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Sand Control Short Course

By
Roger Attai
December 2004

1.
Well Inflow Relationships
and
Formation Damage

Well Inflow Relationship


The flow of fluids into a well is dictated by the
relationships which apply to the flow of fluids through
a porous media.
Henry Darcy developed the relationships which
describes such flow.
Darcys law states that the rate of flow through a
given porous rock varies directly with:
permeability and the pressure applied, and inversely
with the viscosity of the flowing fluid
Permeability is a measure of the inter-connectivity of
the pore spaces in the rock
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Well Inflow Relationship


Fluids flowing to a well are more accurately
modeled as radial flow.

Darcys Radial Flow Equation


( oil & water) in oilfield units

141.2 (q) (Bo) ( )


Pi = Pe -

ln(re / ri)

(k)(h)

Where
Pi

= Pressure at a point of interest (psig)

Pe
q
Bo
h

k
re
ri

= Pressure at drainage radius of well (psig)


= Flow rate in Stock tank barrels per day (BPD)
= Formation Volume factor
= Formation height (feet)
= Fluid viscosity (centipoise)
= Permeability (millidarcies)
= Drainage radius ( feet)
= Radial distance from wellbore to point of interest (feet)

Pressure distribution around an oil well


2750

Reservoir Pressure 2700 psig


2700

2650

Pressure (psi)

2600

2550

2500

2450

2400

2350

Pe=2700 psig

q=1000 bopd Bo=1.2 =1.5cps re=1000ft h=50ft

2300

2250
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Radial distance (ft)

Pressure distribution arround an oil well


2800

Reservoir Pressure - 2700 psig


2700

Pressure (psi)

2600

2500

2400

2300

Pe=2700 psig

q=1000 bopd Bo=1.2 =1.5cps re=1000ft h=50ft

2200
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Radial Distance (ft)

Factors affecting the pressure drop near well bore :


1) Permeability Impairment of Damaged
Zone
2) Radius of Damaged Zone

Additional pressure drop associated


with a near wellbore restriction

Pskin =

141.2 (q) (Bo) ( )


(kf)(h)

{(kf/kS) 1} ln(rs / rw)

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Where :
Pskin

= Pressure drop through damaged Zone (psi)

= Flow rate in Stock tank barrels per day (BPD)

Bo

= Formation Volume factor

= Formation height (feet)

= Fluid viscosity (centipoise)

kf

= Formation Permeability (millidarcies)

ks

= Damaged Zone Permeability (millidarcies)

rs

= Radius of Damaged Zone ( feet)

rw

= Radius of Wellbore (feet)

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Additional Pressure Drop Associated With increasing Increasing Depth Of Damage

1400

1200

Ks =10 md

Differential Pressure (psi)

1000

800
Ks = 15 md

600

Ks =25 md

400

200
Ks = 50 md
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Radial Distance ( ft)

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Dimensionless Skin Factor - s


0.00708(kf)(h) Pskin
s=
(q) (Bo) ( )

Skin factors range from about 6 to any positive


number. Skin factor of +25 ~ +50 are not uncommon
for high permeability formations

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Effects formation damage


The effects of formation damage can be
approximated using the concept of flow efficiency
(FE).

q
FE = 100

s
o

ln

re
rw

s + ln

re
rw

= 100

Where FE is the Flowing Efficiency in Percent


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Approximating the term : ln (re/rw) = 8


Yields the approximation :

FE = 100

8
s+8

15

Flow Efficiency (FE) vs Skin Factor (s)


180

160

Flow Efficiency (percent)

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
-3

15

25

50

100

Skin Factor (s)

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Potential Formation Damage Mechanisms


Drilling mud,cement and completion fluid invasion
Solids invasion
Perforation damage
Fines migration
Swelling clays
Asphaltene/paraffin deposition
Scale precipitation
Emulsions
Reservoir compaction
Relative permeability effects
Effects of stimulation treatment
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Summary
Minimizing near wellbore reductions in permeability is
critical to successful completions.
Wells requiring sand control are very susceptible to
near wellbore damage.
Once a gravel pack is installed, remediation of the
near wellbore region is limited.
Best approach is to minimize formation damage in
the completion phase - i.e. from bit penetration of the
pay zone until the well is brought unto production.

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