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# Sand Control Short Course

By
Roger Attai
December 2004

1.
Well Inflow Relationships
and
Formation Damage

## Well Inflow Relationship

The flow of fluids into a well is dictated by the
relationships which apply to the flow of fluids through
a porous media.
Henry Darcy developed the relationships which
describes such flow.
Darcys law states that the rate of flow through a
given porous rock varies directly with:
permeability and the pressure applied, and inversely
with the viscosity of the flowing fluid
Permeability is a measure of the inter-connectivity of
the pore spaces in the rock
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## Well Inflow Relationship

Fluids flowing to a well are more accurately

( oil & water) in oilfield units

Pi = Pe -

ln(re / ri)

(k)(h)

Where
Pi

Pe
q
Bo
h

k
re
ri

## = Pressure at drainage radius of well (psig)

= Flow rate in Stock tank barrels per day (BPD)
= Formation Volume factor
= Formation height (feet)
= Fluid viscosity (centipoise)
= Permeability (millidarcies)
= Radial distance from wellbore to point of interest (feet)

2750

2700

2650

Pressure (psi)

2600

2550

2500

2450

2400

2350

Pe=2700 psig

2300

2250
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

2800

2700

Pressure (psi)

2600

2500

2400

2300

Pe=2700 psig

2200
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

## Factors affecting the pressure drop near well bore :

1) Permeability Impairment of Damaged
Zone

with a near wellbore restriction

Pskin =

(kf)(h)

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Where :
Pskin

Bo

kf

ks

rs

rw

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1400

1200

Ks =10 md

1000

800
Ks = 15 md

600

Ks =25 md

400

200
Ks = 50 md
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

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## Dimensionless Skin Factor - s

0.00708(kf)(h) Pskin
s=
(q) (Bo) ( )

## Skin factors range from about 6 to any positive

number. Skin factor of +25 ~ +50 are not uncommon
for high permeability formations

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## Effects formation damage

The effects of formation damage can be
approximated using the concept of flow efficiency
(FE).

q
FE = 100

s
o

ln

re
rw

s + ln

re
rw

= 100

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## Approximating the term : ln (re/rw) = 8

Yields the approximation :

FE = 100

8
s+8

15

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
-3

15

25

50

100

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## Potential Formation Damage Mechanisms

Drilling mud,cement and completion fluid invasion
Solids invasion
Perforation damage
Fines migration
Swelling clays
Asphaltene/paraffin deposition
Scale precipitation
Emulsions
Reservoir compaction
Relative permeability effects
Effects of stimulation treatment
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Summary
Minimizing near wellbore reductions in permeability is
critical to successful completions.
Wells requiring sand control are very susceptible to
near wellbore damage.
Once a gravel pack is installed, remediation of the
near wellbore region is limited.
Best approach is to minimize formation damage in
the completion phase - i.e. from bit penetration of the
pay zone until the well is brought unto production.

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