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How

WRITE

TO

RULES

EXER""$]"S

AND

ENGLISH

CLEARLY.

COMPOSITION.

BY

REV.
HEAD

THE

EDWIN
MASTER

THE

A.
OF

AUTHOR'S

ABBOTT,

CIT^'OF

THE

LONDON

COPYRIGHT

BOSTON:
ROBERTS

BROTHERS.

1876.

M.A.,
SCHOOL.

EDITION.

MOSES
BERNARD

Cambridge

Press

of

John
Wilson
and

Son.

PREFACE.

ALMOST
so

English

every

far

least

at

of words.

boy

clearness

as

Force,

difficult

to

teach,

writing

can

be

writing

clearly

depends
and

elegance,
and

far

the

the
of

variety

rules.

to

main

of

clearly,

arrangement

style
learn

to

are

more

but

teach

the

these

Rules

To

object

write

to

upon

difficult

more

reduced
is

taught

be

can

clear

of

art

and

Exercises.

Ambiguity
but

also

from

other
from

and

words,

arise,

may

removable

by

not

neglected,

are

obscurity
dozen

of

art

clearly.

writing

almost

acquisition

forcible

But
mere

manipulation

of

implies

more.

much

forcibly
valuable

as

"

Parliament,
all,

above

lutions
reso-

of

instances

abundant

of

neglect

monotonous

tinually
con-

some

rules.

simple

The

the

from

arising

this

suggest

to

in

Speeches

furnish

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few

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articles, and,

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in

some

ambiguity,

case.

public meetings,

at

out

single

causes

considered

point

to

of

each

in

narratives

newspaper

is

of

therefore,

prominently

causes

remedies

These

and

rules,

rather

recurring
definite

definite

arrangement,

misuse

the

from

"

bad

from

thought.

not

object

My

causes

confused

not

book.

only

not

781074

is

it is

of
a

not,

of

art

and

higher

writing

clear

like

mechanism
much

valuable

course,
the

as

expression

question
words

is, of

of

power,

pression,
ex-

the
and

Preface.
Writing clearly

man

think

may

himself,but
will)

be

able

clearly
is

reason

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and

be

clearlyexpressed
writing is
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Jews

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implies knowledge,
and

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well

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to

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forcible

who

often

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the

vivid

sentence

help

knowledge

writing ;
in

the

The

Latin

and

forcible
far less

to

the

Greek

them

of

stand

in

long

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idiom

our

rules.

write

to

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that

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exercises, clear

devoted

links

writer

hence, though

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into

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of knowledge,

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space

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everything,

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easily rendered
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terminated
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imply

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clearly.
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tasteful
is clear

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what

studying

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English

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very

writing is exemplified

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and

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course

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of rules

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describe
illustration)

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being

as

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it.

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man

with

sown

not

if

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it reveals

when

beneath

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medium

transparent

well-known

"

is concerned

illogicalthought

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the

meaning

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that.

repeated according

beneficial

hand,

use

Jerusalem as
the

indeed,

of the

illogicalnature
he

and

obscure

least

not

he

that

adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions,

Even
;

probable

all

for

Dogberry

as

of words

auxiliaryverbs, placed

definite rules.1

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clearly

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to

clear

it is not

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obscurely

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write

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imply thinking clearly.

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English

an

sentence.

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referred

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scarcely any

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in

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task

fullydiscussed
this book

trustingtoo

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training,rhetorical

to

far

English Grammars,
as

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punctuation, and

to
too

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point

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well
into

construing Thucydides

in most
so

as

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out

the

ment.
arrange-

Preface.
genuine English
English

and

in
for

the

and

examinations

our

language.

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pupils

our

By

Greek

construing good

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Latin

pupils systematically unlearn


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be

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for

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are

pedants

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and

matters

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admiration

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express

my

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; it is

the

rule

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of

his

of

suggestiveness

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House

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rule,amends

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manner

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exceptions

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in

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good

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in

sentences

hence,

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members

Prime

years

rule, I

Shakespeare.

following sentence, which


appeared
ablest
of our
There
weekly periodicals:

forgive the

House

from

the

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or

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and

two

been

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one

good

cannot

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have

our

may

particular,Professor

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Professor

it difficult to

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on

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English Grammar.
with

college for

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systematic thoroughness

book

to

and

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their

large obligations to Professor

very

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on

also

on

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Milton

acknowledge

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from

up

into

current

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rated
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increasing the

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marks

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is often

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allowed

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on

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the

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exceptions.
1

Before
between

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Professor

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is

Bain's

generally

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259.

rule, I had
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by Shakespeare.

ence
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Preface.

8
rules

The
intended

stated

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not

the

while

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of

given

given, are

exercises

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viva
with

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made.

unclassified
his

; but

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own

common

is the fault in each

what

Besides

each

references

sentence,

to
difficulty

any

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be

how

tioned
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they

require

not

any

non-arrangement
mixed

together
anything
show

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exercises

first been

for

alterations

it is

rules, notes

the

used

relyingupon

him

be amended.

to

attached

are

ought

painstaking boy

has

he

provided

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to

so

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revised,

may

purposely

and

case,

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will
rather

or

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sense

also

several

prevent the pupil from

to

and

them,

teachers

have

rules.

the

out

are

being shut, the pupils,

before

arrangement

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may

by

that

examples

written

they

rules

illustrate

to

books

The

reasons

of the exercises.

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exercises

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explanation of

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ference
re-

exercises.

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prove

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at

to

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written
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as

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to

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have

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instruction.

voce

working

examples.

are

exercises

as

is

no

themselves

by

use

pupil

Consequently, there
accumulations

for

much

so

possible,and

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as

not

of twelve

to

present

thirteen,

or

fairlytrained

to

in

English

grammar.
The

"

Continuous

and
those

for whom

modernize,

to

of

the
and

and

Clarendon,
and

intended

are

authors,

but

to

show

intended.

speak,

to

improve
how

upon

their

modern

by teacher

is

from

Sir Archibald
this

author

pupil,there
Alison

are

stands

intended

on

to

exhibit

the

older

than

My

ambitious,

different

dangers

object has,

style of
might

The

loss is

these

be

recognized

footing.

pressed
ex-

of the

charm

in my

of

attempt

style of Burnet,

the

nothing,

very

culty,
diffi-

appear

English.
if the

more

The

meaning

style is necessarilylost,but
and

the

explanation.

some

to

somewhat

Butler,1 may

Bishop

clearlyin

more

boys
are

clarify,so

been

not

for

rather

present

Exercises

perhaps requires
course,

"

Extracts

both

opinion, to
The

extracts

verbosity and

geration.
exag-

Preface.
counterbalance
Bain

speaks

exercise, the
of

method

better

it

expression.

imperfectly

respects

laws

the

to

writers

and

the

be

might

exclusively, drawn

not

be

other

or

prescribe passages

some

older

Our

proprieties of style.
though

in

English

an

way

to

according

amended

be

to

some

than

but

containing good matter,


worded,

For

pupil disciplinedin giving

the

no

in

"

effect

same

should

matter

supplied, and
I know

the

to

fessor
Pro-

exercises.

utilityof such

obvious

the

tensively,
ex-

for

upon

this

purpose."
To

of the

some

indebted

am

desire

to

and

of

Fellow

St.

the

of London

; also

to

School,

particular the

in

already

English People,"
these

revising

pages.

the

to

of

several

R.

for

School,

Rev.

J.

I must

Fellow

Vardy,

and

copious

colleagues

my

whom

among

A.

Rev.

been

John's College, Cambridge,

of St. Paul's

Master

suggestions

in

for

especial obligations

valuable

City

help

has

help

Lessons

further

express

Second

whose

English

for

Lupton, late

H.

"

in

acknowledged

friends

at

mention

of

Trinity

College,Cambridge.

Before
I wish
book
of

electrotypingthe
to

has

Rules

say

one

been
for

word

used

reference

construing, from

36, 37,

about

Metaphor

and

correcting faults
I have

middle

may

of

be

classes
*

"

their

Thucydides

5, 30, 34,

of

of

and

in

our

to

of

great

have
their

the

collection

Latin
in

have

been
and

rules

Greek

well

schools.
Rhetoric,"

found

useful

this way,
as

In

The

use.

also

highest

English Composition and

this

construing lessons.

hopes that, used


service

Edition^

in which

manner

especially, I

400,

Climax

taste

the

Revised

highest class,as

my
in

Rules

book

to

as

by

and

Fourth

p. viL

positions.
com-

this
as

in

to

little
the

CONTENTS.

PAGE

INDEX

OF

RULES
11"13

RULES
14

40
"

SHORT

63

EXERCISES

41
"

CONTINUOUS

EXERCISES

64

CLARENDON

70
"

"

BURNET
"

70"73

"

BUTLER

74"75

"

SIR
"

"

ARCHIBALD

ALISON

76"78

INDEX

RULES.

OF

I.

CLEARNESS

AND

FORCE.

WORDS.

USE

1.

words

in

their

2.

exaggerations.

3.

Avoid

useless

4.

Be

careful

circumlocution

in

the

careful

in the

careful

the

5.

Be

6.

Report a speech
ambiguity.

avoid

Use

a.

speaker
6 b.

7.

you

cases

Do

9.

or

First

where

Person,

where

"

the

he

"that,"
"

words

exact

use

of

the

"

"

it,"

and

or

if

use

allows.

euphony
"

"

for

"while,"
what

"

"

or

is

which,"

or

he"

"for

Person.

"

who

"

Pronoun,

which

and

to

necessary

in

Relative

and

"

use

not

"it,"

be

to

that

the

using
meaning is

other

"he,"

the

in

words, e.g. " certain."


"'they," "these," "c.

given.
a
speech in the Third
use
a
Participle implying "when,"
show
"that,"
clearly by the context

When

if the
In

ambiguous

Person

"

of

Omission

When

of

use

intended

not

are

of

use

Third

the

"though,"
implied.
8.

in

writing."

"not

or," "that."

"not

Be

a.

of

use

"fine

and
.

"only,"
4

sense.

proper

Avoid

for

it."

Exceptions.

which."

:
(a] Participle or Adjective ;
Equivalents for the Relative
"c. ; (d) "Ifaman-"
"whereto,"
(b] Infinitive ; (":)"Whereby,"
"And
"c.
of
he," "and
this,"
(e)
(g) omission
; (/) "what;"

10.

Relative.
10

non-repetition
Use

11.
1 1

the

Repeat

a.

causes

particular

Avoid

a.

Verbal

12.

Use

particular

13.

Use

metaphor

14.

Do

confuse

not

14

a.

Do

14

b.

Do

any
for

mix

not
not

use

persons
instead

Avoid
Verbs

where
instead
of

of

literal

the

38.

See

ambiguity.
general terms.

Nouns

Relative, where

the

before

Antecedent

Nouns.

abstract
be

can

used.

class.

statement.

metaphor.
metaphor with literal
to
poetic metaphor

statement.

illustrate

prosaic

subject.
ORDER

Emphatic

15.
the

most

15
end.

a-

part,

OF

words
at

the

Unemphatic
Exceptions.

WORDS

must

IN

stand

beginning
words

or

must,

SENTENCE.

in
the
as

emphatic positions ; i.e.,for


end
a

of

rule,

the
be

sentence.

kept

from

the

Index

r.2

15 "
1

An

6.

of Rules.

gives emphasis.
interrogationsometimes
if
ferred
Subject, unusually emphatic, should often be transthe beginning of the sentence.
for
Object is sometimes
placed before the Verb

The
from

17. The

emphasis.
1

the

8.

Where

several

words

emphatic, make

are

emphatic. Emphasis can


word.
epithet,or an intensifying
most

an

Words

19.
which

should

be

as

sometimes

possible

as

near

grammatically connected.
Adverbs
should
be placed next
20.
intended
to qualify.
21.
Only" ; the strict rule is that
they

to

is

given by adding
the

with

words

are

"

before

it clear which

be

the word

to

"

the

words

"

should

only

they
be

are

placed

it affects.

also," see that each is


only" precedes "but
of
same
speech.
by
part
and other adverbial adjuncts,someAt
times
least,"
always,"
23.
produce ambiguity.
the Nouns
that they define.
should
be placed near
24. Nouns
the Nouns
should
follow
to which
they refer,
25. Pronouns
When

22.

followed

"not

the

"

"

without

the intervention

26.
as

Clauses

close

27.

be

must

28.

distinct from
Where

29.

the

on

that

there

are

word

same

antecedent

or

be

are

those
infinitives,

that

distinct

from

be

must

see
55.
"if-clauses"

should

preceded by
independent.

several

kept

kept

clauses.

the consequent

"that"

clauses

those

the

sentences,

distinct from

Dependent

Noun.

are

conditional

kept

other

should
grammatically connected
parentheses. But
possible. Avoid

that

together as

In

of any

be

are

kept
dent
depen-

those

that

not.

are

principleof Suspense.
duce
It is a violation
of the principle of suspense
to intro30 a.
short and
unexpectedly at the end of a long sentence, some
unemphatic clause beginning with (a) not," (b) which."
be excessive.
not
31. Suspense must
In
with
sentence
a
"if,"
when,"
though," "c., put the
32.
30.

The

"

"

"

"

"if-clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first.
or
33. Suspense is gained by placing a Participle
that

the
qualifies

34.
the one

Subject, before

Suspensive Conjunctions,
hand," "c.,

add

the

e.g.
clearness.

Adjective,

vSubject.
"either,"

"not

only," "on

its omission
would
cause
Repeat the Subject, where
obscurityor ambiguity.
36. Repeat a Preposition after an
intervening Conjunction,
if
especially a Verb and an Object also intervene.
Pronominal
37. Repeat Conjunctions, Auxiliary Verbs, and
Adjectives.
after the Conjunctions "than," "as," "c.
37 a. Repeat Verbs

35.

Index
the

38. Repeat

Subject, or

of what

summary
is difficult

Clearness

39.

the

prepares
the whole

other

some

increased, when

is

for

forming

13

emphatic word, or
so
long that

been

the

way

Rules.

is
said, if the sentence
of meaning unbroken.
thread

has

keep

to

of

the

middle,

kind

the

of

the sentence

beginning of

and

the middle
This

ascent.

it

for the

end,

is called

ascent

"climax."
the

When

40.

feebleness,and

of

a.

Epigram.

43.

each

Avoid

The

as

descends,

The

descent

introduced

pectedly.
unex-

clearness.

only

and

one,

principalsubject

sentences.

different

be

must

sentences

of

Conjunctions,
by means
beginning of the sentence.
between
two
long sentences
short
intervening sentence

kept
other

some

the

at

requires
thought.
a

or

paragraphs
showing the

of

transition

BREVITY.

II.

46. Metaphor
General

47.

be

or

connection

sometimes

one,

between

used

connecting words
45.

but

the result.

not

often

heterogeneous

connection

The

and

have

sentence

Adverbs

by

up

force

adds

Let

thought.

should

construction

new

42.

44.

ascend,

to

confusion, is

sometimes

Antithesis

41.

expected

"bathos."

is called
40

is

thought

is briefer

terms

literal statement.

than

less

briefer,though

are

forcible,than

ticular
par-

terms.

be expressed by a word.
phrase may sometimes
often be used
brief (though sometimes
48. Participles
as
may
ambiguous) equivalents of phrases containing Conjunctions and
47

a.

Verbs.

Participles,
Adjectives,ParticipialAdjectives,and Nouns
be used as equivalentsfor phrases containing the Relative.
may
be brieflyimplied instead of
sometimes
50. A statement
may
being expressed at length.
be omitted.
Adverbs, e.g. "very,"
51. Conjunctions may
"so." Exaggerated epithets,
"incalculable,
''"unprecedented."
t?.^.
49.

51

a.

may

if "c."

"

be used for
may
be used, so as
to

imperative

Apposition

52.
into

The

convert

two

sentences

one.

53.
common

several

Condensation

Subject of
Verbs

or

Prepositions.

Repeating

54.

Tautology.

55.

Parenthesis

56.

Brevity often

firstconsideration.

be effected
by not repeating (i) the
may
several
Verbs
Object of
; (2) the common

maybe

used

clashes

what
with

with

be

implied.
advantage to brevity. See
may

clearness.

Let

clearness

be

26.
the

CLEARNESS

FORCE.

AND

Numbers

brackets

in

refer

Rules*

the

to

WORDS.

1. Use

words

Write,

not

"His

him,"

but

"occur,"

"

"his
and

This

rule

power

"power"

is used

for

also

forbids

rule

This

this,

Avoid

"The

"

Here

often

are

Avoid

"

Her

See

"c.

of

in

use

of

different

senses.

since

Here

the

have

second

"nice,"

"awfully,"

(2).

Majesty
of"

"Partook

here

heart

that

of

the

with

the

circumlocution

implies

"

The

follows.

pendous
"stu-

and

"fine

is

writing,"

'

Write

and

sharing,

for

way.

and

of lunch.

partook

sufficed

"very,"

loose

same

almost

what

"incalculable,"
in

furnished

empire

have

would

is inconsistent

used

useless

the

corn,

"

inexhaustible

"

3.

slovenly

the

"unprecedented,"

words

it,"

together.

and

request,
do

and

verse,"
"con-

"authority."

plains

supplies
population."

the

twice

in

and

exaggerations.

boundless

inexhaustible

owning
dis-

"

and

confused

word

your

in

transpire

"reverse"

same

lawfully

may

"

often

are

the

refuse

"glorious,"

"delicious,"
2.

"event,"

of

use

to

power

my
do

to

the

"supernatural,"
and

friends

"Conscious"

guilt."

"elicit,"

and

forbids

in

is

"

his

guilt justified

evident

circumstance

"eliminate"

sense.

proper

apparent

"unnatural"

"aware,"

"It

their

in

'

"

lunched.

incorrect

as

well

as

lengthy.
So,

do

not

"individual

4.
.

while

Be
.

the

for

careful

and,"

For,

use
"

at

"apex"

for

"man,"

"assist"

how

"any,"

the

reader
.

beginning:
is finding

use

you

"only,"
of
out

sentence,
whether

"species"

"top,"
for

the

"help,"

following
.

sometimes

it is

used

"kind,"

"c.

words

"not

or," "that."1

"not
.

for

causes
as

temporary

conjunction

doubt,
or

position.
pre-

Words.
And.

below, "Or."

See

Any.

"I

"

send."

15

this

Does

bound

not

am

mean

receive

to

or

every,

that you
messenger
single? Use "every"
or

any

single."

-a

Not.
enemy

(i) "I do
"c." ought to

reason

for not

intend

not

"

(2),

mean

you, because
you
I intend not to help you,

help

to
"

are
helping you is,because
you
used
intend
"I
to
mean
(3),
wrongly

it is often

are

my

and

my
But

enemy."
help you,

my
to

not

because

(but because you are poor, blind, "c.


you are my enemy
the latter case,
not
ought to be separated from intend.
the influence of not
distinctly
marking the limits to which

)."

In

the

Only

is often

to

me

ambiguity

to

sentences

But

21.

see

Or.
used

like

"

be

"You
butter

butter

don't
;

I, on

this
"

honey

or

is

there

The

"

me

so

much

a.

Be

different
much

so

Write

The

uses

used
"

same

that

careful

form

in

alone."

of

use

"

not
.

honey

you

"

butter

want

want

honey

or

and

that

"

of

that"

use

of

"

not

for "I

I don't
neither

want

of

slightestdanger

see

see

"

I do

neither

them

produce

not

see

reply
past

"so"
of

"

see

ambiguity,

that

what
read

Thomas

both

much

this statement

desirous

am

scarcelyknow

in the

"

that

rare,

for

I do

surprised by

statement

jay

in the

"you

and."

not

resigning,that I scarcelyknow
has
impossibleto tell,till one
the first "that"
depends upon

whether

and

is the

it is

Here

but

nor.

"

of

butter

meaning is so
regularlyused

"

am

for

strict

contrary, do not

"

e.g. "I

used

The

both

want

the

honey." But where


ambiguity, it is desirable to use
The same
ambiguity attends
Thomas
and John
is commonly
but
it
nor
John ;
might mean,
only one of them."
"

helping;"

nor

That.

This

both."

them

butter

is often

of

help

rest

wait."

to

me

instead

The

"

however,
Practically,
want

advise

"nor."

like

nor

you

honey

or

I want

"

"

alone.

is

follows

as

say

for

preceded by a negative,as "I do not


honey," "or"
ought not, strictly
speaking, to be

and,"

would

or

"or"

or

"

only"

"you

When

"

butter

want

ambiguously
myself; you only
"you only advise,

mean,

similar

removed.

used

revenge

ought

be

may

By
tends,
ex-

"

I
to

sirous
de-

am

make."

resigning,"

"statement"

or

resigningsurprises

"c."

ambiguous

words,

e.g. "certain."

sound, but different

in

meaning.

Even

where

there

is

Clearness
obscurity,the juxtapositionof

no

inelegant,

"

(Bain),

e.g.

He

and

Force.

the

same

word

to

the

left and

turned

twice

used

lejt the

in two

is

senses

room."

I have known
the followingslovenly sentence
misunderstood
: "Our
object
is that, with the aid of practice, we
sometime
arrive
the
where
at
point
may
"
think eloquence in its most
we
To lie " has been
praiseworthy form to lie"
"
deceive."
to
supposed to mean

careful

5. Be
the

* *

He

hour

of

use

his

told

he

thought
ambiguity is

different

to

that

if he

did

also caused

by

"God,
certain

The

ambiguity arising

is well known.
persons
feel better in half an
not

better return."

this sort, "c.


foreseeingthe disorders

in this way,

us

friend

8.)

see

applying

he had

Much
as

he

"it," "they,"

"he,"

use

you

(For "which"

"these," "C.
from

how

(6) for remedy.

See

excessive

of such

use

phrases

of

passions

and

affections

disorders.

objects are, these


compassion."
Repeat the noun

Of

human

which

has

nature,
arise

this sort

these

"Among

of

from,

given
whose

or

fear, resentment,

are

affections

passionsand

are

fear"c."
Two

distinct

of

it may

be

noted.

when

//,

referringto
be
something
precedes, may
"retrospective;" but
when
that
to
follows,
something
"prospective." In "Avoid
indiscriminate
it
is retrospective.1
In
charity: it is a crime,"
"// is a crime to give indiscriminately,"
"it"
is prospective.
The
prospective it,"if productive of ambiguity, can often be
omitted
criminately
by using the infinitive as a subject: "To
give indisuses

that

called

"

"

"

is

speech in the First,not the Third Person,


to avoid
ambiguity. Speeches in the
necessary

Report

6.

where
third

crime."

afford

person

particular,though

the

generalambiguity

his

friend

to his

friend,

If/

Sometimes,

a.

words,
and

if he

that

where

or

mentioned

did

the
uninteresting-,

Essex

is asking

Sir

not

don't

(QIC
you]

where
the exact

in

feel

the

(5).

Cecil

feel better

writer

that

Person
"

is

some

It

had

place which

deserved

require condensation,

and

the

Bacon

Thus,

may
is in Lord

becomes

then

be

where

appointed
Macanlay's

tedious

it drops

exact

lengthy

or

preferable.

it

said

"

know

always

told

"He

unimportant,

Francis

He

of

and

interesting
un-

into the Third

Sir Robert
the

to

to

as

case,
"

write

"c.'

cannot

Attorney-General, the dialogue is (as it almost


writings) in the First Person, except where
so

"c.,"

better

words
are
Third
Person

Robert

very common
Instead
of

such

should
Noun

nothing to
he hoped

mark

refer

superior

of

say

but

that

he

thought

his

own

that his father's


obtain, and
gratitude from the Queen."
to

abilities equal
long services

(i)either to the Noun


immediately preceding, or (2)to
in emphasis.
all intervening Nouns
to
See (25).

Words.

17

in a speech reported in the Third


of "that"
6b. Omission
third person,
that
need
when
Even
Person.
a speech is reported in the
Thus, instead of "He
not
always be inserted before the dependent verb.
write,
not
said that he took it ill that his promises were
believed," we
may
This gives a little more
life,and sometimes
He
took it ill,'
he said, that "c.'"
"

"

"

"

'

'

7. When

is

what

walking," implying
that,"make it clear by

"

implied.

the first

Republics,in

"

as
Participle,

"while," "though,"

context

"

use

you

"when,"
the

also.

clearness

more

instance, are

desired

never

for their

they will finallybe desired at all,


unaccompanied'by courtlygraces and good breeding."
since they
the meaning is
Here
there is a littledoubt whether
are, or, //"theyare, unaccompanied."
sakes.

own

I do

think

not

"

That

when.

or

walk)

on

is better

It

they

instead

(1) " While


(2) "Because

relative

is meant,

to

walk,"

that

"men

use

when

"men

mean

participle.
he

was

he

r-...

was

WalkmS

on
on

road, )
h(
ice, \

\ (i) the

j (2) the

"

"

precedes the subject,it generallyimplies


participle
Otherwise
it generallyhas its
: "Seeing this, he retired."
He
retired,keeping his face
meaning, e.g.
participial
us."
at
If there is any ambiguity,write "on seeing,"
time, or while, keeping.

When
a

walking"

men

use

If the

of the

they

when

or

fall."
"

to

walk."

walking (that walk,

"Men

"

ice sometimes

the

cause

"

proper
towards

"

"

"

the

same

8. When
and

"which"

"for

the

using

the

where

he, it,"c."

Relative

nevertheless stood

he
((3)

will

Pronoun,

meaning

In other

/(i)he

retreat."

use

"who"

he, it,"c.,"
"that," if euphony

is "and

use

cases

soon

allows.
"

the

I heard

guard

"

Fetch

that travelled

(all)the

me

pamphlets, which
An

adherence

Thus

"There

door

was

the train.
that

this rule

to
a
"

great nuisance
a

with
books

lie

;"

this (i.e. the

public-housethat

much

door,

would

ambiguity.

which

fact of its

the
(i.e.
B

the floor."

on

remove

that

whereas

table, and also the

the

will find

public-housenext

and

it from

"

on

would

heard

(and he)

who
inspector,

(and these) you

was

nuisance," means
was

the

this from

was

being

have

meant

public-house)

was

great

door)

next
"

Next

great

and

Clearness

nuisance."
about

whereas

antecedent,

"

introduce

"

be, maintained

cannot
It is not, and
in Elizabethan

(Probably a general impression

authors.

has assisted "who"


to refer to persons
of
relative.) But the convenience

used
as

that

English, is observed

observed

this

by
in

the

the

modern

is

be

cannot

supplanting
rule

with

in

best

"that"

that

with

rule, though

our

that"

*'

great that

so

adhere

advantage
composition may
who
of
where
the
The
cases
followingare some
mostly used, contrary to the rule, instead of that.

beginners

thing
some-

travelled

is

to

fact

new

or
incomplete
defined.
unabove, "inspector" is
a
new
fact about him;

incomplete, and requires "that


complete the meaning.

"guard"

introduces

is

Thus, in the first example


introduces
complete in itself,and "who"
train

"

that

antecedent

the

which

without

"c.

"which,"

"Who,"

the

Force.

the rule.

to

which

and

are

Exceptions

:"
antecedent

the

When

(a)

English

who

uses
"

to

His

say

is defined, e.g. by a
It is rare,
of that.
English friends that had
those

English friends, or
(3)

That

ill when

sounds

possessive
not

him"

seen

English friends, that had

of his

separated

from

its verb

from

and

modern

case,

it would

though

instead

not

be

ful,1
use-

for

"the

him."

seen

its antecedents,

and
are
that, though
emphasized by isolation : "There
many
persons
and
good-tempered,
that, if not
strongly
commonly
unscrupulous, are
Incited by self-interest,are
ready for the most
part to think of the interest
ivho after that
when
of their neighbours."
Shakespeare frequently uses
the relative is repeated. See " Shakespearian
Grammar,"
par. 260.
be that.
is qualifiedby that, the relative must
not
(c) If the antecedent
is
the
Addison
other
Besides
disagreeable.
considerations,
repetition
"
that
I made
That
remark
ridicules such language
as
yesterday is not
I had
made."
I said that
I regretted that
that that
hence
the
throws
be preceded by a preposition, and
cannot
(d) That
is
to"
This
is the
I adhere
"This
rule that
prepositionto the end.
avoided.
sometimes
unnecessarily
But,
though
English,
perfectlygood
is harsh and objectionable,e.g.
with some
prepositions,the construction
Such
the prejudices
that I jumped
This
is the mark
were
beyond"
of these
is that some
The
above."
that
he
reason
rose
disyllabic
prepositionsare used as adverbs, and, when separated from their nouns,
give one the impression that they are used as adverbs.
modern
Engl'sh
(e) After pronominal adjectivesused for personal pronouns,
"

"

"

who.

prefers

There

are

others, several, those, -who

many,

can

testify"c."
(f )

used

that

After
as

relative.

9. Do

not

as

conjunction there

is sometimes

redundant

use

"and"

book
I gave him
a very
interesting
five
shillings."
me

"

cost

In short

dislike to

use

that

(c).

See

it is less evident, and

very

"which."2

present, and

absurdityis evident, but

the

sentences

before
for

in

which

long sentences

common.

presented for rescindingthat portion of the


petition
to support
bye-laws which permits applicationof public money
"A

here
3

was

So

useful

and

Of

in several
course

consideration, I am
disposed
of the following exceptionalcases.

that, on
"and

mature

which

"

may

be used

where

"

which

to

adopt

precedes.

"that

"

Clearness

20

after
which

I confess

had

"I

"

Write,

expected."

important

rule.
the

nor

truth),

that

he

would

not

the

Here

would,"

refusal,or,
(38).

or

not
is

sometimes

of

"I

have

danger

in this

The

use.

be,

not, hear
confess
I had

This

neither

procuring them,"
of bread, nor
crust

me,

may

would

favour, that

hear

even

meaning
he

"that

of

means

There

"

but

he

expected."

Instead

I have

CAUTION.

that

Force.

particularfor general terms."

of

"

said

See

11. Use

He

had

expected

me."

life

"

negative :

and

is

most

necessaries

the

(if you can with


to buy one."
penny

write
a

is

meaning

imperfect.

vividly expressed

of bread may
exaggeration ; on the other
hand, if the speaker is destitute not
only of bread, but also of shelter and clothing,then crust of 'bread is an

be

be

may

exaggerated

philosophy and
inclusive

be

to

be

Crust

an

imperfect expression of
In

or

the

meaning.

science, where

and

the

language ought very


particularterms

brief,general and

not

often
must

used.

11

Avoid

a.

Nouns

where

Verbs

be

can

used

The

instead.
that, unless

sometimes

are

Verbal

is this,
Nouns
disadvantage of the use of Verbal
they are immediately preceded by prepositions,they
liable to be confounded
with
participles. The

following is an instance of an excessive use of Verbal Nouns


:
The
confession
of
the
collusion
pretended
only
secretary was
of the king's favouring popery,
to lay the jealousies
still
which
hung upon him, notwithstanding his writing on the Revelation,
and
all occasions
to enter
into controversy, asserting
on
affecting
in particular
that the Pope was
Antichrist."
Write
that
he
and affected "c."
wrote
"notwithstanding
"

12. Use
"

the

particular Person

What

is the

beauty

of

the

beauty

Under

this

head

may

An

This

of

"

daisy ?
the

come

forcible

of Noun

use

for

of

itself."

fortress is weakness

this

use

is

and

"

shadow

of

13.

Use

African

mimosas,

Metaphor

"The
the

class.

lengthy
pedanticallybombastic,
following paraphrase for "in every British colony:"
Indian
palm-groves, amid Australian
gum-trees, in the

excess

e.g., the
"under

"

with

Adjective :

of

compared with
splendour of the greatest monarch
What
is the splendour of Solomon
flower?"

compared

"

instead

ship ploughs
sea," and shorter

cleaves the land."

the
than

and

instead
sea"
"the

beneath

pines."

Canadian

of literal statement.

is clearer

ship

than

cleaves

the

"the
sea

ship cleaves
a plough
as

Words.
Of
be

not

there

course

used.

14. Do
"

In

See

was

them, deluging their

upon

invaders."

with

country

the thunderbolt

moment

should

Metaphor

Metaphor.

confuse

not

and

(14 a]

which

subjects for
(14 b}.

some

are

21

The

Mr. Speaker,
:
followingis attributed to Sir Boyle Roche
I smell a rat, I see him
brewing in the air ; but, mark me, I shall
him
in
the
bud.
yet nip
"

"

Some

words, once
good writers

many

metaphorical, have
"

under

say

these

ceased

to

be

circumstances"

so

Hence

regarded.

instead

of

"in

these

circumstances."
excessive
of pedantry : disregard
regard for disused metaphor savours
unparalleled complications," but
inelegant. Write, not,
unprecedented

An

is

"

and

complications;"

"

he

threw

light

obscurities," instead

on

"

of

he

ravelled
un-

obscurities."

14

Do

a.

after

literal statement

introduce

not

immediately

Metaphor.

"He

father

the

was

and

of Chemistry,

brother

to

the

Earl

of

Cork."
"

He

was

And

was

not

Do

14 b.

of war,
very thunderbolt
lieutenant
of Mar."
to the Earl

poetic metaphor

use

Thus,

prosaic Subject.

we

poet soars"

"a

say

may

to illustrate
or

even,

but you could not


to greatness,"
soars
though rarely, a
"
Even
soared to 944-"
Consols
commonplace subjectsmay
nation

"

illustrated

by metaphor
to

commonplace
commonplace.

say

OF

Emphatic

of the

end

rule, should
a
left the room

metaphor,
Q\

illustrated

IN

part,

say
be

and

objectionable,
quite unBut
jumped
944."
by metaphor that is

to

SENTENCE.

stand

must
This

sentence.

rules

common

most

mounted,

WORDS

words

i.e. for the

it is

be

subjects must

ORDER

15.

for

Consols

"

at the

in

emphatic

beginning

or

tions;
posiat the

rule

occasionallysupersedes the
about
position. Thus, the place for an adverb, as
be between
the subjectand
verb :
He
quickly
"

"

but

if

quickly is to
end, as in "I

be

emphatic,

it

must

come

told ,him to leave the room


beginning or
left
he
but
quickly."
slowly,
"if"
and
Adjectives,in clauses beginning with
"though,"
for
often come
the
at
beginning
emphasis : "Insolent though he
at

was.

the

he

was

silenced

at

last. "

Clearness

22

15

words

Unemphatic

a,

from

the

end

of the

break

this

rule

by placing

the end

at

"

To

the

"is

short

abrupt

useful,"

"

want

useful, "c."
kind

words
no

emphasis
and

must

Latin

"

"

of"

witness

Bear

with
is

; e.g.
I loved

to

phatic
em-

He

does

him"

writing,

become

to

or.

in bad

"

letter-

spear,

common

attached

how

It is

the

"ground,"

the

writhing to
chippy" ending

pronouns
from
the end

moved

avoided.

be

fell

styles, especially in
be so frequent as
not

all

final

obtrusive

monotonous.

15 b. An
"

"

ending,

be

not

I hear

In

.N.B.

is to

soldier, transfixed

The

Prepositions and

need

that

few

his inferiors he is."

to

though emphatic,
"

longer

"

but

invariably been."

has

in the agonies of death."


construing from Virgil.

harm

nothing

It is

writhed

Exceptions.

to

unemphatic predicate

how

he

"chippy" ending, even


unrhythmical, e.g.
We

fault

common

at the
end,
auxiliaryverb comes
the position,e.g.
justifies
emphatic adverb

and

-writhed"

is

and

if it be

even
"

proves

an

very

rule, be kept

adjective or

an

of

addition

above,

"

evidence

where

Often,

it

short

as

sentence.

Latin,

some

must,

sentence,

useful." Write,

the

"

long

know

roots, is
So

of

Force.

and

No

one

doubt

can

guilty,would
emphatic

as

have
"Who

one

removed

ever

than

worth

Went

names

harsh
the

been

remorse,"
signs
it possibleto doubt,
who

Wentworth,"

those

he

of

majesty

so

?"

"c.

ing
think-

without

him

names

ever

features, ennobled

dark

really

is not

of

some

"But

thinking of
expressioninto more

prisoner,had

the

doubt, Is

can

without

be

that

shown

"No
Contrast
of "c."
with

16. The

gives emphasis.

interrogation sometimes

by

their

antique Jupiter?

an

subject, if unusually emphatic, should


from
the beginning of the sentence.

"

often
The

is an emphatic position,though mostly


beginning of the sentence
the
not
end.
Therefore
so
the principal subject of
as
emphatic
a
sentence,
early in the
being emphatic, and being wanted
sentence
at

we

to

us

what

the

the

near

want

to

from

Thomas"

or

Thus,
mere

is due

emphasize

to

the

"

It

the
was

emphasis

place for
unusually, we

usual

"

Thomas

beginning:
Thomas
on

"This

conqueror

ought

benefactors

not

rule,

house

the

subject,if

must
was

remove

built

by

that built this house."

"conqueror"

the great

as

comes

built this house."

"

"

is about,

sentence

Thomas
beginning :
since
the beginning is the
Hence,
or

"Thomas"

"A

tell

to

obtain
of

is not
from

mankind,"

us

quite so strong
the
as

in

reverence

"We

in

that

ought

Order
not

to

the

bestow

mankind, upon a
emphasis and greater
"

thus

Sentence.

is due

23

the great benefactors

to

conqueror"

mere

Considerable,

(19) \villbeobtained

smoothness
We

in

that

reverence

of

the sentence

Words

of

ought

not

bestow

to

but

less

by writing
a

upon

mere

queror
con-

"c."
Where

the

subject

same

rises in

and

first in several

stands

consecutive

it

sentences,

emphasis,
beginning, even
though
unusual
emphasis be required :
"The
soul of the expedition. He
the life and
first pointed
captain was
the possibility
of advancing ; he warned
them
out
of the approaching scarcity
of provisions; he showed
how
stock "c."
they might replenishtheir exhausted
need

be removed

not

from

the

placed before the verb


object is sometimes
is
in antithesis.
This
for emphasis.
most
common
"Jesus
17. The

and

know,

Paul

know

who

but

he put to death."
there is no
antithesis

'*

ye?"

are

Some

he

imprisoned, others
where

Even

the

inversion

is not

common
un-

:
"

Military courage, the boast of the sottish German, of the


and prating Frenchman,
of the romantic
and
arrogant
Spaniard, he neither possesses nor values."

frivolous

This

inversion

sometimes

father

slew," and
Sometimes
the

and

Take

as

who

gentlemen

the

on

king

son

the

appropriate by some,
interpretationsof the
morning the nobles and

different

to

in

the

assembled

in

the

dreadful
here they began to talk of what
a
; and
could scarcelyunderstand
before.
But Macbeth

castle

The

be considered

"Early

example,

an

attended

"

e.g.

in prose.

used

positionof a word
may
inappropriate by others, according

sentence.

in poetry,

ambiguity

creates

sparingly

be

must

storm

hall of the
great
it had been the

what
they said, for he
has been amended
last sentence
by
Professor
could
Bain into " What
they said, Macbeth
scarcely understand."
But
between
antithesis
the guiltless
nobles who
there appears
to be
an
can
think about
who
the weather, and the guiltyMacbeth
cannot.
Hence, " what

night
was
thinking of something

they

said

"

ought

"Macbeth

not,

and

worse."

"

The

"

Macbeth

ought,

to

be

emphasized

and

fore
there-

"

ought to be retained at the beginning of the sentence.


The
author
alters, The
praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested
same
with
him, but his invention remains
Virgil has
yet unrivalled," into
justly contested with him the praise of judgment, but no one has yet rivalled
"

"

his invention"
the antithesis

"

an

alteration

between

what

which
had

does

been

'

not

to

seem

contested,' on

emphasize sufficiently
one
hand, and what

the

remained

the other.
as
on
yet 'unrivalled'
More
Bain alters," He
judiciously Professor
how
task
he
undertakes
a
must
great
; for he
maintain
more
to
one," into " for, to maintain

more," putting the emphatic

words

in their

several words
18. Where
are
Which
is the most
emphatic.
made,
their

under

the

contention

pretence
to

each

whether
pleasantlydoubtful
be
to
emphatic.
parties

of
of

that

tells

be

forced

one,

he

lie is not
invent

sensible

invent

twenty

to

must

emphatic place,at

the end.

emphatic, make
Thus,

serving

in

"The

it, in realitythe

it clear
state

was

prize of

opposite parties,"it
the writer
means
(i) state
these

twenty

is
or

un"

(2)

and

Clearness

24
If

for

(i), "As

the

Force.

parties,under the pretence


servingit,converted it into a prizefor their contention.'1
If (2),write,"Though
served in profession,
the state was
in reality
converted
into a prize for their contention
by these two parties"
In (l) partiesis subordinated, in (2) state.
Sometimes
the addition
of some
to
serves
intensifyingword
instead
of
To
all
effect this they used
emphasize. Thus,
write "To
effect this they used
able
conceivdevices," we
can
every
device"
want
to
So, if we
emphasize fidelityin "The
business
will task your
skill and
write
"Not
we
can
fidelity,"
times
only your skill but also your fidelity." This, however, somestate, Jhese

two

of

"

leads
Sometimes

this,but
the

antithesis

emphasis

"will make

antithesis

You

do not

know

be

cannot

expressed by turning
sentence,
it," or by some
addition, as "You

should

which

they
to

20

intended

be

used,
I

"

as

For

should
to

as

near

exceptionssee

be

placed

affect.

When

between

the

between

the parts of the compound


has quickly left the
"He

subject and

possibleto

as

shall

the words

grammatically connected.

are

29.

20. Adverbs
are

"

it."

19. Words

Paragraphs

it." Where

in

as

the

know

you

hereafterknow

with

be

must

(2).

gives emphasis,

shall know

you

See

exaggerations.

to

the

See

30.

next

to the words

unemphatic,

adverbs

they
come

is

if the tense

compound,
tense
:
quickly left the
;"
room
room
;" but, when
emphatic,
after the verb:
"He
quickly"*
left,or has left,the room
When
such a sentence
the
latter is followed
as
by a present
there
arises ambiguity.
told him
"I
to go slowly,
participle,
but he left the room
the
the floor."
on
quickly, dropping
purse
Does
quickly here modify leftor dropping ? The remedy2 is, to
give the adverb its unemphatic place,"He
quickly left the room,
"He
the
else
avoid
to
dropping "c.," or
participle,thus:
He
and left the room," or
quickly dropped the purse
dropped
verb,

or,

"He

"

the purse

21.

and

affected

"only"

Sometimes
Of

course

should

be

use.

placed

strict3 rule
the word
before
The

by it.

transposition of
2

the room."

requires careful

"Only"

is, that

quickly left

the
an

emphatic Adverh
Auxiliary Verb,

punctuation

oneself clearly,as
express
3 Professor
Bam.

will
far

as

comes
"

Gladly

at

do

the

beginning, and

causes

the

I consent."

it is better
the ambiguity ; but
remove
possible,independently of punctuation.

to

Words

of

Order

followingis ambiguous

The

"The

heavens

The

and

the faithful

to

open

* '

placing
using only

avoid

to

Sentence.

25

rule is to avoid

best

words,

not

are

in

only

"

"

"

only at intervals."
two
emphatic

between

where

alone

"

"

used

be

can

instead.
In strictness

the

perhaps

followingsentences

three

only beat three,


He
beat only three,
(2)
(3) He beat three only,
ought to be explained, severally,thus :
than beat, did
(1) He did no more

(2) He

beat

He

(3)

no

beat

the

ought
he

of the

to

mean

.till he

but

was

die

not

all he did.
(Here only modifies
depreciatesthe action.)

was

and

"
He
word.
only lived "
"
but
He
sacrifice
;"
only
great
any
"
lived
He
8.
means
only till
v.
40)

or

(Macbeth,
also, Who^w/j'

man

"

Compare

Only at the beginning of a statement


you'llforgive me."
only I know
you,
favour
asked
letters.

Very often, only

at

came,"

bring

friends

few

Before
This

the

beginning of a
Caesar
approved."

"Only
ambiguity of only is illustrated
ten

of

yours

to

hath
but.

listen to me."

"Only

on

an

use

immortality."

I don't like to importune


the
imperative it diminishes
to
of only is mostly confined
"

is used

sentence

by such
shoot

the

the

transpose
make

"

was

man."

that

sometimes

did

he

kill,three.

not

three.

sentence

authors

best
"

lived

than

more

three, and

whole
But

He

(1)

for alone

"

Only

The
is less ambiguous.
"
hesitate
Don't
to
sentence
as,
five
time.
at
Only
estate
any

A lone
a

my

"I
don't mind
afeiv; only
might mean,
yesterday," which
Don't
hesitate
to
else
bring a few
or
as
fifteen
;
many
than five came
yesterday." In conversation, ambiguity is
no
more
more;
fortunate
unprevented by emphasis ; but in a letter,only thus used might cause
"no
Write
mean
mistakes.
Yesterday only five came," if you

(fifteen)came
don't

bring

"

"

so

"

than

more

five."

22. When

"not

is followed

each
"He

Write

only

not

"He

ether

"

hand,

gave
He

that

only" precedes "but also," see


part of speech.
by the same
gave

me,
not

me

not

but

advice

only advice,

only

gave
Take
an

also
but

help" is
help."

also

wrong.
On
the

but also lent me


grammar,
"
He
instance.
spoke not only

me

dictionary,"is right.
(adverbs),and this too, not only before
forciblybut also tastefully
small
a
audience, but also in (prepositions)a large public
not
only successful,but also
meeting, and his speeches were
(adjective)
worthy of success."

23.

I think

"

as

not

least," "always," and other


sometimes
produce ambiguity.

"At

cousin's.

my

perhaps

good, yet,
Latin
"My
"I

you

think

at all

at

"

my

all

will find my
this
Does

Latin
mean

adverbial

exercise, at all events, as good


(I ) " my Latin exercise, though

exercises;" or (2), Though


Write
events, as good as my cousin's"?
other

juncts,
ad-

"

not

for

very

(i),

exercise, at all events, you will find "c." and for (2),
cousin's,
find my Latin exercise as good as my
you will

events."

is to avoid

The

remedy
emphatic words.
As
"

and

Clearness

26

example of

an

From

City

that the funds

and
the
of

is often

adverb

practice,an

used

the sentence:

emphatic

guide

the

to

that

mean

"breaking

out

the

word, where

remote

is very

position

declared

the

in

Exchange,

the

on

This

word.

adjunct,take

ought

qualifya

to

emphatic than any nearer


Adjunct is placed in an
this very
"On
spot our

two

reports, but
out

not
(as is intended) that
place in the City.

"hearing,"
the panic,"took

latter is more
the Adverbial

broken

panic
fast falling." This

between

adverbial

an

favourable

most

had

were

and

In

misplacing of

the

that

heard

all events"

placing "at

received

he

abroad
he

Force.

beginning of

the

at

that

when

common

had

Oaverhouse

fallen."

24.

Nouns

they

define.

In

of

announced
the

should
Mr.

"

obliged

begin

to

"c."

works

to

regret

of

the

an

refer without

referred

however,
to

by the
:

son

author

an

the

of,

we

be

whose

by writing

"

We

of Mr.

death

"At

Smith,

money

of two

one

the

more

pronoun,

this

even

he

moment

is

nouns

be

may

the

they

noun.

this

gave me
Avoid

also

Avoid,
book,"
"

John

off."

well

very

decidedly superior
presumed

came

to

inferior

of

noun

colonel

the

who

of who.

(John) was

preceding
emphatic
though

to which

nouns

of another

is the antecedent

with

emphasis,
Thus

was

removed

follow the

of Thomas

Smith

supplied Thomas
in

informed

are

should

the

Thomas

When,

we

the intervention

"John Smith,

other

difficulty

"c.,"

works

feeling that, if
announced," we shall

He

be

is

death

author, "c."

25. Pronouns

unless

sentence,

or,

is

"

can

announce,

John Smith,

Smith

John

new

But

Mr.

"The

whose

author
from

that

nouns

sentence

John Smith, an
probably made

death

The

the

near

common

very

transpositionis

write

the

the

placed

be

up,

and

be

to

the

emphasis

the

noun

venes.
inter-

the place of
naturally refer

took

he would
general. He gave orders to halt." Here
that a
intervenes.
A conjunction will often show
to colonel, though general
the subject of the preceding sentence,
and
another
to
refers to
not
pronoun
"The
sentinel at once
took aim at the approaching soldier,
intervening noun.
and
fired. He
then retreated
to
give the alarm."
be called
It is better to adhere, in most
Rule
to
cases,
25, which
may
instance
Rule
of Emphasis, of which
an
(Bain) the Rule of Proximity. The
sometimes
A
distinction
in
the
last
is
was
paragraph,
misleading.
given
might be drawn
by punctuating thus :
"
slew Goliath."
"David
the father of Solomon, who
David, the father of

wounded

Solomon
each

is

of

mercy

26.

be

who

case

built the Temple."


questionable, and

But

the

it is better

propriety of omitting a
to

write

so

as

not

to

in

comma

be

at

the

commas.

Clauses

kept

as

that

close

are

grammatically connected

together

as

possible. (But

see

should
55.) The
produced

parentheses violatingthis rule often


The
result of these
serious ambiguity. Thus, in the following:
to be in oppositionto the view now
observations appears
generally
introduction

of

"

and

Clearness

28

repliedthat

"He

(3)

Force.

wished

he

(2), though theoreticallyfree from

ambiguous, owing

unnecessarily.

to

loose

It would

be better

ambiguity,

habit

of

intended," "c.,

or

there

Where

any

there

When

dependent

are

said

"He
the

that

capitaland
meaning is

the

on

those

from

to

of

danger
(2).

is

preferenceto (i) or
29.

replied,"c.

"He

Thus

several

the

same

that

he

indeed

(3)

(4)

or

in

that
those
infinitives,
tinct
word
be kept dismust

his friend

to take

medicine."

study

and

intended, "c."

He

not.

are

wished

he

subject

help them,

ambiguity, use

are

the

conjunctionalword

practically

is

repeating

insert

to

full stop between


the two
statements.
"
He
to
repliedthat he wished
(4)

or

that he intended."

and
.

with

him

whether

it is doubtful

Here

visit

to

"

"

said that he

He

wished

take

to

his friend

(1) and also to visit the


(2) "that his friend might visit
study medicine," or
visit to the capital,
and
a
(3) "on

with

him,
study medicine,"

capitaland

the

capitaland

or

might

that he also wished

also

study

to

medicine."
the three

From

ambiguity

be

must

it will be

versions

different

(a] by using

met

perceived that

"that"

for
"

this

"to," which
in (2)],and

auxiliaryverb \e.g."might
(b] by insertingconjunctions. As to insertions of conjunctions,

allows

repeat

an

(37).

see

"In

that
"

to

us

to," and "for


(wherever there is

expresses

purpose of," can

the

order

be

ambiguity) between

any
and

used
an

to

tinguish
dis-

infinitive

infinitive that does


an
not, e.g.
his
order
call
to
to
friend,
to) give
(in
upon
till he
about
the trains,and
not
to leave him

purpose,

told his servant

He

him

information

started."

30. The
"such
may

principleOf

a
that, until
way
feel the sentence

he has
to

Write

Suspense.

be

the

to

come

incomplete.

your

sentence

in

full stop, the reader


other words, keep

In

(i) by placing the


"if-clause" firsthand not
sentence
; (2) by
words
before
the
they qualify; (3) by using
placing participles
suspensive conjunctions, e.g. not only, either ; partly', on the one
hand, in the firstplace, "c.
reader

your

The
sense
"

in

in suspense.

followingis
draggles,and

Mr.

Pym

was

an

example

of

it is difficult to

looked

upon
he had

parliaments,| where
of business, | being

a, man

Suspense
last,in a

an

is caused

conditional

unsuspended sentence.

an

keep

up

one's

The

attention.

of greatest experience
served very long, | and was
always
officer in the Exchequer, | and of a
as

the

man

Order

Sentence.

reputation generally,j though known

good
the

in

Words

of

Puritan

Eng.

party

leading men
who

yet

of

not

those

furiously resolved) against the

so

had

were,

of

nothing

| and wholly devoted


that spirit."

be

to

furious

29
inclined

resolutions

Church

to the

Earl

of

(Mod.

the

as

to

other

Bedford,

"

of the
might have ended at any one
foregoing sentence
marked
above.
When
:
eightpoints
suspended it becomes
"Mr.
in the
Pym, owing to his long service in Parliament
above
all others for his Parliamentary
Exchequer, was esteemed
for
his
and
He
had
also a
knowledge of business.
experience
good reputation generally; for, though openly favouring the
Puritan
closelydevoted to the Earl of Bedford, and,
party, he was
like the Earl, had none
of the fanatical spirit
manifested
against
the Church
by the other leading men."
The

"

30

a.

It is

violation of the

principleof Suspense

introduce

unexpectedly, at the end


short and unemphatic clause

some

not"

"...

(a)

"

reform

This

of

classes

Write

"not,

"After
was

as

persuaded,

am

industry, self-

wastefulness, but

say,

journey, the

tedious

and

little

dangerous owing
safelyat York, which

arrived

all

wastefulness"

say,
some

long

will,

to

frugality."

and

dependence,
(b)

some

as

(a)

industry,self-dependence,and frugality,

us

among

encourage
and
not,

and

countrymen,

our

beginning with

highly beneficial

been

already

has

long sentence,

which."

"...

(b)

or

of

to

last

part

of which

the

roads, we

of

to

the

is

fine old town."

state

When
the short final clause is intended
to be
Exception.
with
it
in
comes
thing
someappropriately,
unexpectedly unemphatic,
of the sting of an epigram.. See (42). Thus
:
have been
old miser
said that he should
The
delighted to
the
fellow
b
ut
most
a shilling,
give
unfortunatelyhe had
poor
"

"

left his parse

has

are

we

been

home

pointed
is

"

habit

of

waiting, i.e.
out

the

on

that

above

objectionable,

his."

increased

naturally throws

Suspense
for which

at

emphasis
end

of the

especially

letter

words

the

sentence.

of

monotony
in

on

final

writing

It
phasis
em-

and

conversation.
Excess
31. Suspense must
not be excessive.
mon
of suspense is a com"
from
fault in boys translating
Latin.
Themistocles, having secured
fleet being now
he had
the safety of Greece, the Persian
destroyed, when
the bridge
down
to break
unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the Greeks
in full flight,and
the Hellespont, hearing that Xerxes
was
thinking
across

that

it

might

be

profitableto

secure

the

friendship of

the

king,

wrote

as

and

Clearness

30
follows

him."

to

The

Greece

the

idiom

English

more

safety of
unsuccessful

secured

Force.
is:

Themistocles

"When

destruction

by the

of

Persian

the

had

fleet, he

the
the Greeks
break
down
to
made
to persuade
an
attempt
Soon
the Hellespont.
afterwards, hearing "c."
bridge across
introbe intolerable
is tolerable in the duction
in prose
A
that would
long suspense
Paradise
Lost
of
the
interval
the
See
at
to
beginning
a
long
poem.
pare
Comfirst disobedience"
and
"Of
man's
between
Sing, heavenly Muse."
"

also the

beginning

"

High

on

with

the

where

opening

wealth

the

Showers

on

Satan

throne

Outshone
Or

of Paradise

II.

of royal state, tvhich far


and
of Ormuz
of Indy
hand

East
with
richest
the gorgeous
her kings barbaric
pearl and

gold

"

"

exalted
of

Book

Lost*

sat.

Keats'

Hyperion

shady sadness
of a vale,
the healthy breath
from
oj mom,
and
Far
eve's one
star"
from the fiery noon
Sat grey-haired Saturn, quiet as a stone."

"Deep
Far

In

in

the

sunken

sentence
long conditional
clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first.

32.

Every
with

that

If thou

didst

O, God
Revenge

Ghost.

forces

"

ever

thy father's most


him," as compared

Revenge
love

of

expression

an

I should

"

thy dear father

from

agony

love

!
his foul and

most

almost

complicated,and

clause."

didst

ever

effect is sometimes

long and

flatness of

"if-

the

"

Hamlet.

The

the

if thou

suspense

in

Ghost.

"

see

murder,

the

Hamlet

will

one

unnatural

put

ludicrous

when

it

murder."

unnatural
when

the

consequent

precedes the antecedent

or

is

"if-

be

delighted to introduce you to my friends,


the objects of interest in our
show
and
to
city, and the
you
beautiful
the
if
here."
in
were
neighbourhood,
scenery
you
Where
if-clause
the
comes
last,it ought to be very emphatic :
"

"

"if you were


only here."
of
The
introduction
of

middle

clause with

"if"

though in the
ambiguity, especiallywhen

often cause
may
of
the
sentence
a great part
depends on " that
answered
that, for the sake of preservingthe
would

sentence

keep

cowardice
would

they
See

was

quiet
the

put

for

motive
off the

the

present, though

of

the

trial

delay, and
to

"

"

or

more

"

"

His

enemies

public peace,
he

that

declared
for

convenient

this

they
that

reason

season."

(27).

Suspense l is gained by placing a Participleor


before the Subject.
the Subject,
Adjective that qualifies
33.

See

(30).

Order
Deserted

"

those

if

and

had

that

deserted

Of

He

forced

was

But

stated

be

this cannot

if

write, "He,
unduly emphasized ;
to his enemies,
recourse

have

we

effect is very flat.


"He
deserted
was

where

done

to

recourse

he is

friends,"the
by
write
might sometimes

we

"c."

to

31

have

to

Here,

"c.,"

his

deserted

been

course

forced

"

forced

was

forced

Sentence.

enemies."

his

been

write,

in

friends, he

his friends, was

by

we

having

his

by

Words

of

the

and

"desertion"

is

but

implied.
participlequalifyingthe subject is introduced
late in the sentence, it causes
With
this
positiveambiguity :
small force the general determined
the foe,flushed with
to attack
recent
victoryand rendered negligentby success."
be

to

not

when

Often,

"

An

excessive

of the suspensive participle is French


and objectionable:
use
with
business
of
think
to
by nature, and too much
engaged
fabulous
a
spoiled by a long-established liberty and
morrow,
perity,
prosof war,
allow
generations forgotten the scourge
we
having for many

"

e.g.

the

Careless

ourselves

remedy
"

to

is

to

Because
verb

"c.,

drift

we

the

therefore

the

only,"

"

nature

the

"oil

following sentence:
in which

course,

"You

"

the

else

ruinous, or
Here, the

as

uncertain,

convert

We

take

must

is

success

to

are

this

and

The

conjunction

the

participleinto
by nature
careless,

is liable

extremely perilous

failure

liberty of

meaning

on

e.g. "either," "not


Take
the
clearness."

hand," add

one

the times."

signs of
depending

Suspensive Conjunctions,

34.

well

of

verb

or
careless, "c. ;
with the principalverb, e.g. "
allow
we
ourselves, "c."

by

are

co-ordinate

and

taking heed
participleinto a

without

on

convert

your
be

to

disgraceful,as
country

is

dangered."
en-

misunderstood,

"Either
has gone half through the sentence.
Write
from
the
and
the
reader
is,
first,
"c.,
prepared for an

tillthe reader
you must,"
alternative.

Other

for our
part
though ; on
35.
Cause

in
one

hand.

Repeat the Subject when


ambiguity or Obscurity
"

likelyto
"

the

suspensiveconjunctionsor phrases are partly,


the firstplace; it is true ; doubtless ; of course
;

obscurityafter

cause

the
The

Relative

omission

omission

is

"

professesto be helping the nation, which


sufferingfrom his flattery,and (he ? or it ?) will not
The

give

Relative

several

Verbs.

gentle

and

shades

should
"

All

obedience

of life,and

be

liberal, which
which, by a bland

are

to

be

dissolved

repeated when
pleasing illusions

the

the sentiments
politics
"

realityis
permit anyone
in

it advice."

into

reason.

particularly

standing as Subject :

He

else to

would

by

that

this

new

it is the
which

harmonized

Subject
made

the

of

power

different

assimilation,incorporated
beautifyand soften privatesociety,

conquering empire

of

lightand

and

Clearness

32

Force.

Repeat a Preposition after


Conjunction, especiallyif a Verb and
36.

intervening
Object also

an
an

intervene.
"

he

forgetsthe gratitudethat

He

he

when

all his

companions
poor
(to) John Smith in particular." Here, omit
be "that
helped all his companions,
may

"companions,"

and

from

to, and
and

and

which

on

meaning

the

John

in

Smith

"

object,"helped

ambiguity.

several Verbs

are

Conjunction

this

causes

there

When

37.

of the verb

intervention

particular."The

helped

uninfluential,and

and

was

that

those

to

owes

at

distance

some

they depend, repeat the

Conjunction.1
"

When
made

have

look

we

in the

the havoc
upon
national
of our

back
ranks

that two

hundred

authors-

refer their

to

the

did

not

years

all,

-and, above

quick succession

rapid disappearance
cannot
help being dismayed at the
competitors we
of the present day."
that
writers
lies before the
prospect
substitute a parenthetical
omit
Here
"when," and we at once
clause.
for what
is reallya subordinate
statement
be
In reportinga speech or opinion, that" must
continually
of
what
the
avoid
the
writer says
to
confusing
danger
repeated,
(when)

of

we

new

"

"

with

others

what

"We

might

Christians

rightly or

say.

evidence

only

37

in secret

frankincense

throw

but

on

of the

Repeat Verbs

a.

the

Caesars

(that) they only punished men


wrongly, with
burning Rome,

foulest abominations
to

that

say

assemblies

the altar

of

crime."

who

committing

and

(that) the

; and

Jupiterwas

But

after

persecute the
were
charged,

the

the

not

the

refusal

crime,

(6 b).

see

conjunctions "than,"

"as," "c.
"

I think

like

me,"

"

the

he

or

better

me

likes

you."

Richelieu

hated

"he

Cardinal

Spaniard Olivares."
38.

If the

keep the
subject,or
what

The

conducive

some

and

populous
nation.

thread

"

"

you

i.e. either

"did,"

is

so

and

as

you

long that

"

than

you

sincerelyas did
cause
ambiguity.

it is difficult to

of

unbroken,
meaning
other emphatic word, or a

repeat

the
of

summary

said.

cotton,

cities

than

Buckingham

Omit

sentence

been

has

"Gold

likes

these

banks
are

not

and

railways, crowded

the elements

ports, and

that constitute

great

Adjectives

is also

"

repetitionof Auxiliary
to

clearness.

Verbs

and

Pronominal

Order

Words

of

in

Sentence.

33

This

repetition(though useful and, when used in moderation,


with
not
common
speakers than with
unpleasant) is more
writers,and with slovenlyspeakers than with good speakers.
"The

country

fair

some

is in such

and

I say, if we
that

condition, that

if

much

adopt

if

more,
unwise

so

more

whatsoever

is in such

policy,the country

the
satisfy

all reform

refuse

we

delay longer

we

of reform, sufficient at least to

measure

moderate,

"

"

dition
con-

a revolution."
precipitate
is either
implied (in a participle)or
often be repeated also.
In the
must
repeated,the antecedent
have
the
not
sentence
we
following
only in
Subject icpeated
we

Where

may

relative

the

the final summary,


"
if there
But
church

regarded
to

its

also

but

the

as

antecedent

"

were,
part of the world, a national
any
heretical
as
mitted
by four-fifths of the nation com-

care

in

church

; a

established

and

producing twice as many riots


which, though possessing great wealth
though long backed
by persecuting laws, had,
sword;

church

as

church

found

generations, been

many
and

barely able

maintain

unable

to

by the
conversions; a

maintained

and
in

the

of

course

its doctrines,
odious that

propagate

its

and

power,

church

ground ;
against its clear rightsof property,
fair
church
whose
were
generally regarded as
play ; a
ministers
were
preaching to desolate walls, and with difficulty
obtaining their lawful subsistence
by the help of bayonets,
fraud

to

violence, when

and

so

used

"

such

Churchyon

could
principles,

our

not,

must

we

own,

be defended."

39. It is

help

clearness,when

to

for the
prepares the way
for the end, in a kind of ascent,

the sentence
middle
"

called

following there

terms

"To

first

middle

part of

and

the

This ascent is

climax."

the

In

three

the

are

of which

climaxes, each

two

has

"

gossip(a)

is

fault (b) ; to

crime

libel(ti\a

(b');

to

slander (a"),a sin(b")."


the

In

they

following,

contribute

"Man,
declare

there

climaxes, and

several

are

to the clearness

of

long

sentence

note

how

"

contrived '(a) the Atlantic


Cable, but I
far more
think
that it astonishes $"} me
to
ft"\.forhismere

working,

amusement

created^}

has

(c), that

to

Othello'

and

entertain
'

Lear,' and

mere

am

idle

hour(d),

more

than

he

has

astonished, I

make

of his nature
inexplicable elasticity
of
from
turning away ("}
calamity
him,
instead
of
to
("'}them,
or
merely
defying
actually
(e),
grief
draw
his
and
from
amusement
to
them the material of
(ft),

the

"wildest

am

which
and

awe-

struck

enables

($\

at

that

instead

agoniesof

a
'(e')
spirit
pleasure which

the human
C

is

and

Clearness

34

only not crue^f), but


ennobling({'}."

is in

not

The
flow

neglect of climax

produces an
Thus, if Pope,

thought.

of

Force.

the

highest degree pure

abruptness
in his

that interferes

ironical

address

with

the

mankind,

to

and

even

had

written"
"

where
science
mount
Go, wondrous
creature,
guides
the
tides ;
Go, measure
earth, weigh air, and
state
Wisdom
how
rule"
to
Go, teach Eternal

"

the

ascent

"nd

from

would

have

been

investigating
"

the

Instruct
Correct

Go,

the

the

40. When

with
first

The

thought

the

to

is

from earth to heaven,


by the intervening climax
"

orbs

to

run

the

Sun

th' empyreal
perfect,and

sphere,
first fair."

expected to

sometimes

and

ascend

and

confusion

yet

is the

is called "bathos."
the

describe

can

pen
agonies, the

transition

regulate

first

good,

descent

"What

and

Plato

descends, feebleness
result.

The

is prepared

planets in what

Time,

old

soar

To

rapid.

too

governing,

to

animated

the

tears,

lamentations,
the

of

remonstrances

unfortunate

prisoners?"
She

of

accomplishments and virtues,


winning in her address, a kind friend,
movements,
affectionate
faithful and
mother, and she
a
loving wife, a most
played beautifullyon the pianoforte
"

was

woman

many

gracefulin her

"

INTENTIONAL
sometimes

For

humorous

incongruity and abruptness that


climax
ending with the line"

is

after the
Wisdom

Eternal

how

to

rule,"

adds"

"Then

40

example,

teach

"Go,
Pope

has

BATHOS

forcible.

a.

Without

drop into thyself,and

construction

new

should

a.

fool."

not

be

introduced

apparentlyunnecessary
change of
construction
awkwardness
and roughness at least,and somecauses
times
breaks
the flow of the sentence
so
seriouslyas to cause
plexity.
pervirtuous and accomplished," or "of
Thus, write
many
virtues and accomplishments," not
"of many
virtues and accomplished
;" "riding or walking" or "on foot or horseback," not
foot or riding." In the same
"on
do not
put adjectives
way,
and
active
and
forms
of
participles,
verbs, in too close
passive
the following:
such
sentences
as
juxtaposition. Avoid
cause.

"

A sudden

be

and

"

"

"

He

had

good reason
(accidental) but

to beliez"e that

the

not
an
delay was
(to
premeditated,
for supposing
else, for believing,above) that the fort,though strong
or
suppose,
both
be forced
by art and naturally (nature), would
by the
and
the indolent
treachery of the governor
(indolence of the)

accident

general to capitulatewithin

and

week."

36

Clearness

The
"

of

of

name

An

educated

epigram

sometimes

may

should

man

and

know

Force.

he

something

antithesis ; e.g.
given to a mere
of everything, and
everything

something."

43. Let each

have

sentence

one, and

only one, principal

subject of thought.
"This

eldest, heir

the

George,

principal estates
property

the

to

the

on

of many

memory
three

were

Cumberland,
shortly afterwards

September,
actions,
of them,

one

his father's virtues, as

well
of

most

situate, and

was

of

noble

sons

where

in

I7th

elected

to

(2) "George," (3)

man,"

considered

father's
for

member

should

county," disputingwhich
if not
three
principalsubject. Two,

the

have

sentence

level.

The
be

must

kept

Of each

up

some

of their

Pitt

His

in

was

biographer

the

of the

one

it will

be

meaning

had

so

the

seen

for

army

had

in

to

ever

this sort

scarcely ever
praise as

of

not

was

with

every

the main

of

scene

action.

The

which

is

publiclife of

lived
Pitt.

complete

Pitt

(,on

this

lence.
excela

person
He
was

and

wellof

or

criticised
in

and

esse

Hampden
be

viewed

be

to

if

have

(Buf)

merely a great poet in


example of moral

(Btif]his

man.

would

lived.

finished

is,that] there

little claim

of peace.

confessing, that,

service, he

that

not
a

on

our

the

commanders

( The truth

in time

months

few

remained

ablest

as

public life of
proportioned greatness. The
resembles
drama
which
Somers
a regular
can
and

sentences

necting
conjunctionsand other conthat the following sentences

insists
(accordingly!]

(undoubtedly] a great

whole,

one

"

Pitt (,//seems,)was
general in posse, but

great

subjects on

different

used

out

all.

is not

who

between

Leave

"

the

cornet

young

been

long

Conjunctions, or by
at the beginning
other connecting words

words, and
"

different

many

Adverbs

by

Sentence.

lose much

is to be
sentences

Carefully avoid

one.

family
good

heterogeneous.

connection

of

means

of

made, instead
this, treatingof

It is called

44.

"the

been

like

his

to

as

his

had for several generations returned


this
county, which
in Parliament."
Here
serve
we
have^(i) the "great and

the

died

man

him

family,of whom

numerous

good

behind

1683, leaving
and

and

great

as

connection

the other

hand,)

is," "c.

following

The

adverbs,

or

are

of

some

connecting phrases

similarity,repetition,

or

the
:

most

(i) expressing

resumption

of

therefore,then, naturally, so that, thus,


more,

to

resume,

to

continue,

to

sum

connecting

common

up,

in

in

consequence,

subject accordingly,
"

this way,

fact, upon

once
again,
this ; (2) expressing

however,
opposition nevertheless,in spiteof this,yet, still,
the contrary, on the other hand
; (3) expressingsuspension
"

but) on

"

Order

but ; indeed

undoubtedly
the other ; partly
.

conjunctionat all

no

"Blake
made
and

with

war

45.

The

hand

one

on

others.
.

which

Bishop Burnet,
"and"

with

happened

; and

gether
stringsto-

"so,"

or

; and

did."

who

at those

be

to

with

or

"

two

he

ashore,

went

only paid

Write

before

Malaga,

seamen

not

between

requires

at

of his

some

about

connection

sometimes

the

; on

37

carried

it,but laughed

to

yet

sentences

Spain

upon
the Host

met

Sentence.

some

of

that

fleet

the

partly

a
style like
of
number

Avoid

in

Words

of

no

respect
"c."

When

Blake

long

sentences

intervening sentence,
thought.

short

of

showing the transition

ness
the fierceopposition,it (chivalry)subdued
of pride and
to the
; it obliged sovereignsto submit
power
x
of social esteem,
soft collar
compelled stern authorityto submit
dued
to elegance,and
gave a dominating vanquisher of laws to be subBut now
(allis to be changed:} all the pleasing
by manners.
made
illusions which
monized
gentleand obedience liberal,which harpower
"Without

force

or

the different shades

of

empire

reason."

light and

transition

would

which, by

bland

lation,
assimi-

that beautifyand
incorporatedinto politicsthe sentiments
dissolved
be
this
to
new
privatesociety,are
by
conquering

soften

the

of life,and

would

be

If the words

abrupt

too

italicized

the

omitted,

were

conjunction but

alone

insufficient.

be

BREVITY.
briefer

is

46.
Metaphor
(13).

than

literal

statement.

See

"The

crown,"

where

effect of

47.
than
matter

poems

of a sovereign often
responsibilities

and

cares

sleep,"is not

so

brief

the

heavy

General

"Uneasy

as

effect of

crown

care

pressingon

terms

Thus:

or

kind," is
histories,no matter
what

This

metaphor

the mind

head

shorter

is not

what,

disturb

that

his

wears

is assimilated

to

the

the head.

briefer, though

are

particular terms.
of

on

lies the

"He.

than,
he

recommended

less

devours
"

Novels

devours

forcible,

literature, no
or

them

for imitation.

sermons,

all."

Brevity.

38
47

a.

phrase

expressed by

be

may

word.

be forgotten,i.e. are indelible"


never
impressions can
be
is of such a nature
The
that it cannot
style of this book
i.e.
unintelligible."
understood,
"These
"

The

"of

words

inserted.

See

such

the

that"

nature

Sir Archibald

from

extract

often

are

unnecessarily

Alison.

brief (though
often be used
as
Participlescan
sometimes
taining
ambiguous) equivalents of phrases conConjunctions and Verbs.
48.

instances.

more

this

Sometimes

"though
49.
used

he

retired."

the

doors,

our

"

contain

done]

was

So

that

"phrases

See (7) for


heard) this, he advanced."
"phrases containing conjunctions" means
This, done, (for, when
conjunctions."

he

(when

"Hearing

participle"being" is omitted.
no
sees
danger nigh," for "France

he

"France

being"

Participles and participialadjectives may


like Adjectives, as equivalents for phrases

"The

50. A

instead

could

write

not

statement
of

taining
con-

clamouring ocean," "the


licence of inventingparticipial

"the

instances.
drenching rain," are
adjectivesby adding -ing to

poetry.

be

Relative.

nQver-ceasingwind,"

You

or

is."

France

the

at

"

The
a

the

noun,

is almost

crannying

sometimes

may

being expressed

at

be

length.

restricted
"

wind

to

in prose.

brieflyimplied
Thus,

of

instead

was
spiritof Christianity
humanizing, and therefore "c.,"
or
"Christianity, since it was
(or being) of a humanizing spirit,
write
more
briefly and
can
discouraged "c.," we
effectively,
"Gladiatorial
shows
first discouraged, and
finally put
were
down, by the humanizing spiritof Christianity" So instead of
"The
of youth is thoughtless and sanguine,and therefore
nature
"c.," we can write, "The
depreciated
danger of the voyage was
the
of
the island exaggerated by
and the beauty
natttre
thoughtless
of youth"
"

The

Sometimes
was

in vain

preferredby
they were

by

mere

that
the

hardy

mountaineers

all honest

name

or

he offered

men,

epithet implies a

the Swiss

terms

mountaineers"
and

but

hardy.

the

i.e.
"

Government

' *

The

:
"

statement.

war

by

"It

deliberately

was

the Swiss, because

deed

affected

was

to

applauded
treat

it

as

Brevity.

39

head

set

the

of

(him whom
they called)
the assassin"
The conqueror
of Ansterlitz might be expected to
hold different language from the prisoner of St. Helena"
i.e. Napoleon
elated by the victoryof Austerhtz,"and "Napoleon
when
when
depressed by his imprisonment at St. Helena."
and

murder,

price upon

"

"

CAUTION.

Different

"

must

names

be

not

for the

used

same

unless

person

from its context.


derives
an
Thus, if we
appropriateness
Charles
be in very
bad
are
taste
writing about
II., it would
to avoid
third
repeating " he" by using such periphrasesas the following : "The
each

of them

of the

Stewarts

fourth

year

forcible

certain

the

business,"
age," "c.

Conjunctions may

51.
a

hated

of his

Monarch

Merry

be omitted.

abruptness,e.g.

"You

died

The
this

say

in the

omission
:

(on

fifty

gives

the other

hand) deny it."


When

be

may

short, as

Macaulay's writings,conjunctions
advantageouslyomitted.

sentences

are

is intended, the
Where
a contrast
for the second
of the two
contrasted
talks truthfully and

51

The

a,

conjunction but usually


"

the way

prepares

is good but dull."


of bid, the incongruity savours
of epigram : " He
"
false."
He is always amusing and
prosily."

instead

is used

and

in

terms

He

Imperative Mood

for "if."

be used

may

Where

always

strip]Virtue of the awful authority she


of mankind, and you rob her
general reverence
majesty."

"Strip (for,if you


derives

from

of half

her

the

Apposition may

52.

into

sentences

called

"We
of

"

than,

of

(1) the

person
and, what
This

"He

subject of

resided
of

esteem

to, and

came

He

came

Such
no

here

this

unemphatic words,

"This

often

is

such

Tautology.
is

good friend

as

to

briefer

and

clear as,

by

several

verbs

for many

city,-and

condensation

several times

letters

not

repeating

verbs,

(2) the

prepositions.

or

years,

the

obscurity,there

54.

had

we

and, after he had won


So, (2) "He
citizens,(he) died," "c.
induced
to reside in, this city,"is shorter than

all

was

to

is more,
is

effected

be

may

object of several

(i)

two

musician, "c."

common

common

the

was

to convert

as

to whom

of music,"

Condensation

53.

is

the house

students
He

so

one.

introduction,a musician,

all young

"

at

used

be

"

as

The

was

causes

certain

induced

reside

and,
obscurity,
harshness

to, in, "c.,


fault

to

of

as

in

in it."

even

where

pausing

on

there

light,

in the first example.

repeating the

same

unnecessarilyis called tautology


', e.g. :
circumstance
it
is
circumstance
a
painful
;

word

that I

Brevity.

40
much

the

But

fault

the

mean

is

thing,
that

such

that

is

"

the

of
instances

are

is

judgment

unnecessary

the

Alison,

thirst for

conquests

ardent

an

universal

of

is

"

of

end

teristic
charac-

"c."

Other

men;"

all

deceived

never

the

at

that

passion

opinion

it is

words

See, for

word.

same

Archibald

Sir

that
infallible

so

the

arrange

no

greatly

slightlydifferent

in

repetitionof

It is

"The

"

will

is to
be

may

meaning

burning

this nation.

there

event;

also

to

it is

stance
painful circumstance, a circumwill cause
him, deep regret."

from

"A

he

words

same

the

extract

Thus

book.

the

the

than

fault

is

and

me,

painful

remedy

true

that

different

by using
is

regret, and
The

This

repetitionof

examples,

as,

"This

manner

causes

worse

avoided

circumstance"

regret the

much

be

much

repetition,thus
The

will

occurrence"

the
in

words

to

not

same

circumstance
lament

also

he

regret, and

"His

"c.

Parenthesis

55.

with

used

be

may

to

advantage

brevity.
"We

have

we

Extreme

the

of

long

at

the

forcible

more

would

been

ment
treat-

the

than

appended
?"

be offended

not

that

taken

be

let clearness

parenthesismay

sentence.

be the first consideration.

at
beginners, not to aim so much
Horace
forcible, as at being perfectly clear.
fall
into
I
take pains to be brief,
obscurity,"and
fere
of the rules for brevity interthat several
seen

for

all events

It is best, at

being brief,

however,

meaning

and

indeed,

Who,

offended

be?)

parenthesishad

if the

"

Caution:

56.

not

is shorter

been

must,

care

obscure

not

have

sentence

separate

would

(and who
received,"

would

sentence

in

all

are

or

While
I
says,
be
it may
easily
with
the rules
"

for

clearness.

of
style springs from (i) vividness and (2) exactness
and
ness
(2) exactthought, and from a corresponding (i) vividness
Forcible

in the
When

(1)
and

describe

who

was

cut

of

use

words.

as

run

you
the

If you
before you,

it.

see

are

writing

man

writing about the capture of a city,was


surrendered, starved out, or demolished
surprised,
Was
routed,crushed,
repelled,defeated,
an
army
you

are

in the

(2) Exactness
of

their

cannot

meanings
be

discussed
1

See

and

differences.

here.

English

of words

use

is

about

it

man

executed,

If
hanged?
the city stormed,
?
beforesurrender
or

annihilated

exact

Lessons

see

knowledge
and
study by itself,

requiresan
This

to

he

and

ask, was
through the body, butchered, shot, or

killed,see

d"nvn,

endeavour

describing anything,

are

you
it

for English People,

pp.

1-53.

EXERCISES

For
cises

intended

are

of the

explanation

an

number

used,

be

to

(43), (40 d}, refers

e.g.

Letters

explanations

(iotf)

N.B.
"

(10 a')

"

Rule

(36)

(37

estranged

"

had

(a)

2.

This

(a)

soon

the

(a)

purpose,

friend,"

of

the

naturally

which

(a) (40

(wrongly)

the

give

to
"

Begin

to

attempt

he

(a)

"

"

with

that

(/")(10

by

by

(8) which

he

or

Carelessness
Nature

to

particularly

(2)

"a

in

failure

the

that

needs

the
to

be

once

good

no

being

leisure"

restless"

could

be

not

naturally,

are

the

at

the

failure

of

the

Government

certainly

to

either

and

not

bold
at

be

regretted."

(i)

"an

attempt

the

that

"c."

Admiralty

weaken

had

."

"which,"

for

"

Also
"

nature

of
is

which

a')

friend,"

beautiful

to

use

why

elated

supporters

(b) Write,

unjustifiably."
"c.,"

4.

two

his

that

could

Government

the

had

nature"

reason

Restless

justification,

return

election,

recent

of

opponents
without

a)

than

becama

in

"purpose."

at

stops

than

even

retirement

restless

(15)

"

(2)

or

solitude

of

leisure

being

(30)

sentence

The

him

companions

two

"

for

friend."

his

tired

pleasures

employed.

3.

(10)

of Rule

attractions

the

than

grew

(36)

seems

his

for

attractions

and

for,

pined

than

more

He

(36)

scenery,

"

(i)

"

sentence.

(10).

more

and

th"

to

a} gradually"

(15

Write

(a)

had

friend,

letter ",

($}, refer

e.g.

section

first
Rule

excitement

his

#)

the

to

by

followed

each

to

following

and

Pleasure

1.

(a)

the

to

appended

refers

Exer^

Preface.

brackets,

in

hints

or

these

Rules.

the

to

themselves

by

the

see

by itself, or

brackets

in

which

in

manner

departments

moral

thought

power

of

efficient

has
a

in

co-operated
Government

(a)

(5)

this

Exercises.

42

respect,(b) (29)
desire

(c}(47 a)

(a) Write

general distrust of its


please everybodyin Foreign Affairs."

to

"the

Navy." (b} Instead


distinguish the different

to

as

"

counterbalance

to

(a) He

cessive
ex-

of "to"
write
"in
order
to," so
infinitives,
(c) "obsequiousness."

sometimes

supported by Austria, who, oddly


have
been
to
enough, appears
more
friendly
to Italy than
(37 a) France, (30) in this line of action."
5.

was

under

with

(a] Begin

"In

"There

(a) (4)
one

had

Beust

line of action."

so

of

discoveries

nez"erbeen

yet (47 a) attained

not

*'

(b) Write

than

was

in (a) (5) this assertion,


startling
to be
were
previous investigators

though they Jiad

as

Why?

was."

France

something

was

(b) (47 a) treated


who

than

or

the

that

this

"

France"

6.

Count

the

made,

(4) that

manhood

of

age

and

had

for centuries
superseded
grey-headed philosophers(8) who\\z"
patiently sought after the truth, (4) that (a) (5) it naturally
the

derision."

provoked

"

it," cause
(a) "This," "that," and
that the
startling assertion
youth," "a mere
(c) "a mere
"

7.

of the recommendations

One

depended)
province should

each

of

oversight
council

Write

either
"

8.
that

(i)
its

in

"

(on which

"

"The

ignored."

(a) (26) (47, a)

very

that

was

council

in

councils, each to have the


(b) (37) report to a central
(c}(5) it."

smaller

of Education

in

"

Derive

recommendations."

cardinal."

should, report,"or (2) "and

and

(b)

stripling."

district, and

"cardinal

."
.

Commission

establish

small

the state

on

(a)

to

(b) Write,

report." (c)Write

"district."

province," or

(a) (i) period an (b] (il) event (f)(i)transpired


The
last hopes of peace.
king fell from his
destroyed
"

At

this

the

horse

and

died

by
from

his return

(a) What

is

"

thus:

king

fall

the

(d) (30), which


mole-hill,while he was

"period

"

(c) What
While

fell and

done

that his honour

the
"c."

(") Express
is the

king
The

(c}on

with

(c) "to

the

meaning
on

was

cause

particularkind
transpired
"

of

should

of event

"

his return

on

("

dent
acci-

(d) Transpose

his horse
.

precede

sellingall

the

the effect

his estates,

and,

as

soon

(40 a), to (c} qtiitthe country, (a) (33) believing


demanded

this sacrifice and

his creditors.
satisfying

(a) Begin

was

"

determined

9. "He
this was

hope

after

stumbling on a
reviewing hi 's soldiers.

").

of

hours

two

his horse's

occasioned

as

the

of

much

little perplexity. Write

discoveries.

Believing that "c." (b)


sell" or "on
quitting."
"

(40) (40 a)

in

(b) the

"

"

hoping thereby to satisfy"c."

Exercises.

44
1

"

6.

bribes

(a)

poor
elections

Write

"

than

(i) "Than
think

they
17.

think! themselves

The

at

We

the rich
the rich

with

themselves

disgraced," or (2)

think

"

Than

disgraced."

Mahmoud,
by his perpetual
had
filled
his dominions
(a)
tyranny, (a) (41)
(b](l) misfortuneand (c)(n) calamity,and greatly (d) (n)
the

diminished
had

Sultan

he

that he

had

language

his

population

was

humorist

learned

of

or

from
that

birds, so

that

of

the

its mouth,

Persian

This great
Empire.
We are
not
(/) (55) (15) informed
enthusiast,(g)but he pretended (h)

Vizier.

(e)(50) a

whether

bird

by offeringthem."

told that the Sultan

are

(41) and

wars,

(a)(37

disgracedby taking

more

no

a) the rich

an

how
to understand
one
(i)(1 1 ) some
what
he (j) (5) knew
said by
was
One
he
with
was
(k) (44)
evening

the
any

the
opened
Sultan, returning from
a
hunting. They saw
couple of owls
which
(10 g) were
an
sittingupon a tree (/)(8) which grew near
old wall out of a heap of rubbish.
Sultan
The
said (6)he should
like to know
owls were
what
the two
saying to one another, and
asked

the

Vizier to

of it.

account

the

to

Sultan
but

(m)

and

him

give

Vizier, (n) (31) pretending to be

very

an

tive
atten-

He
to the
owls, approached the tree.
(0) returned
heard
their
said that (6) he had
of
conversation,
part
what
it was.
wish to tell him
(/) (5)He, not (q] (31)

and

did

The

listen to their discourse

not

being satisfied with

this answer,

forced

him

repeat everythingthe

to

(20) exactly, (r} (44) (5) (6) He told (5) him that
the owls were
arranginga treaty of marriage between their children,
and that one
of them, after agreeingto settle five hundred
villages
female
the
God
would
had
that
(6)
owl,
prayed
upon
grant a
life
Sultan
he
to
because
as
long
Mahmoud,
reigned over
long as
owls

them

had

said

they would

(s)thai (/) (5) Aewas


he (a) (39) from that
that

people,and
had

been

(a)

he

ruined

want

never

touched
time

with

forward

rebuilt

the

villages.
the

story

says

fable, (30) and

(s) that
the
(15)
good of his
villages(v] which

consulted
and

towns

The

destroyed."

"abroad

at

...

home."

(e) "The
is emphatic,
we

therefore

of

(d] "half

(c) "desolation."

"c."

(/)

"

We

are

peopled."
un-

informed

not

"

he was,
be inverted, "whether
when
(g) " but he "will be omitted
"
"the
Vizier"
tended"
Preis made
the subject of
(k}
"pretended."
meant
once
"claimed,"
"professed." Write "professed."
(z) a certain dervish."
(/ ) Introduce
a new
subject that youmay
bird could
substitute "Vizier
its
"for "he, "thus
that nota
so
:
open
mouth, but the Vizier knew "c." (/")"As he was, one
evening, "c."
This
(/) Note that the tree is represented as growing out of niins.

"c.,

and

(b) "ruin."
Vizier

should

informed."

not

are

"

"

is in accordance

(m)

Omit

with

this.

Mahmoud
the story of the mischief
of
"is
out
place

(") "Suspense

had
in

done.

simple
owls."
("?)
a

ends with "


like this ; the sentence
therefore
Sultan"
"The
return."
be
not
"Upon
(g] "would
(/)
know
satisfied."
must
(s] Omit.
then, "c."
(/) "so
(r) "You
here uses
that."
touched
(u) end with "people." (v) Addison

narrative,

his

Exercises.
"which,"

because

probably
between

the

of

sound

45

"Which"

implies that
the
destroyed, whereas

choose
been
the villages in the country
had
been
had
only (see above) "half
country
to

all

8.

"

this great king never


the duties of state, which

with

and

himself

kept
or

amusement

in

the

the

to

chase, of

considered

to be

importance,

that he

allowed

yet he

and

no

terfere
in-

superior
(a)(37)

pursuit

one

took

(54)great pleasure
(b} (2) excessively
(54)fona \ and for
created several large parks of considerable
excess,

any

he

of which

purposes

control

to

run

which

he

of paramount

far under

so

unpeopled."

permitted any pastime to

Though

(54) all other claims

to

"

preceding

clearness.

and

was

he

(54) magnitude."
(a) Either

"though,"

repeat

begin

sentence

new

between

leave their country, with

and

their

(a) (n)

the

"excess."

"excessively"

inundate

""To

19.

strikeout

else

or

after

first

(3) Point

what

though
the

out

"

and

diction
contra-

precedes.

land, to

all its miracles

"

their

man

of art

and

ships,to
industry,its

cities,its villas,and its (b} (ll) pastures buried under the waves
their (d ) (1 1 ) faith and
(c} (1 1 ) ; to bear to a distant climate
their old (e)(n) liberties;to establish,with
auspices that (10 a)
the
be
constitution
new
might perhaps
(/) (n)
happier,
of their
commonwealth, in a (g) (n) foreignand strange (//)(n) land, in
the Spice Islands
of the Eastern
the plans which
Seas, (38) were

they had

the

(a) Introduce

"

(/;) Introduce
dykes."
something
"canals,"
"tulip gardens."
(c)
e.g.

Dutch,
Ocean."
old
to

(d) The Dutch


Batavia," so

times
"

what

the

Calvinists.

were

"

denote

(f)

"

form.

spiritto

"

that

Dutch

(e)The
"

Batavian
inherited

had

Stadthaus," the German

peculiar
"of

would
from

for "town-hall."

the

to

country
be a fit

their

the

German
was

in

epithet

forefathers.

(g) "other

stars."

(h) "strange vegetation."

"During

20.

(a) which

the wealth

its branches

higher

on

become

(a) Omit.

been

had

the

no

for

better

great author,

deliver decisions

shot

funds

attained

ever

(14 a) up and extended


had (14 a] soared
to a
before,(b) (15) speculation

sentence

new

(a) (16) a mere


name) had been

and

"This,

or

Prosperity,had

increased

speculation."

that time

"At

deserves

unexampled prosperity,during

general."

(") Begin

the taste

side, and

every
had
than
point

had

21.

years of
of the nation

twenty

as

which

productions of
literary

the
could
the

narrow-minded
set

day.

"

by

the

alone
(b} critic,

supreme
never

up

pedant (forhe
world
literary
as

be

(b}reversed

qualified to
(15 a) tht
upon

Exercises.

46
"

with

(a) End

"

"

reversed

intending also
him,

to

he

himself

clear

to

ascertain

to

could
"

else

or

how

were.'*
suit had

"The

23.
numerous

forward
the

as

of the earth
plenty,when

(a) Mention

"

24.
sudden

He

(11}

the

"

the

out

saw

Point

26.

out

old
at

Street

and

"He

and
the

remove

that

they

had

"and

(a)

27.
neither

"

The
did

were

in the

were

sometimes,

Commons

they

of

his

own

should

war

be

of Palestine.

asked

it to

his

it

remove

the

for his

reason

refusal

annul

to

the

great displeasureto

by (8)or (10 a'}.

again by
first

accident

mere

when

Exhibition, (19) walking

in at the

while

House

(52) was

"

shops.

at

.his

he

would

yet condemn

debate
used

not

to

say,

was

indeed

taken

him,

he used

good as a comedy.
(17) sudden turn in

as
more

own

speech

practice with

mind, and

sometimes
seen

his

common

his sated

this memorable

as

of

shade

(n)

was

of the

never

that which

the

ambiguity.

Majesty
certainly
comedy of intrigue,either
than

phets,
probe as

products (a) (1 1 )
abundant
an
(54)

create

(10 a')gave

looking

; which
debates amused

(a] (6 b}

say

he

and

the time

remained

the

"

trees

schoolfellow

into consideration
because

should

"

owed

he

ambiguity,

my

Regent

as

their

"

classes.

in London

was

down

"

"products,"

or

the

when
to

instruments

treaty, (a) (8) which

poorer

its descendants

beneath

rest

of peace.

uses

testimony

latter "c.,"

teaching of

the

when

should

unpopularity,that

25.

time

increased

when

very

"c."

replied (32),when

(a) Point

so

man

some

commercial
the

be

each

to the

converted

to

the prosecutor,

"The

sentence,

new

heavenly (1 1 ) bodies ', and

should

trees, and

(a] (n)

(b) Begin a
been
begun

Jewish nation, relyingon

looked

be

supreme

this

(40 a) far

corroborated, and (a) (40 a] the motives of


(b} (43) who had begun the suit last Christmas."
"The

the

name

never

personification: "a

was

(a) "what

better

no

his promise, and


(40 a)
fulfilling
from
the suspicion that attached

intention of

determined

deserves

(b) "Which

be

the

With

he

for

"

into
condensed
may
criticism."
of contemporary

Minos

"

was

pedant."
expressed in one word

be

can

reversed"

22.

who

one

narrow-minded

mere

to

His
any

play-house or the Duke's,


produced."
as

approve

good
the

"c."

war

(20)expressly;
(a) (18)the

it (20)expressly
; and

Exercises.

king might
with

of

Declaration
Write

"

*'

Indulgence

was

supply

for

continuinghostilitie?
of (I)}
redressinggrievancesconnected
which
the
of affairsat home, among
a

important (d} (15 a)

very

one."

the
even
(3) Use
ready to grant the king "c."
all this into one
ing
subject. (T)Condense
adjective,mean"that
which
takes
place at home,"
(d} End with a noun,
importance," or "foremost
place."

verb

28.

obtained

them, on
(f) administration

the

(a)

have

even

condition

(19) from

47

they

with

"Next

were

thinking clearly,(a] (5) it is useful to speak


hereafter
be it
positionin life may
your
be such
be
cannot
not
to
as
(54)
improved by this, (b] so that
while
it is worth
making almost any effort to acquire (c} it, if
/'/ is not
natural
a
gift:(d) it being an undoubted
(d] fact that
the effort to acquire it must
be successful, to some
extent
at
if
it
be
least, (d)
moderately persevered in."
to

clearly,and

"

(a)

whatever

in

Next

utility

speaking clearly

comes

....

be of assistance

to

(b)

clearlyby nature, you "c."


(c)
"for undoubtedly, with moderate

"

"

"c."

you

"

power

that

"

If,therefore, you cannot


this power."
(d} Omit

must

speak
"

fact ; "

"c."

perseverance

//

(a) (38)appears to me (15) a greater victorythan Aginand


grander triumph of wisdom
faith and courage than
the English constitution
even
or
(b}liturgy,to have beaten back,
and
stemmed
in ever
or
even
small a degree,
fought against
so
those
basenesses that (c) (10 a] beset human
nature, which
are
29.
court,

held

now
as

invincible

so

the fundamental
(a) Begin with

"To
for

that

axioms
have

beaten

clearness

basenesses

"

30.

The

and
of "c."

"c.," and
emphasis,

us

forciblyof

the

effrontery(c}(which (26) he

of the

of them

science.
end
"the

Member

for

are

assumed

"

"

with

liturgy." (b)
English." (c) "The

(a) (2) unprecedented impudence


reminds

remarkable

the influences

of economic

of

our

unblushing
almost

peat
Resetting
be-

presentative
youthful re-

and

succeeds

(54) (40)
in

ling)
equal-

St.

Alban's, whom
our
(b] (i) neophyte
(b] (i) alluded to, in the last speech with which he favoured those
whom
(47 a) he represents, (19) as his pattern and example."
(a)

Show

' '

"

is inconsistent with what


follows,
unprecedented
(b)
What
is the meaning of "neophyte," "alluded
to"?
(c) Begin a
"Our
new
adventurer
sentence,
Sic.,"and end with "and
young
he almost
in equalling his master."
succeeds

31. "The
is the more

because

that

of
(a)(i ) veracity
reason

for

in his remarks

this

story is questionable,and there


doubting the (a) (i) truth of the narrator,
the (i) observation
of the Sabbath
on
he

Exercises.

48
(a) (i)alludes
distinctly

to

that

custom

shown

be

can

to

never

existed."

have

"

between

(a) Distinguish

Show

"observance."

veracity" and "truth," "observation"


"allude"
the inconsistency between

and
and

"distinctly."

Mr.

(a) (5) is

"It

32.

dwelt

has

Tucker

pleasuresin which
active.
assent

upon
are

we

justdistribution,(loa) which the late


so
(b] largelyin his works, between
passive,and pleasuresin which we are
observer

every attentive
that however
to (c]this position,
I believe

And

in which

occasionallybe

may

most

we

of human

life will

(d] grateful the sensations


passive,it is

are

not

these, but
satisfaction,

pleasures,(8)which constitutes
of moderate
laneous
and miscelregularstream
(e) (38)which supply
happiness,as distinguished
enjoyments in (ior) which
from
voluptuousness,consists."
latter class of

the

our

that

"

(a)

often

Not

"The

33.

in this

used

now

those

mean

"c."

justice in

is great

There

(5) Omit "so."


(e) Repeat

sense,

(c)" admit."
(d"
antecedent, 1
"

the

"c."
(pleasures)

seemed

prince

before

have

to

him

limitless

(b]

prosperity,carefully(33) trained
the throne, and stimulated
by the (a)pattern of
last
breathed
his
(3)
suddenly at the age
(43)

of

tasks

who

of the

two, just after the conclusion


(a)

Find

appropriate words,

more

overjoyed
workmen
intelligent
(5) was

to

and

told

the

(a)

If

of

sixty-

(d] him

to

old

friend (a] (25) who


for

sent

He

(b)

of his most

one

consider

himself" (e)his
(f}himi" he (g)wished

take

not

sentence.

new

journey northward.

(c} he

service, (30) as he himselfcould


about

his

an

and

him,

see

of

son

on

his

war."

(b) Begin

"
On his way, he visited
34.
him
had asked him
to call upon

(54)
(a)
father,

for the

prospect of unbounded

city."
you

mean

friend's

him,"

son

write

that

the

who

;" if you

"

"son"

had

He

iourney northward,
his way."
(b) Use,

had
mean

been

asked

his

"asked
that

by

him,"

the
an

write

"friend"

old

"An

had

friend

to

old

"asked

call,on

his

Accordingly he visited him on


instead of he, some
who
name
one
meaning
entertains
others."
(e) "the
(c}Use participle, (d) "The man."
have wished
could
stranger's." (/) "his guest." (g) Write
upon

son.

"

"

to

it clear

make

35. "Tillotson
both

by King

Dr.

Tennison,

36.
that

was

"

died

William

Bishop

that

"

he

"

"

means

in this year.
He
was
and by Queen Mary
of

Lincoln,

was
(a)The entertainment
stupendous
(l")perfectly

to

succeed

exceedinglybeloved
(43), who

(c)most

nominated

him."

arranged with
and

"

the host."

magnificence

unprecedented\

and

Exercises.

49

quite kept up his Lordship's unrivalled reputation for


and, thanks to the unequalledenergy of
unparalleledhospitality,
is rapidly becoming one
Mr.
effective
of the most
Smith, who
with
the
toasts
in the kingdom,
a spirit
were
toast-masters
given
indeed
of
this
and
occasions
nature
were
we
on
;
quiteunexampled

which

forciblyreminded
three

of

Point out the contradictions


epithets,or soften them down.
"
remarkable
it stands,
in the sentence
a
as
(b] Write
magnificence that quite "c.," thus dispensing with the following
is superfluous.
"and."
that "most"
(c] Show

Omit

(a)

the

human

(15) knowledge of

the

in

Shakespeare with the other dramatic


compare
his wonderful superiorityto
Elizabethan
era,

we

of

authors
them

of the

most

"If

37.

entertainment

of the inimitable

respect

(2)."

ago

years

this

in

is

nature

what

(15 a)

strikes us"
principally
The prince found himself at
38.
provide himself with the commonest
"

to

accustomed

they
by quoting the example

himself
and

the

to

(d)(44)
(a)

country

William

"

English poetry,
"

of you
I
as

delighted to

excuse

at

of

and

because

(b) (13)

they

selves
them-

who

one

of the

prejudices of "c."
had

he

at

native

once."

the

Shakespeare was
and

itself to the succeeding

they were

nothing worthy

(37) done

to

40.

saries
neces-

(c] (34) had controlled


the Conservatives, (37) commended
large by his unfailing good-humour,

the timidityand
behind."
(c)" while

"

41.

were

humoured

and

Liberals

even

coast, being (33)

timid

(a)(50),both because

prejudiced,and

the

or

desolate

policyrecommended

make-shift

ministers
were

this

on

perplexityhow

sore

comforts

luxury."

to

39. "This

of

he landed

life,when

of

in

once

of

of statesman."

name

"

(Z")
(d) had
"

yet done."

the lesser

sun

among
Stratford -on-

shelter themselves

von

lights

(14 a)."

(15 b] I think, gentlemen, you must confess that any one


have done
the same
would
(32),if you had been tempted

wasteful
ragged among
to acts of dishonesty
luxury and comfort, deliberatelyinstigated
had
been
from
I
infancyto love, (a)
taught
by those whom
when
I failed to
mocked
I
when
or
stole,
punished
praised

then, placed starving and

was

(i$ a) do (b)so."
(a)

Insert

another

infinitive

(b) Repeat

42.

refused

"

So
to

far from

beside
the verb

"love."
instead

"Love"

being the first(54)aggressor,

prosecute

his

old

friend
D

when

produces

dience."
"obe-

so."

of "do

he not

favourable

(22)only
oppor-

Exercises.

50

tunity presented itself for revenging


also his friend's adviser,

but

suspected,if he

events

had

given
"

"

43.
and

them

Having
spectacle of the

the

the

to

sentence

may

have

words

be

must

been,

altered.

all

at

events

qualify "suspected,"

apex of the

sun-rise, I found

Righi

to

enjoy the

incommoded

myself

so
by a
emerged from the hotel
I determined
to quit them
at the
therefore, without
stopping to

who

had

that
(a)(i)similar purpose,
earliest practicable period ; and
partake of breakfast,I wended
my
for

the

that he

of illiterate individuals

number

If

climbed

"

coming danger, and

paid 5^. per day to English navvies,


navvies."
preferenceto 2s. 6d. to French

6s., (19) in

44.

(a) at

"suspected."

after

It is quitetrue

even

."

suspected

place

him,
all (23)

upon

Smith
the

of

his friend

innocent

however

Smith

know

qualifies"Smith,"

all events"

Yet,

Smith.

John

not

thus

of it."

information

no

If "at

(a)

did

himself

back

way

with

possible

all

celerity."
(3)
"

{a}

"

45.

same."

the

that miracles

admit

You

and
is wrong,
is unnatural
unnatural, it follows
are

alliance

the

(a) Indian
(a)

is the

"Who

46.

Insert

of

defence

of

or

other

are

dared

the

disputed

our

antithetical

some

has

Now

whatever

cles
admission, mirawrong." (i)

own

your
miracles

that

inhabitant

(a) (41)

the

since, by

that

man

natural.

not

are

call into

to

woods,

to

civilized

delegate to the

rights?

epithets.

of those who
(a) very (n) small proportion indeed
47. "A
have attempted to solve this problem (b)(19) have succeeded
in
a plausiblesolution."
obtaining even
(a) State

what
in

one

48.

"

proportion succeeded, or, if you like,what


hundred."
all those that
(b) Begin, "Of

suddenly (a) (47 a) brought

which

(8)

forces

submit

into

failed

"

not

"c."

contact

with

wholesale

imposture,
naturally repels (a)
being (40 a) barbarously ill-treated^

system
and

be

To

to

one

to

to

(15 a) one."
"

causes
a
(a) Write, either (i) Collision
one
(2) "When
brought into contact.
is emphatic), (3) "One
(if"ill-treatment"
or
"c."
collision
with
by

natural

....

49.

"

We

annex

to the

Editor

letter

which

the

editor

has

recentlyaddressed

of the

appeared
undertaken

repulsion," ot

is naturally repelled,"
is naturally repelled

by

Mr.

's direction

in contradiction
,

equally untrue,

which

in
to

that

of statements,
periodical,and (a] (9)

insert

in the

next

number.

Exercises.

52
54. "A

life,and,
the

(a) (10 d}

man

immersed

in

neglected the ordinary duties

who

himself

study,devoted

grand plans

to

of
for

(b) (44) and refused to provide for the


of those dependent on him, and suffered his aged relatives to
wants
because
he would
become
not
help them, (c)would, in my
paupers
benefit

mankind,

of

opinion, (34) be

bad

and

man,

altogether(d) (40 a)

not

without

hypocrisy."
"

(a)

If

"

55.

"or

who

are

(d)

believe

have

may

been

he."

"

I cannot

whatever
has

(b) " if he refused,"

man."

a
man

shown

"

to

in the

while

extent

he

(c) " such

refused."

hypocrite."

guilt of (a)

said to the

been

"

or

some

(b} (10 e) who,


be shown, and

one

contrary,

can

testimony proceeding from those


examined
the facts, in spite(23)of
carefully

by competent

said to have

res'sted

all attempts
consult his own

have

many

to
obstacles,

leave

his situation,("r)
(29) to
of his own."
a business

(29) induce

to

interests

him

and

to

(29)

to

establish

(a)

"

his

"c
(b) (i) " for, whatever
that, in spite of "c., he resisted."

guilt;"

"c.
.

obstacles"

spite.
"

write

"

We

between

"have"

of

purpose

and

consult

to

seek

must

consulting
his

for the

own

interests

originof

can

be

shown

by

(2) insert "in


"carefully." (c) (i)
Or

establishing."
by establishing"c."

and

it

and

the

"for

56.

(2)

Or

freedom, (a)(37)prosperity,
only (b}that x portionof our
our

(a) (37)glory,in that and


The
annals, (30) though it (c]is sterile and obscure.
lish
great Eng(d) then formed ; the national (e)disposition
people was
began
which
it has
since (e)
ever
(d) then to exhibit those peculiarities
and our
fathers (d) then became
possessed;
emphaticallyislanders,
and
and (a) manners,
(f) in their politics,
(30 a) not
(a) feelings,
and

merely in

their

(a) Repeat

geographicalposition."
the Pronominal

the

thus

sentence
:
by beginning
"c."
(^) "It was
(c)Omit.
marked
words
implying something more
more
forcible than "possessed;" in the
(/) Repeat "islanders."

annals

our

57. "(0) He
knew him, and

the universal

was

cemented

the

Adjective. (b) Express

that"

many

"

"

emphatic
only
portion of

It is in that

then

than

that "c."
"

(e)Use
"

disposition,and

latter case,

"retained."

(54)favouriteof'(54)all (8)who
friendshipsat this period,(a) (33)

highest circle of society,and, as he (b} (50) had


(moving
ture),
a (4 a) certain property, being independent of the
profitsof literain the

and
which

at

soon

the

foundations

completely extinguished the


outset

of his

his

career

had

threatened

of slander
to

sap

the

reputation."
in

"c."

Show

that

Rule

That

-which

(a) Begin "Moving


"c."

of

breath

treats

(") "rendered
(14)is violated

independent of
by the metaphors.

of the thirteenth

century.

.by

.Exercises.
"

58.
the

The

brief

reached

outward

and

period which

material

been

of that

form

citywhich, during

(10 a) is comprised in

the

highest pitch
of this (a) (15) nature.

was

53

present book,

our

and
military,artistic,

of

The

of

progress

literary
glory,
(b) (5)first has

the

already traced."
with
(a) Begin the sentence
"military glory."
"

59.

The

detachment

"Such

only

not

of their numbers

and

capture the small


after some
was,

force

was."

"

(b) By

the

failed to take the

the weakness

of the

that

was
encamped
sharp fighting,driven back

first" is meant

fort,(30) spite

also to
but
garrison,
outside the town, and
with

inconsiderable

loss."
Point

the

out

"the

60.

ambiguity.

it

Remedy

by inserting either

"

which,"

or

assailants."

"(a) (b} Believing that these reforms can


only (c] (21) be
for
and
that (5)this will
is
as publicopinion
them,
prepared

effected
be

more

or

less advanced

in different

localities,the Bill of the


a
(3) considerable period
vSession of Parliament,
next
in regard to the points above-

has
Association, (a) (31)
in draft, and will be introduced
in the
provides for placing (d} (3) the control
in the (3) hands
mentioned
0/~the ratepayers
which

power
be

to

been

for

locality
; the
exercised
to be
through representativeLicensing Boards
elected
periodically
by them."

{a)

Place

the

parenthesisfirst,as

of the Association

has

of each

independent

an

been

sentence

"

The

Bill

"

Parliament

is
noun
(b) What
("r)"effected
qualifiedby "believing?" Write " In the belief."
in accordance
with public opinion,which
only so* far as they are
"c."
shall
(d) "it,or, the Bill provides that the ratepayers
.

receive

control

and
.

61.

"I

shall exercise

this control."

think

they are very (i) nice persons, for they kept me


a
long (a) (ll) time togetheryesterday by their (i)
nice,stories all about what
they(b}have experiencedin Japan, where
had
been
for
they
(a) ever so long, and (c] (43) where
they said
that the natives ripped up their (d) (5) stomachs."

amused

for

(a) Mention
other

62.

"

To
with

that which
(a) A

63.
of

some

"

"

"

or
(3) experiences
things,they told us "c." ("")"their

for

contend
a

dislike

increases,(30) however

of

"

time.

some

one

compound

has

(c)"

among

own."

garded
advantageous monopolies, which are rewhich
and
a
daily (10 a)
suspicion (a)

natural
once

Upon enteringthe
my

it may

be

to be

possessed,(15 a)

adjective can

refreshment,

adventures."

be

rustic
nerves

annoyed

at

the loss

is useless."

used, including "daily."

place of
were

entertainment

horrified

partake
by lightingon a
to

Exercises.

54

species
singing some
simultaneouslyimbibing that cup which, if
individuals

of boisterous

number

of harvest

song, and
also
inebriates
cheers,

who

were

from their societyby


when, banished
of the fragrant weed, I wended
to the apartthe fumes
ment
way
my
had
the
in
which
I
which
one
adjoined
hoped to rest my
of the fairer sex,
found
I
assortment
an
limbs,
interesting
weary
who
were
holding a separate confabulation
apart from the revels
it

of

their

"

rougher

spouses.

"village inn," "next


See (3).

Write

"

64.

; and

room," "c.,

absurd

these

for

cutions.
circumlo-

born, in 1782, Napoleon


Burgoyne was
boys (il)."

When

lington
Wel-

and

both

were

Mention
Brienne, Wellington at Eton.
this, and,
"
WelArthur
imply the boyhoody call Wellington

studied

Napoleon
in

order

at
to

lesley."

65.
near

me

whom

(38) to

"

gratefulhomage

most

forgotten :
virtues,and (52) can
"

(a) Though

of the

yet
"transitory,"

for

"To

neat

and

in the

"

for hour,

(b)

and

clean

"

this

artisan

the British

see

"

for

"

of

ephemeral"
"

time, and
for day.
told "c."

the

on

children

the open

under

has

his wife

and
their

cheerful,with

themselves
(a) (19) disporting

moment

gentleman

most

is (52) the first of

short

the

of vice."

cause

for

day"

use

be

to

and

mute

are

recognized expression

to

live

prudence

longer, is objectionable. Write

future
66.

is

day"

us

that

used

be

never

will

but

all of

that

us

or

not

(a) hour when


(b)(38) has told you

of

admiration

occasion,
merely to the

upon
entrusted

(a) day,

the

the

this

abilities

are

ones,

any

subject,(36) feelings of

this

on

of

perishable eloquence

on

can

is now,
I believe,
without
refer
occasion

who

mine,

(38) whose

former

some

upon

of

never

respect, and,

feelings of
as

friend

honourable

"An

by

canopy

write

Sabbath,

their

of

hour"

Else

sides,

heaven,

is

(l$)pleasant."
(a)

There

is

whether
"

or

reasonable

no

he

ground

it clear

makes

context

for

but since

mistaking

the

sense

Shaftesbury

Lord

was

here, as the
questioned
'*

disporting to qualify artisan and his wife


"
porting
disand, by their sides,their children
"

meant

write

children,"
"c."

67.

"Even

if

such
it is the

the

of

all the

(a)

called

more

intention

Omit
"

(a)

it

"

that

it were."

author

deserve

of
was

seem

in

one

(c)
word,

"

that (c] it

was

perpetrating(e)it,to

possible,upon
"

stances,
extenuating circumreprobation,(b} and

severe

crime, in

the

(") " which."

of the crime

with

it would

for because

author

misery

attended

were

would

conduct

to

his victim."
have

been."

("?)Use

the

See

the
flict
in-

($).

(*/)Express
noun.

Exercises.
68.
been

"The

of the heavenly bodies


have
must
(a) (i) observance
with great difficulties,
before
the
(b)(30)
telescope

attended

(a) (i)discovered, and

was

55

of astronomers

it is not

to

be wondered

gations
at if the investi-

often

and
failed to
unsatisfactory,
under
these
produce complete (a) (i) persuasion, (30) (15, a)
disadvantages."

(a) What

is the

were

difference

"discover"
"

(") Begin

between

"observance"

"invent,"

and

Before

"persuasion"

"

in

reaching a
help, and (a) (35) was

for

Sir

became

John Burgoyne himself, face


of the difference

(a)(i) conscious
Sebastian

of San

weak

very

woman
poor
at last hauled

with
(30)not content
he
and dangerous struggle,
that was
crying piteously
safelyto shore."

more,

put and remedy the ambiguity by inserting


writing." who," according to the meaning.

"

with

compared

is the exact
(a) What
repeating the

to

Metz

meaning

or

by

Todleben,

the fortifications

between

(10 e) was

(c)(12)

Paris."

or

the relative,
(b) Avoid
by
weakness
itself."
(c)
conjunction,

of conscious

"

with

name,

"he"

face with

Sebastopol, (b} which

of

and

observation,"

"conviction"?

Point

(a)

70.

and

"

"c."

He
69.
plunged into the sea once
his previous exertions.
After a long
succeeded

and

Upon Richard's leavingthe (c)stage, the Commonwealth


which
Cromwell
had
was
(a)
again set up ; and the Parliament
broken
was
brought together; but the army and they fell into new
again (a) broken by the army : and upon
disputes: so they were
like to fall into (b) (n) great convulsions."
that the nation was
"

71.

Eng., "broken
question whether

Modern

(a)

is that
that

regarded

as

the

"

with

retired

What

(a) (n)
and

weapons,

way.

"

See

(18)and

unnecessary
ended
with

the

Commonwealth
a

dispute

"c.
with

"c.,

it

(43).

in the

militaryprofession!

He

began

(b) (li) inefficient


formality, and
(c}(b) (n) greatly improved fire-arms
"

pipe-clay." (6) "Six-pounders and flint-locks" are


loaders."
compared with "twenty-four-pounders and breechantithetical
to (a),perhaps
(c) Something is wanted

drill"

"

or

open

order."

fear death in the same


fear to go in the dark. Men
is increased
fear of children
by tales. So is the fear

Children
The

when

but, fallinginto

inefficient

"loose

73.

"

....

revolution

(a) "pig-tailand
now

and
....

the Parliament
Commonwealth,
are
on
a
stage." But this is extremely
the principal subject : " When

the

puppets
Parliament

....

was

."

many

Make

Parliament

was

72.

Richard,

so

doubtful.
Richard

"

Richard

asserted

up." (b) "violently convulsed."


(c) It is
The
metaphor is in good taste.
ing
meanfrom
It might be
retired
public life."

this

56
of

Exercises.
death.

and

contemplation of death,

passage
a tribute

tions

due

death

on

the

as

world, is holy and

another

to

it, as
-

The

religious.The

In
nature, is weak.
mixture
is sometimes

unto

there

of

'wages

sin,'

fear of

religious meditavanity and of

of

superstition."
Insert connecting adverbs

"I

have

often

or

heard

him

(44).

See

conjunctions.
reiterate

(54) repeatedlythat he
never
to him,
path was
again, if a safe(54) and secure
open
prefer the perilous (54) road of danger, however
alluring (54)and
74.

would

attractive
"

75-

might be."

the latter
I

whether

thought

I did

not

in my
observe

dream

remarked

bold

atom

take

that if any

from

friend

my

in the

me

of the

of the birds

one

of

heap

asked

in the conduct

curious

anything

pigeons, I (a) (4 a)
to

that when

was

so

midst

ot
grain
them, (31) (which (b) a detachment
guarded, and which, being
increased
and
continually
never
useless),all the
eaten, seemed
rest turned
againsthim and pecked him to death for the (c)(50)
as

an

action."
(a) Point

the

out

and

(") This

ambiguity.

"

parenthesis.
of them, guarded by
not

as

useless

"

come

noticed

Being

yet." (c)

earlier in the sentence,


a
heap of grain in the midst
to all appearcontinually
ance,
,

should

theft."

"

76. If this low view of the royal office becomes


generally
adopted, then sovereigns who
(8) have
manded
always hitherto comthe
will
of
fall
into
Englishmen
by degrees
respect
disrespect.''
Point

out

the

ambiguity.

Show

it

how

might

be

removed

(a) by punctuation,

(") by altering "who."


"

77.

I struck

magistrate.
to

the

such

would

rightto

do

78.

(44).
"He

perseverance

believe

not

Insert

explainedthis

Witnesses

me.

prison.
exercised
is.ararely
me

right that

were

to

to

the

called
He
in

I remonstrated."
adverbs.

conjunctions or connecting

attained
and

It is

committed

He

this.

circumstances.
See

in self-defence.

man

statements.

support my

had

the

He

common

distinguishedpositionby

very

sense,

which

mere

(15)

(52) (10 a] qualitiesare

perhaps mostly underrated, (30) though


and not remarkable
for general ability.

he

was

deficient

in tact

"

"

79.
may

crime

be

which
VindictivenesS)
defined

but

as

anger

(a) (50) is a fault, (b) and


(10 a) which is caused not by sin

by personal injury,ought

to

be

which

nor
by
carefullydistinguished

Exercises.
from

which

resentment,

(49) which

is natural

unjust,because
"The

(a)

it is

fault

is anger
and which
(a) (50) is a virtue,(!"}
(c) right caused by an act (d) which is
it is inconvenient."
unjust,(300) not because
and

;"
yindictiveness

of

"

(c) *' Right

Omit,

(ft)"an

can.

57

virtue

of resentment."
"

adjective,but

an

as

(b)
righteous''

injustice."

of

act

"the

be used

cannot

"

80.

(a)He told his friend that (a)his brother was surprisedthat


(a] ^hadlgiven so small a contribution,for (a] he was
(b) (12) a
rich
in
of
his
and
losses
bad state
the
recent
(a)
spite
man,
very
of trade, (19) (30) compared with himself."

81.

"

citizen
him

What

See

(b)

citadel

it be

must

universal

had

been

daylightby

been

This

address

the citizens
been

captured in

the

and

enemy,
admitted
by

"

the

As

into

two

citadel

had

of

end

:
.

The
citadel

"The

"The

."

been

provided
un-

postern gate,

;" or,
Else, if one
captured "c."
.

broad

those

sentence.

sentences

therefore

Naturally
captured

been

the

at

come

that the

was

tence
sen-

had

opinion.
be

sentence

surpassed all those who were living(a) at the


in which
he could
him in the forcible(b} manner
appeal to the popular sympathy, and in the ease
towards
could
draw
(a) himself the hearts of his

author

with

(c]an

which

with

for it had

used, write

must

converted

be

captured

...

of

number

"

"betrayed

case

time

(54)opinion of all

small

may

same

scaling ladders, and


wearied
by a long march."

much

any

"

?"

(15) betrayed,(30) having

very

with
and

83.

proverbial for wealth?

was

(40).

"The

In

king

to (a) crucifyz. Roman


(a) (15 b] It must be indeed wrong
if to (b} (32) slay one
is almost
parricide,to (") scourge
and
him is an outrage.
bind
monstrous
to
a
crime,
(b}
"

(a]

(15 a)

Asian

"

is

82.

(6). (b) What

Use

(a)

he

readers."
(a) Express

84.
a

the

the

great

statesman

quicksands

safe harbour

of

world.

It would

(a)

be

well

Trade

to

literal statement

"

The

; and

lawless

even

(15)

literalize

must

ministers

(43) (51) because


were

He

of Protection

Free

of commerce,
and
pillar
guided or impelled the people
and false political
to
economy

indeed

was

(c) Omit.

with."

"force

(a)(14 a]

saved

the

country

millions."

several

85.

(b)

word,

one

in the financial

star

from

This

"

in

be

preceding metaphors.

changed

were

most

the

boldest

and

the

into

unwillingto
of

them

desperate]had

Else

the

metaphor.

meet

(though
too

much

the

Houses, (a)

their counsels
value

for

his

Exercises.

58

unlawful

the

resorting to

had

that

of extortion

modes

of

think

(b) (li) personal safety to

familiar

been

to

(r) (12)
the

ceding
pre-

age."
(a) Begin

Lawless
and
desperate though their
of these
(c) Insert some
(b) "neck."
modes, "benevolences, ship-money, and the other "c."

had

counsels
unlawful

86.

"

We

may
his poetry. "

of the

command.

(a)

writer

and

That
"

We

will

"

87.

guess" and
emphatic, (b) "Marah."

pretend
be

to

captain asked

(15 a)
scorn,

completely at
intended

are

fiftymen,

his

dry."

never

was

despair"

allowed

be

to

"

in

eloquence of

(a) (15) despair (15 a]


fountain (b} (12) of bitterness

to

The

Byron,

grandchildren

our

exhibited

as

the whole

had

ever

what

so

not

author

Lord

of

character

No

misanthropy,

"c."

been

(a) (15)pretend'toguess

will not

think

"

with

sentence

new

by

the

supply of

hundred
and
food, and
(44) The
one
fifty breech-loaders.
have
general repliedcoldly that he could not let his subordinate
forced
The
he
that
wanted.
(a) (4) anything
(44)
captain was
to
out
set
(34) with an insufficient force, spite of the superabundance
of soldiers doing nothing in the camp
(34),and with
by a general who from the first
put in his way
every obstacle
had
resolved
not
to give him
even
ordinary assistance, (b} (10 a')
which

the

(a)

captain had

Point

and

out

which
and

"

have

attractions

no

difference
"

"

or

(b)Write, according
".
.

resolution

to

the

that."

is not

(a) What

that

practicalman, and disbelieve in everything (8)


amuse
philosophers
practical; theories (a) which

am

pedants

ambiguity,

the

assistance
.

anticipated."

time

some

remove

".

meaning,
88.

for

"

that

in

for the

the

for me,
would

meaning
"

second

(30)for

which"

be

this reason"

caused

by

the

use

of

discovery drew no other seventy but the


and the (n a) passing a sentence
(li a) turning (a) him out of office,
(b) condemning him to die for it (31) (which was
presently
and
he
restored
to his
after
short
confinement
pardoned,
was
a
all men
believed that the king knew
of the letter,(c)(43)
liberty),
and that (6 b} the pretended confession
of the secretary was
only
collusion to lay the jealousiesof the king's (d] (n a] favouring
him, (30) notwithstanding
(e)(43) which still hung upon
popery,
his (e} writing on
the Revelation, and his (e) affecting
to enter
all occasions
into controversy, (e)asserting in particularthat
on

89.* "Yet,

the

Pope

when

Antichrist."

was

(a) "expulsion
that

from."

was

Begin
it

that

was

soon
new

"

(b)

sentence

said, 'was

pretended

manifested
"

"c.'"

by
'The

sentence

his pardon

to

death

and

a
pretence
liberation."
(c)
"

secretary's pretended confession,'


'*
the
the suspicion that
king

(d)

Exercises.

60
94.

regret that I have

"I

which
(a) (3) intelligence

some

which

and

(ioa)fs

tell you

I must

at once,
of a most ($}painful nature,
it
should
of your
I
like
to
account
(40
on
(c)
a]
defer
though (b]
had
because
(c} (40 a] you have
already
ill-health,and
many
the
natural
dislike
which
and
to
(8) a
troubles,
(40 a] owing
is unpleasant.
friend must
always feel to say that (10 f) which
Many old friends in this district have turned against you : I
faithful to
: only (21) I remain
scarcely like to write the words
sure
you will believe
you, and I am
interests."
which
is best for your
"

(a)

(3) In

news."
if

is

period

letter these

and

"because
because

of

...

remain

of your
."

come

they

is

(iof)

that

doing

am

(30)

must

....

should

words

desired, they

(c) Write
troubles

that

are

last, after

ill-health

but

"

pleasant."
un-

and

the

....

back
word
that the enemy
had
sent
general at once
other
the
side
of
the
river,and [(35)or (37)]
suddenly appeared on
have shown
// would
then (a) retreated,
(b} //was
that(/;)
thought

95.

"The

his (3) part if he had


attacked
the
(c) (i) fortitude on
tenable
than
which
for
week
not
were
a
more
(d}
fortifications,
the (54) universal
Such
at all events.
was
opinion, at (23) least,
of (54) all the soldiers."
more

Point

(a)

the

have
shown
(b )"It was
thought he would
ambiguity,
and
fortitude
(c) Distinguish between
(d)
"bravery."
be
if " that "
for
would
the
substituted
were
meaning

out

"c."

"

What
"which"?
"

"

96.

since

It will

Who
so

morose

are

"

has

this

attained"

powerful that, unless

who
less

are

liable

Ministry
Write

it is

"

of

"which,"

these

go

"and

on,

that

this notion

has

(a)

it

become

."
.

habituallysilent (a) (3) by dispositionand


to

the

fault

are
habitually (a) (3) fond
(3) a pleasant disposition"

Each

is to

dispersed

who

(a)

for

has

what

"Those

97.

substitute

to

sprung
up that the Premier, though he can
has
and
attained
influence
which
an
govern,

notion

or

better

perhaps

they. "

legislate,cannot
it imperative, if
renders
should
be dispersed."
(a)

be

"

periphrases

must

of

exaggerating than those


of talking, and (40 a] of (a)

be

condensed

into

jective.
single ad-

author, (a)(31) though he is not (b}altogether(^guiltless


of
which
to be
of
are
(c)faults
exaggeration,
in those
found
in his latest works
he (d)
which
as
as
plentifully
his
when
he was
career
as
an
author, yet,
published
beginning
all
who
those
these
were
surpassed
(e)defects,
notwithstanding
living

98.

This

(b} occasional

61

Exercises.
at the

he

(/)

could,

it were,

as

in the

and

see

power
which
he drew

with
"who

the

could

not

that

power

(g) manner

clear

into the feelingsof


indeed

toward

(/)

perused his works"

(f)
(a)

"

in the

him

with

time

same

the

himself
(54).

See

in which

people
be (f)

large,

at

resisted

sympathy

"

"

of those

(") One of these


parenthesisinto a separate sentence.
dense
One
of these is unnecessary,
(if)Con(":)
words
these
as
(e) Omit
unnecessary.
word,
(g) clearness with."
{f) Express all this in one
the

Convert

is unnecessary.
earliest."
"his
:

words

"

"

the North

Among

99.
heard

of the

rushed

from

perpetrationof similar
the

room

his tale half told,


Make

(a)

it evident

American

whether

Indians,

his

use

his

regiment, out
inspiredevery one
"

Begin,

Out

he

"

101.

right
of

who

were

"

that"
repetitionof
be replaced by some

is

can

"

102.

in the

It

happened

House

being

who

Point

out

the

day before, (19)

Though

wounded

had

shown

then

officer
his

(a) that

"c
and

must

there

"

have

(10 b] will

forgive the

fill."

to

suit what

were

."

intelligence(b) (18)

objectionable. Use
other conjunction to

not

been

officer left in

only

considerations

that at this time

(8) could

had

Prime

"

(b} "and
precedes.

few

be

and

Radicals

Minister

for

"

Christian.

he

(41) other

as

and

the

the

"

"c

are
selectingan
weight when we
that
will task
in
a
placed
position
his fidelity"

(a) The

alive

and

in the recent

charge
time

the

was

bravery

The

last
the

at

and

arm,

"

well

as

the

stood,

lived
the North
among
is " horror-stricken."

who

painful operation

wounded

officers

twenty
headed."

Moral

heading

he

his crime"

at

once

show

this

admiration.

of

had

in

twenty

with

speaker

under

"His(i)
bravery
(I )fortitudehe had shown
action, (30) though he was
to

the

not, and

or

indeed

I had

where

wretch

(30) horror-stricken

100.

unable

Indians

atrocities ; but it seemed


tolerabl
inin a civilized land : and I

things should occur


at once,
leaving the

that such

with

(a) (23) American

difference

of

meaning, according

as

we

read

"who"

or

"that."

103.
of
and
were

"//

cannot

would

men

be doubted
be

left poor

and
indisposition,
taken

out

imaginations as
(a) The

one

minds

(a) would,

(which
original)is

meaning
in the

"

to

vain
and

the

minds

of

things,full

shrunken

unpleasing

of men's

the

'(15b] that

themselves,

of
if

false

opinions,
(15 a) like"

vast

melancholy
(32) there
valuations,

cannot

easily be

castles

in the air/' "pleasant fancies."

more

ber
num-

tersely expressed

than

62

Exercises.
"

104.
His

God

ordinaryworks

mind

atheism

to

religion. (44)

to

scattered, it
the chain

in

men's

While

may

acknowledge

the mind

confederate

atheism

of

to

(44)

That

school

which

clearly demonstrates

most

back

second
causes
upon
when
it beholds
; (44)
together,it must needs

them

linked

and

minds

looks

man

in

rest

Providence.

of

philosophy brings

sometimes

of them

accused

refute it. (a) A

depth

miracle

refute atheism, because


little philosophy inclines man's

wrought

never

the

is most
truth

of

"

religion.
(a)

Insert

"

suspensive conjunction.

See

(34).

The

spiritof Liberty and the spiritof Nationalitywere


for all dead
for a time
once
a
pious duty,
; (a) (5) it might be
but
it could
continue
not
always expedient or
(c) (15) "(18)
to (b}(13) mourn
profitable
(c)(15 a) for their loss. Yet this is
the (b}(13)feelingof the age of Trajan."
105.

(a)

Omit.

(b)

Notice

by

"

"

by
the

this

force

(a)

of

with

most

in

(a)

"

it to have

find
for

dead

one,

To

or

the

"

sentence:

new

the

ball ; to

It

occasion,

was

force

"c."

description

amused

himself

of

inferior

authors

as

an

the

"

have

(d) What

done"

is the word

with

"

the

for "that
central

some

passed (a)(3) in

write

and

by writing

sentence

"like

some

authors."
instead

poet
which

of

....

happens

around

object?"

manner
self-satisfied
own

through
course

againstthe

; to

tide

the sole title to

English ministers a peculiarart of (d} sporting


of a nation's destiny
heavy, the awful responsibility
jaunty grace of a juggler (I l) (e)playing with his golden
have
joked and intrigued,and bribed and (/) deceived^

distinction

with

(b)
generations

many

their
of office,letting things take
years
never
have
sagacity,
(b} sailed with consummate
of popular (c]judgment ; to have left on record as
the

been

tempest."

in connection

have

twenty

with

of the force

nature

Longinus highlyrecommends
because
(a) (5)(c]he has not

poet." (3) Omit


has."

"

the

was

almost

(b) Begin

upon

(c) Suspend

108.

"to

than

mentions,

he

The

therefore, by

emphatic

more

effected, (a) we

was

words,

raging of

the

it evident

are

(b} (15 a) have done, (30) but (c)


has
gathered together those (a1)(I ) events which are
apt to terrifythe imagination,and (35) reallyhappen

whom
he

because
the

these

little fancies

genius,

words

(15 b) what

seemed

by Homer,

storm

had

I remember

"

Make

sentence.

these

(c)
shown

theology."

Omit

107.

next

ask

we

change

that

of

"(38)

"

or

"c."

(a) If

which

the

by their grave;" "attitude."


profitable are emphatic, as is

weeping

expedient

position,that

mourn

"

sit

"

in

yet

their

106.

"To

that

among

Exercises.

having done nothing (g\ (h) either for the


indeed
he
did
worse
religion(for (/')which

result of

the

with

for
(h} or
nothing), (h}

for

or

basis

miserable

on

for the honour

science, (h} or

prosperityof

which

the

the

poor,
than

or

cord
con-

nation, (38) is surely

reputationof

man
great (15) states-

(15 a] founded"

be (k)

can

and

art

the financial

even

or
a

63

implies will and effort: use a word


(") "Sail"
(a) "complacently."
to
as
a
to
contrast
helpless ship, so
peculiar
paradoxically
with
sagacity." (c) Use a word
implying less thought and
is too
often
write
deliberation.
ing"
"bearrepeated;
(rf) With
introduce
the illustration
as
to
so
abruptly, (e) "tossing."
word
of
a
implying a particular kind
deceit," not
(/) Use
the
but
to
next
(g) Insert the word
"lying."
"lying,"
thing
with
a
preceding and intensifying adverb, "absolutely nothing."
either," "or," repeat
(/") Instead of
nothing." (i) The parenthesis
breaks
the
Write
than
rhythm.
"nothing, or
worse
nothing." (k) to found."
"

"

"

"

"

(i)conscious that
glance at the clock will make
you
in the
I therefore
ask
it is nearly three
morning, and
you,
of
this
instead
to
time,
wasting more
gentlemen,
question
put
to yourselves, Are
or
are
we
not, here, for the purpose
we,
truth
?
of (l) eliminatingthe
"

109.

'

' "

member, so far
speech of the Right Honourable
from
unravelling (14) the obscurities of this knotty question, is
eminently calculated to mislead his supporters (a) (Sa) who have
be (b)(23) almost asserted
It may
made
not
a specialstudy of it.
he
has made
that the very
of every
statement
(8) which
(i)
"The

no.

is the fact."

converse

(a)

meaning

The

to

appears

be,

"

who
:
supporters
is so grrat
that
that"
his
"

111.

provisions of

of the

Parliament

Point

out

"

the

Mrs.

vote

in the

(a) Substitute
113. "The
cloud of evil

his

"all

supporters," but
of writing "his

convenience

I should

be

the

of Canada

disposed

to

use

await
and

"these

of

supporters
"that."
(6)

juxtapositionof

"

almost."

(8) require the

treaty which

meaning conveyed by which,

its

assembling."

by

that.

(26),in opposition to the


been a reaction
of the press, that (a) there had
suffrage,that there had reallybeen a gain of

Smith

demonstrated

House

of

general dictum
against woman's
one

not

not

asserted,"requires the

"The

consent

112.

Every,"

"

the

"

instead

Commons."

of," and

erase

the

second

"

practiceof smoking hangs like


the country."
over

that."

gigantic(14 a)

EXERCISES.

CONTINUOUS

CLEARNESS.

THE

exercises

following

Butler,

and

other
and

lost.

this, and
the

the

is

It

The

the

that

necessary
in mind

bear

altered

in

that

of

the

student
sole

to

will

style,

author's

the

old-fashioned

the

view

version

unity

of

Burnet,

with

modernized

charm
of

pleasant ring

highly

should

and

ambiguity.
the
to
original

respects.

from

extracts

The

obscurity and
necessarily be inferior
some

of

modernized

Clarendon,

remove

in

consist

and

duality,
indivi-

English,
should
is

object

are

recognize
show

to

how

been
clearly expressed.
more
might have
have
been
not
altered,
being in
as
Occasionally expressions
themselves
obscure
or
objectionable, but as indicating a habit of
in
the
which
For
beware.
extract
beginners should
example,
from
is
often
in
the
he
because,
altered, not
Burnet,
particular
because
the
but
Burnet'
obscurity,
s
context,
presents
pronoun
any
habit
of repeating
he is faulty.
in
These
exercises
used
The
be
two
can
pupil may
ways.
either
be
have
his book
and
the
for
on
questioned
reasons
open
each
have
versions, he may
alteration, or, after studying the two
the original version
dictated
and
he
then
to
him,
reproduce
may
the parallel version, or
like
it,
on
something
paper.
in each

meaning

case

LORD
The

principal
(43),

use

(5),

pronouns

faults

in

CLARENDON.
this
for

phrases

of

excessive

style
words

separation

long heterogeneous

are,

(47 a), ambiguous

of

words

tences
sen-

of

use

grammatically

nected
con-

together (19).
ORIGINAL

It

(44)
tinent

(50)

The

be

not

place

to

the

constitution

original metaphor
the

it is better

is

metaphor
to

avoid

the

in

now,

plain,

this

VERSION.

far

as

as

prodigious

an

present

take

place

in

of both

and

how

the*

to

uses
so

And

imper-

discourse,

this

and

temper

PARALLEL

unnatural

present
in

Though

will

nor

down

VERSION.

common

appearance

set

the

crown

as

as

scarcely

of

confusion.

which

prop,
to

be

order

to

ex-

possible, how
alteration
so

short

royal
seems

regarded

as

so

could

time,
power

confusion.

metaphor,

Clearness.

Parliament, and (34)


court
itself,
(30) that (5)

of

the

to

it may
be the less wondered
at,
that so prodigiousan alteration
should

(37) the

time, and

itself

appear

were

fallen

neither

follows

the

only

of

of

the
to

or

and

of Church

or

were

set

the

the

on

all

foot

to

the

all that

We

sometimes

.overeign," "the

for

the
for

the

to

intention

no

Church

was

to

State.

or

from

the

very
to

necessary
conceivable

every

sort
re-

device

of perverting
purpose
honest
bellion.
majority into re-

With

They were
dangers
that
and

the

some,

addressed

not

that

the

this

appeal was

their

to

patriotism.

warned
that

the

"of

[all

threatened

precious in]the liberty


of the
property
subject,

was

if the

laws

subservient

to

government
deed,
In-

country.

be doubted

in

outset, it

if

feel

to

great affection
constitutional

Consequently,

for

court,

loyal respect
and

alteration

their

say, brieflybut
then temper," "c.

the

the peace
of the kingdom
make
considerable
any

to

or

ous
preci-

of wisdom

whose

majorityhad

break

(43)

Commons

men

many

ancient

the

front the

subject(19) in

were

most

tions
inven-

was

of

it cannot

to

Lords.)

House

of

liberty and their property, by


tering
overthrowing (47 a) or overmasthe law, and
jecting
(47 a) subit to an
arbitrary (47 a)
and
by countenancing
power,
Popery to the subversion of the
Protestant
religion,"and then,
1

court

judgment
high
posed
position and great wealth disdifference
them, in spiteof their in-

the

ment
govern:

the

king,

(15) beginning to work


upon
(5) them, and (n) corrupt (5)
them, (43) (45) by suggestions
"of
the
dangers (8) which
threatened

the

and

dom,
king-

State

(18)

of Parliament,

of

of

to

able
consider-

any

alteration

therefore

mind

no

in

Houses
also

House

there

plentiful

of

peace
make

of both

In

(7) being possessed

had

who

men

the1

present
composition, not

and

the

Commons

unfortunes,though they were


the
devoted
to
court,
enough
(19)had all imaginable duty for
affection to the
the king, and
established (47 a)
government
by law or ancient custom
; (43)
and
without
the
doubt,
major
consisted
that
body
(54)
part of

break

of

but

descriptionof

and

great

nity,
dig-

itself.

of wisdom

persons
gravity,who

able
un-

naturally,

most

account

(47 a)

of

House

support

temper

port
sup-

to be

as

itself,its

it comes

some

majesty,

own

many

and

will be
where

low

so

its faithful servants, it


of use to set down
here,

or

faithfulto it.

(Here
In

so

would

who

those

nor

its

nor

short

crown

that it could

low,

so

in

made

be

fall

could

of

Houses

Popery
the

to
was

to

were

be

made

despotism,
to be

subversion

and

encouraged
of

the

testant
Pro-

religion.'*
perhaps idiomatically, the
"

then

66

Continuous

Exercises.

by infusing terrible apprehensions


into some,
and
their fears,
upon

ing
work-

so

(6b) "of
in
called
( 1 1 a] being
question
for somewhat
had
done,"
they
stand
by which (5) they would
in need of (5) their protection ;
and
(43) (45) raisingthe hopes
of others,
that, by concurwith
a)
(5) them
ring (47
(5)
"

they should

be

offices

honours

and

of

there

were

too

misled

and

temptations

than

fierceness

barbarityof their

and

(19)
no

had

they

court

and

government
vested,nor
(47 a) was
had

who

would

then

done,

stand

in

of

those who
help
them
this
giving
In others,
timely warning."
and
were
hopes
excited,
offices,
were

now

and

out

preferments
the

as

were

of adhesion.

reward

many
there

that

malice

against
the

had

tracted
con-

the Church
the

and

leaders

of

not
conspiracywere
many.
flock was
missive,
large and subbut
the
shepherds

The

the

their

barbarity

they

But

court.

the

needed
than

temptation

by

tions,
tempta-

some

fierceness and

the

of

indeed

the

and

of these

were

very

few.

were

lead,

to

multitude

were

disposed

was

other

led away

were

many
other

or

the absolute

authority (13)
(13)

were

had

they

of the

innate

and

the

though

need

no

the

against
ber
(43) yet the numgreat of those in

not

was

rest

they

and

contracted

againstthe Church

there

and

one

other

from

natures,

own

malice

whom

something

others

needed

the

for

Too

corrupted
many
these
several
by

temptations,
(40 a) who

(47 a)

others

"There
appealed to.
was
"that
danger," so1 it was
said,
they might be called to account

held

any

of

preferment." Though

kind

and

and

fears

honours,

obtain

to

sure

The

to

follow.

(44)(30) Mr. Pym

of greatest experience
in parliaments,where

the

as

upon

Of

looked

was

man

long,
(50)
very
of
always (50) a man
officer
in
business,(7) being an
of a
the Exchequer, (43) and
good reputation generally,(30)
inclined
to be
though known
and

of

Puritan

against the
leading

wholly
The

party

furious

those

in

rest

he

was

the

to

was
Pym
superior to all the
parliamentary experience.
To
this
advantage

thought

served

had

he

these, Mr.

Church

men

devoted

were,
to

to

and

the

inclined

other
he

of

personalityof the tempters


kept in the background.

be

set

(44)

Earl

of

his

business

continuous

in the

party, yet he

the other

the

from

He
Exchequer.
had
also a
good
reputation
generally ; for, though known

resolutions
as

habits

acquired
service

not

yet

added

and

to

was

the
not

against the

so

Puritan
cally
fanati-

Church

as

leaders.

In

this

spect
re-

resembled

the

Earl

of

organizers of the conspiracy is

posely
pur-

68

Continuous

founa in Parliament, (30) (43)


it was
(44) when
covered
quickly dishe
the
that,as
ling
darwas
of his father, so
(5) he
like to make
was
soever
good whathad

he

for many

years

Exercises.
Parliament.

Then,

indeed, it

that
quickly
likely to fulfil even
fond
hopes of his father
the
high promise of
discovered

was

he

was

the
and

years.

many

promised.
The

(5)
was

other, Sir
of

man

H.

Vane,

great natural

(45) and of very profound


dissimulation,of a quick
conception,and of very ready,

parts

and

sharp,

weighty

Fiennes'

coadjutor, Sir

Vane,

was

natural

ability.1
Quick

and

H.

great

in understanding

impenetrable

dissembling,he
with

of

man

could

also

in

speak

aspect, which, though it might

point, and
weight. His singular appearance,
though it might naturally

naturally proceed

proceed

He

father

had

and

which

an

life made

and

very

in Oxford,

the

great exactness,

after

his

care

not

(43)

he

not

full

reverence,

that he had

the
form

the

turgy,
Li-

generally
who

where

Oxford,

at

Magdalen

In

much
to

sentence

he

studied

spite

supervision of

very

by
tutor,
Soon
after
spent
and

severe

leaving
in

of

an

the

by

Church,

not,

were

is

which

he

After
he

ceived
con-

hatred

not

many,

was

also

but

Liturgy,which was
and general reverence.
or

by his
displeasureof
at

was

the

in France,

Geneva.

intense

at

worthy
morality.

Oxford

littletime

some
more

the

not

was

characterized, in

please,
dis-

able,
highly conformexceedingly sharp

This

by

behaviour

College,

of

disliked

against the
held in great

cur,
seeming to ingiddiness, the
his father, who

that time, beside strictly


forming
conto the Church
himself,
very

bitter

stillappeared

against those

confirmed

was

of his life. His

whole

Incurring

(30) (43) his father, who

who

thing
some-

extraordinary,an impression
that

even

were

other.

giddiness,which
displeased,or seemed

and

in him

the

only against the government

then

his

belief

beauty,

with

men

prejudice

(15 a)

many

for their

impressed

yet

who

parents,

returning to England,

and
was

his

(43)
England,

against

of those
friends to (5) the

with

spent

and,

of the government
(43) which

great

very
with

againstthe

both

Church,

lived

bitterness

and

of

into

retuni

(38) contracted

in

College
(43) though

Geneva

in

more

his

in France, and

little time

some

time

from

where,

tutor, he

worthy

tion.
imagina-

from
noted

not

were

traordinary
ex-

Magdalen

under

promptness,

whole

short

returned

in

was

that

of

(52) his

good

he

persons,
think there

in him

Within

he

of

neither

men

after

his

beautiful

somewhat

studies

from

mother,

were

yet (19) made


was

expression.
(50) unusual

left his home


This

preliminary summary

against

conformists,
Non-

Vane
the young
for New
England.

colony had
of what

been

follows.

planted

Clearness.
transportedhimself into
New
England, (43) a colony
within few years before planted
of all religions,1
by a mixture
which
disposed the professors
(5)

he

dislike

to

the

the

who

to

choose

government

and

charter

under

that

choosing

man

to

hence,

nor

years

the

them

of

scruple amongst
complying with those
so

from

far

men

tions
obligain

were,

He

(45)
there,

landed
made

was

no

sooner

his

but

parts

him

quickly taken notice


of, (26) and very probably his
quality,being the eldest son of
a
Privy-councillor,
might give
him

advantage

some

season

of

for

came

their

the

was

their governor:
(30)(45)
(43) in which place he had so ill

(26)(his working

unquiet fancy raising and


a

and
fusing
in-

scruples of

conscience, which
not
nor

(5) they had


with
brought over
them,
heard of before) (19) that he
"

If

which"

their differences
that
but
2

I have
The

between

were

found

is used
"

of

here

if it is used
a

nature

difference

following words
the infancy and

also

with

the

arrival

this

was

had

he

landed

to

notice

he

was

of

changed.
than

all

Vane
No

sooner

his

ability,
his
extent
perhaps to some
eldest
of
son
a
position, as
recommended
Privy-councillor,
and

him

election

and

at

the

chosen

new

next

vernor.
Go-

post, his restless

and

unquiet imagination found


opportunity for creating and
tious
consciendiffusinga thousand
scruplesthat had not been
or
ever
brought over,
even
heard
of, by the colonists.
His

proved

government

failure

governor

and,

mutually

(45) governed
Vane
parted.

satisfied,
disand
re-

according to Rule (8),the meaning is,(a) "and


for
gions
that,"the meaning will be, (b) all reliI believe (a) is the meaning
to
dispose "c."
;
"

"

of opinion on the question.


to be emphatic, bringing out
appear

the

supremacy."
been

had

slightest scruple.
Indeed,
lawfuloaths
scruples against
"2
unknown
in the infancy
were
of the English schism.
But

In his

election

magistrates,he

thousand

oaths

the

for many
years
the
afterwards,without exciting

next

chosen

fortune

take

allegianceand

much
inso-

the

(51) that, when

should

not

but

infancy (i$}of their schism,


refusing to take lawful

oaths.

own

nal
only by all the origion
planters, receiving their
charter, before
leaving England,

was

after

least

the

of

taken,

selves
they transported themfrom

it

their

These

"

in many

of the

government

happened
privilege(accorded
king's charter) of

man

every
oaths

the

premacy
suallegiance and
which
(30) (43) (5)
;
all the first planters did, when
their
charter,
they received

there

religions,
J
disposed them

ment
governject
subwas
governors
this obligation,"that

of

before

of

men

and

own

take

by

and

Now,

their
the

by

governors,

should

sorts

Church.

obligation, "that

the

every
oaths

their

of

to dislike the

king's

the

before

years

their differences

(30) (43)

by
qualified

(44) were

few

all

of

government

Church;

development

of schism.

the difference

Continuous
unsatisfied with
with

him,

himself

and

retransported
England ; (30)(43)

into

(44) having

sowed

such

there,as

prosperously,and
divided

into several

they

he

of dissension
too

them

Exercises.
turned

to

till he

had

England, but not


accomplished his

mischievous

seed

had

task,
the

sown

miserable

grew up
ably
miser-

seeds

of

those

dissensions

afterwards

the

till he

not

which

only

grew

too

perously,
pros-

till

colony
poor
sions
factions,and divi-

they split the


wretched
colony into distinct,
and
hostile,
mutually persecuting

and

persecutions of each
(15 a] other (30) (43) which
still continue
to the great (54)
prejudice of that plantation:
insomuch
of (5) them,
as
some
the
of
their first
ground
upon
expedition, liberty of conscience,

factions.

His

work
handi-

have

withdrawn

from
and
from

the

it is
-remains, and
owing to (15) him that some
of the colonists,on the pretext
of

liberty of conscience, the


of their emigration,
originalcause

selves
them-

their

(5)

obtained

still

from

tion,
jurisdic-

other

fresh

of

men

government, they have enlarged


their plantations,within
new
limits
to
adjacent
(5) (15 a)

forms

of

the other.

borders

colonial

have

obtained

from

charters

These

(30) (43)

forms

other

selves
them-

old

the

and
jurisdiction

ters
char-

king, by which,

in

withdrawn

have

the

king.

established

have

government,

new

unduly

their boundaries, and


the
rival settlements
on

enlarged
set

up

of the

originalcolony.

BURNET.

The

principalfaults

(see 43)

sentences

styleare

in Burnet's

(b]

(a) the

of heterogeneous

use

of suspense
want
(see
the
omission
(d]
(see 5) ;

the

of pronouns

30)

of

(c) the ambiguous use


and an excessive use of and
connecting adverbs and conjunctions,
one
topic to
abruptness in passing from
(see 44) ; and (e) an
faults necessarily
correction of these
another
(see 45). The

lengthens the

honour

his

maintaining
the

of

foreign countries
(l)vanity which

nation

of which

he

was

carefulthat, though
a

head,

crowned

had

ambassadors

paid them

which

ambassadors

ever

all

in

is very natural

so

(30) (43)
(15) (17 a)

he

was

He

the

gratifiedthe

(50) to Englishmen

not

yet his (40 a)

(15)kings'

had

(6 b) the dignity of

the

he said
crown

lish
gratifiedthe Engby
feeling of self-respect
also

nation
So

foreign countries.

in all

jealous

he

was

crowned

head, he

paid

been

had

not

was

yet secured
all the respect

for his ambassadors


that

this

on

he

point that, though


a

of the

the honour

maintaining

all the respects


our

VERSION.

PARALLEL

VERSION.

ORIGINAL

And

version.

altered

of

ambassadors

The

king, he said, received

simply

as

our

the

to

kings.

the

spect
re-

nation's

Clearness.
was

the

upon

of the

account

nation, of
king was
(50)only the representative
head;
which

the

so, the nation


being the same,
he would
have
the same
gards
re-

paid to (41) his


Another2

pleased
with

of

(5) this

much.

Blake

the fleet happened^}

to be

Malaga before he made


upon Spain : (44) and some
at

his

seamen

went

met

the Host

carried

and

war

of

ashore, and

about; (44)

only paid
respect
it,but laughed at those who
of
did; (43) (30) (51) so one
the priests
put the people upon
not

this

resenting
indignity; and
and
they fell upon
(5) them
beat
them
severely. When
returned
to their ship (5)
they
they complained of (5) this
and

usage;

upon

to demand

the

the

chief

over

the
not

The

the

not

were

viceroy

he

was

in that

swered
viceroy anno
authority

the

to

of
following instance
jealousyfor the national honour
When
much.
pleased him
Blake
his
at Malaga with
was
with
before his war
fleet,
Spain,
of his
It happened that some
sailors

but

prieststo resent
the people fell
beat

their

kind

the

instigator of the outrage.


The
that he
viceroy answered
could not touch him, as he had
the priests.
no
authority over

their

of the

No

that,

complaint
(5)it,(5)he would

of antithesis
instance

has

sent

burn

sent

is

this ill-

within

answered

meaning

of

Blake

to the viceroy to
messenger
demand
the priest who
was

To

this Blake

"

his, and

between

yet been

"

have
and

mentioned.

and

would
people
towns-

condition
at

once

his

of

the

But

sailors.

plied
reEnglish (50) Admiral
that a complaint should

been
then

punished
the

he

The

fended
arrival,he dehimself, alleging the

insolence

"

hours,

town.

On

sent.

therefore
the nation

three
the

being in no
the priestwas
resist,

seamen.

The

On

shipthe

the

scoffers

burn

but

petulant behaviour

of

the

whereupon

usage,

the

severely.
to

complained

seamen

who

indignity,

the

on

it,

to

of

one

the

them

return

Host,

those

at

Incited

and

ing
meet-

respect

no

laughed
by

even

did.

and

processionof the

only paid

not

the

(5)Aim

ashore

within

him,

(43) and

to

going

the

if he

to

power

condition

(44) Blake
(5) he had

paid

three

word

inquirewho

not

would

if

be

nation's ministers.

The

to

no

the

same,

respect should

same

(5) they,being
to resist him,
the priest to him, (43)
sent
who
himself upon
(44)
justified
town

in

was

since

send

him

sent

the

replied,that he
intend
did
to
not
inquire to
whom
the authoritybelonged,
if
the
sent
not
but,
priestwere

sent

(i)

so

Blake

disposeofhim.

priest to

hours,

the

(15) priests, and

that
upon
that he would

the

Blake

priestwho

had

he

could

that

(l) instrument

ill-usage.

had

to

trumpet

nation

no

to

sent

the

ministers.

instance

him

head, and,
representative

forwarded
he
them

would

the

nation's

him,
have

severely, for

nation's, ministers."
"

to

There

ministers."

is

Continuous
have

them

punished

since
his

(5)

to

men

not

affront

the

set

on

Spaniards

for he would

it ;

only

was

so

mercy.
Cromwell

much

of

name
as

that of

ever

had

been.
were

(5) him

that

him

in such

dread

took

they

of

give
(43) (44) and
the

his brothers

to

king

or

Royal,

(23) within

after,(5) they
deputation to
States

give

them

that
no

tavus

Algernon
not

was

speak

The
:

"

of

that

me

the

was

spected
rename

countries

of

Cromwell

the

in such

were

that

they

to

care

free

on

not

these

; and

only
with

of Sweden
favourite

under

Charles

whom

he

confidential terms,

most

also

kingdom

Cromwell's

Gustavus,

or

was

of

name

much

as

ever

with

said, "I

the

dread

ally;

mended
com-

ally

ing
Read-

in council

other

was

under

Christina.

was

but
Both

tions
sovereigns had just nopublicliberty; at least,

of

is implied, and

favourite

conduct.

letters

Holland

The

who

think

kings,

(5) to

thought
Cromwell's

to

delighted

of

(44) CarolusGus-

well
him

this

two

should

Sydney, (io#)

back.

give him no sort of


ever
umbrage. Accordingly, whenhis brothers
the king or
Princess
the
to see
came
Royal
their sister, they were
always
warned
in a day or two
by a
Cromwell
had
that
deputation
required of the States to give
them no harbourage.

he lived in great conjunction


of counsels.
Even
(44)
inclined

him

much

was

Blake's

with

offender

entertained

sent

States

alliance

favourite

\vasSweden.1

Cromwell

took

harbour.

Cromwell's
and

know

(5) they

(50)

Blake

and
civilly

Among

required of

had

at his mercy,

of

send

to

them

let

Cromwell

that
the

used

having

as

came

or

only to
man."
English-

of Roman."

Princess

day

is

satisfied

the

hope
an
Englishman

anytime

at

sister the

their

see

when

my
all the

I shall make

to

care

trymen
counyour
work
; for I
world
know

he
great satisfaction,

of

umbrage

sort

no

on

Then,

(15 a)
States

set

do

had

the

great

The

it ill that

take

Englishman
punished by an

with

the

as

"I

an

be

with

make

Roman

(44)

Holland

to

lighted
de-

said he

; and

should

English man

an

place
"But,"

should

him

and

(5) this, (43)

great satisfaction

(6) hoped

any

will have

at his

him

the letters in council

he

lished
estab-

was

with

the

religion of
added,

that

be

affront

to

(5)

all the

should

they touched.

you

Englishman
punished by

satisfied that he had

read

he

the

him

sent

he

(43) (44) and


priestcivilly,
back
(30), being

he treated

and

; but

an

to be

Englishman

an

where

do

to

have

that

to know

world

place

ill,that

his sailors

allowed

lished
estab-

any
touched

it

of

none

suffer

of

religion
which
at
(5) he
(5) (6) he took
the

severely,

would

he

Exercises.

should
a

be

expressed, by

free country.".

the

words, is

Clearness.
said he

(5)had justnotions of
public liberty; (44) (43) and
added,

that

seemed

to

But

at

have

(44) she

from

us

Queen
them

true

the

from

All

and

was

up

the

and

over

for (5) it.

executed

our

than

Nor

offend

the

whose

keeping

up

character

of

land,1
Holof

name

him

durst

the

great (50)

fleet scoured
and

Mediterranean;
gave
up Hyde,

even

tion.
na-

dreaded

died.

Protector

then

factious

the

at

and

Cromwell,

(23)(43),

king
brought

less

Italy,no
trembled

ambassador

there

the

kept

for she

complained of the
unruly spiritof

till he
; and the Turks
Turks
offend him
livered
; but de-

up Hyde,
the character of an

Rome

at

Mediterranean

who

was

also held

and

(A^ a] of our princes.


at the
(44) All Italy trembled
of
seemed
and
name
Cromwell,
under
a
(i)panic as long as he
lived ; (43) his fleet scoured
the
not

He

same

her

on

commands

durst

this

me

of Gustavus.

tainly
cer-

favour

opinion of Queen
Christina
; but, if so, she was
much
I waited
changed when

her

on

royalty,assured

the

changed

with

readily comply

not

likewise.

; for she complained of


factious nation, that did

Rome
as

of

I waited

that,when

Algernon Sydney, a man


not
prejudicedin

Christina

much

was

73

in

they
for

who,

Turkey

ambassador

the
from

the

king, was
brought
England and executed.
(44) (ii a) The
brother of the
ambassador

putting the
king of Portugal's
for

death

to

very
in the strictness

nations, it

is

own

exempted

of the

only the
(4) any

(47 a)
sends him, yet

the

to him.

his

foreigners

is

of

the

brother

of

law

the

to

ambassador's
Successful

(41) (44)Cromwell
good (n) under-

was

in

than

no

nations

alone, yet

exemption

has

of

the

the

whole

suite.

abroad, Cromwell

less successful

selectingable
for

for

tion
foreignjurisdic-

practicethe

extended

practice has

of

carried

the ambassador

that

verity
se-

the

justice
For, though in

far.

from

exempts

rity
authoin

of
"

Cromwell

"

very
strictness

in favour
of all that the
gone
ambassador
owned
long
(47 a} to beshowed

towards

murder

sador's
ambas-

but his masters

instance

Portuguese ambassador

the

of

law

that

person
from

another

execution

der,
mur-

(n a) carrying justice
far ; (43)since,though

was

In

to

at

and

home

worthy

ally
public duties, especi-

nothing
of law.
for the courts
In
capable and
seeking2 out
for all employmore
nothing did he show
ments,
worthy men
his
natural
but
most
insight,
particularly clearly great
standing

\\\

more

men

in

The

remarks

about

Christina

are

digression,and

Burnet

is

now

ing
return-

by foreign nations.
"find"
is not neces2
He
not
only sought, but sought successfully. That
the
word
of
the
in the
out"
"seek
use
proved
by.
seems
irilyimplied by
out very
and
ii. 17 : "He
Ai.uthorized Version, 2 Tim.
diligently,
sought me
found me.
to

the respect

in which

Cromwell

was

held

Continuous

74

of law, (43)

for the courts


which

(lOtf)

Exercises.

(30^7)
general

gave

nothing contributed
popularity,

and

more

his

to

satisfaction.
BISHOP
The

in this

principalfaults
sometimes

(5), and
would

be

BUTLER.

(b) the

Some

certain that
been

(5)one
But

revelation

no

as

(15 b]

in

man

the

had

the

ness
serious-

the

simplicitycan possibly
considers
(5)so, who
of
state
religion in the
it

heathen

world

and
in

tion,
revela-

borrowed

of

(12) greatest men


thingsof the utmost
well

as

natural

It is

have

reasoned

system

have

and

which

been

(15 a)
rance
igno-

"To

It has

even
4

as

style,but

revealed
mark
tention
inatof the

even

by

doubtful
a

vital

Socrates

subject

of

immortality

soul ; and

then
and

lightof

the

in seriousness

sincerity

the

that

can

he

tain
main-

Nature

is

whole

It is of

deny

genuine
supersti-

in

that

impossibleto

course
some

second

totle
Aris-

might have reasoned


out,
its genuine simplicityand
incredible,"

inconceivable."

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This

its
of

the

ceived
re-

sufficient ?

to

call natural

we

yet

ignorance

so

the

those

of

also

language held
on

that

in

not

"to put forward," "maintain."


pretend" once
meant
been
suggested, however, that by "in its very notion
"

is meant

able

that

out

religion, (30) in
simplicity,clear

the

as

and

natural

the

but

masses,

in general.
of mankind
(34) impossibleto say (12)

would

"

the

vailed
preworld

all,let him

merely

let

(41)

once

have

and

concerning
(1 1 ) importance,

inattention

who

of

some

But

heathen

light

to
or

spiritual

prevails

that

; above

not

as

would

the

revelation,

the

no

sense

needless

given.

the

still

truth

light from
(5) it; particularly(19) the
doubtfulness

been

in

(41)

been

revelation

no

that

regions

(5) present state


(n) places (8) which

assuredly,

consider

before

is in

Nature

revelation

its

those

have

before

And

in such

any man
darkness

ground

Nature

light of

have

tially
essensarily
neces-

the

lightof

itself sufficient.

ever

useless.

wanting,or

and

fictitious,
on
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as

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to

avowedly

persons
revelation

rejectall

and
think

word

VERSION.

Some

render

the

sufficient

been

sense
3

not
no

phrase, where

sufficient

would

had

given, (32)
Nature

such

of pronouns

use

vague

PARALLEL

(15) upon
sufficiency
of
pretence
the light of Nature, avowedly
reject all revelation
as, in its
(47 a) very notion, incredible,
and
what
(47 a) mtist be fictitious.
indeed
And
(32) it is

in

use

VERSION.

persons,
of the

light of

of

enough (47 a).

ORIGINAL

have

(a)

style are

use

is used

of the

it adds

for modern

"wanted."

particular for the general would

clearness.

be

out

of

place in

Butler's

Continuous
and

boundless

is
a

great and

affairs.

has
is

make

to

lastingimpression

human

on

that it

resources,

obviously destined

been

Its

(50) progress
(5)it"1

slow, but

that account
the
only on
be
durable.
to
likely
(5)
has
not
suddenly risen to

more

It

greatness, like the


in ancient
Alexander
that of

or

force

the

of individual

the accidents

genius, or
(54) casual fortune, but has
slowly advanced, and (40 a)
been
firmly consolidated
(15)
of ages,
during a succession
of

the

from

and

the

is, Russia

contains

marine

leagues,

million

two

square
about
one

or

the

times

and

hundred

one

Great

thousand.

below)

(40 a)

north

as

productive

Russian

Empire
empires of

the

and

Great

the

raised

been

poleon,
Na-

sudden

to

greatness by the genius of

fortune,
enlarged

or

the

accidents

but

has

been

and

dividuals
in-

of

slowly

firmly

dated
consoli-

tion
by well-guided ambiand
persevering energy,2
of
during a long succession
ages.

of
fertility
leled
territoryfurnish unparal-

The
her

and

extent

facilities for the increase

population

of her

the

to

one

thousand

geographical miles,

square

Ireland.

and

Britain

or

Great

of

surface

the

times

ten

the

contains

hundred

two

is,

of

west

Mountains,

Ural

power.

that

Russia,

European
Russia

and

face
sur-

twentypart, no
with

territoryis covered

forests, or

like

of

to

of

lies

be
food

This

by

far to

so

almost
;

mountains

Apparently "it" means,


Not
"energy," but "a

but

unno

arid

or

not

arid

no

much

territoryis

vast

(54, see

doubt, of this immense

ranges

has

land,
contain, including Ire-

which

the

The

more

Islands,

British

the

of

durability

probable.
not,
Alexander

only

progress

miles,

geographical

being

her

The

thousand

hundred

ten

fifty

hundred

four

thousand

square

of
her

million

"

and

hundred

ward
west-

Mountains

Ural

of the

two

Russia

the

to

the

in

(47 a)

enjoys.European

that

"

nation

strength

of

elements

no

"world

slowness

crease
facilities of in-

to furnish

and

suck

territoryare

Russian

"which

history a great
influence.

lasting

renders

of
fertility

and

extent

(54) as

course

and

on

skilfullydirected
(15^) perseveringly

energy

The

of

influence

combined

ambition

of

the

of

empire
(19)(31),

to exercise

viouslydestined

in modern,

Napoleon

from

times,

Exercises.

mountain

no

of it is rendered

unproductive of

food

though
almost
either

by

of forests,or by
northern
the

the denseness

severity of

the

"progress,"

long succession

ranges,

and

deserts;

sected
inter-

of

but

the

"

Russian

ages," needs

to

be

empire."
emphasized.

Brevity.
the

intersect

deserts

almost

above) extent, and

see

the

Arctic

the
of

capable
for the

yieldingsomething
of

use

The

man.

south

present (54) inexhaustible fields


of pasturage, and give birth to
those

and

numerous

the

empire,1as
(15^)

states,
The

of

their

(30) which

Dnieper, the

Volga,
tributary streams,
form so many
(54)

outlets into

natural

which

stretch

shivering plains
towards
Archangel

shores

the

the

of

forests of
at

fir and

ample

of

for

many

supersede
searchingin

of (54) warmth

is from

Russ.a
of

its
1

If

bowels

is

and

of

parable
incom-

form
the

the

empire.

rich arable lands

interior
to

in the

produce grain enough

support four

times

population of
yet leave

the

surplus to be
Dnieper, the

vast

the present
empire, and

the

transportedby
Volga, and their
into the Euxine

tributaries,
other

or

seas.

the

Sea, and

for

materials

and

supplies

for

of

and

fir,

ing
shipbuild-

of fuel

that

generations
necessity of

many
the

supersede
searching for

the
with

covered

forests of oak

furnish

will

plains
Archangel

the shores

towards

immense

These

bleak

Lastly,the cold
stretchingtowards
White

generations
the necessity

or

the

coal

(14 a)

"nothing

facture.
manu-

power

the vast

territory,and

There

Oriental
2

as

turage
pastribes

for the purposes

of the earth

Formidable

south

nomad

numerous

The

and

ing
furnish-

(54)

will

bowels

those

chief defence

Sea

immense

oak,

fuel.

stores

of

whose

the

inexhaustible

an

to

and

shipbuildingand

for

supplies

present

(54)2 inexhaustible

once

materials

White

with

(48) covered

are

of

steppes

Euxine

the

orotherseas; (44)while the cold


and

man.

The

the

in

affordpresent inhabitants,but ing


a vast
surplus for exportation

by

use

found.

be

lands

of the (54)empire produce


an
(2) incalculable
quantity
of grain,capable not
only of
maintaining four times (5) its

and

for the

all Oriental

heart

the

of

of

defence

is to

arable

rich

the

capable

horsemen

incomparable

the chief

horsemen

snows,

tribes, in whose

nomad

touches
is

yieldingsomething
of

(3)(54)

steppes of the

boundless

all,except

which

part

Arctic
is

snows,

almost

winter, yet
that

exceptingthat which

whole,

touches

(54,

vast

the
in the

Much

of

extent

great
context

Russia

we

as

of her

for the vastness

territory and
that

dread

may

requires

the

of

her

words,

rapidly
"as

of

all

states."

they
of

were

really"inexhaustible," the "necessity of searching


but
be "superseded," not
for "many,"
would

the earth"

generations.

in the
for

all

Continuous

and

rapidly increasing

Exercises.

number

(54) subjects, (5) it is still


the military
more
(5) so from
and
docile
disposition by
spirit
guished.
which
(54) * distinthey are
The
prevailing (54)
of

its

passion of the nation


and
love of conquest,
burns

the

in

free

Europe,

of

accumulated
violence

over

states.

The

all

as

how

grievances,
for

foreign aggrandizement.

In

the

people hope

to

and

of

evils

find

more

as

great

as

how

great

hope

(15)

and
in

the

domestic

the

evils,

the
a

than

in

ances.
griev-

internal

find

more

ritory,
ter-

itself

soever,
to

which

national

wastes

all

For

sians
Rus-

tion,
compensaa

conquest

sation,
compen-

of

the

world.

pensation,
com-

the

(15 a) for

all

interior

adminis"

their

Russians

energy,

the

rarely
disputes about

sation,
compen-

than

the

national

thirst

of the world

conquest

is

soever,

in the

retains

ceasingly
discipline,unimpels their united
against all adjoining

Domestic

great

of

states

strictest

The

the

territory
rarely wasted

(54) overlooked

are

of

tion
ambi-

free

states.

the

they inhabit, are


in internal
disputes.

it

the

adjoining

energies

people, great

the

forces

ceaseless

in

the

quest
con-

passion

Europe. This passion


unseen
spring2 which,

while

their

docility

democratic

as

standard

the

Western

in

the

for

prevalent

as

Russia

is

is

in

the

thirst

burning

in

missive
sub-

impels

forces

in

spring2

the

(54) under
chief and

their

fear

people.

is

does

them

cause

her

Western

unseen

retains

both

which

of

states

is the

of

them

ambition

democratic

for

military spirit and

(54)
(54)
(54)

this

(54) desire, which


as
(54) fiercely in

ardent

as

is the

greater

there

numbers,

increasing

tration.

The

words

can

be

implied,

besides

and

they

are

in the

expressed

following

sentence.

; and
spring" in

at
"

be

metaphor

The

retain

The
is

all

meaning
great."

is questionable
"spring,
a
; for
ought not
passion
a
besides,
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qua

"

"

"

to

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burn

"

in

one

does

not

line, and

next.

appears

not

to

be, "great

THE

END.

as"

(is),i.e. "though

the

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terri-

LESSONS

ENGLISH
FOR

PEOPLE.

ENGLISH

BT

EDWIN

REV.

THE

OP

MASTER

HEAD

J. R.

'*

I look

and
for

It is not

fine

MODERN

OF

PROFESSOR

so

upon

much
this

speaker."

"

A.

THE

13

knowledge
ADAPTED

to know
as

M.A.,

English
for

as

it is

an

CICERO.

FROM

BOSTON:
ROBERTS

BROTHERS.
1876.

OF

UNIVERSITY

THE

essential

M.A.,

SCHOOL;

LONDON

SEELEY,

HISTORY

merit

OF

CITY

ABBOTT,

shame

Englishman,

CAMBRIDGE.

not

and

to

know

not

it;

merely

CAMBRIDGE

PRESS

OF

JOHN

WILSON

AND

SON.

TO

G.

REV.

MORTIMER,

W.

F.

Paul's

of St.

Prebendary

THE

late

Cathedral,

DOCTOR

MORTIMER,

We

other

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which
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pupils

City

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little book

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Roberts

Messrs.

ENGLISH

LESSONS
E.

A.

Part

I.

Rev.

By
M.

Brothers'

A.

III.

ABBOTT,

IV.

Part

Front

object of this book

by

use

large circle of

i6mo.

the London

readers

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use

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are

Selection

Price

$1.50.

is

right place," .is

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Vocabulary.

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FOR

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BOSTON.

PREFACE.

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degree

nevertheless
to

to

the

supply

to

presupposes
in

idiom

English

intended

is not

book

of

way

correctly.

insufficient

of

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most

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serious.

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grammatical
persons

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is

not

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merely

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cramping

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found

has

accuracy

English

vocabulary

deals

book

to

tained,
at-

write

restriction
and

inexact

viii

PREFACE.

of

apprehension
a

of

ignorance

them

all; and

at

which

expression of
the

very

common

studied

these

last are,

thought

any

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most

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and

words,
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words

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of

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also

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inability

an

rule, the

to appreciate the
inability

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words

other

used, and

commonly

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them

many

absolutelynecessary

are

than

that

in using
difficulty

consequent

total

words

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lish
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roots, there

of misderivingand misunderstanding a word, owing


possibility

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to

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and,

result of all this

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another.

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reading
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thinking it
of

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PREFACE.

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papers,

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ix

which

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is

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the first three

with

Vocabulary

introduced, almost

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way

Parts
are

at

of

these

this

book.

considered
once,

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difficulties is

first.

Difficulties

The

Synonyms.

He

dent
stu-

is

PREFACE.

taught

how

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He

synonyms.

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is to

the

he
reader

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pursue.

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may

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naturallywith

which

often

are

often
is also

at

the
he

that, because
the

reader

time

same

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throughout this
without,

or

of

nature

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selected

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to

class

case

word, he

itself.

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which

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their

against supposing

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at

The

require.

may

many

of

practicaltest

Second
with

who

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still

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worked

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of

exercises

have

them

experience,and

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have

the

have

not

subjected

been

used

in

teaching.

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also

of

roots

terms

information

words

him

himself

abstract

Some

connect

which

as
English Etymological Dictionary,1

an

the

to

of the word

meaning

furnish

and

method

given by

or

all.

at

of

system

the

misused, and

caution

to

the

general

used

not

the

given to help

roots, and

knows

and

is also

and

word

processes

illustrate

to

vocabulary,and
those

of its

exactly follow;

can

out

misunderstood

understood

not

he

system

his

aid

from

The

meaning.

subjoined,worked

examples

the

carefullyexplained:

are

down

without

eliminate

to

its

to

Elimination

Definitionand

and

how

essential

is riot

whatever

shown

with

An

deals

detail the

beginning to

are

"

some

Part

between

the

with

distinction

write

Diction

Chambers's

or

It
often

"

English,and
of

Etymological Dictionary

First Part.

Diction.

attempts

trate
illus-

to

ignored by

sometimes

by

those

others

Prose, and that of Poetry.


is necessary

Ogilvie'swill

answer

for

pupils studying
the

purpose.

It

the

PREFACE.

endeavors

dissipatethat

to

excessive

tautology which, together


rise

pleasantry,gives
It

gives

with

the

to

in

written

venture

we

the

difference
Both

for

English, and

for

rules

think, with

to

above.
sentence

prose.

into

of

misplaced

long

it also examines

foreign languages

and,
teaching,

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writing originalEnglish composition,these


used

for

writing

slang, conversation, and

translatingfrom

vulgar

fondness

for

clearlyand impressively
; and
between

and

vicious

practicalrules

some

xi

have

been

encouraging

results.
A

We

of Diction.
a

in

more

reading

classical

our

how

not

understand
see

writing,and

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in

and

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Metaphor.

perplex young
at

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Simile;"

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of Proportion to
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Simile

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thing is

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force
a

great

xii

PREFACE.

stride of progress.
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which

process

himself

It is difficult
makes

it

into the belief

to

impossible for

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the value

exaggerate

pupil

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Part

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read

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easy
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into detail.
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little is

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subject.

of the
of

may

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in

that

suffers the

to

customs

commonest

English poets

receive

"

to

verting
con-

so

English

as

rather

length.
much

too

explanation,

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will
At

schools.

rapidly
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about

editioa of the works

inpugned

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fore
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the metrical

custom

hand

and varieties

of metre

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as

of the rules stated

to enter

some

elaborate

recent

ciation.
appre-

illustrations have

generally taught, and


a

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in teaching
utility
practical

explainedat
to

seem

so

tioned
men-

is not
doggerel,

Many

and

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In

the

the other

on

the different kinds


have

verse

monotonous

of

Rules

mean.

skill of

epigrammatic
lines he

found

importance

very

the

the study of English metre


probability

more

Pope,

to read

supposed.

been

metre

Chapter

assume

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given,and

same

This

have

hit

pupils to

line into

might

as

enable

is to

hand, without

one

Chapter just

the

Part)

how

one

any

of

this

objectof

and
interest,
intelligence,

with

English Poetry

The

Part.

measure,

Second

the

belonging to
to

the Third

accent.
no

sense

sanctioned

by

in

art

of

of his

one

When
a

of

one

license)

Shakspeare,

PREFACE.

xiv

The

hints

are

possiblydelude
are

elementary,and

so

the

youngest reader
than

thing more

any

hints.

few, that they

so

into

They

study the subjectthoroughly in

when

he

has

will

leave

whatever

leisure

school

hoc.

propter

schools, forces
not

are

to

end

of

test

his

home

rather

to

be

accelerated

the

of

Our

Some
committed

kindly assisted

of the
to

memory

and
etc.

in

which
are

in this

quoted

180, 181, 212, 237, 238,

the

higher
such

been

this ;
forms

lessons

used

to

and

to

also

in

at

student
serve

as

classes.1

of

experience,that
possible,has

as

misprintsand

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the

followingpages,

has

been

due

allowed

to several

task, and

illustrate
as

added

the

soon

as

found

thanks

passages

than

that

teachers

time

us

experience in

our

enabling

publication. Some

the short

correctingthem.
have

of

contents,

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possiblybe

may

of

necessary.

published

be

life,

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paragraphs have

of the

of

meaning

pupilsmore

prepared by pupik

should

lessons

in consequence

who

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case,

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for the purpose

book,

knowledge

inaccuracies

for

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desire, expressed by

these

the

us

upon

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the

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stimulates

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Questions on
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for the work

in
experience of debating societies,

our

of

be

No

interests and

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and

cautioned

him

complete treatise,

prepared

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induce

opportunity; but, in

all the better

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induction,and
ergo

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imaginingthat they

may

to

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friends

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"

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pp.

PREFACE.

aided

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us

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conclusion,

In

use

in

regarded
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of

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Abbott,

Mr.

Howard

School;

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of

Edwin

Mr.

Phil-

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the

who

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English

exhaustive

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hope
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People.

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Quick,

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Master

G.

T.

and

Masters

of

School.

Harrow

be

H.

R.

Rev.

Philological

Mathematical

Candler,

Mr.

Oxford,

School

Rugby

the

of

Master

Head

the

of

Masters

Assistant

whose

Payne,

Joseph

known

College,

New

of

Fellow

late

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practical
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mention

to

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Norman

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and

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many

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Among

xv

is

passed
to

it

intended

give

it

the

of

boyhood

title

for

English
be

of

found

book

our

for

adapted

as

or

of

possibly
age

wish

not

primarily

state

may

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do

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unsatisfactory
that

we

boys,

education,
not

and

English

in

unfit

this

Lessons

to

the

but,

we

for

hope
for

ROBERTS

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From
"

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we
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light,moving with clippedwings in a charmed

Possessing a peculiarlyrefined and delicate nature, a passionate love of beauty,


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men

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ble
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one
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Poetry. With remarks
Art.
EPHRAIM
in the History of Ancient
By GOTTHOLD
Translated
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is to show

from

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boldt, were

with

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correctness

that their

views, in which

These

beauty,

and

also from

of poetry, but in which

ami

the

times.

aim

common

The
The

several fine

is proved to be

arts

is the

tinct
entirelydis-

rich and

Lessing differed widely


Wieland, who

considered

he agreed with Aristotle,

by Goethe, Schiller,and

great argumentative power,


with

ago

years

of philosophy ; being limited,strictly


speaking,

in their aesthetical theories

closelyfollowed

was

moral

truth, as the great

and

"

many

that the isolation of

peculiarprovince of poetry

that of morality and

Klopstock,

better proof of its merit

no

perhaps the greatest critic of modern

of ideal actions.

and

readers

English critic uttered

an

to the exhibition

nature

give our

other is essential to their perfection,and

productionof beauty. The


both

we

Hum-

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pertinentillustrations

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the

art

and

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From

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Roberts
of Lessing in a form accessible to readers ignorant of German.
of translation
of love.
labor
Miss Frothingham has evidently done her work
as
a
achievement
Her
rendering is at once
accurate, and in pure, flowing English ; an
where
the whole
of two
grammatical structure
languages
very difficult to accomplish
the general usefulness
differs so widely. It is also a feature of great value toward
of the many
from Latin
that she has appended translations
of the book
passages
authors
Greek
and
Lessing illustrates his argument.
through which
The
growing interest in our country in questions of art and criticism ought to
It is
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said
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youth it cleared up the whole
As an offset to such books
those
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and made
as
to him
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a
Lessing was
legislatorin the
His
domain
of criticism.
so
insightwas
nearly unerring, and his knowledge so
Marshall
in
that his verdicts stand like those of a Mansfield
and accurate,
or
vast

the

courts

of law.

It created an epoch in art criticism


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On
it first appeared, and its lessons are as fresh and weighty to-day as ever.
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"Miss

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perusal,and

to

It is

original.

...

not

lipsof

poem

of

The

he

and

sweet

becomes

volume

measured
and

more

Of

the

cadences

for

argument

an

subjection,indeed, from

her

it has

but
an

its

when

age

comfort

beauty and

the

grew

of the

metre

agreeable pictureof

an

in

the

'

Longfellow's

as

reader

with

onward

descriptivewooing

in this

friends."
intelligent

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metre

same

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absorbed

more

aloud

read

to

the

in

and

Monthly.

itself is bewitching.

poem

in

poem

fatallyconvincing ;

so

which

around

Atlantic

"

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at

serve

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be

to

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Price
Price

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could

woman

beautiful girl,which

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