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SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR

REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

MODEL BUILDING CODES


A model building code is a document containing standardized
building requirements applicable throughout the United States.
The three model building codes in the United States were: the
Uniform Building Code (predominant in the west), the Standard
Building Code (predominant in the southeast), and the BOCA
National Building Code (predominant in the northeast), were
initiated between 1927 and 1950.
The US Uniform Building Code was the most widely used seismic
code in the world, with its last edition published in 1997.
Up to the year 2000, seismic design in the United States has been
based on one these three model building codes.

Representatives from the three model codes formed the


International Code Council (ICC) in 1994, and in April 2000, the
ICC published the first edition of the International Building Code,
IBC-2000. In 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, the second, third fourth

Initiation Of The Equivalent Static Lateral


Force Method

The work done after the 1908 Reggio-Messina Earthquake in Sicily by a


committee appointed by the Italian government may be the origin of
the equivalent static lateral force method, in which a seismic coefficient
is applied to the mass of the structure, to produce the lateral force that
is approximately equivalent in effect to the dynamic loading of the
expected earthquake.

The Japanese engineer Toshikata Sano independently developed in


1915 the idea of a lateral design force V proportional to the buildings
weight W. This relationship can be written as F = C W , where C is a
lateral force coefficient, expressed as some percentage of gravity. The
first official implementation of Sanos criterion was the specification C =
10 percent of gravity, issued as a part of the 1924 Japanese Urban
Building Law Enforcement Regulations in response to the destruction
caused by the great 1923 Kanto earthquake.

In California, the Santa Barbara earthquake of 1925 motivated several


communities to adopt codes with C as high as 20 percent of gravity.

Development Of The Equivalent Static


Lateral Force Method
UBC/IBC Code s

Lateral Force

UBC 1927- UBC 1946

F = CW

UBC 1949- UBC 1958

F = CW

UBC 1961- UBC 1973

V = ZKCW

UBC 1976- UBC 1979

V = ZIKCSW

UBC 1982- UBC 1985

V = ZIKCSW

UBC 1988- UBC 1994

V = ZICW/Rw

UBC 1997

V = CvIW/RT

IBC- 2000- IBC-2012

V = CsW

The first edition of the U.S. Uniform Building Code (UBC) was published
in 1927 by the Pacific Coast building Officials (PCBO), contained an
optional seismic appendix.
The seismic design provisions remained in an appendix to the UBC until
the publication of the 1961 UBC.
In the 1997 edition of UBC the earthquake load (E) is a function of both
the horizontal and vertical components of the ground motion.

Safety Concepts
Structures designed in accordance with the
should generally be able to:

UBC

provisions

1. Resist minor earthquakes without damage.


2. Resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage, but
possibly some nonstructural damage.
3. Resist major earthquakes without collapse, but possibly some
structural and nonstructural damage.
The UBC intended that structures be designed for life-safety
in the event of an earthquake with a 10-percent probability of
being exceeded in 50 years. The IBC intends design for collapse
prevention in a much larger earthquake, with a 2-percent
probability of being exceeded in 50.

Seismic Codes Are Based On Earthquake


Historical Data
The 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake led to the first introduction of
simple Newtonian concepts in the 1927 Uniform Building Code. As the
level of knowledge and data collected increases, these equations are
modified to better represent these forces.
In response to the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, a fourth soil profile
type, , for very deep soft soils was added to the 1988 UBC, with the
factor equal to 2.0.
The 1994 Northridge Earthquake resulted in addition of near-fault factor
to base shear equation, and prohibition on highly irregular structures in
near fault regions. Also, redundancy factor added to design forces.
The 1997 UBC incorporated a number of important lessons learned from
the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquake, where four site
coefficients use in the earlier 1994 UBC has been extended to six soil
profiles, which are determined by shear wave velocity, standard
penetration test, and undrained shear strength.

Detailing Requirements of ACI 318-08


Based on R1.1.1.9.1 of ACI 318-08, for UBC 1991 through 1997, Seismic
Zones 0 and 1 are classified as classified as zones of low seismic risk. Thus,
provisions of chapters 1 through 19 and chapter 22 are considered sufficient
for structures located in these zones.
Seismic Zone 2 is classified as a zone of moderate seismic risk, and zones
3 and 4 are classified as zones of high seismic risk. Structures located in
these zones are to be detailed as per chapter 21 of ACI 318-08 Code.
For Seismic Design Categories A and B of IBC 2000 through 2012,
detailing is done according to provisions of chapters 1 through 19 and
chapter 22 of ACI 318-08. Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F are
detailed as per the provisions of chapter 21.
Code/Standard

Level of Seismic Risk


Low

Moderate

High

IBC 2000-2012

SDC A, B

SDC C

SDC D, E, F

UBC 1991-1997

zone 0, 1

Zone 2

Zone 3, 4

Seismic Design According To 1997 UBC


The Static Lateral Force Procedure
Major Changes from UBC 1994
(1) Soil Profile Types:
The four Site Coefficients S1 to S4 of the UBC 1994, which are independent of
the level of ground shaking, were expanded to six soil profile types, which are
dependent on the seismic zone factors, in the 1997 UBC (SA to SF) based on
previous earthquake records. The new soil profile types were based on soil
characteristics for the top 30 m of the soil. The shear wave velocity, standard
penetration test and undrained shear strength are used to identify the soil
profile types.
(2) Structural Framing Systems:
In addition to the four basic framing systems (bearing wall, building frame,
moment-resisting frame, and dual), two new structural system classifications
were introduced: cantilevered column systems and shear wall-frame
interaction systems.
(3) Load Combinations:
The 1997 UBC seismic design provisions are based on strength-level design
rather than service-level design.
(4) Earthquake Loads:
In the 1997 UBC, the earthquake load (E) is a function of both the horizontal
and vertical components of the ground motion.

Seismic Design According To 1997 UBC


The Static Lateral Force Procedure
Applicability
The static lateral force procedure may be used for the following structures:
All structures, regular or irregular (Table A1), in Seismic Zone no. 1 (Table
A-2) and in Occupancy Categories 4 and 5 (Table A-3) in Seismic Zone 2.

Regular structures under 73 m in height with lateral force resistance


provided by systems given in Table (A-4) except for structures located in soil
profile type SF, that have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table A-5 for
soil profiles).
Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in height.
Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower
portion where both portions of the structure considered separately can be
classified as being regular, the average story stiffness of the lower portion is
at least ten times the average stiffness of the upper portion and the period of
the entire structure is not greater than 1.10 times the period of the upper
portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base.

Design Base Shear, V


The total design base shear in a given direction is to be
determined from the following formula.

The total design base shear need not exceed the following:

The total design base shear shall not be less than the
following:

Design Base Shear, V (Contd.)


Where
V = total design lateral force or shear at the base.
W = total seismic dead load
In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of 25 % of floor live load is to be
considered.
Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.
Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of not less than 50 kg/m2 is to be
included.
I = Building importance factor given in Table (A-3).
Z = Seismic Zone factor, shown in Table (A-2).
R = response modification factor for lateral force resisting system, shown in Table (A4).

Ca = acceleration-dependent seismic coefficient, shown in Table (A-6).


Cv= velocity-dependent seismic coefficient, shown in Table (A-7).
T= elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction
under consideration evaluated from the following equations:
For reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames,
For other buildings,
Alternatively, for shear walls,

Design Base Shear, V (Contd.)


Where

hn= total height of building in meters


Ac = combined effective area, in m2, of the shear walls in the first story of
the structure, given by

De =the length, in meters, of each shear wall in the first story in the direction
parallel to the applied forces.

Ai= cross-sectional area of individual shear walls in the direction of loads in


m2

Tables And Graphs


Table (A-2): Seismic zone factor Z
Zone

2A

2B

0.075

0.15

0.20

0.30

0.40

Note: The zone shall be determined from the seismic zone map
(Graphs A-1 and A-2).
Table (A-3):Occupancy Importance Factors
Occupancy Category

1-Essential facilities
2-Hazardous facilities
3-Special occupancy structures
4-Standard occupancy
structures
5-Miscellaneous structures

Seismic Importance Factor, I


1.25
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.00

Tables And Graphs (Contd.)


Table (A-4): Structural Systems
Lateralforce
resisting system
description

Height limit
Zones 3&4.
(meters)

Bearing Wall

Concrete
walls

shear

4.5

48

Building Frame

Concrete
walls

shear

5.5

73

Moment-Resisting
Frame

SMRF
IMRF
OMRF

8.5
5.5
3.5

N.L
-------

8.5
6.5

N.L
48

2.2

10

5.5

48

Dual

Cantilevered
Building
Shear-wall
Interaction

Shear
wall
+
SMRF
Shear
wall
+
IMRF
Column Cantilevered
column elements
Frame

Table (A-5):Soil Profiles

Tables And Graphs (Contd.)


Table (A-6): Seismic coefficient Ca
Soil
Profile
Type

Seismic Zone Factor, Z


Z =0.075

Z = 0.15

Z = 0.2

Z = 0.3

SA

0.06

0.12

0.16

0.24

SB

0.08

0.15

0.20

0.30

SC

0.09

0.18

0.24

0.33

SD

0.12

0.22

0.28

0.36

SE

0.19

0.30

0.34

0.36

SF

See Footnote

Footnote: Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic response


analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for soil
Profile Type .

Table (A-7): Seismic coefficient Cv

Tables And Graphs (Contd.)


Graph (A-1): Palestines seismic zone factors (Source: International
Handbook of Earthquake Engineering , Mario Paz)

Tables And Graphs (Contd.)


Graph (A-2): Palestines seismic zone factors (Source: Annajah
National University)

Vertical Distribution of Forces


Vertical Distribution of Force:
The base shear which is evaluated from the following equation, is distributed over
the height of the building.

Where:

The shear force at each story is given

The overturning moment is given by

Horizontal Distribution of Forces


Horizontal Distribution of Force:
The design story shear in any direction, is distributed to the various elements
of the lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.
Horizontal Torsional Moment:
The torsional design moment at a given story is given by moment resulting
from eccentricities between applied design lateral forces applied through each
storys center of mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of
the vertical elements of the story, in addition to the accidental torsion
(calculated by displacing the calculated center of mass in each direction a
distance equal to 5 % of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to
the direction of the force under consideration).
Interactions of Shear Walls with Each Other:
In the following figure the slabs act as horizontal diaphragms extending
between cantilever walls and they are expected to ensure that the positions of
the walls, relative to each other, don't change during lateral displacement of
the floors. The flexural resistance of rectangular walls with respect to their
weak axes may be neglected in lateral load analysis.

Horizontal Distribution of Forces (Contd.)

The distribution of the total seismic load Fx, or Fy among all cantilever walls
may be approximated by the following expressions:
Fix = Fix + Fix and Fiy = Fiy + Fiy
Where
Fix = load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in x-direction
Fiy = load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in y-direction
Fix = load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in x-direction
Fiy = load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in y-direction

Horizontal Distribution of Forces (Contd.)


The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story translation, in x-direction, is given by

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story translation , in y-direction, is given by

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story torsion, in x-direction, is given by

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story torsion, in y-direction, is given by


Where:

xi = x-coordinate of a wall w.r.t the C.R of the lateral load resisting system
yi = y-coordinate of a wall w.r.t the C.R of the lateral load resisting system
ex = eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and center of rigidity C.R, in xdirection

ey= eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and center of rigidity C.R, in ydirection

Fx = total external load to be resisted by all walls, in x-direction


Fy = total external load to be resisted by all walls, in y-direction
Iix = second moment of area of a wall about x-axis
Iiy = second moment of area of a wall about y-axis

Classification of Structural Walls


According to Chapters 2 and 21 of ACI 318-02, structural walls are defined as being walls
proportioned to resist combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces induced by earthquake
motions. A shear wall is a structural wall. Reinforced concrete structural walls are categorized as
follows:
Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls, which are walls complying with the requirements of
Chapters 1 through 18.
Special reinforced concrete structural walls, which are cast-in-place walls complying with the
requirements of 21.2 and 21.7 in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete
structural walls.

Special Provisions For Earthquake Resistance


According to Clause 1.1.8.3 of ACI 318-02, the seismic risk level of a region is regulated by the legally
adopted general building code of which ACI 318-02 forms a part, or determined by local authority.
According to Clauses 1.1.8.1 and 21.2.1.2 of ACI 318-02 in regions of low seismic risk, provisions of
Chapter 21 are to be applied (chapters 1 through 18 are applicable).
According to Clause 1.1.8.2 of ACI 318-02, in regions of moderate or high seismic risk, provisions of
Chapter 21 are to be satisfied. In regions of moderate seismic risk, ordinary or special shear walls are
to be used for resisting forces induced by earthquake motions as specified in Clause 21.2.1.3 of the
code.
According to Clause 21.2.1.4 of ACI 318-02, in regions oh high seismic risk, special structural walls
complying with 21.2 through 21.10 are to be used for resisting forces induced by earthquake motions.

Classification of Moment Resisting Frames


Building Frame System:
Based on section 1627 of UBC-1997, it is essentially a complete space frame
that provides support for gravity loads.
Moment Frames:
Based on ACI 2.1, 21.1 and 21.2, are defined as frames in which members
and joints resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial force. Moment
frames are categorized as follows:
Ordinary Moment Frames:
Concrete frames complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18
of the ACI Code. They are used in regions of low-seismic risk.
Intermediate Moment Frames:
Concrete frames complying with the requirements of 21.2.2.3 and 21.12 in
addition to the requirements for ordinary moment frames. They are used in
regions of moderate-seismic risk.
Special Moment Frames: Concrete frames complying with the requirements
of 21.2 through 21.5, in addition to the requirements for ordinary moment
frames. They are used in regions of moderate and high-seismic risks.

Load Combinations
Loads

ACI 818-02

UBC-1997

Dead (D) and Live (L)

1.2 D + 1.6 L

1.32 D + 1.1 L

Dead

1.2 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 E

1.2 D + 1.0 L + 1.1 E

(D),

Live

(L)

and Earthquake (E)

Earthquake Loads
Based on UBC 1630.1.1, horizontal earthquake loads to be used in the above-stated load combinations
are determined as follows:

Where:
E = earthquake load resulting from the combination of the horizontal component , and the vertical
component,
Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear, V
Ev = the load effects resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground motion and is
equal to the addition of

to the dead load effects D

= redundancy factor, to increase the effects of earthquake loads on structures with few lateral force
resisting elements (taken as 1.0 where z =0, 1 or 2)

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls


The shear wall is designed as a cantilever beam fixed at the base, to transfer load to the foundation.
Shear force, bending moment, and axial load are maximum at the base of the wall.

Types of Reinforcement
To control cracking, shear reinforcement is required in the horizontal and vertical directions, to resist
in plane shear forces.
The vertical reinforcement in the wall serves as flexural reinforcement. If large moment capacity is
required, additional reinforcement can be placed at the ends of the wall within the section itself, or
within enlargements at the ends. The heavily reinforced or enlarged sections are called boundary
elements.

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls


Shear Design
According to ACI 11.1.1, nominal shear strength Vn is given as

Where Vc is nominal shear strength provided by concrete and Vs is nominal shear strength provided by
the reinforcement.
Based on ACI 11.10.3, Vn is limited by the following equation.

The shear strength provided by concrete Vc is given by any of the following equations, as applicable.

h = thickness of wall
d = effective depth in the direction of bending, may be taken as 0.8 lw, as stated in ACI 11.10.4
Ag = gross area of wall thickness
Nu = factored axial load

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls


Shear Reinforcement
When the factored shear force exceeds Vc/2,
-Horizontal reinforcement ration h is not to be less than 0.0025. Spacing of this reinforcement S2 is
not to exceed the smallest of lw/5, 3h and 45 cm.
- Vertical reinforcement ratio

n is not to be taken less than

Nor 0.0025.
According to ACI 11.10.9.1, when the factored shear force Vu exceeds Vc, horizontal shear
reinforcement must be provided according to the following equation. Spacing of this reinforcement S1 is
not to exceed the smallest of lw/3, 3h and 45 cm.

Where:

Av = Area of horizontal shear reinforcement within a distance S2.


h = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of vertical section.
n = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section.

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls (Contd.)


Flexural Design
The wall must be designed to resist the bending moment at the base and the axial force produced by
the wall weight or the vertical loads it carries. Thus, it is considered as a beam-column.
For rectangular shear walls containing uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement and subjected to
an axial load smaller than that producing balanced failure, the following equation, developed by
Cardenas and Magura in ACI SP-36 in 1973, can be used to determine the approximate moment
capacity of the wall.

Where:

C = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis

lw = horizontal length of wall


Pu = factored axial compressive load
fy = yield strength of reinforcement
= strength reduction factor

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls (Contd.)


Reinforcement

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