00 mi piace00 non mi piace

62 visualizzazioni32 pagineseismic

Aug 10, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

seismic

© All Rights Reserved

62 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

seismic

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 32

A model building code is a document containing standardized

building requirements applicable throughout the United States.

The three model building codes in the United States were: the

Uniform Building Code (predominant in the west), the Standard

Building Code (predominant in the southeast), and the BOCA

National Building Code (predominant in the northeast), were

initiated between 1927 and 1950.

The US Uniform Building Code was the most widely used seismic

code in the world, with its last edition published in 1997.

Up to the year 2000, seismic design in the United States has been

based on one these three model building codes.

International Code Council (ICC) in 1994, and in April 2000, the

ICC published the first edition of the International Building Code,

IBC-2000. In 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, the second, third fourth

Force Method

committee appointed by the Italian government may be the origin of

the equivalent static lateral force method, in which a seismic coefficient

is applied to the mass of the structure, to produce the lateral force that

is approximately equivalent in effect to the dynamic loading of the

expected earthquake.

1915 the idea of a lateral design force V proportional to the buildings

weight W. This relationship can be written as F = C W , where C is a

lateral force coefficient, expressed as some percentage of gravity. The

first official implementation of Sanos criterion was the specification C =

10 percent of gravity, issued as a part of the 1924 Japanese Urban

Building Law Enforcement Regulations in response to the destruction

caused by the great 1923 Kanto earthquake.

communities to adopt codes with C as high as 20 percent of gravity.

Lateral Force Method

UBC/IBC Code s

Lateral Force

F = CW

F = CW

V = ZKCW

V = ZIKCSW

V = ZIKCSW

V = ZICW/Rw

UBC 1997

V = CvIW/RT

V = CsW

The first edition of the U.S. Uniform Building Code (UBC) was published

in 1927 by the Pacific Coast building Officials (PCBO), contained an

optional seismic appendix.

The seismic design provisions remained in an appendix to the UBC until

the publication of the 1961 UBC.

In the 1997 edition of UBC the earthquake load (E) is a function of both

the horizontal and vertical components of the ground motion.

Safety Concepts

Structures designed in accordance with the

should generally be able to:

UBC

provisions

2. Resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage, but

possibly some nonstructural damage.

3. Resist major earthquakes without collapse, but possibly some

structural and nonstructural damage.

The UBC intended that structures be designed for life-safety

in the event of an earthquake with a 10-percent probability of

being exceeded in 50 years. The IBC intends design for collapse

prevention in a much larger earthquake, with a 2-percent

probability of being exceeded in 50.

Historical Data

The 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake led to the first introduction of

simple Newtonian concepts in the 1927 Uniform Building Code. As the

level of knowledge and data collected increases, these equations are

modified to better represent these forces.

In response to the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, a fourth soil profile

type, , for very deep soft soils was added to the 1988 UBC, with the

factor equal to 2.0.

The 1994 Northridge Earthquake resulted in addition of near-fault factor

to base shear equation, and prohibition on highly irregular structures in

near fault regions. Also, redundancy factor added to design forces.

The 1997 UBC incorporated a number of important lessons learned from

the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquake, where four site

coefficients use in the earlier 1994 UBC has been extended to six soil

profiles, which are determined by shear wave velocity, standard

penetration test, and undrained shear strength.

Based on R1.1.1.9.1 of ACI 318-08, for UBC 1991 through 1997, Seismic

Zones 0 and 1 are classified as classified as zones of low seismic risk. Thus,

provisions of chapters 1 through 19 and chapter 22 are considered sufficient

for structures located in these zones.

Seismic Zone 2 is classified as a zone of moderate seismic risk, and zones

3 and 4 are classified as zones of high seismic risk. Structures located in

these zones are to be detailed as per chapter 21 of ACI 318-08 Code.

For Seismic Design Categories A and B of IBC 2000 through 2012,

detailing is done according to provisions of chapters 1 through 19 and

chapter 22 of ACI 318-08. Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F are

detailed as per the provisions of chapter 21.

Code/Standard

Low

Moderate

High

IBC 2000-2012

SDC A, B

SDC C

SDC D, E, F

UBC 1991-1997

zone 0, 1

Zone 2

Zone 3, 4

The Static Lateral Force Procedure

Major Changes from UBC 1994

(1) Soil Profile Types:

The four Site Coefficients S1 to S4 of the UBC 1994, which are independent of

the level of ground shaking, were expanded to six soil profile types, which are

dependent on the seismic zone factors, in the 1997 UBC (SA to SF) based on

previous earthquake records. The new soil profile types were based on soil

characteristics for the top 30 m of the soil. The shear wave velocity, standard

penetration test and undrained shear strength are used to identify the soil

profile types.

(2) Structural Framing Systems:

In addition to the four basic framing systems (bearing wall, building frame,

moment-resisting frame, and dual), two new structural system classifications

were introduced: cantilevered column systems and shear wall-frame

interaction systems.

(3) Load Combinations:

The 1997 UBC seismic design provisions are based on strength-level design

rather than service-level design.

(4) Earthquake Loads:

In the 1997 UBC, the earthquake load (E) is a function of both the horizontal

and vertical components of the ground motion.

The Static Lateral Force Procedure

Applicability

The static lateral force procedure may be used for the following structures:

All structures, regular or irregular (Table A1), in Seismic Zone no. 1 (Table

A-2) and in Occupancy Categories 4 and 5 (Table A-3) in Seismic Zone 2.

provided by systems given in Table (A-4) except for structures located in soil

profile type SF, that have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table A-5 for

soil profiles).

Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in height.

Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower

portion where both portions of the structure considered separately can be

classified as being regular, the average story stiffness of the lower portion is

at least ten times the average stiffness of the upper portion and the period of

the entire structure is not greater than 1.10 times the period of the upper

portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base.

The total design base shear in a given direction is to be

determined from the following formula.

The total design base shear need not exceed the following:

The total design base shear shall not be less than the

following:

Where

V = total design lateral force or shear at the base.

W = total seismic dead load

In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of 25 % of floor live load is to be

considered.

Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.

Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of not less than 50 kg/m2 is to be

included.

I = Building importance factor given in Table (A-3).

Z = Seismic Zone factor, shown in Table (A-2).

R = response modification factor for lateral force resisting system, shown in Table (A4).

Cv= velocity-dependent seismic coefficient, shown in Table (A-7).

T= elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction

under consideration evaluated from the following equations:

For reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames,

For other buildings,

Alternatively, for shear walls,

Where

Ac = combined effective area, in m2, of the shear walls in the first story of

the structure, given by

De =the length, in meters, of each shear wall in the first story in the direction

parallel to the applied forces.

m2

Table (A-2): Seismic zone factor Z

Zone

2A

2B

0.075

0.15

0.20

0.30

0.40

Note: The zone shall be determined from the seismic zone map

(Graphs A-1 and A-2).

Table (A-3):Occupancy Importance Factors

Occupancy Category

1-Essential facilities

2-Hazardous facilities

3-Special occupancy structures

4-Standard occupancy

structures

5-Miscellaneous structures

1.25

1.25

1.00

1.00

1.00

Table (A-4): Structural Systems

Lateralforce

resisting system

description

Height limit

Zones 3&4.

(meters)

Bearing Wall

Concrete

walls

shear

4.5

48

Building Frame

Concrete

walls

shear

5.5

73

Moment-Resisting

Frame

SMRF

IMRF

OMRF

8.5

5.5

3.5

N.L

-------

8.5

6.5

N.L

48

2.2

10

5.5

48

Dual

Cantilevered

Building

Shear-wall

Interaction

Shear

wall

+

SMRF

Shear

wall

+

IMRF

Column Cantilevered

column elements

Frame

Table (A-6): Seismic coefficient Ca

Soil

Profile

Type

Z =0.075

Z = 0.15

Z = 0.2

Z = 0.3

SA

0.06

0.12

0.16

0.24

SB

0.08

0.15

0.20

0.30

SC

0.09

0.18

0.24

0.33

SD

0.12

0.22

0.28

0.36

SE

0.19

0.30

0.34

0.36

SF

See Footnote

analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for soil

Profile Type .

Graph (A-1): Palestines seismic zone factors (Source: International

Handbook of Earthquake Engineering , Mario Paz)

Graph (A-2): Palestines seismic zone factors (Source: Annajah

National University)

Vertical Distribution of Force:

The base shear which is evaluated from the following equation, is distributed over

the height of the building.

Where:

Horizontal Distribution of Force:

The design story shear in any direction, is distributed to the various elements

of the lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.

Horizontal Torsional Moment:

The torsional design moment at a given story is given by moment resulting

from eccentricities between applied design lateral forces applied through each

storys center of mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of

the vertical elements of the story, in addition to the accidental torsion

(calculated by displacing the calculated center of mass in each direction a

distance equal to 5 % of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to

the direction of the force under consideration).

Interactions of Shear Walls with Each Other:

In the following figure the slabs act as horizontal diaphragms extending

between cantilever walls and they are expected to ensure that the positions of

the walls, relative to each other, don't change during lateral displacement of

the floors. The flexural resistance of rectangular walls with respect to their

weak axes may be neglected in lateral load analysis.

The distribution of the total seismic load Fx, or Fy among all cantilever walls

may be approximated by the following expressions:

Fix = Fix + Fix and Fiy = Fiy + Fiy

Where

Fix = load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in x-direction

Fiy = load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in y-direction

Fix = load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in x-direction

Fiy = load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in y-direction

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story translation, in x-direction, is given by

Where:

xi = x-coordinate of a wall w.r.t the C.R of the lateral load resisting system

yi = y-coordinate of a wall w.r.t the C.R of the lateral load resisting system

ex = eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and center of rigidity C.R, in xdirection

ey= eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and center of rigidity C.R, in ydirection

Fy = total external load to be resisted by all walls, in y-direction

Iix = second moment of area of a wall about x-axis

Iiy = second moment of area of a wall about y-axis

According to Chapters 2 and 21 of ACI 318-02, structural walls are defined as being walls

proportioned to resist combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces induced by earthquake

motions. A shear wall is a structural wall. Reinforced concrete structural walls are categorized as

follows:

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls, which are walls complying with the requirements of

Chapters 1 through 18.

Special reinforced concrete structural walls, which are cast-in-place walls complying with the

requirements of 21.2 and 21.7 in addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete

structural walls.

According to Clause 1.1.8.3 of ACI 318-02, the seismic risk level of a region is regulated by the legally

adopted general building code of which ACI 318-02 forms a part, or determined by local authority.

According to Clauses 1.1.8.1 and 21.2.1.2 of ACI 318-02 in regions of low seismic risk, provisions of

Chapter 21 are to be applied (chapters 1 through 18 are applicable).

According to Clause 1.1.8.2 of ACI 318-02, in regions of moderate or high seismic risk, provisions of

Chapter 21 are to be satisfied. In regions of moderate seismic risk, ordinary or special shear walls are

to be used for resisting forces induced by earthquake motions as specified in Clause 21.2.1.3 of the

code.

According to Clause 21.2.1.4 of ACI 318-02, in regions oh high seismic risk, special structural walls

complying with 21.2 through 21.10 are to be used for resisting forces induced by earthquake motions.

Building Frame System:

Based on section 1627 of UBC-1997, it is essentially a complete space frame

that provides support for gravity loads.

Moment Frames:

Based on ACI 2.1, 21.1 and 21.2, are defined as frames in which members

and joints resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial force. Moment

frames are categorized as follows:

Ordinary Moment Frames:

Concrete frames complying with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18

of the ACI Code. They are used in regions of low-seismic risk.

Intermediate Moment Frames:

Concrete frames complying with the requirements of 21.2.2.3 and 21.12 in

addition to the requirements for ordinary moment frames. They are used in

regions of moderate-seismic risk.

Special Moment Frames: Concrete frames complying with the requirements

of 21.2 through 21.5, in addition to the requirements for ordinary moment

frames. They are used in regions of moderate and high-seismic risks.

Load Combinations

Loads

ACI 818-02

UBC-1997

1.2 D + 1.6 L

1.32 D + 1.1 L

Dead

(D),

Live

(L)

Earthquake Loads

Based on UBC 1630.1.1, horizontal earthquake loads to be used in the above-stated load combinations

are determined as follows:

Where:

E = earthquake load resulting from the combination of the horizontal component , and the vertical

component,

Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear, V

Ev = the load effects resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground motion and is

equal to the addition of

= redundancy factor, to increase the effects of earthquake loads on structures with few lateral force

resisting elements (taken as 1.0 where z =0, 1 or 2)

The shear wall is designed as a cantilever beam fixed at the base, to transfer load to the foundation.

Shear force, bending moment, and axial load are maximum at the base of the wall.

Types of Reinforcement

To control cracking, shear reinforcement is required in the horizontal and vertical directions, to resist

in plane shear forces.

The vertical reinforcement in the wall serves as flexural reinforcement. If large moment capacity is

required, additional reinforcement can be placed at the ends of the wall within the section itself, or

within enlargements at the ends. The heavily reinforced or enlarged sections are called boundary

elements.

Shear Design

According to ACI 11.1.1, nominal shear strength Vn is given as

Where Vc is nominal shear strength provided by concrete and Vs is nominal shear strength provided by

the reinforcement.

Based on ACI 11.10.3, Vn is limited by the following equation.

The shear strength provided by concrete Vc is given by any of the following equations, as applicable.

h = thickness of wall

d = effective depth in the direction of bending, may be taken as 0.8 lw, as stated in ACI 11.10.4

Ag = gross area of wall thickness

Nu = factored axial load

Shear Reinforcement

When the factored shear force exceeds Vc/2,

-Horizontal reinforcement ration h is not to be less than 0.0025. Spacing of this reinforcement S2 is

not to exceed the smallest of lw/5, 3h and 45 cm.

- Vertical reinforcement ratio

Nor 0.0025.

According to ACI 11.10.9.1, when the factored shear force Vu exceeds Vc, horizontal shear

reinforcement must be provided according to the following equation. Spacing of this reinforcement S1 is

not to exceed the smallest of lw/3, 3h and 45 cm.

Where:

h = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of vertical section.

n = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section.

Flexural Design

The wall must be designed to resist the bending moment at the base and the axial force produced by

the wall weight or the vertical loads it carries. Thus, it is considered as a beam-column.

For rectangular shear walls containing uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement and subjected to

an axial load smaller than that producing balanced failure, the following equation, developed by

Cardenas and Magura in ACI SP-36 in 1973, can be used to determine the approximate moment

capacity of the wall.

Where:

Pu = factored axial compressive load

fy = yield strength of reinforcement

= strength reduction factor

Reinforcement

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.