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BASIC MATHEMATICS:

A REVIEWER FOR THE CSE


Prepared by Jess Christian D. Ramirez

BASIC MATHEMATICS

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PLACE VALUE AND VALUE

Place Value refers to the location of the digits in a


number (Ones/Units, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands etc.)
Value is equal to the digit times the value of its
position
Example: the value of 6 in 56,378 is equal to 6(the
digit) times 1000(the value of its position). And thus,
the value of 6 in the number above is 6000.

PLACE VALUE AND VALUE

Comparision of Values:
For example we have the number
76,233,628
How many times larger is the 6 from left part to the 6
in the right part?
Answer: Lets count their distance from each other and
we will find that it is 4
Therefore the larger 6 is 10^4(read as 10 to the power
of 4) times the smaller 6 or 10,000 times.
To make it easier, imagine putting 4 zeroes to the right
of 1, or again 10,000 times.

ROMAN NUMERALS

Lets refresh our knowledge with common Roman


Numerals:
M

is 1000
D is 500
C is 100
L is 50
X is 10
V is 5
I is 1

ROMAN NUMERALS

Did you notice that I used RED letters for the


symbols M, C, X and I?
That is because you can repeat them up to 3 times.
To get to the 4th number/value you will use the
NEXT(larger) roman numeral but with the smaller
roman numeral before it.
Example: I(1), II(2), III(3) but 4 is IV.
Example: C is 100, CCC is 300, but 400 is CD

ROMAN NUMERAL
Lets practice:
What is the Hindu-Arabic numeral(out common
knowledge of numbers) of:
MCDLXXXIV
M is 1000
CD is 500
LXXX(50+3*10=80)
IV is 4
Therefore MCDLXXXIV is 1000+500+80+4 or 1584

GCF and LCM

GCF stands for GREATEST COMMON FACTOR or


simply put, which among the factors(numbers that
can divide a given number) of two or more numbers
is the greatest?.
LCM stands for LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE, or
basically, which COMMON multiple(number that
results from addition of a number to its original
value, ex. 6,12,18,24) will be the LEAST?

GCF and LCM (Traditional Technique)

Find the GCF and LCM of 25 and 35?


GCF:
25=1 and 25, 5 and 5
35=1 and 35, 5 and 7
The only common factor is 5, thus it is also the
GREATEST.

GCF and LCM (Traditional Technique)

LCM: (continuous ADDITION)


25=25,50,75,100,125,150,175, 200, 225
35=35, 70, 105, 140, 175
Once you find a common MULTIPLE, you STOP
But I dont recommend these due to these reasons:
You

MAY BE ADDING WRONGLY


You MAY NOT STOP IMMEDIATELY
Very PRONE to HUMAN ERROR

GCF and LCM (My Technique)

Finding the GCF for me is the same.


Once you found out that the GCF of 25 and 35 is 5,
you should proceed to this step
Divide

25 and 35, both by the GCF


You will be left with: 25/5=5
You will be left with 35/5=7
Multiply these numbers that are left to themselves and
to the GCF, 5*5*7, you will get 175
And 175 is the LCM *Plain and Easy*

Fractions, Decimals and Percentages

Now that we know how to get the GCF and LCM,


were ready to solve problems related to fractions,
decimals and percentages.
We classify fractions as either
Mixed

Number: with whole number for ex. 1 and 2/3


Improper: with numerator>denominator, ex. 11/7
Proper: with numerator<denominator, ex. 2/3

FRACTIONS

HOW TO CONVERT mixed number->(im)proper


and back?
Mixed Number-> Improper:
Ex.

2 and 1/3
Multiple the whole number(2) to the denominator(3)
We get 6, add the 6 to the numerator (1)
We get 7
Copy the denominator, we get 7/3

FRACTIONS

Improper->Mixed Number
Divide

the numerator by the denominator


Example: 11/7
We get 1 with remainder of 4
The answer will be the whole number, and copy the
denominator for the remainder, it will be the new
fraction
We get 1 and 4/7

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions


MULTIPLICATION

(must be in IMPROPER):
a/b*c/d=(ac)/(bd)
Example: 2 and 2/3 times 1/7
Convert 2 and 2/3 first to IMPROPER, we get 8/3
Multiply it to 1/7
Top to Top/Bottom to Bottom
(8*1)/(3*7)
We get 8/21

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions


Division

(Convert first to IMPROPER)


It is the opposite of Multiplication
a/b divided by c/d, c/d is the DIVISOR
So we can flip the DIVISOR first, making it d/c
Then multiply it to the DIVIDEND, thus having (ad)/(bc)
Example: divided by 2/3
* (3/2) = 3/4

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions


Addition

(convert first to MIXED NUMBER)


Add 1 and 2/3 + 2 and 5/6
Add first the whole numbers, 1+2=3(leave it for a
while)
Add 2/3 and 5/6
How??
Get the LCM of the DENOMINATORS, we call it LCD
LCM of 3 and 6 is equal to 6

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions:


Addition

(continued)
To convert 2/3 divide the LCD(6) by the denominator(3)
We get 2
Multiply the 2 that we get to the numerator(2)
We get 4, then use the LCD as NEW DENOMINATOR
We do the same for 5/6
4/6+5/6=9/6 ooppss but thats 1 and 3/6 or 1 and
right?

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions


Addition

(continued)
Add the 1 and to the 3
We get 4 and
PS:

we transformed 3/6 to because we can cancel


the GCF of 3 and 6 which is 3
So 3/3 is 1, and 6/3 is 2
So we get the 1/2

FRACTIONS

Operation with Fractions


Subtraction
We

do the same conversion LIKE IN ADDITION.


But if the value of the numerator of the MINUEND(first
fraction) is less than that of the SUBTRAHEND(second
fraction), WE BORROW(just like normal subtraction).
Example: 5 and 1/8 2 and 3/8
We borrow from the 5, so we have 4 and we borrowed
1
Transform the 1 to 8/8

FRACTIONS

Operations with Fractions


Subtraction
Now

we have 4 + 8/8 + 1/8 or 4 and 9/8


And for the subtrahend we have 2 and 3/8
4-2 is 2
9/8 3/8 is 5/8
The answer is 2 and 5/8

DECIMALS

Operations with Decimals


Addition

and Subtraction
Same with whole numbers
Just ALIGN not the numbers BUT the DECIMAL POINTS
1.234
+ 2.5221
3.7561

DECIMALS

Operations on Decimals
Multiplication
Remove

the DECIMAL POINT FIRST by moving it to the

RIGHT
Take NOTE of the NUMBER OF PLACES you have
moved
You have to BRING IT BACK LATER

DECIMALS

Operations on Decimals
Multiplication

(continued)

1.23*2.2
123

(2 placed moved)
22 (2 places moved)
123*22=2706
Bring the decimal place BACK by moving 4(2+2) places
0.2706(4 movements to the LEFT)

DECIMALS

Operations on Decimals
Division
Move EQUAL NUMBER of PLACES UNTIL BOTH DECIMAL
POINTS are REMOVED.
If either the DIVIDEND or the DIVISOR still has DECIMAL
POINT, move more PLACES, but ADD EQUAL NUMBER OF
ZEROES(0) to the other value.
Example: 1.34 divided by 2.2
After moving 1 place: 13.4/22
Move another place: 134/220(note one 0 is added)
Go on with the DIVISION

PERCENTAGES

PERCENT means PER HUNDRED


So 1% is 1/100
Addition and Subtraction: (just like whole numbers),
15%+27%=42%
Multiplication and Division: convert first to fraction,
5%*12%, is (5/100)*(12/100)

PERCENTAGES

The P-R-B Triangle


P-ercentage(value of the part)
R-ate(its value in %)
B-ase(the whole)
P=R*B
R=P/B
B=P/R

PERCENTAGES

Applications of the PRB Triangle


What

is 20% of 100?
Obviously 20% is the RATE
And 100 is the WHOLE, because you want to find its
20% and 20% is just a PART of the WHOLE
P is missing, P=R*B, we will use the fraction equivalent
of R
P=(20/100)*100=20

PERCENTAGES

Applications of the PRB Triangle


50

is 25% of what number?


Again 25% is the RATE
50 is just 25% of the UNKNOWN, therefore its just the
PART(PERCENTAGE)
BASE is missing
B=P/R, we always use the fraction equivalent of R
B=50/(25/100) = 200

PERCENTAGES

Applications of the PRB Triangle


What

percent of 120 is 30
OBVIOUSLY we dont see the % symbol so whats
missing is the RATE
120 is the WHOLE not because it is bigger, but rather
because it where 30 was compared from.
R=P/B
R=30/120
To get the % equivalent, multiply the fraction by 100
R=(30/120)*100=25 then add the %, thus 25%.

SIMPLE INTEREST

INTEREST=(No. of Times Interest will happen)*(Rate of


Interest)*(Value of Initial Money)
FINAL AMOUNT OF THE MONEY=(INITIAL
MONEY)+(INTEREST)
Example: How much money do I have if I invest
P20,000 to a bank that pays 3% per annum(year) for
5 years?
Interest=(5years)(3/100 per year)(20,000)
Interest=P3000
Final Money=20,000+3000=P23,000

DISCOUNTS

New Price=Old Price-Discount


Discount=Discount Rate*Old Price
Example: How much should you pay for a shoe
initially priced at P500 and was given a discount of
20%?
Discount=(20/100)*500=100
New Price=500-100=P400