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CC302 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION
A flexible, or asphalt, or Tarmac pavement typically consists of three or four layers.
For a four layer flexible pavement, there is a surface course, base course, and subbase
course constructed over a compacted, natural soil subgrade. When building a three
layer flexible pavement, the subbase layer is not used and the base course is placed
directly on the natural subgrade.
Once used mostly as an adhesive or for waterproofing, asphalt's usefulness in paving
became widely recognized in the 1830s. Now, 85% of asphalt is used for paving
purposes, and it is the most widely recycled material in the US, both by gross tonnage
and by percentage. As fossil fuels become more scarce, asphalt manufacturers and
researchers are developing sustainable ways to manufacture non-petroleum based
asphalts out of vegetable matter or by recycling used motor oils.

2.0 OBJECTIVE
- enhance the district/divisions problem solving capabilities
- identify, document, and communicate causes of premature pavement failures so
that they may be prevented in the future
- provide remedial solutions for premature pavement failures or chronic pavement
distresses.

3.0 BITUMEN

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3.1 What is Bitumen ?


Asphalt or bitumen is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that
is present in most crude petroleums. It's also found in some natural deposits like
the La Brea Tar Pits, which is actually bitumen, not tar. Tar is produced by the
destructive distillation of coal.

3.2 Two Main Sources Of Bitumen :


Natural sources - bitumen which is located in geological stratum and can
be obtained in the hard and soft form.
Petroleum bitumen - bitumen in colloidal form obtained from refinery
process of crude oil and has been widely used in the road construction.

3.3

Properties of Bituminous Materials:


The high demand of bituminous materials is owing to the number of their firstrate advantageous properties listed below:
1. Adhesive: Binds together all the components without bringing about any
positive or negative changes in their properties
2. Water proof: Bitumen is insoluble in water and can serve as an effective
3.

sealant
Strong: Though the coarse aggregates are the main load bearing
component in a pavement, bitumen or asphalt also play a vital role in

distributing the traffic loads to the layers beneath.


4. Durable: Bitumen lives upto twenty years if maintained properly throughout
the pavement life.
5. Versatile: Bitumen is a relatively easy to use material because of its
thermoplastic property. It can be spread easily along the underlying
pavement layers as it liquefies when heated making the job easier and
hardens in a solid mass when cooled.
6. Economical: It is available in cheaper rates almost all over the world

3.4

Types Of Bitumen Were Used In Construction Of Flexible


Pavement
Depending upon the temperature and other factors various types of bitumen
are found and used throughout the world.

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3.4.1

PENETRATION GRADE BITUMEN


Penetration Grade Bitumen is a standard bitumen usually used as a
road construction essential for heavy traffic road and for the production of
asphalt pavements with various application, and its very important once it
bounds the aggregates and creates a unique cohesion and stability to the
bituminous mix.
Penetration Grade Bitumen is the term often given to untreated asphalt
from the vacuum distillation of crude and the extract from the de-asphalting
unit. This is before the stream has been treated, with cut backs or by air
blowing to make the various asphalt product grades. In bitumen production
the heavy vacuum residue, which is the basis for most bitumen grades,
may be air blown. This becomes necessary to meet certain bitumen grades.
The air used in this air blowing procedure must be perfectly dry to avoid an
explosion in the reactor vessel.
Penetration Grade Bitumen is commonly used in road surfacing, and
some industrial applications. Additional processing yields other grades of
bitumen products and their application. Penetration Test determines the
hardness of Bitumen by measuring the depth ( in 10mm) to which a
standard, and loaded needle will vertically penetrate in 5 seconds.

SPECIFICATION OF PENETRATION GRADE BITUMEn


PROPERTY

GRADES

STANDARD

BITUMEN
80/100

BITUMEN
60/70

BITUMEN
40/50

ASTM /
AASHTO

Specification Gravity @25/25


C

1.01/1.06

1.00-1.05

1.00-1.05

D-70

Penetration @ 25 C

80/100

60/70

40/50

D-5

Softening Point C

45/52

49/56

52/60

D-36

Ductility @ 25 C CMS

100 MIN

100 MIN

100 MIN

D-113

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Loss on Heating (wt)%

0.5 MAX

0.2 MAX

0.2 MAX

D-6

Drop in Penetration After


Heating %

20 MAX

20 MAX

20 MAX

D-6 & D-5

Flash Point C

225 MIN

250 MIN

250 MIN

D-92

Solubility in CS@ (wt)%

99.5 MAX

99.5 MAX

99.5 MAX

D-4

Spot Test

NEGATIVE

NEGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Density @25 C

1.01/1.06

1.00/1.05

1.00/1.05

D70

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PENETRATION GRADE BITUMEN

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

The test is done at 25 C (77 F), which is

The test is empirical and does not measure

reasonably close to a typical pavement

any fundamental engineering parameter

average temperature.

such as viscosity.

May also provide a better correlation with

Shear rate is variable and high during the

low-temperature asphalt binder properties

test. Since asphalt binders typically behave

than the viscosity test, which is performed

as a non-Newtonian fluid at 25 C (77 F),

at 60 C (140 F).

this will affect test results.

Temperature susceptibility (the change in

Temperature susceptibility (the change in

asphalt binder rheology with temperature)

asphalt binder rheology with temperature)

can be determined by conducting the test

cannot be determined by a single test at

at temperatures other than 25 C (77 F).

25 C (77 F).

The test is quick and inexpensive.

The test does not provide information with

Therefore, it can easily be used in the field.

which to establish mixing and compaction


temperatures.

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3.4.2

CUT-BACK BITUMEN
Cutback Bitumen ( Liquid Bitumen ) is Bitumen that is dissolved in a
solvent. Typical solvents include Naptha, gasoline and kerosene, white spirit
etc. The type of solvent controls the curing time while the amount determines
the viscosity of the Cutback Bitumen.
The advantage Cutbacks have over Emulsions is a much higher residual
Bitumen percent, typically over 80% compares with over 40-65% for Bitumen
emulsions. The result is more Bitumen left on the roadway after curing, for
the same volume of binder applied.

Cutback Classification
GRADE

CURING
SPEED

VISCOSITY

PENETRATION OF
RESIDUE

MC 30

MEDIUM

30 - 60

120 - 150

MC 70

MEDIUM

70 - 140

120 - 150

MC 250

MEDIUM

250 -500

120 - 150

MC 800

MEDIUM

800 - 1600

120 - 150

MC 3000

MEDIUM

3000 - 6000

120 - 150

RC 30

RAPID

30 -60

80 - 120

RC 70

RAPID

70 - 140

80 - 120

RC 250

RAPID

250 - 500

80 - 120

RC 800

RAPID

800 - 1600

80 - 120

RC 3000

RAPID

3000 - 6000

80 - 120

Application :Cutback bitumens suitable for primer sealing can also be used in the
manufacture ofpre-mix asphalt, which is used in patch repairs.Cutback
bitumens are used extensively in sprayed sealing applications, particularly in
cooler weather where they provide improved initial stone retention due to

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their lower viscosity. Typically, a single application of the appropriate cutback
bitumen is sprayed onto the primed pavement ontowhich aggregate is laid.

3.4.3 BITUMEN EMULSION :


Bitumen emulsion consists of three basic ingredients: bitumen, water,
and an emulsifying agent. Based on specifications it may contain other
additives, such as stabilizers, coating improvers, anti-strips, or break control
agents. It is well known that water and asphalt will not mix, except under
carefully controlled conditions using highly specialized equipment and
chemical additives
Uses :
Cationic emulsions may be used at ambient temperatures with aggregates,
which need not be completely dry. Emulsions are less hazardous to use and
can be applied in a wider range of condition.
The development of cold mixing has to a great extent overcome these
disadvantages and certain additional benefits:
1. Control of Emulsion Breaking
The breaking of an emulsion in contact with aggregate is initiated by:
i)

Adsorption of emulsifier onto the aggregate until the emulsifier


remaining at the bitumen droplet surface is insufficient to
prevent coagulation.

ii)

Neutralisation of emulsion acidity by reactive aggregates and


fillers leading to a loss in positive charge on the bitumen
droplets and therefore coalescence occurs. So the rate of
breaking depends, for example;
a) The adsorption capacity of the aggregate for emulsifier this
is related to the aggregate type and grading. The fines
content

and

type

of

fines

present

can

Have

disproportionally large influence


b) The reactivity gregates to emulsion acidity Aggregates like
limestone which react with acids, will clearly have the
largest effect on emulsion breaking.

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Advantages :
a. Emulsions may be used at ambient temperatures with aggregates,
which need not be completely dry.
b. Lower costs are incurred due to a considerable saving on fuel for
heating purposes.
c. Operating at lower temperatures for cold mixing gives a greater
margin of safety, even though these emulsions may contain fluxing
oil.
d. Not only may cold mix be stockpiled for long periods, but it may also
be packaged in small containers and stored. This facilitates the
treatment of very small areas quickly, cleanly and economically.

Disadvantages ;
Even though cationic bitumen emulsions have many advantages over
cut-back binders, they also have certain disadvantages:
a. Climatic - A regular water supply is required and this can be a great
problem in very hot countries, where water can be in very short
supply.
-Also aggregates in arid regions are often very dry and cationic
emulsions work most effectively, especially mixing with moist
aggregate.
i.
Stability Emulsions are inherently unstable with limited
ii.

shortage life, (generally maximum 6 to 12 months).


Plant Emulsion manufacture requires specialised plant and

iii.

quality control procedures.


Bitumen Special emulsifier grade binders are needed to make
the best quality emulsions.