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SquaresofOpposition

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2.2SquaresofOpposition
Asquareofoppositionshowsthelogicalrelationsamongcategoricalstatements.Therearetwo
squaresofopposition:
1. theModernSquareofOpposition
2. theTraditionalSquareofOpposition

2.2.1TheModernSquareofOpposition
TheonlylogicalrelationintheModernSquareofOppositionisthecontradictoryrelation.

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TheContradictoryRelation
Tosaythattwostatementsarecontradictorytoeachothermeansthattheynecessarilyhave
oppositetruthvalue.Thatis,ifoneofthemistrue,theothermustbefalse,andifoneofthemis
false,theothermustbetrue.
Forexample,theAstatementAllbatsaremammalsandtheOstatementSomebatsarenot
mammalscontradicteachother.
ThecontradictoryrelationalsoexistsbetweentheEstatementNoswansareblackbirdsandtheI
statementsSomeswansareblackbirds.
WecanuseVennDiagramstoillustratewhythecontradictoryrelationholdsbetweentheAandO
statements.WhentheAstatementistrue,theareaisempty.Butiftheareaisempty,thenno
memberofScanbeinthearea.ThiscontradictstheOstatement,whichsaysthatthereisatleast
onememberofSinthearea,i.e.,theareaisnotempty.

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ThecontradictoryrelationexistsbetweentheAandOstatements,andbetweentheEandI
statements.Therelationcanalsobeexplicatedintermsoftheeliminationofcertaincasesinthe
truthtable.
Atruthtablelistsallpossibledistributionsoftruthvalues.Asinglestatementphastwopossible
truthvalues:truth(T)andfalsehood(F).Giventwostatementspandq,therearefourpossible
combinationsoftruthvalues,rangingfrombothpandqbeingtrue(TT)tobothofthembeingfalse
(FF).Accordingly,therearefourrows(cases)inthetruthtable.Ingeneral,givennstatements,
thereare2nrowsinthetruthtable.

GivenAandOstatements,therearefourpossibletruthvaluecombinations.Wecanviewthe
contradictoryrelationasrulingoutthelogicalpossibilitythatAandOarebothtrueandthelogical
possibilitythattheyarebothfalse.ThesameholdsforEandI.
Thereisoneadvantageofusingthetruthtabletounderstandthelogicalrelationsamongthe
categoricalstatements.Thetablescanhelpusfigureoutwhetherthetruthvalueofastatementcan
bedeterminedwhenthetruthvalueofanotherstatementisknown.

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2.2.2TheTraditionalSquareofOpposition
Ifweassumethatthesetdenotedbythesubjecttermcannotbeanemptyset,thentherearefour
logicalrelationsamongtheA,E,I,Ostatements.TheyareshownintheTraditionalSquareof
Opposition.Thefourrelationsare:
Contradictory
Contrary
Subcontrary
Implication
Inthediagrambelow,wecanactuallyseethecompletesquarethatshowsthelogicalrelations
amongtheA,E,I,Ostatements.

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TheContraryRelation
Thecontradictoryrelationhasbeenexplicatedabove.Wenowlookatthecontraryrelation.Two
statementsarecontrarytoeachotheriftheycannotbothbetrue.Thecontraryrelationexists
betweentheAandEstatements.
WecanuseVennDiagramstoillustratewhytheAandEstatementscannotbothbetrue.Suppose
thatboththeAandEstatementsweretrue.IntermsoftheirVennDiagrams,thiswouldmeanthat
theareaandtheareawereempty.Butifboththeareaandtheareawereempty,thentheset
Swouldbeempty.ThiswouldcontradicttheassumptionthatthesetScannotbeanemptyset.

Thecontraryrelationcanalsobemadeclearintermsofthetruthtable.Noticethatthecontrary
relationrulesoutthetopcaseinthetable.
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TheSubcontraryRelation
Twostatementsaresubcontrarytoeachotheriftheycannotbothbefalse.Thesubcontrary
relationexistsbetweentheIandOstatements.
Again,wecanshowwhytheIandOstatementscannotbothbefalsebyusingtheVennDiagrams.
SupposethatboththeIandOstatementswerefalse.Accordingtothecontradictoryrelation,this
wouldamounttoboththeEandAstatementsbeingtrue.Butthenboththeareaandthearea
wouldbeempty.Butifboththeareaandtheareawereempty,thenthesetSwouldbeempty.
ThisagainwouldcontradicttheassumptionthatthesetScannotbeanemptyset.

ThesubcontraryrelationdoesnotallowthelogicalpossibilityofbothIandObeingfalseinthe
truthtable.

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TheImplicationRelation
Implicationisanimportantlogicconcept.Ifastatementpimpliesanotherstatementq,thenit
cannotbethecasethatpistrue,butqisfalse.Therefore,theimplicationrelationrulesoutthe
secondcaseinthetruthtable.
IntheTraditionalSquaretheAstatementimpliestheIstatement,andtheEstatementimpliesthe
Ostatement.

Ifpimpliesq,italsomeansthatifqisfalse,thenpmustbefalse.

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Exercise2.2
I. Usetheinteractiveprogramtodeterminethetruthvalues.WriteTforTrue,FforFalseand
?forUndetermined.
1. GiventhattheAstatementisfalse,usetheModernSquaretodeterminethetruthvalueof
theotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

2. GiventhattheIstatementistrue,usetheModernSquaretodeterminethetruthvalueof
theotherthreestatements.

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A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

T
I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

3. GiventhattheIstatementisfalse,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

F
I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

4. GiventhattheEstatementisfalse,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

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I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

5. GiventhattheAstatementistrue,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

6. GiventhattheOstatementistrue,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

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I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

7. GiventhattheAstatementisfalse,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

8. GiventhattheEstatementistrue,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

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I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

9. GiventhattheIstatementistrue,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

T
I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

10. GiventhattheOstatementisfalse,usetheTraditionalSquaretodeterminethetruthvalue
oftheotherthreestatements.
A:AllSareP.

E:NoSareP.

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I:SomeSareP.

O:SomeSarenotP.

Check Answers

II. Youcannotseewhatisinsideabox,butaretoldthatitcontainscoloredshapes.Ineachofthe
followingquestions,supposethegivensentenceistheonlyinformationyouhaveaboutthe
coloredshapesinthebox.Trytoseeifyoucandeterminewhethertheothersentencesaretrue
(T)orfalse(F).Ifyouthinkthetruthvaluecannotbedetermined,identifyitasundetermined
(?).
1. Somesquaresareblue.
Allsquaresareblue.
Nosquaresareblue.
Somesquaresarenotblue.
2. Somecirclesarenotgreen.
Allcirclesaregreen.
Nocirclesaregreen.
Somecirclesaregreen.
3. Notrianglesarered.
Alltrianglesarered.
Sometrianglesarered.
Sometrianglesarenotred.
4. Itisfalsethatalloctagonsaregray.
Nooctagonsaregray.
Someoctagonsaregray.
Someoctagonsarenotgray.
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5. Itisfalsethatsomegreenshapesarehexagons.
Allgreenshapesarehexagons.
Nogreenshapesarehexagons.
Somegreenshapesarenothexagons.
Check Answers

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