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Dunmore and Fleischer's

MEDICAL

TERMINOLOGY

Exercises in

Edition III

Etymology

D nmore and

Fleischer's

E

Exerc·ses

I AL

I OLOGY

0

n Etylll

I gy

E

ition

II

CHERYL WALKER-ESBAUGH,

MA

Instructor Classics and Letters Department University of Oklahoma

LAINE

Ho

McCARTHY,

MLIS

Clinical Associate Professor

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

RHONDA

Ao

SPARKS,

MD

Clinical Assistant Professor

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

E A.

DAVIS

COMPANY • Philadelphia

F.

A. Davis Company

1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103

Copyright© 2004 by

F.

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Copyright©

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PREFACE

In 1977,

C harles W

D

unmore,

an

associate professor of

classics

at

from

New

the

York,

New

York

University,

Institute

novel

and

at

Rita

City

to

Latin/G reek

published

a

approach

.lVI.

Fleischer,

University

of

teaching the

challenging language

of medicine. Indeed, medicine does

nounced

"eye,"

as

in

the

-itis

of

appendicitis.

Words

are

pronounced with a stronger accent (emphasis) on one syl-

lable. T he accent falls on the second

syllable is long. To be considered long, a syllable must con-

tain

to

last syllable if that

a

diph-

a

short vowel

followed

by

two consonants,

have a language all its own, based largely on a vocabulary

thong,

or a long vowel

(neph-ri '-tis).

If

the

second to

last

drawn from

ancient G reek and, to

a lesser degree,

Latin.

syllable

is

short,

the

accent falls

upon

the

third

syllable

T his approach involved teaching students to recognize the

words

roots

each

other and with patients. By teaching students the root ele- ments of medical terminology-the prefixes, suffixes, and

and

combining forms

students modern med-

ical

the

decipher

health-care professionals use

of

medical

te171Zinology,

from

the

to

etymology

of the

communicate with

Latin-Dunmore

the

ability to

throughout

Greek and

Fleischer

sought not only to teach

give

of

them

terminology but to evolving language

medicine

their

careers.

continued

edition is

organized essentially as D unmore and Fleischer created it,

what Dunmore

In the

third

edition

of this

book, we

began.

T his

have

new

and Fleischer

with som e important modifications

user friendly. T he text is organi zed into interrelated units.

7 lessons based on

is composed of 2 lessons

takes a

based

G

to make it even more

15)

and

Latin

Unit

reek.

1 (Lessons

U nit 2

1 through

7) includes

10

(Lessons

Unit

approach

8 and 9)

3 (Lessons

that

on

Latin.

through

Greek

body systems

elements used to describe the digestive system, respiratory

combines

from the end of the word

(gen'-e-sis).

T he appendices have been expanded in this edition and

and Greek suffixes, prefixes, and

English-to -

include indexes of Latin

combining

forms, as

well

as

an

abbreviated

Greek/Latin glossary and a complete list of terms found in

the

exercises

in Lessons

1

through

15.

These

appendices

and instructors

provide

addi tional support

fo r students

alike.

T he structure of the exercises at the end of each lesson

has

also changed from

major

students

lessons contain 3

analyze 50

to

previous editions.

All

15

of the

exercises.

terms based

The

first exercise

on

the

asks

vocabulary

fo und in that lesson . T h e second exercise requires studen ts

to identify a term based on its

cise

from the current and previous lessons.

definition.

The third exer-

inclu des elements

is

a

drill-and-review

exercise and

T

his

approach

allows

for

smooth

continuity

and

ensures that the major body of the text (Lessons 1 through

1-semester course. The exer-

19 (U nit 4) are abbreviated and,

cises in lessons 16 through

15) can be covered during a

system ,

and

so forth.

T

hese

first

15

lessons

comprise

the

for the most part,

reflect only the material from that spe-

main body of the text.

Each lesson builds and expands

on

cific lesson. T his approach

allows

these lessons

to

stand

the

grammar

and

vocabulary

introduced

in

the

previous

alone

as

additional

study

m aterial.

Lesson

20

(Unit

5),

lessons.

Biological N omenclature, has also been written as a stand-

For students

who

want additional exposure

to medical

alone lesson.

terminology from

a body

systems perspective, the

4 les-

Terms

in

the

lessons and

exercises have

been

checked

sons

in

U

nit

4 provide just

such

an

opportunity.

T hese

for currency and accuracy and verified in

Taber's Cyclopedic

lessons

loskeletal, nervous,

the

include

hematopoietic and lymphatic, muscu- and endocrine systems.

Medical

Dictionaty ,

19th

Philadelphia, 2001).

edition

(F.A.

D avis

Company,

Unit

5 stands

on its

own

and provides

an

overview of

All

20 lessons

include

etymological

notes

to

give

stu-

biological nomenclatin-e,

the language used by scientists

and

dents

a historical

perspective for

medical

terminology.

physicians to identify the living organisms that exist in our

world.

T h e pronunciation

of

medical

terms follows

the same

rules that govern the pronunciation

T

of all E nglish words.

before the vowels

e,

i,

he

consonants

c

and

g

are

"soft"

T

writers, mythical stories

from

Celsu s,

entists and physicians who struggled to identify and accu-

hese

notes include

the

writings

and

tales

from

of gods

ancient

and

ancient

Greek and

physicians,

stories

Latin

of sci-

goddesses, excerpts

such as

of famous

Hippocrates

and more modern

andy.

T h at is, they are pronounced

like the

c and

g of the

rately label the phenomena they observed.

 

words

cement

and

ginge1:

Before

a,

o,

and

u,

the consonants

T

his text is a workbook. We encourage you to write in

are

"hard,"

and are pronounced like the

c

and

g

of

cardiac

this workbook and to make notes and comments that will

and

gas.

T

he consonant

k

is always

"h ard,"

as

in

leukocyte.

help you as you work through the lessons and exercises.

T he long vowels

eta

and

omega

of Greek words are marked

Please

note

that

this

is

not

a

medical

textbook and

with t h e macrons

e and

o;

this indicates that they are pro -

should not be used for the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis,

nounced like

the

e

and

o

of

hematoma.

L ong

i

is

pro-

or

etiology

of disease. T h e

medical

content

of this

text,

viii

Preface

although accurate, is incomplete and is included solely to provide students with a context within which to learn med- ical terminology.

We hope you enjoy using this text to learn the complex

and elegant language of medicine and that the knowledge

you gain will benefit you throughout your career.

Cheryl Walker-Esbaugh Laine H . McCarthy

Sparks

Rhonda

A.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We greatly appreciate the comments and suggestions from

a number

Special thanks to Drs. John Catlin and Ralph Doty, who, having taught with the second edition of the book, provid-

ed valuable insight into its revision and were always avail-

Samuel Huskey, who

Dave

McCarthy for reading and commenting on the biological

who

and expertise.

of people

who

gave

their time

able to answer questions; and to Dr. read several of the revised chapters.

nomenclature

lesson

and

to

Thanks to

Dr.

Danny

McMurphy,

patiently read chapter after chapter. Thanks, too, to Tracy Alford for her support and consideration.

Davis for their generosity

in allowing us to use material in

We would like to thank F.A.

Taber's Cyclopedic Medical

Dictionary,

19th edition. We

also

thank the

editors

at

Davis

involved

we

own.

for their

helped

advice

to make

and support.

a

Any errors,

this

much

could

have ourselves.

All

of the people

better work than

of course,

are

our

CONTENTS

Development of the English Language

xtu

Unit 1

GREEK-DERIVED MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

1

Lesson

1

Greek Nouns and Adjectives 3

Lesson

2

Nouns of the Third Declension 17

Lesson

3

Building Greek Vocabulary I: Nouns and Adjectives

29

Lesson

4

Greek Verbs 39

Lesson

5

Building Greek Vocabulary II 51

Lesson

6 Building Greek Vocabulary III

63

Lesson

7 Building Greek Vocabulary IV

75

Unit

2

LATIN- DERIVED MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

85

 

Lesson

8

Latin Nouns and Adjectives

87

Lesson

9

Latin Verbs

107

Unit

3

BODY SYSTEMS

12 1

 

Lesson 10

C

ardiovascular System

123

Lesson 11

Respiratory System

137

 

Lesson 12

Digestive System

149

Lesson 13

O

ptic System

163

 

Lesson 14

Female Reproductive System

175

Lesson 15

Genitourinary System

187

Unit

4

ADDITIONAL ST UDY

201

 

Lesson 16

Hematopoietic and Lymphatic Systems

203

Lesson 17

Musculoskeletal System 2 15

Lesson 18

Nervous System

225

Lesson 19

Endocrine System

237

Unit

5

B IOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE

245

Appendices

Lesson 20

255

Biological Nomenclature

247

Appendix A

Index of Combining Forms

257

Appendix B

Index of Prefixes

269

Appendix C

Index

of Suffixes

27 1

Appendix D

Index of Suffix Forms and Compound Suffix Forms 273

Appendix E

Glossary of English-to-Greek/Latin 275

Appendix F

Medical Termin ology Used in Lesson s 1 to 15 285

Bibliography for Edition III

Bibliography for Edition II

299

301

DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE

ENGLISH

LANGUAGE

In

55

and

54

BC, J ulius

Caesar

invaded Britain.

The

French was the official spoken and written language of the

romanization

of Britain ,

however,

did

not

occur

until

governing class.

In

this period,

French,

with its

roots

in

almost

100 years later,

when expeditionary

forces were

Latin, existed alongside English but had little effect on it.

sent out by the Roman emperor C laudius. Although L atin

was the official language during the Roman occupation of

However, in the

N ormans from England-from about 1200 to

300 years following

the expulsion of the

1500 AD-

Britain, Celtic, the

native

language

of

the

people

of

although English was

once again the dominant language,

Britain, was little affected by it.

 

many

words

were

borrowed

from

French

because

its

The

English

language

began

its development

as

an

vocabulary was far richer.

Writers and educated people in

independent tongue with the migration of Germanic peo-

E urope

ple

(modern-day Denmark and northern Germany) across the

English

turies AD. T hese Germanic invaders, in contact with the

Romans

on, brought with them

E ngland began to look to French as a source of words and

these

concepts lacking

years, the changing English language reached the stage we

(Angles,

Saxons,

and Jutes)

Britain

from

western

5th

and

in their

own language.

During

Channel to

from the

during the

6th

cen- now know as M iddle E nglish.

W ith the

Renaissance

of classic scholarship.

directly from

Latin

(1400-1600 AD) came a revival

be formed

began to

longer bor-

1st century BC

English words

and

not only their native tongue but also the Latin words they

Greek and were

no

had

borrowed

from

the

Romans. T heir language, known

rowed

through

the intermediary

of French. Beginning

as

O

ld

English

or

Anglo-Saxon,

was

a

member

of the

around

1500

AD,

fo r

the

first time the

writings

of th e

Germanic family of Indo-European languages and gradu-

ally

Britain. Many Old English words have survived, with some

superseded

the

C eltic

dialects

in

most

of southern

ancient G reeks were read in England in their original lan- guage. T his renewal of interest in Greek and Roman liter- ature and the ideas and concepts expressed in these works

linguistic

change,

to

form

the

basic

vocabulary

of the

created

an

awareness

of the impoverished state

of the

English

language.

Words

borrowed

from

other

lan-

English

language

and

the

difficulty of

expressing

in

guages-mostly

Latin,

French,

and

G reek-have

been

English ideas that were easily expressed in Latin or Greek.

added to the English language.

after the establishment of

the inhabitants

gradually converted to Christianity. Latin, the language of

the first monastery in

D uring the 7th century AD,

597 AD,

of Britain

W ords were borrowed extensively from

both with and without change, and new words were creat-

elements.

and

ed

Greek and Latin,

Greek

fr om

Latin

that

combined

most

both

Latin

and

Al

though

words

were

borrowed

the Western Church, was spoken, written,

and read in the

Greek,

others

were borrowed

from

French

and Italian.

churches, schools,

and

monasteries.

T his

brought

many

T

he

English

of this

period

is

now

known

as

Modern

Latin words into the evolving English language, most hav-

English.

ing

to do

with religious

matters

and many

derived

from

T he

extensive

borrowing

of words

from

Latin

and

Greek.

 

Greek that began about

1500 AD continued for hundreds

Beginning

in

the

8th

century

AD,

as

a

result

of the

of years,

and continues to

this day.

As

n ew advances were

Viking

invasions , additional words

of North

G ermanic

origin entered the English language. L iving alongside the

Anglo-Saxons

Norse and

marked impact on both England and the English language.

a

the

and

eventually assimilated

invaders

and

their

by them,

language

had

D anish

It

is not surprising that, in 1697

AD , writer Daniel Defoe

made in the fields of medicine and science during and after

the Renaissance

these new discoveries and

Greek

and Roman physicians, especially Hippocrates, Galen, and Celsus, whom they greatly admired, and borrowed words

inventions.

words were needed

(and

continuing up to

to describe

scientists

turned

to

the

the

present

early

day),

Medical

described

E nglish

as

"your

Roman-Saxon- Danish -

from their medical treatises. These

ancient scientists

had

N

orman-English."

 

an extensive medical

vocabulary,

which

they

used

to

T he No rman invasion in

1066 AD brought a French-

speaking aristocracy to E ngland, and for the next 150 years

describe their observations and theories. Hippocrates, for

example ,

used the

terms

apoplexy,

hypochondria,

dysentety,

xiv

Development of the English

Language

ophthalmia,

features and

cians

word

physicians,

guages and created suitable terms.

epilepsy,

and asthma to describe certain physical

that he

observed.

Modern physi-

not

find an

appropriate

early

were unknown to

of the ancient lan-

conditions

and scientists,

to

describe

turned

who could

diseases

to the

that

vocabulary

The language used by Linnaeus, as well as by other sci-

entists and scholars of the Renaissance and the period fol-

lowing,

called New

schooled in Classical Latin,

tried to emulate the classical writers and to revive the style

Latin.

that is,

Scientists

the period after

and writer s,

1500 AD,

is

of Cicero and others. The term New Latin refers to words

that have been created in the form of,

of, Latin words (e.g., natrium,

um, borrowed from Arabic) or to the use of new meanings applied to extant Latin words (e.g., the word cancer, from

the chemical name for sodi-

and on the analogy

cancer,

crab, or the word bacillus, from bacillus,

a small rod

or staff).

New Latin

is

a rich source

of biological terms.

Trichinella

spiralis,

the

species

of

Trichinella ·that

causes

trichinosis,

and

Salmonella,

the genus

of microorganisms

named after the American pathologist Daniel E. Salmon, are two of the many examples of N ew Latin found in this

text.

HIPPOCRATES

H ippocrates, born in 460 BC, was a Greek physician who lived on the Aegean island of Cos. Although he is the most

famous

of the ancient physicians and is recognized as

the

"father

of medicine,"

very little

is

actually known

about

him or his life. T he Hippocratic Corpus,

medical treatises

reflects

Hippocrates alone.

ing superstition from medicine. Unlike other physicians of his time, he believed that illness had a rational explanation, rather than being the result of divine anger or possession

a work of about 60

most

likely

of

attributed to

Hippocrates,

the work of many

physicians rather than that

Hippocrates is recognized for separat-

by evil spirits, and could therefore be treated. Hippocrates

based his medical writings on his observation and study of

the human body. He was the first to attempt to record his

experiences

as

a

physician

for

fu ture reference. T he

H ippocratic

Oath,

although

it cannot be directly attrib-

uted to him, is said to reflect his philosophy and principles.

THE

HIPPOCRATIC

OATH

"I

swear

Hyge ia,

by Apollo

and

the physician,

and all

and Aesculapius, and

and goddesses,

Panacea,

the gods

Fig u re

1.

Apollo . ( From

Bulfinch's

M y thology-T he Age o f

Fable,

with

perm ission. Availab le at

http:// www.bulfinch.org).

and those of my

teach ers, and to d isciples bound by a stipu lati on and oath

a knowledge of the art to my own

sons,

according to the law of medicine,

but to none other.

to

" I w ill

follow th at system

my ability and

judgment,

of regimen w hi ch,

accordin g

I

consider for the benefi t

of

my patients,

m ischievous.

and abstain fro m w hatever is deleter ious and

I w ill give no deadly medicine to anyone if

like manner

asked, nor suggest any such counsel;

and

in

I will

W ith pu rity and with holiness I w ill

not give to a woman a pessary to produce aborti on.

pass my life and prac-

the

be done by men who are prac-

I w ill abstain

every vo luntary act of mischi ef and co rru ptio n; an d,

my

art.

will

not cut

persons

laborin g under

leave t his to

for th e benefit

Into w hatever houses I enter,

of th e sick an d I w ill

into them

I

tice

stone, but will

tit ioners of th is work.

go

f rom

further,

from

the

seduction

of

females

or

males,

of

free men

and

slaves.

Wh ateve r,

in co nn ection

with

my

professional

hear,

practi ce, or not in connection w ith

it,

I see or

of

in

the li fe of men,

whic h ou ght not to be spo ken

that according to my ability and judgment,

I will

keep th is

abroad,

I

will

not d ivu l ge,

as

reckoning that

all such

oath

and its

stipulation-to

reckon

him

who

taught

me

should

be kept secret.

 

this art equal ly dea r to me as my parents, to share m y sub-

and to relieve his necessities if required;

to

stance with

him,

look upo n hi s offspring

in th e same foo ting as

my own

Whil e

I

continue to keep thi s Oath

unv iolated, may

it

be granted to me to enjoy

respected

life and the practi ce of this art,

I trespass

by all

men,

in

all

times. But,

shou ld

brothers,

and

to teach

them

this art

if they

shall

wish

to

and violate t his Oath,

may the

reverse

be

my

lot."

(Fro m

learn

it,

without fee

or stipul ation,

and

that

by

precept,

Taber 's

Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary,

ed

19 .

FA

D av i s,

lecture,

and every oth er mode of i nstru ction,

I will

impart

Philadelphia,

2 0 01 ,

pp

949-

9 5 0 ,

w ith permission. )

GALEN

Galen (129- 199 AD) was born in Pergamum in Asia Minor. After studying medicine at the Asclepium, the famed medical school in his native town, and in Smyrna and Alexandria, he came to Rome in 162 AD, where, except for brief interruptions, he remained until his death, writing philosophical treatises and medical books. His fame and reputation brought him to the attention of the emperor M arcus Aurelius, who appointed him court physician. Galen wrote extensively on anatomy, physiology, and general medicine, relying on his training, the best that was available, and on his dissection of human corpses and experiments on living animals. It was the work of Galen, more than any other medical writer, that profoundly influenced the physicians of the early Renaissance. H is theories on the flow of blood in the human body remained unchallenged until the discovery of

Development of the English Language

the circulation of the blood by William H arvey in the 17th century.

CELSUS

Aulus Cornelius Celsus was a Roman encyclopedist who, under the reign of the emperor Tiberius (14-37 AD), wrote a lengthy work dealing with agriculture, military tactics, medicine, rhetoric, and possibly philosophy and law. Apart from a few fragments, only his eight books on medicine still exist. It is suggested that C elsus was not a professional physician but rather a layman writing for other laymen. It appears, especially in his treatises on sur- gery, that he had little first-hand experience in the field of medicine and relied on material selected from other sources. Celsus was highly esteemed during the Renaissance, possibly as a result of his style of writing.

UNIT

GREEK-DERIVED

MEDICAL

TERMINOLOGY

GREEK NOUNS

NOUNS

OF

THE

AND ADJECTIVES

THIRD

DECLENSION

BUILDING

GREEK VOCABULARY I:

AND ADJECTIVES

NOUNS

GREEK VERBS

BUILDING

GREEK VOCABULARY II

BUILDING

GREEK VOCABULARY III

BUILDING

GREEK VOCABULARY IV

GREEK ALPHABET

Name of

Letter

Capital

alpha

A

beta

B

gamma

r

delt a

Ll

epsilon

E

zeta

z

eta

H

theta

e

iota

I

kappa

K

lambda

A

mu

M

nu

N

Lower-case

Trans-

/i teration

a

a

oor

{3

b

'Y

g

8

d

e short

s

TJ

z

elong

8

th

L

K

k, c

A

11-

m

1J

n

Name of

Letter

Capital

xi ~

omtcr on

pt

rho

sigma

tau

upsilon

phi

chi

pst

omega

0

n

p

I

T

y

<I>

X

'I'

n

Source: Taber's Cyclopedic Medi cal Dictionary,

ed

19,

F. A. Davis, P hilade lphia , 200 1, p 2368, with permissio n.

Low er-case

Trans-

/iteration

 

X

 

0

o short

1T

p

p

r

O"

or

s

s

'l"

t

4>

v

or

qJ

f,

y

ph

X ch as in German "echt"

1/1

ps

(J) olong

RE

KN

LESSON

UNS

T

ND

s

A man who is wise should consider health the most valuable ofall things to

mankind and learn how,

~y

his own intelligence,

to help himself in sickn e ss .

[Hippocrares,

Regimc11

in

Hea/t/; 9]

In

the mid-8th century BC,

the Greeks

borrowed the

art

of writing from the P h oenicians,

a Semitic-speakin g peo-

ple of the Levant who inhabited the region in the area of

modern Lebanon. T he Phoenician system

of writing had

has been the practice since then , in the coining of E nglish

and spelling of Latin,

even if t he word n ever actually appeared in the Latin lan - guage.

words from Greek, to use the form

to

be

adapted

to

the

Greek language because

there

were

T

h e letter

k

was

little

used

in La tin,

an d G r eek

kappa

characters

representing sounds

in

the Semi tic

language

was

transliterated in that language as

c,

wh ich always had

that did not exist in Greek, and sounds in Greek for which

the

hard sound

of

k.

M ost

English words

derived from

there were

no

characters in

the Semitic

system. In

their

G reek words containing a

kappa

are spelled with c:

adaptation

of

these

Phoenician

characters,

the

G reeks

 

distinguish between long and short vowels, rep-

[E ], and

[0 ], respec-

tively. H owever, the distinction was carried n o furth er, and

long

resenting long e by

began to

eta

by

[H ] and short e by

[W]

and

epsilon

and

short o

omega

omicron

no differentiation

in writing was

made

between

the

long

an d short

vowels

a,

i,

and

u.

In

transliterating

G

r eek

words, a macron

0

will be used to mark the long vowels

eand

0 in this text:

Greek

M eaning

Example

xe1·os

dry

xero derma

spTen

spleen

splenomegaly

phone

VOICe

phonology

thorax

chest cavity

thoracentesis

D uring

and

after the

1st

words were borrowed by the

reek

Romans and, in the process

century

BC,

many

G

of being borrowed, assumed the spelling of L atin words.

It

I

Greek

M

eaning

kyanos

blue

1nikros

sma ll

kolon

colon

s/:deros

hard

T here are

exceptions, and the

Example

cyanotic

micros cope

colit is

arteriosclerosis

kappa

is retained as

k

I

in

som e words:

Greek

M

eaning

Example

leukos

white

leukemia

kinesis

motion

dyskinesia

karyon

kernel

karyoge nesis

keTe

swe llin g

kel oid

Some wor ds are spelled with either

ceratocele

(k erat- ,

horn);

synkine sis,

move);

cinematics, kinematics

(kinema,

k or c: keratocele,

(kin- ,

syncinesis

motio n).

4

LEssoN1

G reek Nouns and Adjectives

In

Latin the letter

the following:

k is rarely used and is found only in

Knlendae,

the Calends, the first day of the month, and

its derivatives

Kalendalis, Knlendaris, Kalendarium,

and

Knlendm·ius

Knrthago,

Mrica

Carthage,

the

Phoenician

kalo

kappa

(archaic), call

(archaic), Greek symbol for 90

city

in

North

Greek words beginning with

panied by

a strong expulsion

rho [r]

were always accom-

of breath

called

rough

breathing (also called aspiration). In transliterating Greek

words and in

rough breathing is indicated by an

the

formation

of English

h

derivatives,

1·:

after the

this

r:::-

1Greek

Meaning

Example

\rhombos

rhombus

rhombencephalon

!rhodon

rose

rhodopsin

\rhiza

root

rhizoid

lrhythmos

rhythm

rhythmic

There

are

exceptions:

rhachis,

rachis;

rhachischisis,

Greek

Meaning

I Example

I

hidros

sweat

I chromidrosis, hyperhidrosis

I

Greek is an inflected language. This means that words have differ ent endings to indicate their grammatical func- tion in a sentence. T he inflection of nouns, pronouns, and

adjectives is called declension.

in five grammatical cases in both singular and plural: nom-

inative,

are three declensions of Greek nouns, each having its own

set of endings for the cases.

ies

and vocabularies in the form of the nominative singu-

lar, often called the dictionary form.

mostly feminine, end in

Seco nd-d eclension

nouns, mostly masculine or neuter, end in

Greek nouns are declined

vocative.

There

genitive,

dative,

accusative, and

N ouns are cited in dictionar-

Nouns

o r

-a,

of the first declension,

a

nd

sometimes

in

short

-

a.

-e

-os

if masculine,

and

cussed in Lesson

in

-on

if neuter. Third-declension nouns

2.

will be

dis-

The base of nouns of the first and second declensions

is

found

resulting

by dropping

in

the

the ending

of the

nominative case,

suffixes and

combining form, to

which

other combining forms are added to form words.

rachischisis

usually double

word element, and

second

(rhachis,

the

r

spine). Words beginning with

when

rho

[1']

Greek

nephros

neuron

ps(wa

psyche

Rarely,

I

I

I

Meaning

kidney

nerve

sore

mind

I

!

i

i

I

I

Example

nephr-itis

neur-otic

psor-iasis

p sych-osis

following

a prefix or

[h]

another

the

the

rough breathing

follows

r

(note: the following words are from Greek verbs):

I

!

I

I

i

I

I

I

Meaning

flow

sew

I

Example

diarrhea

hemorrhage

cystorrhaphy

Greek words

containing diphthongs

the di phthongs

ai,

spelling

of these

ei,

were

oi,

.-

!Greek

!rhe-

lrhag- burst forth

irhaph-

the entire word is used as the combining form:

(kolon,

colon), neuronitis

(neuron,

n erve).

combining

called

the

form

that

ends

in

connecting vowel,

i

or

u

(especially

with

words

colonoscopy

If

a suffix or a combining form that begins with a con-

a

When

bor- sonant

and

ou

is attached to a

then a vowel,

o

and

sometimes

r owed

sounds, but

these Latin diphthongs usually undergo a further change

were

and used in Latin,

changed to

the

Latin

consonant,

usually

derived from Latin), is inserted between the two forms.*

in English:

leuk-o-cyte

 

Greek

English

Greek

Lat in

English

Example

Meaning

Exam p le

ai

ae

e

haima

aitia

blood

cause

hematology*

etiology*

et

e1

ei

or

i

cheir

hand

cheirospasm,

dyschina

 

leios

smooth

le~oiJ.lyofibroma

meton

less

nuottc

01

oe

e

oiaema

swelling

edema*

 

oistros

desire

estrogen

ou

Zl

1l

gloutos

buttock

gluteal

*British spelling usu ally retains the Latin diphthongs

ology, oedema, oestrogen,

and so forth.

ae

and

oe:

haematology, aeti-

In the G reek language, words beginning with the sound

of the rough breathing

[h] often lost their aspiration when

another word element preceded the aspirated wor d (except

after the prefixes

However, the spelling of E nglish derivatives of such words

varies,

anti-,

apo-,

epi-,

hypo-,

kata-,

and

meta-).

and the aspiration is often retained:

neur-o-blast

psych-o-neurosis

calc-i-penia

vir-u-lent

Exceptions occur when suffixes beginning with

low an element ending with

p

or

c:

eclamp-sia

apoplec-tic

epilep-tic

s

or

t

fol-

nephremphraxis (for nephremphrac-sis)

Adjectives

they

agree in gender, number,

modify.

T hey

are

cited

and case with the

and

noun

in dictionaries

*Medical dictio naries and English dictionaries usually give the connecting vowel as

part of the combinin g form,

as in leuko-, neuro-, psycho-,

and so forth .

singular mas-

culine. The dictionary form of most Greek adjectives ends

in -os,

and the

the combining form is found by dropping this

vocabularies in the form of the nominative

and

ending. There are some adjectives that end in -ys,

combining form rarely, the -ys:

of these is

found

by dropping the

-s

or,

I

,Greek

Meaning

Example

lteukos

white

leuk-emia

;kyanos

blue

cyan-osis

;tachys

swift

tachy-pnea

igrykys

sweet

glyc-emia

When

Greek nouns

are

used

in English,

they usually

appear in one of four ways:

1. I n the original vocabulary form:

kolon

colon

mania

mania

omphalos

omphalos

psyche

psyche

2. With the ending changed to the Latin form :

aoJte

aorta

bronchos

bronchus

kranion

cranium

tetanos

tetanus

3. With the ending changed to silent -e :

gangJ·aina

gangrene

kyklos

cycle

tonos

tone

zone

zone

4. With the ending dropped:

m-ganon

organ

m-gasmos

orgasm

spasmos

spasm

stomachos

stomach

PREFIXES

Prefixes

modify

or

qualify

in

some

way

the

meaning

of

the word to which they are affixed.

assign a single

It is often difficult to

each prefix,

that fits

prefixes

is

and often

the particular

in

found

lacking, defi -

specific meaning to

it is

necessary to adapt a meaning

of a word.

A

complete

list

of

use

Appendix B.

a- (an- before a vowel or h) : not, without, cient:

a-biogenesis

an-algesia

a-sthenia

an-hydrous

cardi-a-sthenia

an-hidrosis

anti- (ant- often before a vowel or

h;

hyphenated before

 

LEssoN

I

Greek Nouns and Adjectives

5

anti-histamine

anti-septic

anti-toxin

 

ant-acid

di-

(rarely dis-):

two, twice, dou ble :

 

di-phonia

 

di-ataxia

di-plegia

dis-diaclast

 

··-------

dys-:

difficult, painful, defective, abnormal:

 

dys-menorrhea

dys-pepsia

dys-pnea

 

dys-genesis

dys-ostosis

dys-trophy

 

---------------

-

ec- (ex- before a vowel): out of,

away from:

ec-tasis

ex-encephalia

ec-topic

ex-ophthalmos

The prefix ex- in most words is derived from Latin:

excrete, exhale, extensor, exudate, and so forth.

ecto- (ect- often before a vowel): outside of:

ecto-derm

 

ecto-plasm

ecto-cornea

ect-ostosis

en-

(em- before

b,

m,

an d p):

in, into, within:

en-cephalitis

 

em-metropia

em-bolism

em-physema

endo-, ento- (end-, ent- before a vowel): within:

endo-genous

ento-cele

endo-metritis

end-odontics

endo-cardium

ent-optic

epi- (ep- before a vowel or

h):

upon, over, above:

epi-cardium

epi-demic

epi-dermis

ep-encephalon

exo-: outside, from the outside, toward the outside: