Sei sulla pagina 1di 8

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)


1401-1402

INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIAL CONCRETE


WITH FLYASH PARTIAL REPLACEMENT

Vummenthala Anusha1, K. Mythili2 , Venkata Ratnam3.


1 Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy, Hyderabad, India.
2 Assistant professor , Department of Civil Engineering, Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy, Hyderabad, India.
3 Associate professor , Department of Civil Engineering, Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract
For making it economical, a part of the cement by weight is replaced with a material called fly ash which is cheaper in
cost and abundantly available. On the other hand the cracks in concrete lead to leakage problems and there is a need
to address these problems for future.
In the above context, the objective of the present investigation is to obtain the performance of the concrete by adding
microbiologically induced special growth/filler and part of cement replaced by fly ash. One such thought leads to the
development of very special concrete known as bacterial concrete where bacteria is induced in the concrete and part
of the cement replaced by fly ash. A technique is adopted in the formation of concrete by utilizing microbiologically
induced calcite (CaCo3) precipitation. Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a technique that comes
under a broader category of science called Bio-Mineralization. Bacillus Subtilis, a common soil bacterium can induce
the precipitation of calcite.
For the experimental investigation firstly cement mortar blocks are casted using fly ash as partial replacement of cement without bacteria and also with a common soil bacterium called Bacillus Subtilis of different concentrations like
104, 105, 106, 107 and 108 cells/ml. The cement mortar blocks are tested for 7 days and 28 days strength. Finally it is
observed that the mortar blocks made with 105 cells/ml. concentration of Bacillus Subtilis attained good strength when
compared with normal mortar blocks.
Therefore, for further experimental investigations Bacillus Subtilis culture samples with 105 cells/ml.
From the experimental investigations it is observed that the compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile
strength are on par with the normal concrete strength parameters. The three strength parameters of bacterial concrete
are found to be higher than that of the normal concrete.
*Corresponding Author:
Vummenthala Anusha,
Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,
Aurora Scientific Technological and Research Academy,
Hyderabad India.
Published: July 25, 2015
Review Type: peer reviewed
Volume: II, Issue : II

Citation: Vummenthala Anusha, Research Scholar (2015)

"INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIAL CONCRETE WITH FLYASH PARTIAL REPLACEMENT "

INTRODUCTION
General
The most useful construction material adopted nowadays
to the tune of development of infrastructure to the continuously growing population in the world wide and their
requirement for the shelter of the population is the cement concrete.
The use of concrete is increasing worldwide in a fast track
and therefore the development of sustainable concrete is
anticipated for environmental reasons and also for the
improved strength parameters. As presently about 7%
of the total anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emission is
due to cement production. If a mechanism is developed

that would contribute to a longer service life of concrete


structures and make the material not only more durable
but also more sustainable. One such mechanism that is
anticipated in recent years is the ability for self-repair,
i.e. the autonomous healing of cracks in concrete. Bacterial concrete or self healing concrete would be the correct
solution for the construction activities for the durability
and strength of structures. If such mixture is combined
with a material called fly ash the material shall become
economical thus saving significant cost.
Fly ash is a finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered bituminous coal or sub-bitumiNo.us coal (lignite) and transported by the flue gases
of boilers fired by pulverized coal or lignite. It is available
in large quantities in the country as a waste product from
a number of thermal power stations and industrial plants
using pulverized coal or lignite as fuel for the boilers. The
effective use of fly ash as a pozzolana in the manufacture of cement and for part replacement of cement, as an
admixture in cement mortar with fly ash and concrete
with fly ash and in lime pozzolana mixture, has been established in the country in recent years. Recent investigations on Indian fly ash have indicated greater scope
for their utilization as a construction material. Greater
utilization of fly ash will lead to not only saving of scarce
construction materials but also assist in solving the problem of disposal of this waste product from thermal power
stations. The recent investigations have also indicated the
necessity to provide proper collection methods for fly ash
so as to yield fly ash of quality and uniformity which are
169

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

prime requirements of fly ash for use as a construction


material. This standard has been prepared to give general
guidance towards the suitability of fly ash as a pozzolana
and as an admixture for structural mortar and concrete.
Humans have the ability to precipitate minerals in the
form of bones and teeth continuously. This ability is not
only confined to human beings, even Bacillus Subtilis, a
common soil bacterium, can continuously precipitate calcite. The bacterial concrete with fly ash makes use of calcite precipitation by bacteria. The phenomenon is called
microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP).
The MICP is a technique that comes under a broader category of science called bio-mineralization. It is a process
by which living organism or bacteria form inorganic solids. Bacillus Subtilis, when used in concrete with fly ash,
can continuously precipitate a new highly impermeable
calcite layer over the surface of the already existing concrete layer. The precipitated calcite has a coarse crystalline structure that readily adheres to the concrete with fly
ash surface in the form of scales. In addition to the ability
to continuously grow upon itself, it is highly insoluble in
water.
It resists the penetration of harmful agents like chlorides,
sulphates, and carbon dioxide into the concrete with fly
ash thereby decreasing the deleterious effects they cause.
Due to its inherent ability to precipitate continuously,
bacterial concrete with fly ash can be called as a smart
bio-material for repairing concrete.

Phase I
Phase I involves establishment of necessary laboratory set
up and procurement of required materials.
Laboratory set up
The Concrete Technology Laboratory at University College
of Engineering, Osmania University is used for this project. Universal testing machine and compression testing
machine are used to test all the concrete specimens. The
curing of the concrete specimens is done by submerging
the specimens in storage tanks.
Procurement of materials
The materials used for the investigative study of bacterial
concrete using fly ash are given below.
Cement
Fly ash
Fine aggregate
Coarse aggregate
Water
Micro Organisms Bacillus Subtilis a model laboratory
bacterium is used.

Bacterial Concrete using Fly Ash


Bacterial concrete using fly ash is a new concept in which
living organism or bacteria called Bacillus Subtilis is
mixed in water with an ordinary Portland cement, fly ash
along with fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.
Concrete with fly ash as a structural material
The most widely used construction material is concrete,
commonly made by mixing Portland cement with fly ash,
sand, crushed rock and water. The present consumption
of concrete in the world is estimated to be around twenty thousand million metric tons every year or more than
three metric tons for every living human being. The world
trends indicate that man consumes no other material except water in such tremendous quantities.

Plate 3.1 Colony morphology of Bacillus Subtilis on agar plate


(Irregular, dry, white, opaque colonies)

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
General Methodology
The present investigation is aimed at arriving the performance of the bacterial concrete in comparison with the
normal concrete using fly ash as partial replacement
of cement for M20 and M40 grade concrete, after thoroughly understanding the parameters influencing the
strength improvement which are designed with the help
of IS:10262-2009.
The experimental programme is divided into four phases.
Phase I: Laboratory setup and procurement of materials.
Phase II: Mixing of cement mortar, moulding and curing
of cement mortar specimens.
Phase III: Mixing of concrete with fly ash as partial replacement of cement, moulding and curing of concrete
specimens.
Phase IV: Testing procedure for evaluating the strength
parameters of cement mortar and concrete specimens.
Phase V: Evaluating test results.

Plate 3.2 Phase contrast micro photograph of Bacillus Subtilis


(Long rods, 0.6-0.8m in width and 2.0-3.0 m in length, gram
positive)

Plate 3.3 Microscopic photograph of multiple Bacillus Subtilis


cultured at Microbiology Department, Osmania University, Hyderabad (View 1)

170

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

Phase II
Mixing of cement mortar

Plate 3.4 Microscopic photograph of multiple Bacillus Subtilis


cultured at Microbiology Department, Osmania University, Hyderabad (View 2)

The following mix cases are considered for both normal


cement mortar and bacterial cement mortar using fly
ash as partial replacement of cement. The mix proportion adopted is 1: 3.
Case 1 : Normal or control cement mortar mix with fly
ash.
Case 2 : Cement mortar mix with fly ash with 104 cells/
ml. bacterial solution.
Case 3 : Cement mortar mix with fly ash with 105 cells/
ml. bacterial solution.
Case 4 : Cement mortar mix with fly ash with 106 cells/
ml. bacterial solution.
Case 5 : Cement mortar mix with fly ash with 107 cells/
ml. bacterial solution.
Case 6 : Cement mortar mix with fly ash with 108 cells/
ml. bacterial solution.
Phase III
Mixing of concrete with fly ash

Plate 3.5 Microscopic photograph showing the culture of Bacillus Subtilis cultivated at Microbiology Department, Osmania
University, Hyderabad (View 1)

Plate 3.6 Microscopic photograph showing the culture of Bacillus Subtilis cultivated at Microbiology Department, Osmania
University, Hyderabad (View 2)

Two mixes of M20 and M40 grades of concrete are considered for both normal concrete and bacterial concrete
using fly ash as partial replacement of cement of 10%,
20% and 30%. The mix design is adopted as per IS:
10262-2009 and mixes are as follows.
Normal mix of concrete with fly ash for M20 and M40
grade as per IS: 10262-2009.
Bacterial mix of same concrete using 105cells/ml of
Bacillus Subtilis culture for M20 and M40 grade as per
IS: 10262-2009.

Slump of concrete being measured in Laboratory

Compaction factor of concrete being measured in the Laboratory

Liquid form of bacteria Bacillus Subtilis

171

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

Thirty six cubes, 36 cylinders and 36 prisms are


casted as shown in Figure and as explained earlier
and are subjected to curing. After each period of
curing, the cube, cylinder and prism specimens are
tested and the results recorded as per given in the
following sections.

Variation of slump for M20 grade concrete

Variation of compaction factor for M20 grade concrete

From the Figures it can be ascertained that as the fly


ash replacement increases, the slump and compaction
factors increases gradually for M20 concrete.

shows the variation of slump and compaction factors
for M40 grade concrete and the same is depicted in the
graphs 3.6 and 3.7 respectively.
Workability of M40 concrete (slump and compaction
factors)
% fly ash
replacement

Water
cement
ratio

Super
plasticizer

Slump in mm

Compaction factor
in mm

Without
bacteria

With
bacteria

Without
bacteria

With
bacteria

10

0.35

0.8

91

90

0.895

0.910

20

0.35

0.8

102

100

0.905

0.915

30

0.35

0.8

104

102

0.915

0.920

Moulds of cement concrete cubes being casted in the Laboratory

Phase IV
Phase IV deals with the testing procedures for evaluating
the strength parameters of cement mortar specimens using fly ash and concrete specimens with fly ash with and
without bacteria.
Testing procedure
The concrete specimens considered in this investigation
programme are subjected to the following tests.

Compression test
Compression test is conducted confirming to IS 5161959, on the concrete specimens, on the Universal
Testing Machine (200 MT). In this test, cube is placed
with the cast faces not in contact with the platens of
testing machine i.e., the position of the cube when tested
is at right angles to that as cast. Load is applied at a
constant rate of stress equal to 15 MPa/min according
to relevant IS code and the load at which the specimen
failed is recorded. Thus the compressive strengths of the
specimens are obtained and the results of all samples
are presented in nest chapter. The compression testing machine at the University College of Engineering is
shown in Figure.

Variation of slump for M40 grade concrete

Variation of compaction factor for M40 grade concrete

Compression testing at concrete Laboratory at UCE, OU

From the Figures it can be ascertained that as


the fly ash replacement increases, the slump and
compaction factors increases gradually for M40
concrete also.
172

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

Summary

28 days compressive strength

The total experimental programme which includes five


phases, viz. laboratory set up and procurement of materials, evaluation of physical properties of materials, mixing of cement mortar and cement concrete using fly ash
as partial replacement for cement, moulding and curing
of test specimens and testing procedure for evaluating
strength parameters of test specimens are explained in

Case 1: Normal or control cement mortar with fly ash


mix case: The specimens subjected to submerged curing
have achieved an average compressive strength of 30.7
MPa.

this chapter.
ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS
Strength Characteristics
Preliminary remarks
This chapter deals with the analysis of experimental
tests conducted on hardened mortar specimens and
concrete specimens which are casted using fly ash,
after attaining the desired age of curing with respect to
its compressive strength, flexural strength split tensile
strength and pulse velocity. The results are precisely
and systematically compiled and presented. They are
also represented in graphs for its critical analysis and
interpretations.

Case 2: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with


104 cells/ml bacterial solutions: These specimens have
attained an average compressive strength of 32.7 MPa
after the submerged curing.

Case 3: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 105
cells/ml bacterial solution: The specimens with the
submerged curing have attained an average compressive
strength of 37.2 MPa.
Case 4: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 106
cells/ml bacterial solution: An average compressive
strength of 33.5 MPa is obtained from the test specimens
after the submerged curing.
Case 5: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 107
cells/ml bacterial solutions: The specimens with the
submerged curing have attained an average compressive
strength of 32.5 MPa.

Compressive strength

Case 6: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 108
cells/ml bacterial solutions: The specimens have attained an average compressive strength of 31.7 MPa
when they are subjected to submerged curing.

The most common of all the parameters is the compressive strength of cement mortar because it is a desirable
characteristic of concrete. The compressive strength of
cement mortar is quantitatively related to the compressive strength of concrete.

From the above results it can be seen that the 28 days


compressive strength is maximum for the concentration
of 105cells/ml of bacterial solution, hence the same concentration of bacterial solution is adopted for concrete
specimens.

7 days compressive strength

Properties of Concrete with Fly Ash and Bacteria

Case 1: Normal or control cement mortar with fly ash:


The specimens with submerged curing have achieved an
average compressive strength of 26.3 MPa.

Compressive strength

Properties of Cement Mortar using Fly Ash

Case 2: Cement mortar with fly ash with 10 cells/ml


of bacterial solution: These specimens have attained
an average compressive strength of 28.8 MPa. after the
submergedcuring.
4

Case 3: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with


105 cells/ml bacterial solution: The specimens with the
submerged curing have attained an average compressive
strength of 31.6 MPa.
Case 4: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 106
cells/ml bacterial solution: The specimens have attained
an average compressive strength of 29.3 MPa. after the
submerged curing.
Case 5: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 107
cells/ml bacterial solutions: The specimens with the
submerged curing have attained an average compressive
strength of 27.6 MPa.

The most important and useful of all the parameters is


the compressive strength, because most of the parameters are quantitatively related to compressive strength.
7 days compressive strength
The average 7 days compressive strengths of concrete
with fly ash as partial replacement of cement for M20
and M40 grades of concrete with and without bacteria and are tabulated in Table 4.1 and also presented
graphical in Figure
28 days compressive strength
The average 28 days compressive strengths of concrete
with fly ash as partial replacement of cement for various grades and proportions is tabulated as below (with
and without bacteria) are tabulated in Table 4.1 and also
presented graphically in Figures.

Case 6: Cement mortar with fly ash mix added with 108
cells/ml bacterial solutions: The specimens have attained an average compressive strength of 26.9 MPa.
when subjected to sub-merged curing.

173

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

Compressive strength of M20 and M40 concrete at 7


and 28 days (in MPa)
Concrete
grade

% fly
ash
replacement

Without bacteria

7 days

28 days

7 days

28 days

M20

10

16.41

26.90

17.55

30.10

M40

With bacteria

% increase in
strength of bacterial fly ash concrete
than normal fly ash
concrete
7 days
6.95

28 days
11.90

20

12.90

19.20

13.75

21.45

6.59

11.72

30

10.34

17.82

11.08

20.01

7.16

12.29

10

29.45

48.30

31.85

52.85

8.15

9.42

20

21.84

36.40

23.35

40.40

6.91

10.99

30

18.90

31.50

20.12

33.80

6.46

7.30

Flexural tensile strength of M20 concrete at 7 days

Flexural tensile strength of M40 concrete at 7 days

Compressive strength of M20 concrete at 7 days

Flexural tensile strength of M20 concrete at 28 days

Compressive strength of M40 concrete at 7 days

Flexural tensile strength of M40 concrete at 28 day

Compressive strength of M20 concrete at 28 days

Split tensile strength of M20 concrete at 7 days

Compressive strength of M40 concrete at 28 days

Split tensile strength of M40 concrete at 7 days

174

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

4470m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
30% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4410m/sec (Good).
Discussions and conclusion
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Investigation

Split tensile strength of M20 concrete at 28 days

Split tensile strength of M40 concrete at 28 days

Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Tests


Pulse velocity tests
28 days pulse velocity test
(a) Normal or control concrete using fly ash for various
proportions of mix with M20 grade is as follows:
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
10% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4390m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
20% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4260m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
30% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4100m/sec (Good).
(b) Bacterial concrete using fly ash as partial replacement in various proportions of mix with M20 grade:
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
10% of fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4410/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
20% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4350m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
30% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4230m/sec (Good).

To reveal the details of hydrated cement samples, scanning electron microscope technique is required. SEM
technique is utilized for taking the photographs to find
out the presence of Bacillus Subtilis bacteria in the
concrete samples and also to know about the hydrated
structure of normal and bacterial concretes.
A small piece of M20 grade concrete with fly ash and
two pieces of M20 grade and one piece of M40 grade
bacterial concrete are collected from standard hardened
cubes and they are sent to the RUSKA Labs, College of
Veterinary Sciences, S.V Veterinary University, Rajendra
Nagar, Hyderabad to obtain the SEM photographs of
normal and bacterial concrete samples.

One SEM photograph of normal concrete (with fly ash)
sample, with X300 magnification shows no evidence
of presence of bacteria and calcite formation. Similarly
three SEM photographs of bacterial concrete (with fly
ash) samples (two with 9000 magnification and the other
with 9500 magnification) are obtained in which the presence of Bacillus Subtilis bacteria is clearly visible. The
average length of Bacillus Subtilis bacteria observed is
around 2.00 m. The SEM photograph of normal concrete with X300 magnification and bacterial concrete
(with fly ash) with 9000 and 9500 magnifications are
depicted .

A SEM photograph of non-bacterial concrete with 10% fly ash


for M40 grade in X300 magnification

(c) Normal or control concrete using fly ash in various


proportions mix with M40 grade:
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
10% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4490m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
20% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4380m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
30% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4310m/sec (Good).
(d) Bacterial concrete with fly ash mix with M40 Grade:
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
10% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of
4550m/sec (Good).
The cube specimens subjected to submerged curing with
20% fly ash have attained an average pulse velocity of

A SEM photograph of bacterial concrete with 10% fly ash for


M20 grade with 9000 magnification.

175

International Journal of Research and Innovation (IJRI)

A SEM photograph of bacterial concrete with 20% fly ash for


M20 grade with9500 magnification

A SEM photograph of bacterial concrete with 10% fly ash for


M40 grade with 9000 magnification

Journal of microbiology, 2000.


3. Massimiliano Marvasi, T.Pieter, Visscher, Brunella Perito,
Giorgio Mastromei and Lilliam Casillas-MartinewPhysiological requirements for carbonate precipitation during biofilm
development of Bacilus Subtilis etfa mutant Journal FEMS
Microbiology Ecology 2009.
4. J.L.Day, S.S.Bang and V.RamakrishnanMicrobiologically
induced sealant for concrete crack remediation 2003.
5. V.Ramakrishnan, S.S.Bang, and R.K.Panchalan, Bacterial
ConcreteA self-repairing biomaterial, Proceedings of the 10th
International Congress on polymers in concrete and ICPI/ICRI
International concrete repair workshop, Honolulu, HI, 2001.
6. Willem De Muynck, Kathelijn Cox, Nele De Belie, Willy VerstraeteBacterial carbonate precipitation as an alternative
surface treatment for concrete 2003.
7. H.S. Patil, D.B. Raijiwala, Hingwe Prashant and Bhabhor VijayBacterial concrete - A self healing concrete, International
Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 3, No. 12, 2008,
pp. 17191725.
8. Ke-Ru-Wu, Bing Chen, Wu Yao, Dong ZhangEffect of
coarse aggregate tupe on mechanical properties of HPC. cement
and concrete research, 2001, Vol. 31, pp. 1421-1425.
9. P.Ghosh, S.Mandal, B.D.Chattopadhyay and S.PalUse of
Microorganisms to improve the strength of cement-sand mortar 2004.
10. C.Raj KumarProvisions for cements and mineral admixture, ICJ 2001, pp.105-112.
11. Edvardsen, C.K Water permeability and self-healing of
through cracks in concrete (fly ash), Deutscher Ausschuss fur
Stahlbeton, Heft 455, 1996 (in German).
12. Reinhardt, H-W. and Joos, M.Permeability and self-healing
of cracked concrete (fly ash) as a function of temperature and
crack width, C and CR 33, 2003, pp. 981-985.
Author

Conclusions
Based on the present experimental investigations, the following
conclusions are drawn.
Bacillus Subtilis can be produced from laboratory which is
proved to be a safe and cost effective.
The addition of Bacillus Subtilis bacteria improve the hydrated structure of cement mortar.
The compressive strength of cement mortar using fly ash is
maximum with the addition of Bacillus Subtilis bacteria for a
cell concentration of 105 cells/ml of mixing water. Therefore,
bacteria with a cell concentration of 105 cells/ml of mixing water are used in the present investigations.
The addition of Bacillus Subtilis and fly ash do not affect
the workability aspects of concrete and there is no change in
the workability aspects of bacterial concrete when compared to
normal concrete without bacteria.
The addition of Bacillus Subtilis increases the compressive
strength without bacteria for M20 and M40 grade concrete with
fly ash, the compressive strength increases up to 7.5% for M20
and 8.00% for M40 grade at 28 days age.
Limitations of the Bacterial Concrete
However this study of bacterial concrete has the following limitations.
1. The procurement and maintenance of stock culture is tedious
and time consuming.
It may also presume that the bacterial concrete is also having
the following limitations.
1 The bacterial concrete has less resistance to the chemical attacks.
2. The bacterial concrete offers less resistance the fire accidents.
REFERENCES:
1. Chiara Barabesi, Alessandro Galizzi, Giorgio Mastromei, Mila
Rossi, Elena, Tamburini and Brunella Perito Pavia, Italy, Micro
Organisms-Bacillus Subtilis 2007.
2. Leuschner, G.Renata, Lillford, J.PeterEffect of hydration on
molecular mobility in phase-bright Bacillus subtilis spores

Vummenthala Anusha
Research Scholar,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy,
Bandlaguda,Hyderbad - 500005, India.

Mythili Rao
Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy,
Hyderabad India.

Venkata Ratnam,
Associate professor,
Department of Civil Engineering,
Aurora's Scientific Technological and Research Academy,
Hyderabad India.

176