesson

to

kept

religious

work.

meaning of the

original.

in the translation.

position

by

authority

of

aims to teach

the

audience

nature

a moral

of

lesson

example.

The audience

lesson

meant

in a
he

Moreover,

Participation:
moral

is

The speaker

an informing

use of the archaic

user

Reproduction

means that

the

and "loseth".

Individuality:

definition.

3.

al-c wcL-

manifested

as

"befalleth"

worshippeth",
3.

to be read

is expected

from the metaphor.


facilitate

learning

by the audience.

to be informed,

The powerful

imagery

the new information

and learn

of the metaphor
as well

as the

323
By comparing

Time.

to reflect

to the dimensions

According
by

Rodwell,

Individuality.

has

By providing
failed

translation

has

the metaphor

in the translation

imagery

which

too.

with

the right

from

time

User,

standard

means
intended

that

the

to affect

English

this

of the original.

one

translation,

namely

on the dimension

the original

the original

by

of Language Use,

the deep meaning of the original

to reproduce

the original

into

the.

with
namely that

one translation,

Arabic

of Language

deviated

translations

on one dimension

classical

rendering

has failed

translation

that

By

that

we notice

from the original

has deviated

Dawood,

different

of the

profiles

of the original,

profile

i. e.

five

the

metaphor.
emotive
the

of
this

only,

The loss
power

of

addressees

is

of
the

lost

324
Example 39

Verse 41

Sura The Spider

The parable
of those who take protectors other
than God is that of the spider,
(to
who builds
itself)
the flimsiest
a house, but truly
of
houses is the spider's house, if they but knew.
The likeness of those who take
besides God, is as the likeness
which maketh herself a house, but
all houses surely is the house of

they

knew this.

other patrons
of the spider,
the weakest of
the spider, if
George Sale

The likeness
for those who take
to themselves
instead of God is the likeness
guardians
of the
her a house.
But verily,
spider who buildeth
frailest
houses surely is the house of
of
all
the spider.
Did they but knoweth!
The false gods which the idolators
serve
Allah may be compared to the
spider's
Surely
is
frailest
the
the
spider's
dwellings,
if they but knew it.

of the original

Dimensions

1.

of

N. J. Dawood

2.

Time:

language

use

spoken then written

to be read as we know from

of the Quran.

Classical

M. M. Pickthall

metaphor

Medium: Complex, first


the history

J. M. Rodwell

besides
cobweb.
of all

The likeness
of those who choose other
patrons
than Allah is as the likeness
of the spider when
the
she taketh
a house,
and lol
unto herself
frailest
house, if
of all houses is the spider's
they but knew.

Profile

Yusif All

Arabic,

language

of the Ouran.

325
3.

Province:

The Quran,

a major

religious

work.

Dimensions of language user


1.

Individuality:
described

in

the audience

that

is

Status

situation

lesson

a moral

in

terms

is

situation

in order

as an example

and to explain

accessible

is

speaker

an informing

to them a

situation

another

previously

of

position

is expected

from the example given


is

of

by nature

authority

the audience

of Ali's

meant

to encourage

to be informed

to them.

and

The powerful

the audience

to learn

learn
imagery
this

of

Translation

language

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

Standard

of

Individuality:

use

written
English

Published

language

to be read,
as it

c_Lou. cL.

is not marked as otherwise.

translation

of a major

religious

work.

user

Reproduction

of the surface

meaning of the

a
of

moral

The parable
other
of those who take protectors
(to
than God is that of the spider,
who builds
itself)
but
the flimsiest
truly
of
a house,
house, if they but knew.
houses is the spider's
Dimensions

of

lesson

a moral

lesson.

Profile

to

example.

The audience

lesson
simile

in

he aims to teach

Moreover,

Participation:

the

another

in which

situation.

The

through

moral

of

readily

not

definition.

3.

terms

teach

experienced

2.

use of language

Figurative

original.

326
This

2.

means that

Status

The

through

3.

Participation:

the

of

by nature

authority

the audience

of

lesson

a moral

the audience

learn

and

imagery

The powerful

to them.

to encourage

meant

to be informed

is expected

from the example given


is

simile

position

example.

The audience

lesson

moral

in the translation.

he aims to teach

Moreover,
an informing

kept

in

is

speaker

definition.

is

the simile

to learn

this

of

moral

lesson.

Profile

of Sale's

Translation

The likeness
who take
of those
besides
God, is as the likeness
a house, but
which maketh herself
is the house of
all houses surely
they knew this.

patrons
other
of the spider,
the weakest of
if
the spider,

Dimensions of language use


1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

English

Literary

to be read

o-Loud-"

as manifested

by

written

the

use

of

the

archaic

"maketh"
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

translation

Published

of

language

Reproduction

This

the simile

Status
definition.
through

The

speaker
Moreover,

an informing

religious

work.

user

Individuality:
means that

of a major

is

of the surface
is

in

kept

in the translation.

position

he aims to teach
example.

meaning of the original.

of

authority

the audience

by nature
a moral

of

lesson

327
3.

Participation:
lesson

moral

the

from the example given

The powerful

to them.

learn

and

imagery

meant to encourage the audience to learn this

is

simile

to be informed

is expected

The audience

of

moral

lesson.

Profile

of Rodwell's

Translation

The likeness
for those who take
to
themselves
instead of God is the likeness
guardians
of the
her
spider who buildeth
But verily,
a house.
frailest
houses surely
is the house of
of
all
the spider.
Did they but knoweth!

Dimensions of laneuaze use


1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

Literary

English

Lou.
oL .
o

to be read

written

by

as manifested

the

use

the

of

archaic

"buildeth"
3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

Published

of

language

Reproduction

This

the simile

means that

Status

The

through

lesson

the

simile

lesson.

is kept

in

work.

meaning of the original.

in the translation.

position

of

by nature

authority

the audience

of

lesson

a moral

example.

The audience

is expected

from the example given


is

religious

of the surface

he aims to teach

Moreover,

Participation:
moral

is

speaker

an informing

of a major

user

Individuality:

definition.

3.

translation

meant

to encourage

to be informed

to them.

and

The powerful

the audience

to learn

learn
imagery
this

a
of

moral

328
Profile

of Dawood's

Translation

The false gods which the idolators serve besides


Allah may be compared to the spider's
cobweb.
is the frailest
Surely
the spider's
of all
dwellings,
if they but knew it.
Dimensions

of

language

1.

Medium: Complex,

2.

Time:

3.

Province:

Standard

The

the

is

simile

in

religious

of the surface

side

of

1.

of

the audience

is expected

to encourage

to be informed

to them.

Medium: Complex,

of

lesson

a moral

the audience

use

written

to be-read.

ola

and

The powerful

Translation

language

by nature

authority

The likeness
patrons
of those who choose other
than Allah is as the likeness
of the spider when
the
and lof
a house,
unto herself
she taketh
house, if
frailest
of all houses is the spider's
they but knew.
Dimensions

original

example.

meant

of Pickthall's

the

meaning of

lesson.

Profile

work.

of the comparison.

position

from the example given


is

as otherwise.

a major

he aims to teach

The audience

lesson

moral

marked

of

the other

Moreover,

Participation:

not

ot,

user

speaker

an informing

through

is

translation

but emphasising

Status

it

as

Reproduction

definition.

3.

English

language

Individuality:
simile

2.

of

to be read. a. lo,,

written

Published

Dimensions
1.

use

to learn

learn
imagery
this

a
of

moral

329
2.

Literary

Time:

English

as

by

manifested

use of the archaic

the

"talketh"

3.

Province:

Dimensions
1.

2.

Published

language

of

Reproduction

This

the simile

means that

Status

The

the

is kept

is expected

from the example given


is

simile

of

position

by nature

authority

the audience

of

lesson

a moral

example.

The audience

lesson

the original.

meaning of

in the translation.

he aims to teach

Moreover,

Participation:
moral

of the surface

in

is

speaker

an informing

through

work.

of a major religious

user

Individuality:

definition.

3.

translation

to them.

and

learn
imagery

The powerful
to learn

the audience

to encourage

meant

to be informed

this

a
of

moral

lesson.

By

comparing

of

the

is

of the different

profiles

that

we notice

have deviated

and Dawood,

Language Use which


time

five

of the original,

profile
Ali

the

Time.

original

translations

two translations,

from the

original

on

Both of them have failed

as

they

rendered

namely those

by

dimension

of

one

to reflect

the right

into

Arabic

classical

the

with

standard

English.

According
that

by Dawood,

Individuality.
translation,
the

the dimensions

to

one

has deviated
Although

the other
intended

by

the

of Language User,
from

the

original

one translation,

original

on

metaphor

was

side

of the comparison

the

original.

From

the

dimension

of

in

the

retained

was emphasized
our

point

namely

of

rather

than

view,

this

330
is

conversion

it

because,

not necessary

had the original

meant to say that,

would have done so.

used by the

So the techniques
metaphors

giving

(a) Reproducing

examples

translators

could

the surface

to

be summed up in the

meaning of a simile,

the

render

category

following:

e. g.

J)

is prayer in truth,
For him (alone)
any others that they call upon
forth
besides Him hear them no more than if they were to
stretch
to reach their
hands for
their
mouths but it reaches them
water
faith
is nothing but (futile)
for the prayer of those without
not;
(in the mind).
wandering
(see Example 34)
(b)

Reproducing
metaphor,

>>

the

surface

meaning of a simile

but

in the form of a

e. g.

iy"r

(s

}-As

r''

^--

This is the description


of paradise which is promised to the pious.
its food is perpetual,
It is -uatered by rivers,
and its shade also;
be the reward of those who fear God. But the reward
this shall
of
be hell fire.
the infidels
shall
(see Example 35)

of

331
(c)

Reproducing

the surface

meaning of a simile

with

explanation,

e. g.

ryj

9%l%I.,,U;

YIN

r(""

Jf

It is like
And propound to them a similitude
of the present life.
water which we send down from heaven,
and the herb of the earth is
it hath been green and flourishing.
in
mixed therewith,
and after
the morning it becometh dry
the
stubbble,
which
winds
scatter
abroad, and God is able to do all things.
(see Example 37)

(d) Reproducing
simile,

the surface

in

meaning of a metaphor

the

form

/'
...

n'

of

e. g.

1.r.
r--.

- ct.

fJ_I_s
v
c..,
I'
..

(U

There are among men some who serve God, as it were,


on the verge;
but if a
they are therewith,
if good befalls
them,
well content,
their
faces,
lose
both
turn
they
this
they
them,
to
trial
on
comes
is
loss
for
that
hereafter,
the
all to see.
world and
(see Example 38)

(e) Reproducing

the deep meaning of a metaphor

in the form of simile

with

explanation,

plus

the surface

meaning

e. g.

ju i- 1 n c,:, L."a11,)
There are some men who serve God in a wavering manner standing,
as
If good befall
it were,
on the verge of the true religion.
one of
but if any tribulation
therein,
befall
he resteth
them,
satisfied
himself
him, he turneth
round, with the loss both of this world and
to come. This is manifest
perdition.
of the life
(see Example 38)

332
(f)

the deep meaning of metaphor,

Reproducing

e. g.

Ij

'.

LrP

I1c
l..
a; o

Its
c .U
u

I;,
l
cr---
,., -.)-,. -"

If
in
God
good came upon
point.
a
single
There
are some who serve
him,
he
if
but
in
it,
trial
he
came
upon
them,
resteth
one of
him round (to infidelity)
with the loss both of this world
turneth
is
the clear ruin!
This
the
same
next.
and of
(see

(g) Reproducing

,.,

IP I

Some
true
when
this

(h)

r,
'69

, a ,

plus

meaning of a metaphor

`t
1p

'-- (, -

explanation,

WI,,.

38)

e. g.

fringe
the
the
Allah
of
on
very
stand
to
yet
and
serve
profess
but
they are content,
faith.
When blessed with good fortune
forfeiting
heels,
their
turn
they
them,
befalls
upon
an ordeal
life
and the hereafter.
(see Example 38)

Reproducing
'L'If 1

the surface

Example

the surface

meaning of metaphor,

:
r
is
41"
, p11...
n"

e. g.
LJ I r
..

cW I

Cry

Y,

And among mankind is he who worships Allah upon a narrow margin


so
but if a trial
him he is content therewith,
that if good befalleth
He loseth both the
he falleth
him,
befalleth
away utterly.
world
loss.
is
the
That
hereafter.
sheer
the
and
(see Example 38)

(i)

Reproducing

the

surface

meaning

other side of the comparison implicit


the explicit

side

of the comparison,

of a simile

but emphasising

in the original
e. g.

rather

the

than

333
Lam,v

-i'--,
1-991

W. 1 Mll
r

c!^

a)

c-

1
... -1 :

. ,

c r: J c'

The false
gods which the idoiitors
nerve beside. Allah may be
compared to the spider's
the spider's
is the
cobweb. Surely
frailest
if they but knew it.
of all dwellings,
(see Example 39)
To conclude,

some important

their

scholars,

because

that

remembered

extensive
translations

But,

would have

not

the

according

translations

all

same

greater

number of deviations

in this

study.

Secondly,

studying

on a certain
Yusif

The translator

beginning.

have

from the beginning

that

his

translation

as we have noticed

that

he

almost

decided

as possible,
Quranic

to

contrast
ought
freely

While
in

him,

to be free
rather

many

because almost

cases,

all

basis
when

translations

for

All,

observed

believe

that

of translating
seems to

example,

would be as literal
always

throughout

the Quranic

the

model would show a far

translated

the Quranic

N. J. Dawood seems to have decided

than closely

J. M. Rodwell

as possible

as closely

metaphors

from

translations,

strategy

from the very

the
these

on an everyday

has led us to

translations

of the Quran had decided

translators

this

of

to be

to

Consequently

such

than have the Ouranic

the Quranic

due

numbers of deviations

therefore

dimensions

the

them.

encountered

and

quality

to

small

ought

of the Ouran are capable

into

put

research

and

translators

It

are bound to be of good quality

have shown relatively

original.

assessed

five

all

translations

work

are to be made:

observations

that

metaphors

his

the

text.

In

translation

were approached

by him.

and George Sale have solved


both a close

literal

this

translation

dilemma

by

providing,

of the metaphor

in the

3
footnotes

and a free

translation

or

language

the

vice-versa.

it

of the bible.

translation.

This

be

could

flavour

that

traditional

reading

by Pickthall

attempt
genre,

his

to place
of holy

language

i. e.

of

us

the majesty

with

associated

thehas

reminds

keep coming to mind when

a deliberate

of

translation

Pickthall's

has a special

language

in an effective

translation

M. M.

The connotations

biblical

and charm of the

his

but

been literal,

generally

However,

body

in the main

of the original

rendering

books.

important

third

sometimes

to

resorted

language

but

style

observation

Fourthly,

it

same metaphor

Ali's,

different

from

Sale's

original

given

retain

the

to
lost

non-figurative
the

majestic
by way of

imagery,

from

Dawood's

reads

This

translators.

metaphor

the others.

in meaning,

translations,
LSUI
...

contradictory

in

while

in meaning

to

metaphor

for

instance,
in

meaning

example !c,

translated
when
,
Sale's,

to

be the result

original

are different

translations

5I:

could

$,

In example

was

of the

translations

the

and understanding

and Pickthall's

and

the original

or even contradictory

by other

interpreting

metaphor

and Pickthall

tried

in such a way that

translators

way

Rodwell's

for

into

in some cases,

would read different,

of each translator
in

that

was observed

translations

other

they

metaphor

language.

by different

rendered

i. e.

of the Ouran have

the translators

original

and compensate

original

literary

providing

that

the

rendering

as literary,

marked

the

of

is

the

by Yusif
Rodwell's

All
and

Dawood's translations.

But,

when the category

translators,

all

of metaphors

giving

of them have interpreted

examples

was approached

the metaphors

by thee

in the same way

335
and produced
could

be

close

due

to

literal

fact

the

between the

similarities
original

that

all

the elements
described

two situations

Therefore,

metaphor.

from our

This

translations.

is

there

of

point

of the comparison

and

in

the

are spelt
no

view,

room

out
for

different

interpretations.

Lastly,
be

to
"girt

we have noticed
questioned.
up her heart

9s(s1: i

An
with

that

the consistency

example
constancy",

is

that

of translators

Rodwell

but rendered

as "we had made them stout

of heart".

is sometimes

translated
a very

as
similar

metaphor

336

CHAPTERFIVE

OF APPLYING THE APPROACH


CONSEQUENCES

Page

A-

Rules of how to translate

B-

tested by applying
them to
Rules further
random data (metaphors from the media

metaphors

deduced

337

343

337
CONSEQUENCES
OF APPLYING THE APPROACH

Applying

the

Ouranic

translations

firstly,

at by deduction

and test
into

the applicability

Arabic

media.

random

Thirdly,
decide

would

in this

we touch

we can

techniques
with

study,

of these
data

now

on the factors

to employ one technique

the five

identify

ways

chapter,

Secondly,

by using

of metaphor

we,

we verify

them to translate

we have collected

according

of

translating

metaphor

examples.

that

in viewing

In this

of

techniques

metaphors

of

meaning

of the approach.

identified

these

provide

arrived

basis

on the

surface

in that

has resulted

translating

metaphor

of deep versus

approach

from the

to which a translator
translating

rather

than

another.

A-

of how to translate

Rules

The following
five

1)

techniques

different

language

L LiL--Lj.
we will

and felt

of Ouranic

kj

1
.... 1

give you your brother

himself

deep

the

e. g.

=ef
D
1::. 1.4 'q

Jls

to help you

powerless (to protect

1..
1.

o
v
J.. a,
,., cJl. sN1. -y.. r
Therm are some who serve

and

criticising

metaphors: -

in the second language

metaphor,

deduced.

have been deduced by observing

translations

Reproducing

metaphors

them)

I%)
r--
.,.
,

God in a-single

point

meaning

of

the

first

338
2)

Reproducing
language

in the second

the deep meaning of the first'

only

in the main body of the translation

metaphor

the surface

language

meaning in the footnotes,

while

providing

e. g.

1,
and he was too weak to protect

3)

his arm was straightened

(footnotes)

1. Lit.

Reproducing

in the second language

language

and yet

metaphor

the first

them

language

only

them

the deep meaning of the first

a keyword

retain

concerning

of the surface

meaning

of

e. g.

metaphor,

'

comfort of the eyes

4) Reproducing
keeping

and
second

the first

language

metaphor

a keyword of the surface

language,

by giving

meaning plus

e. g.

And we fortified

their

hearts with constancy

its

deep

meaning

explanation

in the

339
5)

Reproducing

the

first

its

surface

followed

by

(.
1-j,
->

L, 1 o
--D-,

language

On evidence clear

6) Reproducing
language,,

the

metaphor
in

meaning

uca)

the

by providing
form

L 'ss, r1 61.

deep

meaning

e. g.

a simile,

o,.Ati

as the seeing with one's eyes

surface

meaning

of

the

metaphor

in

the

second

e. q.

___u

_____________

leaving

7) Reproducing
language

of

its

plus

them to wander blindly

the

surface

explanation,

meaning

on in their

of

the

contumacy

metaphor

in

the second

e. g.

became
blank
fear
through
Moses's
heart
the
mother
of
and

Some profess to serve Allah


the true faith

and yet stand on the very fringe

of

340

To turn down the palms of his hands out of sorrow and regret

e-p

J)

LrLs
r.
8) Reproducing
second

the first

language,

language

literally

simile

into

in the

a simile

e. g.

`%,
.P

"a. %> y-.

^--

r
-v

-J;

The parable
His
God is the light
of
of the heavens and the earth.
it a lamp; the lamp enclosed
light
is as if there were a niche within
from a blessed
in
the
star lit
glass as it were a brilliant
glass;
is
tree,
whose oil
of the East nor of the West,
neither
an olive,
Light upon light!
luminous,
though fire
scarce touched it.
well-nigh
light.
doth
His
God
to
He
God doth
will
set forth
whom
guide
for men, 'and God doth know all things.
parables

9) Reproducing
metaphor,

the

first

language

simile

literally

amiv,
a
aN

plus

e. g.

The likeness of an evil


the face of the earth
10) Reproducing

the first

word is as an evil

language

language, plus making explicit

simile

the points

tree which is torn up fron

literally

into

the

of comparison, e. g.

second

341

And propound
It is like
to
them a similitude
of the present life.
is
water which we send down from heaven,
and the herb of the
earth
it hath been green and flourishing
in the
mixed therewith,
and after
morning it becometh dry stubble which the winds
scatter
abroad
and
God is able to do all things.

il)

Reproducing
plus

the first

making

language
the

explicit

simile
points

literally

in the second language


but being

of comparison

switched

around, e. g.
L2 L
,jru

cVJ I-

()

LfIc

(_ "_

Li

hupe

crP

yl

cv

Coin for them a simile


It is like the
herbs
about this life.
green
that
flourish
into stubble
when watered by the rain,
soon turning
Allah has power over all things.
which the wind scatters
abroad.

12) Reproducing the surface meaning of the first


form of a simile,

"r

L1

..,

who serve

13) Reproducing

surface

e. g.
Lo
I ...
,.

God as it

C-% cLAs 1.U)


.
.
_...

the deep meaning of the first

YJ s l-,. J

cr-

were on the verge

meaning in the form of a simile,

J oro

language metaphor in the

language

metaphor

plus

its

plus explanation.

PY ,mss C.;

"
, ;,

a_:,

There are some men who serve and in a wavering manner standing,
were, on the verge of true religion

as it

342
14) Reproducing

first-language

the

language

second

metaphor

i. e. having

to the same effect,

but a different

surface

by another

in the.

metaphor

the same deep meaning

e. g.

meaning,

U-ts
They turn upon their
Z4

(pS 1c SIX

I-le!
You turned

To cover

back in scorn

your

hearts

up their

15)-Reproducing
second

heels

the first

language

your

round

16) Reproducing

their

17) Reproducing

metaphor

explanation,

(to

e. g.

\
c"l o

language

by

metaphor

j4A

t'y

[,
Lr
j - _----- t
'

faces had been covered with a cloak of darkest

a first

language

language,

implied

metaphor

language

second

night

by an explicit

e. g.

1
.1

..:?

:1-. I

the

infidelity)

first

the

in the second

in

backs in scorn

idiomatic expression, e. g.
5t
1
l;
a
a'h
e
'-i
.
o
.P
As if

plus

by another

hf l
Lru

Jas
He turneth

metaphor

to the same effect

N; -"
but you turned

language

s--

. -d ... " , ,+

God most gracious extends (the rope) to them

ILI,
l_.
as
--)

metaphor

343
18) Reproducing

the surface

translation

1. That

B-

is

Rules Further
the media)

viewing

in

translating.
five

the

in particular,

derived

techniques

translations

from

identified

media.

techniques

used on an everyday

Applying

the

metaphors

from the media into

aforementioned

Reproduction

a roller

e'lf'

evidence

that

in general,
is

useful

of how to translate

the Ouran,

we use these

metaphors

-of

is

The purpose

and

to test

random

of an

strategy

of

metaphor

from

techniques

similes

which

the applicability

data

of

modern

to
we
of

media

basis.

in

techniques
Arabic,

is

translating

as follows:

spending establishment
v

on the basis

of the deep meaning of the metaphor

coaster

further

provides

in translating

metaphors

i)

from

meaning

of

random data

the

(metaphors

and texts

Having

Arabic

them to random data

sub-section

surface

into

collected

this

versus

different

translate

by applying

deep

of

in

in scorn

aside

tested

metaphors

approach

metaphor

his side

turning

The verification

the

e. g.

turning

proudly

in the main body of.

of the metaphor

the deep meaning of

reproducing

while

the footnotes,

meaning

-. -rr-r

only.

random data

of

344

To carry the can for the strike

blast

to work at full

The Aids Pendemic is a classic


the human race on itself ..
G-j I

tip

1L,+ y
cro

of

:. _.s y1

iceberg

the

he is riding

1----

just

a slap

A =z

someone's

fI

'-& J,.-

colours

tournament

sleeve

chestnuts

from the

and tell

story

cv

>

fire

cap in hand

to go back to the closet

1,
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untapped

resources

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you'd better

jot her eating off


count your fingers.

by

,,, ,.

on the wrist

to go to the government

a kiss

scored

sleeve
tee S
,
up his

he has something

take

high on this

to laugh up one's

to help

irYl
./ J L..
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lJ1r 1""'
N

with flying

to pass the test

own goal

your hand, but

345

a puppet government

to throw

one's

hat

in the air

to jump the gun

to lose ground to someone


l-O
li L.
Pr
to let

the cat

They could

out of the bag

not hold

the epitaph

to this

to run neck and neck with

to hit

and run

in cloud-cuckoo

They are living

She wrote

tail

land

summit

his

competitor

the wrong note

For the British

every

day turns

to be a banana skin

more than he can chew


IJU
Js4Joi:
9iLr

o,,

He may have bitten

off

a head-in-the-sand

policy

a crime
""`Pi)

committed

/j-P

in cold

blood

i,
- cam.,

346

to show his colours

it will

not have legal

teeth

They approved of the deal but with strings

Do not rock

attached

the boat

Greener grass on the other side

to pull

up their

to give their

socks

someone red-handed

The bank was the midwife

Another

it

house

out of the doll's

to catch

arms for

right

white

rabbit

of the Boston miracle


1.
-1
... i
c t:

from the old

to pump someone for

topper

1 -is'La L..,

information
ll.

V.l"J

This is becoming a hot potato

She was given the red carpet treatment

1l.P ',,.a1

91j

347

to juggle

two Jobs at once

to run out of steam

They sold many tickets

to split

hairs

someone

two peas in a pod

They are like

tip

with

for the Titanic

of the iceberg

to put sticking
plaster
J
i`;!
He has a finger

2)

Reproduction
translation

in every

over

gaping wonds
Ir J_' Ls-

pie

the

metaphor

by

while

keeping

giving

its

deep

keyword of the surface

same time.

They approved

of the deal

They sold lots

of tickets

meaning

but with

strings
Aj

for the Titanic

attached

in

the

meaning at the

348
3)

Reproduction

of the surface

They are playing their

Look before

`?

the ball

a little

grain

to weigh one's
qp
to give

their

"
V-JV-'

to shroud

cards close to their chests

you leap

'

to put

& Pj

in his

court

options

arms for
{

right
rv-

it

'sTj

in secrecy

they

want is home-spun

The bank was the midwife

of the Boston

miracle

of nerves

to pump someone for

His policy

J-

of truth

(fir

The philosophy

a battle

meaning of the metaphor.

might turn

information

into

a poisoned chalice

You cannot do that unless you have the patsono@of Job

The countryside cannot be kept in a glass case

349

Iron fist

policy

Behind the scenes diplomacy

to force someone into


1;
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a corner

This episode is a nail in the coffin of the supergrass system


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if
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---in every pie

he has a finger
j

fist

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ICJ
in a velvet

;
e9

glove
4-9

v r-P

tears

crocodile

I
Lj
t--' -,_>
to put sticking

to take their

plaster

over

in their

lives

gaping

hands

lambs at the feast

Sacrifical

The Aids epidemic is a classic


the human race on itself.

own goal

budget

belt-tightening

to touch a raw nerve

You cannot
r1l)
negotiations

wounds

have your
'\.

r1 tAI)

bore fruit

cake and eat


P1.,f .-I
.

it

. -`-I

scored

by

350

just

a slap on the wrist

luggage lightly

to wear their

ideological

the lifeblood

of the service

The poacher turned gamekeeper


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La
L.
Z)),
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I1,
The thaw in relations

helping

between the two countries

the wheel of industry


SU
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dr
.

to wash one's dirty

linen

in public

to break the moral barrier

if

I
W)
5.;- --c

you can't

public

the heat,

stand

opitvi

a barbed comment

This is a double-edged sword


n/

a political

to twist

crusade

someone's arm

don't

go into

the kitchen

351

The government's policy is no more than shifting

sands
J l

to brush

something

to wear their

r1

under

ideological

the carpet

luggage

lightly

,ri..

a white elephant

to turn

the pumpkin

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y

2,.s

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. ___

cash till
mentality
ISS
. 1 'y) ""i. es
n,. -...
we will

have to dispense

back scratching

the biggest

face

with

sacred

cows

and compromise

lift

J-)
in Europe

to remove the dagger from the heart of the government

I, . ...

Not everything in the garden I. rosy


J i
J?
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C1t--
t

352

a haed=in=th@=goadPolicy

The Genie was let out of the bottle


with
and a bang, it cannot be reversed now
to make political

''LC

capital

a beacon of hope to all

Do not rock

mankind

the boat

to be shrouded

a thick

under

veil

_dg

to touch

greener

It

4)

on the other

grass

Reproduction

side

race

meaning of the metaphor

of the surface

after

the greasing

that

was Alice's

of palms

to have an ace up one's sleeve

to twist

oL

^4
1
_-elj

is a rat

The trial
Y
22.

of secrecy

a raw nerve

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a whoosh

someone's arm
r

J
V

wonderland
Le I C, UP

plus

explanation.

353

a puppet government
41
to throw one's hat in the air
P"

1
j

1 LI

9 c
.
..

: tom

to keep one's card very close to one's chest


i1Jy
j7
ia.

They sold lots

5)

Reproduction

of the surface meaning of a simile.

As old as if

they had come out of the Ark

If this is
prosecutors

I
"'C

for the Titanic

of tickets

L;; -0

a witch hunt, then we are giving


the burning torch

ov

the

:>I
I
,-...p c-.:,1

1V/
(V4 V

The building

collapsed

like

a deck of cards

L#-%
Absence feebles weak passions but fans strong ones
as wind blows out candles but fans strong fires

as the tongue tends to find

to sit

like

the sore tooth

a betgar at the rich

The opposition described


window-dressing

man's =ate

the pay rise

as election

354
6)

Reproduction

of the surface

meaning of the metaphor

but

in the form of

a simile.

He is Don Quixote, a single man against the world


rn
o-----

1,

This van became a Trojan horse

The Aids pendemic is a classic


the human race on itself

7)

own goal scored by

You certainly
you'd better

got her eating out of your hand, but


count your fingers

Reproduction

into
the
metaphor
of

surface

its

deep meaning followed

by its

meaning in the form of a simile

The government's

policy

is no more than

shifting

sands

el..
1
to brush something

W `J
s als-
You certainly
you'd better

under

'

the carpet

J I . - ="L,;,, ,

got her eating out of your


count your fingers

8) Reproduction
same effect.

of the original

to pumpsomeonefor information

metaphor

'')
hand,

into

but

another

metaphor

to the

3.5
If

you can't

their

to pull

the heat,

stand

go into

don't

the kitchen

socks up

Pandora's box
1 c1

in the garden is rosy

Not everything

within

earshot

Genghis Khan censorship

The poacher

to test

turned

the water

You certainly
you'd better
to

9)

gamekeeper

rr

got her eating out of your hand, but


count yo r fingers
J,
r` ..

iJ (1 j. e
have

-P
v- , ate,,
-"
little

someone under your

Reproduction

of

the

metaphor

"

f1V

finger

into

second

expression.

His policy

might turn into

at a tender age

bread and butter


cam""

a poisoned chalice

language

idiomatic

356

The market is in full

swing

You have got to fight

fire

right

with fire

on the dot

the lifeblood

of the service

the poacher turned gamekeeper

to mend the fence

10)

Reproduction

(according

of

the

surface

to translator's

meaning

of a simile

interpretation).

The British
Government is like a Dutch boy with his
finger in the dyke but what is wrong with the British
government is that it has lost all its fingers

to have one's heart in one's mouth

plus

explanation

357
11) Reproduction

the

of

of

meaning

surface

with

metaphor

slight-

modification.

from the fire

to help take someone's chestnuts


)
vv
"P
sand in your

to throw

eyes

are born to blush unseen

Many flowers

Z.
linen

to wash one's dirty

l.

cri

in public

a crime committed in cold blood.


1.

C-

f1o

cis-

Ji/'"

-CS

- c`f

JP

Conclusion

Depending

type

on the

makes the decision


translated
and a certain
understanading

as to whether

its

and

version

from the main issue

texts

political

speeches

contain

metaphors

self-expression.

which

is

the text
is

not

then

it

then

might

from a daily
to

would

distract

newspaper

the

be omitted

be

to

worthy

reader's
altogether
long

appear very
the attention

in

of the

under discussion.

are written

or other

is

crucial
could

a translator

author,

metaphor

because the metaphor

simply

However,

matter,

of the

certain
if

text

the

of the subject

translated

reader

in

metaphor

in the translation,

For example,

all.

at

and importance

of text

to mark a

certain

speeches made by prominent

that

represent

Such

metaphors

personalities,

ideologies

or individualistic

are

important

very

such

occasion,

due

as
may

ways of
to

their

358
ducidative

language

second

If

role

decides

the techniques

translating,

approach

identified

for

guidelines

But an important

useful

is

rather

a metaphor,

meaning of the metaphor

translator
surface

could

understanding

not

certain

only

metaphor

event

story

language

point

is to write

are

metaphor

both

approximation

understanding

if

refers

to or derives
then

the translator

because his
story

translation

must find
ought

down the deep


write

down

the

translator's
then

the

the original,

best

then

Furthermore,

first
out

if

language

story,

the moral

of that

to match the moral

translation

the

Then the

of

in effect.

to remember is that every

of

the two translations

of

from a local

technique

the deep meaning and


of

However,

and

choice?

as well.

language,

in the original

translation.

translator's

language
If

together.
an

and then

the deep meaning would be preferable.

or mythology,

particular

A final

the

the

match

them

best

on the

in the second language,

compare

of

reproducing

first

of view,

would be a literal

choice
do

from our point

in the second

metaphors

to be the best

viewed

to decide

match and

meanings

choice

constitute

the translator

his

to render

to be

translating.

how is

is,

versus

have proved

therefore,

and could,

which

deep

of

study,

the translator

meaning of the metaphor

surface

in this

than another

the translator's

for

basis

the

on

comes to mind,

question

method

translating

the

language,

the second

on the how of metaphor

translators

to choose one technique


basis
on
what
.

into

reproduction

into

a metaphor

to a wide range of metaphors,

applicable

to reproduce

of metaphor

meaning

useful

and their

matter

would be vital.

a translator

surface

the subject

on

is

individualistic

the

359
because

it

language

text

to

and his

is

This

translations

of any one metaphor

translators

there

translating.
to

A useful
their

re-translate

lannguage
would
reflecting

exercise

the

individuality

the surface

an

can

be

how

on
bonus

added

of
looks

certain

in

its

and creativity

meaning while

to

work

different
of different

retaining

of them have in common, namely the deep meaning.

first

compared

so many different

would be to ask students

rendering

to see how the original

show

is

there

depending

text

This

are.

why

of the
himself

way of expressing

own particular

translators.

other

own interpretation

the translator's

constitutes

many

different

the pleasure
of

of

translation

into

the first

versions.
translators

at the same time

what

This
in
all

360

CHAPTERSIX

IMPLICATIONS FOR A SECONDMODELTO MEASUREADEQUACYOF TRANSLATION

Page

A.

A Second Model for

Assessing

Translation

Adequcy

361

361
Implications

for

The criteria

on which

1)

a Second Model of Evaluating


model is based,

this

The focus of the text

Adequacy of Translation
stems from:

as related

to its

writer

as related

identity

situational

(Factual

or Fictitious).
2)

The

attitude

or Composition

two items

are intertwined,

(informative

these

Although
verifiability

model

The above criteria


then

viewpoint

through

focus,

texts

get

we

v!

they

as follows:

the event

per se that

is

like

the

prove

is explained

an event

at by two different

although

mixed texts.
rather-

points

such texts

they

is under

legal

This

is so because they

of

view of the writer

partial

account-of

it.

However,

be considered

mixed texts

on viewpoints

of events,

subjective

presentation

perspective

or the

are

under

is under

and

texts

that

present

but factual-texts
they
of

being prejudiced.

are not single


reality

facts

focus

unjustified

which

Examples of

than

different

per se

but

Examples of
and prominent
newsreports,

that

giving

although

texts
emphasize
a balanced
can not
they

focus

i. e. do not give

minded,
eliminates

such

are

viewpoints

because,

such

they

criticisms,

and texts

rather

then

are not,

prejudiced

speeches,

of a situation

focus,

at hand.

of the facts

not the whole truth,

aspects

they

are not reporting

propaganda,

truth,

- or positive

focus

documents

is under

in fact

of the writer

political

are subjective

relate

negative

in itself

to be factual,

claim

minded self-righteous

-single

is

text

where the viewpoint

in the text

If

1)

reports,

hand, when the viewpoint

other

and

validity

When events

approached.

scientific
.

of the text

).

news bulletins.

impartial

On-the

which

to the function

has been arrived

which

is either

it

factual,

that

the

of

routes.

texts

the

of

texts

the danger

are

one

of the

political

362
debates,

and discussions

arguments

conferences,

seminars,

as among more

than one person.

Just

highlights

as metaphor

areas

of

some
the

outweigh

important
line.

communication
writer's

In texts

of fictitious

as an individual

since

him in symbols
literature

is

far

Therefore,

the writer

be the
receivers

focus

and his

is

he

writer,

because the writer


are the stars

act,

to take

In addition

the

that

than to be sacrificed

of the
the

all

of view of the

addressee

fact

to the

interested

point

the

criticises

of the text.
special

This

languuage

the

or talks

to

language

of

in the translation

for

the case of propaganda

to keep the same focus

if

Or if
texts,,

in the second language.

importance
a text

then

example,

per se such as a scientific


text.

his

means that

in the second language.

of the translation

as is

important,

is

the addressee

that

on facts

focus

grows in

the reader.

reflect

is focused

the

where
role

the

He is to be kept

pursued

more important

although
the

the

as the end of the

hand,

as a creative

often-literature

and riddles.

to please

outweigh

language

comes in second.

very

cases,

texts

of

on the other

but not necessarily

way through,

they

the addressee's
the side

other

of a text

such

factual

of

covers

or annoy.

situations,

and his

show, the addressee

should

please

in

a necessity

limelight,

the

because he is wooed to take

to convince,

just

type

second

is under

pursued

writer

because he is

only

focus

the

are

Moreover,

addressee.

In the

viewpoint

Importance

the

of

at the same time

yet

When events

situation.

role

is

addressee

some points

the

is focused

then

a text
then

is

on

translation

In the same way,


report,

does not

if

facts

focused

the translation

a text
are to
on

the
ought

363
However,

the addressee

importance

is

when deciding

will

because they

because

want

to be listened

special

cases

are other
of

to,

people

literature,

the

committed
language

and writer

to the viewpoints

affects

the

language

and writer

be

entertained

In scientific
all

an

attempted

2)

In

addressee.

are under

and stimulated

because if

discourse

Art

for

the

limelight

Art's

element

was not

in the first

SL

of

way

and then
propaganda
the

is only

addressee

into

of the reader

interested

from

literature,

or induced

but not convinced

into

same

and the

In

changes

by the writer

sake type

in

But

work.

text

of the

write

be different.

might

in the

and convince

is divided

their

highlighted

the reader

to read such material

In Arabic,

the focus

the entertainment

reports,

issue

instance,

chased to affect

from

situation

speak

politicians

and journalists

scientists

benefit

to

for

is

his

if

even

in the eyes of the translator

want to be read and

literature

the reader

case

any

how to translate.

write

because there

in

factors

by other

outweighed

Indeed writers
they

be there

always

action.
is not

Informative

s-P
:
.

and Composition:

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X1.9 i. 9,
a

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at

he would not have

place.

the

to

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364
On the

basis

text

which originator

lie.

If

is

text

the type

of text

or lying.

Telling

the
is

truth

it

reporting

a lie.

a lie

from

subjective

discover

the

originator

from the use of un-neutral

the

important

factor

translation
reporting
is

the

for

of this,

hand,

from
i. e.

texts

translator

to

then

consider

because
and

originator.

The

the

of

i. e.

line,

he is an

deciding

that

no

text

the event.

when

thinks

being

as

on

a
is

the writer

the deep meaning of the text

meaning,

surface

composition

impartially

attitude

in reporting

addressee

its

text

text.

where originators
they

reported

the events

that

meaning

of

meaning.

surface

consider

because

thinks

when the addressee


then the deep

of the translation

original

and

the

indirect

for

him

messages,

or exaggerations.

subjectively,

different

by a text

telling

hand,

of the communication

end

When the

the

as

same

the

is

event

of

or telling

be described

a factual

terms

the type

to translation,

relevant

standpoint

impartially,

events

On the other

the

the

strategy.

understatements

events

is

addressee

he

then

standpoint

will

the truth

can not

is

is

text

On the other

between reporting

addressee

Since

factual

which originator

or telling

a difference

as telling

says is

then he is telling

not

truthful

there

can be described

what the originator


if

truth,

an informative

of the above definition,

the possibility

Therefore,

to them.

the

for

text

has to take

and consequences
attitudes

to

the attitude
The originators

him

be

liars

with

which

is

account

of the addressee

from the addressees

what the translator

are considered

do not support

is reporting

The translator

different

having

the writer

of

has to deal with is


by
the

themselves,

the
text

addressees
originators

however,

are

365
not

lying

lie

or say something

then

in their

they

clues

such as in cases
in order

such as punctuation

to

irony,

of

to indicate

to

from what they are

mean is different

the addressees that what they really

intend

because when writers

and mean the opposite,

leave

would

is so,

This

own eyes.

saying.

So when the attitude


liking

because we know the background

either

nothing

it,

about

would be against

it

the

any

it

by the first

meaning coloured
from the first
)

person

but still

Furthermore,
is

not going
remain

that

a very

his

important

But texts
because

the

although

are not single

originators

as scientific

reports

it

although

the viewpoints

of factual

says
of the

for

instance

are the

different
texts

can be described

has lost

that

focus

are

place

mind
is
will

the stain
to

be

of
kept

of the text,

angles

of reality.

relate

events

as telling

in

neutrally

has taken

that

event

debate

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366
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367
extent,

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368
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369
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370

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use when a certain

371
language
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(b)

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it

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of
the

itself

of source

372

CHAPTERSEVEN

Pie

FURTHERIMPLICATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE GUIDELINES FOR TRANSLATORS

A-

The Guidelines

373

373
Setting
The

for

Guidelines

it

because

double

of

evidence

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is such an extreme

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chapter,

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Content

Form

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grammar

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form and content

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manner:

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3'/ 4
The Guidelines

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from Factual
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sentence
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genre:

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of grammar of the second language

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376
different

from

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translator

would

like

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should

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377
own version
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378
(c)

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on the receiver.

effect

certain

case is when the message - like

background

(e)

the translation

but not equivalent

adequate

but the translator's


not

message is neutral

original

to colour

achieves
is

the

when

purpose

translation

(d)

is

case

is

expected

to

There are cases when the


could

have encountered

instances

the

his

audience

379
would

the message as it

accept

and are likely

to take

it

is

at its

if

face

they

have nothing
So

value.

the

it

against
translated

message is adequate and equivalent.

There is one final


undergo
rather
same.

point

to keep in mind,

which

changes in cases when the translator's


than equivalent

is

that

aim is

message but the deep meaning

style
to give

will

still

is

bound to

an adequate
be

the

380

CHAPTEREIGHT

CONCLUSION

A-A

summary of the proposed


Implications
and its

B-

Suggestions

for

Future

Approach

Research

381
A-

Summary of the proposed

The approach

between what is

separation

as in cases of
closely

is

while

straightforward,

factual

to
than

rather

what they

depends

on

readings

of the metaphor

figurative

language,

Leech's

method

can

the border

cross

their

own versions

metaphor

in order

literal

wording.

its
gaps

specific

the

be

And then
of

meaning

its

from

used

to

separate

in

metaphor

figurative
surface

from the

of reality

to establish
His

method

and non-figurative

recreating,

the

there

news reports.

between the figurative

at hand.

deep
to be

However,

mean.

such

and

surface

a method to analyze

an example

divorced

about,

situation

by the

situations

prejudiced

identifying

is

of meaning is

is

from

such

meant,

are most likely

situations

by giving

side

per se;

meaning divorced

of

say is what they

factual

their

problematic.

have figurative

which

of factual

i. e.

proposed

metaphor

texts

texts

reality

duality

This

to have a co-existence

fictitious

the

Leech (199 5)
its

language.

of

probability

and what is really

would become less

those

which despite

the

on

because once the meaning intended

those

are expected

meanings,

based

said

translating

a metaphor,

are texts

literally

to translating,

as literature

is

study

and figurative

identified,

like

Just

irony

related

writer

in this

proposed

Implications

and its

Approach

which

wording.

plain

non-

is what the
Therefore,

and deep meanings of

metaphors.

An approach
strategy

of deep versus

to

view

Quranic

surface

meaning was set

metaphors

them.

Metaphor

was defined

as a text

(y $I)

definition

of text

characteristics.

and five
using

up in this

different

de Beaugrande

study

as

translations
and

Dressler's

a
of

382
A model was devised
Crystal

and Davy's

of those

1.

Medium

2.

Time

3.

Province

1.

Individuality

2.

Status

3.

Participation

metaphor

to assess

applied

to
is

The

has

degree

or

of the translation

The application

of the approach

metaphors

implications.

and

First,
the Ouranic

tested

by being

media.

Those

used to translate
methods

metaphor in general.

been

the

metaphor,

and

have

data

suggested

is the degree

of

of the model.

anlysis

resulted

of

the

in two major

used by the translators

have been identified;


random

of

protxie

to the dimensions

and the comparison

metaphors,

a textual

as a text,
of

methods repeatedly

certain

have

aeviation

translations

their

Ouranic

of

way: when the model is

been defined

of the original
according

translations

following

in the

which

from the profile

inaccuracy

translate

adequacy

metaphor,

different

five

to the

their

created.

translation

to render

the adequacy

Use

model was applied

Quranic

to assess

and

of Language User

Dimensions

profile

in order

models

(1981)

House's

The model is as follows:

Language

of

incorporating

and

in House (1981)

translations.

Dimensions

This

by modifying

of

and then
metaphors

as flexible

rules

further

from

the

of how to

383
second implication

The

is

the suggestion

assess adequacy of translation


language

function

translation

be identified

could

form and

based on disentangling
be

could

longer

of

of a second model to be used to,


texts

and

in a text.

content

predominant

second model is

This

that

and

the adequacy

levels.

on both those

assessed

when

This

of

model is as

follows:

Form

Content

1.

Genre

1.

Deep/surface

2.

Grammar

2.

Focus of the text

On the Form section,


it

translation

as it

conformed,

rules

of

grammar

dialect

certain

When assessed
in

the

traditional

translation
the

of

such

as in

into

second

translating

language

it

has reproduced

the translator

genre,

talk,

language

except

read

and look
are

when a first

purposes

cases

the

of mimicking

to

be

etc.

is

like

supposed

For

instance,

a contract

written

language.

second

from

deviated

a translation

the

there

However,

where

language

is

this
poem

not

is

a
in

possible

reproduced

prose.

Assessed on the contetit


if

should

a contract

poetry

of
of

genre

language.

second

children's

subsection

for

language

first

or reproducing

on the

or not

intentionally

has

text

the

of

to see whether

to the grammar of the second

should,

in cases where the original

be assessed

could

meaning

section,

a translation

the deep or surface

chose to reproduce

either.

is first

examined to see

meaning of the original

and why

384
The Second subsection
to

relates

the

informative

the

and the vocative.

would be expressive.

text

scientific

even if

then

literature,

most important
be

text

symbolic
its

text,
grasp

focus

painted',
away

reproducing

meanings
and his

of the text

is

the surface

from

the

the

the deep meaning

to avoid

But when the focus

of a text

instance,

the

are still
is

to

deep meaning of such a


the

on

commentary
the readers

reads

i. e.

the

deep and surface


When a

warnings.

waters

notice

bench because it
'deep waters'

as

you

might

in the translation

misunderstandings

on

such as in cases

to help

receiver,

is vocative,

notice

deep

for

language

as a

in order

away from this

or when another

the

would

warnings.

meaning of the text

while

fully

and writer.

on

in the text

means 'keep

are different
special

like

focuses

and public

to be on the writer

intentions

and his

it

if

on

of the

in the text

vocative

instructions

focused

on events,

function

in the translation

be given

focused

language

identified

match such as in public

it

paint',

is

the text

translation,

of the text

function

not always

order

could
writer

language

function

Therefore,

the

the dimensions

When the

keep

in

reproduced

are the expressive,

language

if

text.

the predominant

the writer

of all.

by

is

the deep and surface

of symbolic

functions

is predominantly

is

of a text

displayed

when a text

such as advertisements,

focus

the

function

Focus of the text

Therefore,

predominant

But a text

the receivers

If

the

report,

be informative.

While

of the text.

language

p.. i

such as literature,

the writer,

focus

language

predominant

to Newmark (0 0. ),

According

is

of content

would

by the public

is on events,

it

predominant
meanings do
reads

has been freshly


means

drown'.
be

'wet

'danger,

Therefore,
preferable

in

of the second language.

two possibilities

arise.

The

385
first

one is

that

events

or impartial

scientific

reports

that

are reported

events

writer

such

surface

meanings

Therefore,

writer.

as is

strategies

To translate

writer

2.

translator

those

the

a
i. e.

as it

it

is,

deep and
be

would

is different

from

of view of the

from

keeping

person

the

following

the

stain

of

i. e.

the

singular,

deleting

keep the same focus

the

to

identify

purpose

news

the

the

as that

text?

for

instance,

the writer

from the

at hand neutrally.

Focus of the text,

focus

the

of

the writer.

of

of the original

the right

of viewpoints
purpose

report

prejudice

the events

of this

if

writer,

text,

prejudiced

and reporting

is to an audience

the audience against

when measured on the subsection

is

the

of

case,

the point

choose

third

the

of

ought to have the same predominant


text.

as

in

text

is to influence

translate

would be able
what

it

providing

to

translation

should

view

translating

deep meaning

can

text

a prejudiced

impartially,.

Thus,

thus

does not share

translator

of

is

said.

contradictory

To

the

point

In the first

and

as

appropriate:

but

To translate

3.

same

such

The second possibility


the

in the second case,

a subjective

prejudice

from

news reports.

meaning when the receiver

surface

and neutrally

news reports.

are one and theBut,

objectively

subjectively

prejudiced

as

straightforward.

1.

are reported

text.

of the text

This

language

means that
function

translation

The translator

by asking
a translation
as did

the

himself:
text
original

386
Therefore,

this

language

second

function

the language functions


cases of metaphor

and at the same time


the

is

model

most

participation,

to

imagery

through

receiver

to

relate

language

the

in

suitable

functions

Lastly,

on

the

implications,
this

basis

of texts

does

dimensions:

in

and

parallel

the first

However,
not

first

status

respectively,

Form

separate

from

for

direct

guidelines

to their

two models and their

approach,

guidelines

according

language

identified

approximate

according

the sentence

text

translators

were suggested
to benefit

the translator

from

into

identity

situational

meanings become easier

the surface

to

in the right

is placed

the

either

Then the translator

by identifying

the subject

the

and understand.

translator

the deep or surface


language

the Focus of the first


could
of

identity,

situational

to pinpoint

and deep meanings,

in the second language

the second model.

object.

as it

The

and Fictitious.

deep and surface

both

and reader
ahoi

the proposed

of

These

study.

Once the first

Having

its

the expressivelvocative.

flexible

general

the division

its

writer

as

to influence

reality.

view

as

of the writer,

and aiming

to

cases

use when all

as the second model does.

content

Factual

such

to content

model as a whole relates

in

the

language

new information

and new ways

of the text

with each other such

the special

which expresses
is providing

recommended for

intertwined

are extremely

use when a certain

i. e. when the focus

model is

the first

But,

for

most suitable

in a text,

predominates

can be established.

in

is

model

text

moves to
meanings or

as explained

by

level

of

and

the

move to work on the


events,

the

verb

387
The

next

in the second language.

instance,

to have flowery,

text,

for

text

to read

like

to

contract

From this

study,

The first

Future

might

result

types

2.

the suggested

analyze

is

to

reproduce

one which

an

is closely

in nature.

inadequate

seem to emerge:

studies

investigate

models and guidelines

for

translators

of assessing,

as supervising,

revisions

work would

be

as well

of the models and

and modifications

as the user

research

order

adapts

very

metaphors

for
could

to provide

them to assess

translators
be carried

general

arP,s such

specialist

literature,

third,

read

to

to this

in tasks

guidelines

study,
in

work in various

should

and supervise

of translations.

of this

perspectives

than

rather

of follow-up

- study

environment

different

3.

kinds

commentaries,

guidelines

hurry, -.. or

aim is

his

message but

of the two proposed

translations,

or a literary

translation

scientific

Research

continuation

in a classroom

Since

language

various

the application

in

written

is to remember that

to the first

for

language,

Further,

story.

in the second language.

correct

Suggestions

religious

literary

message in the second language

equivalent

purpose

in the right

text

We do not expect

newspaper article

like

the translator

adequate

1.

a plain

read

grammatically

B-

to mould his

the translator

genre

traditional

Lastly,

would be for

step

or media articles,

interesting
of

the

Quran

study
and

as

were
out

guidelines
on

not

from other
for

United

the

main

different

translators

Nations

who

material,

etc:

would be to compare contrast


Bible

as

well

as

different

and

38,j
translations
biblical

them.

of
metaphors

versus

to human experience

and

meaning

of

such

media metaphors
by public

4.

contrastive

i. e.

material,

reality

S.

might

The

ways.

as their

as well

effect

related
of

change

day

on every

as the how and why of their

between Arabic

study

be interpreted
the

sometimes

people,

across

different

material

for

would

be

differently

same

research,

would be to

and English,

the use

of

whether

they

metaphor

subject,

use

they

whether
as well

investigate

in a
in

metaphors

offer

are essential
new ways of

as the how and why of

and English.

to research

how and why the same metaphor

by different
might

and how would this


cultures;

are used,

information,

and providing

fifth

different

various

as well

why they

of a certain

translation

future

between Arabic

to the understanding

their

in time

be studied

suggested
study

scientific

viewing

in

translated

be categorized,

could

metaphors

how

to investigate

out

speakers.

fourth

Quranic

metaphors

could

be carried

Research could

people

suggest
affect

when metaphors

contradictory

translating
are

used

example.

10

to the

degree

that

meanings

to

and communicating
in

United

Nations

389
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APPENDIX

DEFINITIONS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGEIN ARABIC

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metonymy

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