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New

Technology
2002
Design and Function

Audi of America, Inc.


3800 Hamlin Road
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
Printed in U.S.A.
February 2002

Self-Study Program
Course Number 992203

Audi of America, Inc.


Service Training
Printed in U.S.A.
Printed 2/2002
Course Number 992203
2002 Audi of America, Inc.
All rights reserved. All information contained
in this manual is based on the latest
information available at the time of printing and
is subject to the copyright and other intellectual
property rights of Audi of America, Inc., its
affiliated companies and its licensors. All rights
are reserved to make changes at any time
without notice. No part of this document may
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, nor may these
materials be modified or reposted to other sites
without the prior expressed written permission
of the publisher.
All requests for permission to copy and
redistribute information should be referred to
Audi of America, Inc.
Always check Technical Bulletins and the
Audi Worldwide Repair Information System
for information that may supersede any
information included in this booklet.
Trademarks: All brand names and product
names used in this manual are trade names,
service marks, trademarks, or registered
trademarks; and are the property of their
respective owners.

Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
Audi New Technology 2002
Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing .............................................. 2
The Task of Variable Valve Timing, Operation of Variable Valve
Timing, Intake Camshaft, Exhaust Camshaft, Oil System,
Engine Management for Variable Valve Timing
Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled ............................................. 16
Electronically Controlled Cooling System Overview,
The Coolant Temperature Level, Coolant Thermostat Housing
with Map Controlled Engine Cooling Thermostat F265, The
Coolant Temperature Set Points, Engine Coolant Temperature
(ECT) Sensor G62 and Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
(On Radiator) G83, Map Controlled Engine Cooling Thermostat
F265, Coolant Fan V7 and Coolant Fan -2- V177
Fuel Supply 1.8T ..................................................................................... 25
Pressure-Regulated Fuel Filter
Exhaust System Exhaust Flap ............................................................... 26
Exhaust Flap 3.0-Liter V6, Exhaust Flap Vacuum
System Overview, Exhaust Flap Functional Diagram
Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control ............................................ 31
Pneumatic Damping Control Shock Absorbers
Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring .............................................................. 36
The Tire Pressure Monitoring System, System Components,
System Functions, Tire Pressure Monitoring Functional Diagram
Steering Servotronic II ........................................................................... 66
Servotronic II Variable Effort Power Steering,
Servotronic II System Overview

New !

Electrical System ......................................................................................... 68


CAN Data Bus, Compass, Bi-Xenon Headlights, Audi Telematics
by OnStar, Audi Digital Phone by Motorola, Symphony II Radio
Transport Mode
Knowledge Assessment ............................................................................. 81

Important/Note!
The Self-Study Program provides you with information
regarding designs and functions.
The Self-Study Program is not a Repair Manual.
For maintenance and repair work, always refer to the
current technical literature.

Introduction
Audi New Technology 2002
In keeping with the Audi tradition of
producing the best-engineered and most
appealing cars in the world, Audi is
introducing technical innovations and
improvements in many vehicle systems for
the 2002 model year. From performance
and handling to convenience, comfort, and
safety; from social responsibility to the
sheer fun of driving; Audi continues to earn
its reputation as a manufacturer of worldclass cars with a technical edge.

SSP248/067

Some of the latest Audi technologies being


introduced to the North American market
for 2002 include:
Variable valve timing
Electronically controlled engine cooling

SSP222/035a

1.8T engine fuel delivery modifications


Exhaust system noise reduction
Pneumatic damping control shock
absorbers
Tire pressure monitoring
Servotronic II variable effort steering
CAN data bus
Electronic compass
Bi-xenon headlights
Audi Telematics by OnStar
SSP242/051

Digital phone by Motorola


Symphony II radio transport mode
This Self-Study Program describes the
design and function of these technical
innovations.

78500018

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Idle

The Task of Variable Valve Timing

TDC

The valve timing illustrated here


is intended to demonstrate the
basic principle and the effects of
variable valve timing. Each engine
application has valve timing
adapted to its own mechanics
and engine management system.
The quantity and appearance of
components will vary from one
application to another.

EC

IO

IC

EO

BDC
SSP246-001

Power

TDC
EC

Idle
At idle, the intake camshaft is set so that
the intake valves open and close late. The
exhaust camshaft is set so that exhaust
valves close well before top dead center
(TDC). Because there are only small
amounts of residual gases from
combustion, engine idle is smooth.
Power

IO

To achieve good power at high engine


speeds, the exhaust valves are opened
late. This allows the expanding burning
gases to act against the pistons longer.

IC

The intake valves open after top dead


center and close well before bottom dead
center (BDC). This enables the dynamic
self-charging effect of the entering air, and
increases power output.

EO

BDC

SSP246-002

Variable valve timing sets the most


advantageous valve timing for the engine in
each operating mode: idle, maximum
power, and torque; as well as for exhaust
gas recirculation.

Intake

IO

Intake Opens

Compression

IC

Intake Closes

Power

EO Exhaust Opens

Exhaust

EC

Exhaust Closes

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


TDC

Torque
EC

Torque
To achieve maximum torque, good
volumetric efficiency is needed. This
requires that the intake valves be opened
early. Because the intake valves open early,
they close early as well. This keeps the
fresh gases from being pushed back out
the intake valve port.

IO

The exhaust camshaft closes the exhaust


valves just before top dead center.

IC

Exhaust Gas Recirculation


Internal exhaust gas recirculation can be
achieved by adjusting the intake and
exhaust camshafts for a period of valve
overlap, when both the intake and exhaust
valves are open. The amount of overlap
determines the amount of recirculated
exhaust gas.

EO

BDC

SSP246-003

Exhaust Gas
Recirculation

TDC
EC

The intake camshaft is set so that it opens


the intake valves well before top dead
center. The exhaust camshaft does not
close the exhaust valves until just before
top dead center. As a result, both valves are
open and some of the exhaust gas is
recirculated in the cylinder for reburning
during the next power stroke.

IO

The advantage of internal exhaust gas


recirculation over external exhaust gas
recirculation is the fast reaction of the
system and very even distribution of the
recirculated exhaust gases.

IC

EO

BDC

SSP246-004

Intake

IO

Intake Opens

Compression

IC

Intake Closes

Power

EO Exhaust Opens

Exhaust

EC

Exhaust Closes

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Operation of Variable Valve Timing
The Motronic Engine Control Module J220
controls the variable valve timing. To do
this, it requires information from various
sensors about engine speed, engine load
and temperature, and the positions of the
crankshaft and the camshafts.
To adjust the camshafts on the cylinder
bank shown, the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220 actuates Valve 1 for Camshaft
Adjustment N205 and Camshaft

Adjustment Valve 1 (Exhaust) N318. They in


turn open oil galleries in the control
housing. Engine oil flows through the
control housing and camshafts into the
camshaft adjusters. The inner rotors (pivot
motor rotors) rotate and adjust the intake
and exhaust camshaft positions in
accordance with the specifications
programmed into the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220.

Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor G40

Intake Camshaft

Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor 2 G163

Exhaust Camshaft
Valve 1 for Camshaft
Adjustment N205
Camshaft
Adjustment Valve 1
(Exhaust) N318

Motronic
Engine Control
Module J220

One cyllinder bank


of W12 engine shown.
Oil Pump
Engine Speed
Air Mass and Air Temperature (Engine Load)
Coolant Temperature
SSP246-012

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Intake Camshaft
Intake Camshaft Adjustment
Each intake camshaft is regulated by the
Motronic Engine Control Module J220 over
the entire speed range of the engine. The
maximum amount of adjustment possible is
through 52 degrees of crankshaft angle.
Adjustment is determined by a control map
stored in the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220.
As used here, map refers to
an electronic database that
sets up the relationship between
incoming sensor information
and outgoing control signals.
Maps are also referred to as
look-up tables.

Intake Camshaft Adjuster


Outer Rotor

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor Rotor)

Intake Camshaft Adjuster Design


The adjusting mechanism of each intake
camshaft adjuster consists of:
A combined housing and outer rotor
connected directly to the timing chain
or belt.
An inner rotor (pivot motor rotor)
attached to the end of the camshaft.
The adjusters are locked mechanically
until the necessary engine oil pressure has
built up.

Oil Galleries
SSP246-155

Mechanical
Detent

Using a mechanical detent device, a springloaded differential pressure pin prevents


the camshaft from being adjusted during
the engine start cycle.
The adjuster is designed to move to the
retard position and remain locked there
whenever the engine is turned off.
The rising engine oil pressure unlocks the
spring-loaded differential pressure pins.

Camshaft Adjuster
Inner Rotor with
Connection to
Camshaft
SSP255/021

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


How the Intake Camshaft is Advanced
For exhaust gas recirculation and increasing
torque, each intake camshaft must be set
so that the intake valves open well before
top dead center.
To advance valve timing on the cylinder
bank shown, the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220 actuates Valve 1 for Camshaft
Adjustment N205 which adjusts the
position of the control piston in the control
housing.
The control housing oil gallery for timing
advance is opened up in accordance with
the new position of the control piston.

From there the pressurized oil flows


through five passages drilled through to the
front face of the camshaft and into the five
advance chambers of the camshaft
adjuster, where it presses against the
vanes of the inner and outer rotors. This
causes the inner rotor (pivot motor rotor) to
rotate to an advanced position within the
outer rotor.
Since the camshaft is fixed to the inner
rotor (pivot motor rotor) and the crankshaft
is mechanically linked to the outer rotor,
this effectively rotates the intake camshaft
in the direction of crankshaft rotation and
the intake valves open sooner.

With the oil gallery opened, engine oil


under pressure flows through the control
housing and into the forward ring channel in
the intake camshaft.

Ring Channels
Control Housing

If the variable valve timing


function fails, the camshaft
adjuster will be set by engine
oil pressure to the basic
retarded position.
Front
Drilled
Passage

Timing Advance
Oil Gallery

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor
Rotor)

One cylinder
bank shown.

Oil Return
Valve 1 for Camshaft
Adjustment N205

Control Piston
Engine Oil
Pressure

Oil Return

SSP246-150

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


How the Intake Camshaft is Retarded
When the engine is idling or when a lot of
power is required from the engine, each
intake camshaft is rotated so that the intake
valves open late after top dead center.
To retard the intake camshaft on the
cylinder bank shown, the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220 actuates Valve 1 for
Camshaft Adjustment N205, which opens
the gallery for timing retardation by moving
the control piston.
Engine oil under pressure flows through the
control housing into the rearward ring
channel of the camshaft.
From there the pressurized oil flows
through drilled passages in the camshaft to
the pocket hole of the securing bolt for the
camshaft adjuster.

The pressurized oil then flows through five


drilled passages in the camshaft adjuster
and into the oil chamber for timing
retardation where it presses against the
vanes of the inner and outer rotors. This
causes the inner rotor (pivot motor rotor) to
rotate to a retarded position within the
outer rotor.
This movement effectively rotates the
intake camshaft in the opposite direction
from crankshaft rotation and the intake
valves open later.
At the same time that the oil gallery for
timing retardation is opened, the control
piston opens the oil return for the gallery
for timing advance, relieving the pressure
there. The rotation of the inner rotor (pivot
motor rotor) in the retard direction pushes
the oil out of the timing advance chamber
through the timing advance oil gallery.

Ring Channels
Control Housing

Front
Drilled
Passage

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor
Rotor)

Pocket Hole for


Securing Bolt

Timing
Retardation
Oil Gallery

One cylinder
bank shown.

Oil Return
Control Piston
Engine Oil
Pressure

Valve 1 for Camshaft


Adjustment N205
Oil Return

SSP246-151

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


How Regulation Works
Regulation enables continuous variation of
the position of each intake camshaft
between advanced and retarded through a
maximum adjustment range of 52 degrees
of crankshaft angle. On the cylinder bank
shown, the Camshaft Position (CMP)
Sensor G40 provides a signal to the
Motronic Engine Control Module J220
which allows it to monitor the exact
position of the intake camshaft at any given
moment. The control map in the Motronic
Engine Control Module J220 determines
the intake camshaft adjustment using this
camshaft position information as well as
engine load, speed, and coolant
temperature readings.
When the control map calls for advanced
timing, the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220 activates the Valve 1 for
Pressure to Advance Timing

Camshaft Adjustment N205, which moves


the control piston in the advance timing
direction. Pressurized oil is diverted through
the control housing and drilled passages in
the camshaft into the camshaft adjuster
and moves the camshaft into an advanced
position. Moving the control piston in the
advanced direction simultaneously opens
the oil return through the oil channel for
retarding timing.
When the desired angle of adjustment is
attained, the control map initiates
movement of the control piston to a
position that maintains equal pressure in
both camshaft adjuster chambers to
maintain the adjustment angle.
To move the camshaft in the retard timing
direction, the regulation process is similar
but pressurized oil flow is reversed.

Equalized Pressure
to Maintain Adjustment

Valve 1 for Camshaft


Adjustment N205
SSP246-150a

Valve 1 for Camshaft


Adjustment N205

One cylinder
bank shown.

SSP246-152

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Exhaust Camshaft
Exhaust Camshaft Adjustment

Exhaust Camshaft Adjuster Design

In contrast to the intake camshaft


adjustment which is continuously variable
over the entire range of 52 degrees of
crankshaft angle, the adjustment of each
exhaust camshaft is essentially on or
off to advance the exhaust camshaft
timing or return it to normal. The
adjustment variation between these two
positions is 22 degrees of crankshaft angle.

The adjusting mechanism of the exhaust


camshaft adjuster is nearly identical to the
design of the intake camshaft adjuster:
A combined housing and outer rotor
connected directly to the timing chain
or belt.
An inner rotor (pivot motor rotor)
attached to the end of the camshaft.
The vanes of the inner rotor (pivot motor
rotor) are wider to limit adjustment travel
to the smaller 22 degrees of crankshaft
angle required of the exhaust camshaft.

Exhaust Camshaft Adjuster


Outer Rotor

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor Rotor)

Wider Vanes

Oil Galleries

SSP246-156

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Exhaust Camshaft Normal Position
Each exhaust camshaft is in its normal
position when the engine is being started
and at engine speeds above idle. In the
normal position, the exhaust valves close
just before top dead center. Each exhaust
camshaft is in the normal position in the
engine operating modes for maximum
power and torque; as well as for exhaust
gas recirculation. Under these conditions,
on the cylinder bank shown the Camshaft
Adjustment Valve 1 (Exhaust) N318 is not
actuated.
How the Normal Position Works
In the normal position, the exhaust
camshaft is positioned so that the exhaust
valves close shortly before top dead center.
The Camshaft Adjustment Valve 1 (Exhaust)
N318 on the cylinder bank shown is not
actuated by the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220.
In the normal position, the oil gallery for
timing retardation is open. Through this
oil gallery, engine oil under pressure
reaches the rearward ring channel in the
exhaust camshaft.

10

From there the pressurized oil flows


through drilled passages in the camshaft to
the pocket hole of the securing bolt for the
camshaft adjuster.
The pressurized oil then flows through five
drilled passages in the camshaft adjuster
and into the oil chamber for normal position
where it presses against the vanes of the
inner and outer rotors. This causes the
inner rotor (pivot motor rotor) to rotate to
the stops at the normal position within the
outer rotor, rotating the camshaft along
with it.
The exhaust camshaft on the cylinder bank
shown remains in this position as long as
the Camshaft Adjustment Valve 1 (Exhaust)
N318 solenoid is not actuated.
At the same time that the oil gallery for
timing retardation pressure is open, the oil
return for the gallery for timing advance is
open, relieving the pressure there. The
rotation of the inner rotor (pivot motor rotor)
in the retard direction pushes the oil out of
the timing advance chamber through the oil
gallery for timing advance.

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing

Ring Channel

Control
Housing

Front
Drilled
Passage

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor Rotor)

Pocket Hole for


Securing Bolt

Oil Gallery for


Timing Retardation
Oil Gallery for
Timing Advance

Outer
Rotor

Camshaft
Adjustment Valve 1
(Exhaust) N318

Oil Return

Control Piston
Engine Oil
Pressure

Oil Return

One cylinder
bank shown.

SSP246-157

11

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Exhaust Camshaft Advanced Position
Each exhaust camshaft is set to the
advanced position at engine speeds from
idle to about 1,200 rpm.
How the Exhaust Camshaft is Advanced
To advance exhaust valve timing on the
cylinder bank shown, the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220 actuates the
Camshaft Adjustment Valve 1 (Exhaust)
N318, which adjusts the position of the
control piston in the control housing.
The control housing oil gallery for timing
advance is opened up in accordance with
the new position of the control piston.
With the oil gallery opened, engine oil
under pressure flows through the control
housing and into the forward ring channel in
the exhaust camshaft.
From there the pressurized oil flows
through five passages drilled through to the
front face of the camshaft and into the five
advance chambers of the camshaft
adjuster, where it presses against the
vanes of the inner and outer rotors.
This causes the inner rotor (pivot motor
rotor) to rotate to an advanced position
within the outer rotor.

12

Since the camshaft is fixed to the inner


rotor (pivot motor rotor) and the crankshaft
is mechanically linked to the outer rotor,
this effectively rotates the intake camshaft
in the direction of crankshaft rotation and
the exhaust valves open and close earlier.
At the same time that the oil gallery for
timing advance pressure is open, the oil
return for the gallery for timing retardation
is open, relieving the pressure there. The
rotation of the inner rotor (pivot motor rotor)
in the advance direction pushes the oil out
of the timing retard chamber through the oil
gallery for timing retardation.
If the variable valve timing
function fails, the exhaust
camshaft adjuster will remain
in the normal position, the
exhaust valves close just
before top dead center.

Oil System
The variable valve timing system operates
at an oil pressure of 10.2 psi (70 kPa) and
above. Oil flow through the exhaust and
intake camshafts is virtually identical.

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing

Ring Channels

Control
Housing

Front Drilled
Passage

Inner Rotor
(Pivot Motor Rotor)

Pocket Hole for


Securing Bolt

Oil Gallery for


Timing Advance
Oil Gallery
for Timing
Retardation

Outer Rotor
Camshaft
Adjustment Valve 1
(Exhaust) N318

Oil Return

Control Piston
Engine Oil
Pressure

Oil Return

One cylinder
bank shown.

SSP246-156a

13

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Engine Management for
Variable Valve Timing
Typical System Overview
for V6 Engines
Motronic Engine
Control Module J220

Camshaft Position (CMP)


Sensor G40
Camshaft Position (CMP)
Sensor 2 G163
Valve 1 for Camshaft
Adjustment N205

Camshaft Position (CMP)


Sensor 3 G300
Camshaft Position (CMP)
Sensor 4 G301

Valve 2 for Camshaft


Adjustment N208

Engine Speed (RPM)


Sensor G28

Mass Air Flow (MAF)


Sensor G70 (In Some
Applications Combined
with Intake Air Temperature
(IAT) Sensor G42)

Engine Coolant
Temperature (ECT)
Sensor G62

Camshaft Adjustment
Valve 1 (Exhaust) N318

Data Link
Connector (DLC)
Wire Connector TV14

Camshaft Adjustment
Valve 2 (Exhaust) N319
SSP246-029

14

Engine Valve Train Variable Valve Timing


Learning Ability of the System

Engine Speed (RPM) Sensor G28, the


Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor G40,
the Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor 2
G163, the Camshaft Position (CMP)
Sensor 3 G300, and the Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor 4 G301, to check the idle
settings for the intake and exhaust
camshafts. If the actual value does not
agree with the control map specification
stored in the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220, the camshaft positions are
adjusted to match the specification.

The entire variable valve timing system


is adaptive. This adaptability compensates
for component and assembly tolerances
and wear.
The Motronic Engine Control Module J220
initiates adaptation when the engine is
idling and the coolant temperature is
greater than 140F (60C).
During adaptation, the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220 uses signals from the

Specification
TDC

Adaptation Value

Actual Value

BDC

SSP246-009

15

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


Electronically Controlled Cooling
System Overview
The aim of developing an electronically
controlled cooling system was to be able
to set the operating temperature of the
engine to a specified value based on the
load state.
An optimal operating temperature is set
according to maps stored in the Motronic
Engine Control Module J220 by heating the
thermostat electrically and adjusting the
radiator fan settings.
Cooling can thus be adapted to the engines
overall performance and load state.
As used here, map refers
to an electronic database
that sets up the relationship
between incoming sensor
information and outgoing
control signals. Maps are also
referred to as look-up tables.

Advantages
The advantages of adapting the coolant
temperature to the current operating state
of the engine are:
Lower fuel consumption in the partthrottle range.
Reduced raw CO and HC emissions.
Changes to the conventional cooling
circuit include:
Integration in the cooling circuit through
minimal design modifications.
The coolant distributor housing and
thermostat are combined to form a single
module.
There is no longer any need for a coolant
thermostat on the cylinder head.
Motronic Engine Control Module J220
contains the maps of the electronically
controlled cooling system.
Electronically controlled cooling is
only used on the 1.8T AMB
engine at the time of printing.
Other engines will be added in
the future.

16

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


The Coolant Temperature Level
Engine performance is dependent on
proper engine cooling.
In the electronically controlled cooling
system, the coolant temperatures range
from 203F to 230F (95C to 110C)
in the part-throttle range and from
185F to 203F (85C to 95C) in the
full-throttle range.

Higher temperatures in the part-throttle


range improve efficiency, which in turn
reduces fuel consumption and pollutants
in the exhaust gases.
Lower temperatures in the full-throttle
range increase power output. The
inducted air is heated to a lesser degree,
boosting performance.

Engine load and cooling should


always be considered together.

Coolant Temperature Level as a Function


of Engine Load with Mapped Cooling

Engine Load

Full-Throttle Range
185F to 203F (85C to 95C)
Part-Throttle Range
203F to 230F (95C to 110C)

Engine Speed
SSP222-013

17

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


Coolant Thermostat Housing with
Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265
The Functional Components
An expansion-element thermostat with a
wax thermocouple (Map Controlled
Engine Cooling Thermostat F265).
Resistance heating in the wax
thermocouple.
Pressure springs for mechanically
closing the coolant ducts.
One large valve disc and one small
valve disc.
Function
The Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265 in the coolant distributor
housing is always immersed in coolant.
The wax thermocouple regulates the
thermostat opening temperature unheated
as before, but is rated for a different
opening temperature.

The coolant temperature causes the wax to


liquefy and expand, producing a lifting
movement of the lifting pin.
This normally happens in accordance with
the new coolant temperature profile of
230F (110C) at the engine cylinder head
outlet, without the application of voltage to
the heating resistor integrated into the wax
thermocouple.
When voltage is applied to the heating
resistor, it heats the wax thermocouple
above the temperature of the surrounding
coolant. The adjustment of the lifting pin
stroke is then determined not only by the
coolant temperature, but also as specified
by the map stored in the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220.

Lifting Pin
Heating Resistor

Map Controlled Engine


Cooling Thermostat F265

Small Valve Disc


for Closing the Small
Coolant Circuit

Pressure Spring
Large Valve Disc
for Closing the
Large Coolant Circuit

18

Electrical Connection
for Heating Thermostat

SSP222-035

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


The Coolant Temperature
Set Points
Map Pre-Control Pulse Duty Factor

Pre-Control Pulse
Duty Factor

Specified Temperature

Engine Speed
SSP222-018

Map Specified Coolant Temperature 1

Nominal Temperature

Engine Load
194F (Intake Air Mass)
(90C)

Engine Speed
SSP222-016

Map Specified Coolant Temperature 2

Nominal Temperature

Activation of the Map Controlled Engine


Cooling Thermostat F265 is regulated
by maps to distribute the coolant
flow volume between the large and small
cooling circuits.
The relevant temperature set points are
stored in these maps.
The pre-control pulse duty factor
information is stored in a map.
This map is required to determine the
coolant temperature set point when the
vehicle is at rest with the engine running.
The information required for this purpose
is obtained by comparing the actual
temperature and the specified temperature
as factors of engine speed.
A temperature constant between 185F
and 230F (85C and 110C) can then be
set for the Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265 based on engine speed
and coolant temperature.
In the specified coolant temperature 1 map
the temperature setting is calculated from the
engine load (determined by measured intake
air mass) and engine speed.
The specified coolant temperature 2
setting is calculated from temperature set
points that are stored based on road speed
and intake air temperature in a second map.
By comparing maps 1 and 2, the lower
value is used by the Motronic Engine
Control Module J220 as the set point and
the Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265 is set accordingly.
The Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265 is not activated until a
temperature threshold has been exceeded
and the coolant temperature is just below
the set point.

185F
(85C)

Road Speed

Intake Air Temperature


SSP222-017

19

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)


Sensor G62 (At engine outlet
determines coolant
actual value 1)

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)


Sensor G62 and Engine Coolant
Temperature (ECT) Sensor
(On Radiator) G83
SSP222-023

These sensors both operate as negative


temperature coefficient (NTC) sensors. The
coolant temperature set points are stored in
the Motronic Engine Control Module J220
in the form of maps.
The actual coolant temperature values
are registered at two different points in
the cooling circuit and indicated to the
Motronic Engine Control Module J220 in
the form of a voltage signal.

SSP222-003

Engine Coolant Temperature


Sensor (On Radiator) G83
(At radiator outlet
determines coolant actual
value 2)

Coolant circuit shown is


for example only.

20

Coolant actual value 1 is measured at


the cylinder head coolant outlet by
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Sensor G62 located in the upper level of
the coolant distributor housing.
Coolant actual value 2 is measured at
the radiator by Engine Coolant
Temperature (ECT) Sensor (On Radiator)
G83 before the radiator coolant outlet.

SSP222-024

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


Signal Utilization
Comparison of the specified temperatures
stored in the maps with the coolant actual
value 1 temperature gives the pulse-widthmodulated signal for the application of
voltage to the heating resistor in the Map
Controlled Engine Cooling Thermostat F265.
Comparison of the coolant actual values
1 and 2 is the basis for activation of
the electric Coolant Fan V7 and Coolant
Fan -2- V177.
Effects of Failure
If Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Sensor G62 fails, a defined substitute value
of 203F (95C) is used for coolant
temperature control and the first fan speed
stays activated.

J220

If Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)


Sensor (On Radiator) G83 fails, the control
function remains active and the first fan
speed stays activated.
If a certain temperature threshold is
exceeded, the second fan speed is
activated.

G62

G83
SSP222-030

If both sensors fail, maximum voltage is


applied to the heating resistor in the Map
Controlled Engine Cooling Thermostat F265
and the second fan speed stays activated.

21

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


Map Controlled Engine
Cooling Thermostat F265
The Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265 is the coolant control
actuator.

Map Controlled Engine Cooling


Thermostat F265

Wax Thermocouple

Heating
Resistor

A standard expansion-element thermostat


without the benefit of electric heating is
designed to regulate engine outlet coolant
at a specific temperature. The Map
Controlled Engine Cooling Thermostat F265
sets the coolant temperature at a designdefined point in much the same way, but
the defined set point can be changed to
meet the cooling needs of the engine using
the available control maps.
A heating resistor is integrated into the
wax thermocouple expansion element of
the Map Controlled Engine Cooling
Thermostat F265.

Lifting Pin
SSP222-006

Without the application of voltage to the


heating resistor, the surrounding coolant
temperature causes the wax in the
expansion element to liquefy and expand
at 230F (110C).
With an application of voltage, the heating
resistor heats the wax above the
temperature of the surrounding coolant.
The heating wax expands causing the lifting
pin to extend in accordance with the map
(stroke X in the illustration). The positions
of the coolant thermostat large and small
valve discs are mechanically adjusted by
the movement of the lifting pin.
The purpose of the thermostat
heating system is not to heat the
coolant. It heats the expansion
element in a controlled manner in
order to open the large cooling
circuit.

22

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled

Thermostat heating resistor heating is


controlled by the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220 in accordance with the map
by a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal.
The extent of heating varies depending on
pulse width and time.
No voltage is applied when the
vehicle is at rest with the engine
idling or during the engine
starting cycle.
Rule:
PWM low (without voltage) =
high coolant temperature
PWM high (with voltage) =
low coolant temperature
Effects of Failure
If there is no operating voltage present:
Thermostat control takes place only by
means of the wax thermocouple
expansion element.
The first fan speed is continuously
activated.

23

Engine Cooling Electronically Controlled


Coolant Fan V7 and
Coolant Fan -2- V177

Map 1 Temperature Difference for


Fan First Speed

Temperature Difference

Engine Load (Intake Air Mass)

Engine Speed
SSP222-026

Electrical Circuit Compenents


J220

J293

V7

V177
M

The full-throttle low coolant temperature


mode makes heavy demands on the
cooling system.
To increase its cooling capacity, the
Motronic Engine Control Module J220 can
initiate one of two speed settings for
Coolant Fan V7 and Coolant Fan -2- V177.
Fan control is based on the difference
between the coolant temperatures
measured at the engine outlet and at the
radiator outlet.
The Motronic Engine Control Module J220
stores the control conditions for the fans in
two maps:
Temperature difference for fan, first
speed.
Temperature difference for fan, second
speed.
Both maps are similar to the one
shown here, and both are dependent on
engine load (intake air mass) and engine
speed (rpm).
There are three fan operating modes:
Off.
On, first speed.
On, second speed.
Run-On
Run-on of Coolant Fan V7 and Coolant
Fan -2- V177 after the engine is turned off
is time and temperature dependent.

Effects of Failure
31

31

J220
J293

Motronic Engine Control Module


Coolant Fan Control Module

V7
V177

Coolant Fan
Coolant Fan -2-

24

SSP222-025

If a fault occurs in the circuit for the first fan


output stage, the second stage is activated.
If a fault occurs in the circuit for second fan
output stage, the Map Controlled Engine
Cooling Thermostat F265 is fully energized
as a safety precaution.

Fuel Supply 1.8T


Pressure-Regulated Fuel Filter
For the 1.8T engine, the fuel supply is
routed through a pressure-regulated filter.
This new design eliminates the need for a
fuel return line from the engine fuel rail.
Fuel in the tank is pressurized by the in-tank
fuel pump and supplied through port VL
to the filter. The pressurized fuel fills the
chamber, flowing through the paper filter
element and out through the port labeled
MOTOR to supply the engine fuel rail.

If the fuel pressure in the filter exceeds the


filter pressure regulator threshold, the
regulator valve opens and routes fuel
through the plastic center tube and out at
port RL to return to the tank.
Fuel filter port E vents the pressure
regulator to atmospheric pressure through
the evaporative emission (EVAP) canister.
When the pressure-regulated
fuel filter is installed, the arrows
printed on the filter must point in
the direction of fuel flow.

Fuel Supply
to Engine

Fuel Supply
from Tank

Port VL

Fuel Filter

Port
MOTOR

Port RL

Port E

Engine

Fuel Return
to Tank

Pressure
Regulator
Tank Vent to
EVAP Canister

Filter Pressure
Regulator Vent
to EVAP Canister

Evaporative
Emission
(EVAP)
Canister

Fuel Tank
78500005

25

Exhaust System Exhaust Flap


Exhaust Flap 3.0-Liter V6

Cross Section A

Front-wheel drive vehicles equipped with


3.0L V6 engines have an exhaust flap
installed at one of the rear silencer outlets.
This design ensures that legal restrictions
on noise are met at engine idle and low
engine speeds.

78500007

Exhaust Flap

A
78500006

26

Exhaust System Exhaust Flap


Exhaust Flap Operation
Exhaust flap operation is controlled by the
Motronic Engine Control Module J220.
When vehicle speed is above 3.1 mph
(5 km/h) and engine speed is above
2000 rpm, there is no signal to the Valve
for Exhaust Flap N220 and the flap is open
to allow maximum flow of exhaust gases.

When vehicle speed is below 3.1 mph


(5 km/h) or the engine speed drops below
1800 rpm, the Motronic Engine Control
Module J220 sends a signal to activate the
Valve for Exhaust Flap N220 and the flap is
closed to reduce exhaust noise to an
acceptable level.
Effect of Failure
In the event of exhaust flap system failure,
the default position is with the flap open.

3.0 V6 220 hp (162 kW)


Switching Diagram of the Exhaust Flap
6500
6000
5500

Engine Speed (RPM)

5000

3.1 mph
(5 km/h)

4500

Open

4000
3500

Acceleration

Deceleration

3000
2500
2000
1500

Closed

1000
500
0
0
0

31
50

62
100

93
150

124
200

155 mph
250 km/h

Vehicle Speed
78500008

27

Exhaust System Exhaust Flap

Vacuum
Check Valve

Exhaust
Flap Open

Intake
Manifold

Other
Consumers

Vacuum
Reservoir

Motronic
Engine Control
Module J220

Valve for
Exhaust Flap
N220

Flap is open.

Vacuum
Check Valve
Exhaust
Flap Closed

Intake
Manifold

Vacuum
Reservoir

Motronic
Engine Control
Module J220

Other
Consumers

Valve for
Exhaust Flap
N220

The system applies vacuum


and the flap is closed.
Atmospheric Pressure
Vacuum

28

78500009

Exhaust System Exhaust Flap


Exhaust Flap Vacuum
System Overview

Change-Over Valve for


Intake Manifold Flap N239
Vacuum Unit for Intake
Manifold Change-Over

Vacuum
Reservoir

Evaporative
Emission (EVAP)
Canister Purge
Regulator Valve
N80

Fuel
Distribution
Rail with
Pressure
Control Valve

Diagnostics
Pump for
Fuel System

Vacuum
Reservoir
Secondary Air
Injection (AIR)
Solenoid Valve
N112

Vacuum
Check
Valve

Valve for
Exhaust Flap
N220

Suction
Jet Pump

Exhaust Flap

Combination Valve
for Secondary
Air Injection

Evaporative
Emission
(EVAP)
Charcoal
Canister

Brake
Booster

Combination Valve
for Secondary
Air Injection

78500010

29

Exhaust System Exhaust Flap


Exhaust Flap
Functional Diagram
30

15
J271
In

S28
20A

S7
10A

Out

S34
15A
CAN-H
CAN-L

96

N220

J220

J218

G21

J338

+
M

G186

G187 G188

G22

G28

31

78500011

Components
G6
G21
G22
G28
G186
G187
G188

30

Fuel Pump
Speedometer
Speedometer Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS)
Engine Speed (RPM) Sensor
Throttle Drive (Power Accelerator Actuation)
Angle Sensor 1 for Throttle Drive
Angle Sensor 2 for Throttle Drive

J218
J220
J271

Instrument Cluster Combination Processor


Motronic Engine Control Module
Motronic Engine Control Module Power
Supply Relay

N220

Valve for Exhaust Flap

S7
S28
S34

Fuse
Fog Light Fuse
Terminal 50 Fuse

Pneumatic Damping Control


Shock Absorbers
Rear Axle Variable Load
Recognition System
The Audi allroad quattro four-level air
suspension employs a continuously variable
load recognition system at the rear axle.
This system enhances vehicle handling by
maintaining suspension damping at a
constant level whether the vehicle is
partially or fully loaded.
The use of air springs in combination with
the natural vibration frequency of the body
structure maintains virtually constant
vibration characteristics regardless of the
load on the system.

Degree of Damping

Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Body Weight Ratio


PDC Shock Absorbers
Conventional Shock Absorers
SSP242/057

Coaxial Arrangement of
Air Spring and PDC Shock Absorber

The system adjusts to provide a


comfortable ride with a light load and
sufficiently firm damping under a heavy
load.
The pneumatic damping control (PDC)
shock absorbers provide this capability. In
PDC shock absorbers, the damping force is
varied as a direct result of the amount of air
pressure present in the air springs at any
given moment.

Air Spring

Hose

PDC Valve

SSP242/043

31

Damping Force

Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control

lb
360

N
1600

315

1400

270

1200

225

1000

180

800

135

600

90

400

45

200

The damping force is altered by a PDC


valve integrated into the shock absorber.
The PDC valve is connected to air spring air
chamber pressure by a pneumatic hose.

Rebound

Compression
0

0.43 0.85 1.28 1.71 2.13 2.56 2.99 3.41 ft/s

0.13 0.26 0.39 0.52 0.65 0.78 0.91 1.04 m/s

Piston Speed
138 psi (950 kPa)
116 psi (800 kPa)
94 psi (650 kPa)
SSP242/087

A variable throttle valve in the PDC valve is


controlled by the internal air pressure in the
air spring. This provides a continuously
variable control of damping in direct
proportion to the load on the suspension
system. The movement of the throttle
valve changes the resistance to hydraulic
fluid flow in the shock absorber and thus
the damping force during both compression
and rebound.
The air connector in the PDC valve includes
a restricting orifice between the air spring
side and the valve piston side. This air
restriction reduces the influence of the
dynamic pressure changes in the air spring
on the shock absorber during compression
and rebound.

Separate Arrangement of Air Spring


and PDC Shock Absorber
Hose

PDC Valve

Air Spring

SSP242/042

32

Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control

Design and Function


The PDC valve affects the resistance to
hydraulic fluid flow in the working cylinder
on the piston rod side.
The hydraulic fluid in the piston rod side of
the working cylinder is routed to the PDC
valve through holes in the side of the
cylinder near the top and a jacket that
encases the cylinder. The flow resistance of
the PDC valve is directly proportional to the
air spring air pressure. The PDC valve has a
low flow resistance when the air spring air
pressure is relatively low; when the vehicle
is lightly loaded. Some of the hydraulic fluid
gets past the PDC valve throttle valve,
effectively reducing the damping force in
the shock absorber.
The total damping force in the shock
absorber for compression or rebound
damping is determined by the flow
resistance of the piston valve, the bottom
valve, and the PDC valve.

Cylinder
Jacket

Piston
Rod Side
of Working
Cylinder
Restricting
Orifice in
Air Connector

Gas
Charge
Holes

Rebound
Stop
Piston Valve
with Sealing
Collar

Working Cylinder
PDC
Valve
Throttle
Valve

Bottom Valve

SSP242/033

33

Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control

Function during compression


at low air spring air pressure
During compression, the piston is pushed
downward in the shock absorber working
cylinder. Some of the hydraulic fluid flow is
through the piston valve. Most of the fluid
flows through the bottom valve, with a
proportional amount flowing through the
open PDC valve, the cylinder jacket, and
through the holes in the side of the cylinder
into the cylinder behind the moving piston.
Since the air spring air pressure is low, the
flow resistance at the PDC valve is low.
More fluid can get past the PDC valve and
the damping force is reduced.

Low Air Spring


Air Pressure

PDC Valve Open

SSP242/070

Function during compression


at high air spring pressure
Since the controlling air spring air pressure
is high, the flow resistance at the PDC
valve is high. Depending upon the control
pressure, little or no fluid gets past the PDC
valve. Most of the fluid must flow through
the piston valve, and the damping force is
increased.

High Air Spring


Air Pressure

PDC Valve Closed

SSP242/069

34

Suspension Pneumatic Damping Control


Function during rebound
at low air spring air pressure
During rebound, the piston is drawn
upward. Part of the fluid flows through the
piston valve, some flows through the
bottom valve, and the rest flows through
the holes in the side of the cylinder and
through the cylinder jacket to the PDC
valve. Since the air spring air pressure is
low, the flow resistance at the PDC valve is
low. More fluid can get past the PDC valve
and the damping force is reduced.

Low Air Spring


Air Pressure

PDC Valve Open


SSP242/051

Function during rebound


at high air spring air pressure
Since the air spring air pressure is high, the
flow resistance at the PDC valve is high.
Depending upon the control pressure, little
or no fluid gets past the PDC valve. Most of
the fluid must flow through the piston
valve, and the damping force is increased.

High Air Spring


Air Pressure

PDC Valve Closed

SSP242/052

35

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


The Tire Pressure
Monitoring System
The tire pressure monitoring system used
by Audi is a four-wheel system. Although
the spare wheel is monitored and
managed by the Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502, it is excluded from
the system status messages. (For further
details, refer to Spare Wheel.)
Data transfer from the sensors at each
wheel to the Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502 is by radio-frequency
(RF) transmission. Information exchange
between the peripheral components in the
vehicle takes place via the convenience
CAN data bus.
A measuring and transmitter module
mounted on the tire valve sends a radio
signal at regular time intervals to the
antenna for tire pressure monitoring
integrated in the wheel housing. This signal
is then relayed to the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502.
The Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 evaluates the tire pressures
and any pressure changes and sends
corresponding system status messages to
the Instrument Cluster Combination
Processor J218. These messages are
indicated to the driver on the display of the
Driver Information System (DIS).
The tire pressure monitoring system offers
the following advantages:
Increased safety through early low tire
pressure warnings.
More convenience through the
elimination of regular tire pressure
monitoring. The tire pressure need only
be corrected when this is indicated.

36

Longer service life of tires. A pressure


deficit of 4.4 psi (30 kPa) can reduce the
service life of tires by up to 25%.
Lower fuel consumption through correct
tire pressure.

SSP219/012

Tire pressure monitoring differentiates


between the following situations:
Slow loss of pressure.
Sudden loss of pressure.
Flat tire when the vehicle is stationary.
A slow loss of pressure is indicated to the
driver at an early stage so the driver can
check the tires or correct the tire pressure.
If a sudden loss of pressure occurs
(blowout, flat tire) while travelling, the
driver is alerted immediately. The driver will
normally notice this anyway by the way the
vehicle reacts.
The tire pressure monitoring system
indicates the loss of pressure to the driver
at an early stage so that he or she can take
appropriate action.
The system indicates a flat tire when the
vehicle is stationary to the driver directly
after turning on the ignition.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


System Components
Vehicle Overview

Tire Pressure Monitoring Control


Module J502
Instrument Cluster Combination
Processor J218
Function Selector Switch II E272

The tire pressure monitoring system


includes the following components:
Five tire pressure sensors
Four Antennas for Tire Pressure Check

Antenna for
Tire Pressure
Check, Rear
Right R62

Sensor for
Tire Pressure,
Rear Right G225

Sensor for
Tire Pressure,
Spare Tire G226

Function Selector
Switch II E272
Instrument Cluster
Combination
Processor J218
Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control
Module J502
Antenna for
Tire Pressure
Check, Front
Right R60

Sensor for
Tire Pressure,
Front Right
G223

Antenna for
Tire Pressure
Check,
Rear Left R61

MENUE

RETURN

INFO

Sensor for
Tire Pressure,
Rear Left G224

Sensor for
Tire Pressure,
Front Left G222

Antenna for Tire


Pressure Check,
Front Left R59

SSP219/026

37

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Metal Tire Inflation Valves
The tire inflation valves have been
redesigned for use with the tire pressure
monitoring system. Metal valves are
now used in place of the rubber valves
used previously.

SSP219/030

Plain Washer

Metal valve bodies are reusable. When


installing a new tire on a used rim, only the
valve insert need be replaced (refer to
Repair Manual).

Valve Insert

Cap Nut

Cap

Metal Valve Body

Sealing Ring

SSP219/008

38

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Sensors for Tire Pressure:
Front Left G222
Front Right G223
Rear Left G224
Rear Right G225
Spare Tire G226

Metal Valve Body

The Sensors for Tire Pressure are attached


to the metal tire inflation valves by screws
and can be reused after replacing the tires
or wheels.
The following components are integrated in
each Sensor for Tire Pressure:

Transmitter antenna.
Pressure sensor.
Temperature sensor.
Measuring and control electronics.
Battery.

The pressure sensor, temperature sensor,


and measuring and control electronics
integrated into each, result in an
intelligent sensor.
The pressure sensor records the
momentary tire pressure (absolute pressure
measurement) and sends the measured
data to the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 for evaluation purposes.

SSP219/009

Sensor for
Tire Pressure
Front Left G222
Front Right G223
Rear Left G224
Rear Right G225
Spare Tire G226

The temperature sensor has two


functions:
To compensate for the temperaturedependent changes in tire pressure.
For diagnostic purposes.
If a defined temperature threshold is
exceeded, the temperature sensor stops
radio transmission. (For further details, refer
to Temperature Cut-Out.)
Temperature compensation is controlled
by the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502. The measured tire pressures
are normalized to a temperature of
68F (20C).

SSP219/029

39

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Depending upon the vehicle marketing
area, two different carrier frequencies are
used for radio transmission:
The carrier frequency of 433 MHz is
permitted in most countries.
A 315 MHz carrier frequency is used in
the United States and Canada and in a
few other countries.
The carrier frequency is printed on the
sensors, antennas and control units. It can
also be identified by the part number.
The tire pressure monitoring system only
works with system components with the
same carrier frequency.
The air pressure in a closed system
changes in proportion to temperature.
In normal circumstances, a temperature
change of 18F (10C) results in a pressure
change of 1.45 psi (10 kPa).
To avoid inaccurate settings,
special care must be taken to
ensure that the tire pressures are
checked, corrected, and stored
when the tires are cold.

40

Explanatory notes:
Atmospheric pressure is the term used to
describe the air pressure at the earths
surface. At mean sea level, this pressure
averages about 14.7 psi (101.3 kPa), also
commonly referred to as 1 atmosphere or
1 bar for practical applications (more
precisely, 1 bar is equivalent to 0.98697
atmosphere, or 14.51 psi (100kPa)).
Relative pressure indicates a pressure
using atmospheric pressure as the
starting point.
Absolute pressure is the pressure using
zero pressure as the starting point.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

The transmitter antenna of each Sensor


for Tire Pressure sends the following
information:
Individual ID number (ID code).
SSP219/011

Momentary tire pressure


(absolute pressure).
Momentary tire air temperature.
Condition of integrated battery.
Status, synchronization, and
control information required for safe
data transfer.
This information is contained in a data
message 12 bytes in length. The data
transfer is frequency-modulated and the
transfer time is approximately 10 ms.
Each tire pressure sensor has an
individual ID number (ID code)
which is used for the purpose of
own wheel recognition.
You can find more information in
the descriptions of the Tire
Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502, and Own Wheel
Recognition.

SSP219/046

41

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

Temperature cut-out
Electronic components are
sensitive to high temperature.
This can cause components to
malfunction or fail.
In order to avoid generating erroneous
information, no further radio signals (data
messages) are sent when the Sensor for
Tire Pressure registers a temperature of
approximately 248F (120C).

SSP219/045

Shortly before the Sensor for Tire Pressure


turns off the transmitting electronics, the
Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module
J502 is informed that a temperature cutout is imminent. A fault message to this
effect is then stored in the fault memory.
If the temperature drops below a
defined limit, the sensor will again enter
radio mode.
If a temperature cut-out is activated for one
or more sensors, the yellow message
symbol appears.

50
40

30
20
SSP219/040

42

The power supply to the


Sensors for Tire Pressure
The measuring, control and transmitting
electronics in the Sensors for Tire Pressure
receive their power supply from an
integrated lithium battery.
To prolong the service life of the Sensors
for Tire Pressure for as long as possible, the
control electronics include an ingenious
energy management system.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

The energy management system


Relatively few measured-data
transmissions are needed for the tire
pressure measurements. However, a loss
of pressure must be detected immediately
and indicated to the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502.
The energy management system can
differentiate between the normal transfer
mode and the high-speed transfer mode,
because there are differing measuring and
transfer intervals for each mode.

Normal
Transfer Mode

3.5 Seconds

Time
55 Seconds
High-Speed
Transfer Mode

0.8 Second
Time

When the tire pressure readings are


constant, the Sensors for Tire Pressure are
in normal transfer mode.

Measuring
Interval

Transfer
Interval
SSP219/010

If a loss of pressure of more than 2.9 psi


(20 kPa) per minute occurs, the Sensor for
Tire Pressure immediately is switched to a
high-speed transfer mode.
In this way, the energy management
system keeps the load on the sensor
battery as small as possible and ensures
high-reliability monitoring at the same time.

The batteries are an integral


part of the Sensors for Tire
Pressure. When a sensor
battery looses its charge, the
sensor must be replaced.
The theoretical battery service
life can be interrogated using
the self-diagnosis (refer to the
Repair Manual).

Voltage (V)

A theoretical battery service life of up to 7


years is therefore possible.

Approximately 7 Years

Time (Years)
SSP219/018

43

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

Antennas for Tire Pressure Check:


Front Left R59
Front Right R60
Rear Left R61
Rear Right R62

SSP219/011

The Antennas for Tire Pressure Check


receive the radio signals from the Sensors
for Tire Pressure and transfer them to the
Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module
J502 for further processing.
The tire pressure monitoring system uses
four Antennas for Tire Pressure Check
which are installed in the wheel housings at
the front left, front right, rear left and rear
right behind the wheel housing liners.
They are connected to the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502 by
shielded high-frequency antenna wires in
accordance with their installed locations.
The antennas receive all the radio signals
within their reception range and frequency
band. Each antenna receives the radio
signals from all the Sensors for Tire
Pressure located in its range.

SSP219/016

The radio signals are filtered and selected in


the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 to ensure that the correct
data are processed.
The tire pressure monitoring
system only works with system
components which have the
same carrier frequency (refer to
Sensors for Tire Pressure). The
carrier frequency is printed on
the antennas and can also be
identified by the part number.
There is no separate antenna
for the spare wheel (refer to
Spare Wheel).

44

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


To avoid interference with the
transmission of signals, defective
antenna wiring must not be
repaired while a high frequency
transmission is in progress!
If an antenna wire is damaged,
the cable set must be replaced.
Self-diagnosis
The Antennas for Tire Pressure Check are
currently not monitored by the selfdiagnosis. If no signal is recorded in the
fault memory for a Sensor for Tire Pressure,
either the antenna or the antenna wiring for
that sensor may be affected. A provision
has been made for antenna diagnosis at a
later date. You will find information
regarding this in the relevant Repair Manual
when it becomes available.
Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502
The Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 evaluates the radio signals
from the Antennas for Tire Pressure Check,

prioritizes these signals and transfers the


relevant information to the instrument
cluster. Where corresponding relevant
warnings are issued by the driver
information system (DIS) display.
If Save pressures! is activated,
the Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502 is asked not
only to store the new tire
pressures but also to readapt to
the previously stored sensors and
their positions. You will find more
detailed information under Own
Wheel Recognition.
Communication with the peripheral tire
pressure monitoring components in the
vehicle takes place via the convenience
CAN data bus. The system status
messages are prioritized by evaluating
different limit values, as well as the
pressure drop, as a function of time (the
pressure drop gradient).

SSP219/013

45

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

For this purpose, two independently stored


tire pressures are saved to the Tire
Pressure Monitoring Control Module J502:
Example:
Coding

2.2 bar
(31.9 psi
(220 kPa))
partly loaded
condition

2.9 bar
(42.1 psi
(290 kPa))
fully loaded
condition

(1bar is equivalent to 0.98697 atmosphere, or


14.51 psi (100kPa))

The first of these are the encoded tire


pressures for the partly loaded condition
and the fully loaded condition programmed
into the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 (refer to Repair Manual
for more information about encoding
the module).
These pressures refer to the data on the
sticker affixed to the fuel filler door and are
entered with the help of the coding table. A
lower pressure limit is calculated using the
pressure for the partly loaded (condition)
as the starting point (refer to description of
system messages).
The second tire pressure stored is set by
the driver using the menu item Save
pressures! on the Driver Information
System (DIS) display (refer to the vehicle
Owners Manual).
Using the DIS menu, the driver can store
his individual tire pressures (e.g. for fully
loaded condition or winter tires).
The pressures stored using the
menu have priority over the
encoded tire pressures unless
they are set below the encoded
lower pressure limit.

46

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


System Functions
Operation
MENU

The tire pressure monitoring system can be


turned off and on with the Function Selector
Switch II E272. The current tire pressures can
be stored in the Tire pressure submenu.

RETURN

Storing the tire pressures

INFO

Check, correct, and store the tire


pressures when the tires are cold
to avoid inaccurate settings.

Display mode

Check and correct the inflation of


all the tires on the vehicle at the
same time using the same tire
gauge and air supply.
Execute the Save pressures!
function from the DIS menu after
checking or correcting the tire
pressures to avoid generating
faulty signals.
Ignoring these precautions and monitoring
or correcting the tire pressures of different
tires using a different air supply or tire
gauge will lead to premature or delayed
system status messages depending upon
the differences in the temperature and
quality of the air supply and the tolerances
of the tire gauges.
This also applies if the tire pressures are
corrected when their temperatures are
different (such as when including the spare
in the tire rotation sequence), or if some
tire pressures are corrected at different
ambient temperatures than others (some in
summer and others in winter), and the
pressures are not stored each time
pressure corrections are made.

Menu OFF
Interrogate
Set

50

40
Help
Settings

7
Tire pressure
ON

30

Computer
Clock
Tire pressure
Radio display
Speed warning

20

Save
BACK
Pressures!
Tire pressure
Back

The momentary
tire pressures
have been
stored

Back
SSP219/007

The desired menu option can be selected


with the rotary switch/pushbutton of the
Function Selector Switch II E272 (refer to
operating instructions).

47

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Turning the system off and on
The system can be turned off and on by the
driver using the DIS menu. The yellow
status message symbol for tire pressure
monitoring system off is displayed briefly
whenever the ignition is turned on and the
system is off.

OFF

50
40

30
20
SSP219/038

Whenever Save pressures! is executed,


the tire pressure monitoring system is
turned on automatically.

48

Status Messages
System status messages are divided into
two priority levels depending on their effect
on vehicle handling and performance.
Priority 1 messages have high
significance and are intended for system
states in which driving safety is no longer
assured. Priority 1 status messages are
indicated by red warning symbols on the
DIS display and by acoustic chime signals.
The driver is asked to check the condition
of the tires immediately.
Priority 2 messages have low
significance and are intended for system
states which are non-critical with regard to
driving safety. The driver is informed about
the condition of the system by yellow
symbols on the DIS display.
As a rule, priority 1 and 2 status
messages are each further subdivided
into two categories: no position and
position-related.
No position means that the system
cannot give exact information regarding the
fault location, or that there are several fault
locations which lead to the status message
no position.
Position-related means that the system
can determine the fault location exactly and
only this location can be responsible for
causing the fault.
Priority 1 Messages
are displayed under the following conditions:
The actual tire pressure drops below
alarm threshold 2.
The actual tire pressure drops below
alarm threshold 3.
The pressure loss gradient is greater than
0.2 bar per minute (2.9 psi per minute
(20 kPa per minute)).

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

Pressure

Rapid loss of pressure priority 1

2.3 bar (33.37 psi (230 kPa))


2.1 bar (30.47 psi (210 kPa))

2 bar
(29.02 psi
(200 kPa))

1.9 bar (27.57 psi (190 kPa))


1.7 bar (24.67 psi (170 kPa))
Case 2
Rapid pressure loss gradient > 0.2 bar/min (2.9 psi/min
(20 kPa/min)), [Tire pressure loss gradient in the example is
0.4 bar/min (5.80 psi/min (40 kPa/min)).]
Case 1
Sudden rapid pressure loss.

1 bar
(14.51 psi
(100 kPa))

10

12

14

Time in Seconds
Color Coding
Specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.
Actual tire pressure.
Alarm threshold 1 . . .
. . . is 0.2 bar (2.9 psi (20 kPa)) below the
specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.
Alarm threshold 2 . . .
. . . is 0.4 bar (5.80 psi (40 kPa)) below the
specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.

Alarm threshold 3 . . .
. . . is the lower pressure limit calculated
from the encoded tire pressure for the
partly loaded condition.
For example, according to the coding
table for an Audi A8 under partial load, the
lower pressure limit is 1.7 bar (24.67 psi
(170 kPa)) at a specified inflation pressure
of 2.2 bar (31.91 psi (220 kPa)).
SSP219/021

Priority 1 messages are


displayed immediately after an
evaluation has been made by
the system.
A priority 1 message is
always displayed as from
alarm threshold 3!

49

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


The following priority 1
messages can be displayed:
This priority 1, no position status message
appears when at least one of the conditions
for priority 1 is fulfilled and a definite wheel
position cannot be assigned.

This priority 1, position-related status


message includes the wheel position of the
fault as determined by the system.

Tire pressure,

One or more wheels may be affected.


This status message may also pertain to
the spare wheel in certain conditions (for
more detailed information, please refer to
Spare Wheel).

6
7

Check

tire pressure

50

50

front left

40

30
20

Tire pressure,

front right

40

30
20

Tire pressure,

SSP219/031

rear left

Tire pressure,

rear right

SSP219/032

50

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


This message is displayed when the
Check key is pressed while a priority 1
status message is indicated.
Check tire
pressures

50
40

30
20
SSP219/033

If the navigation system is active, all


priority 1 messages are indicated by this
smaller symbol at the top of the DIS display
after an initial short-term full-screen display
so that route guidance can continue.

50
40

30
20
SSP219/034

The priority 1 messages are cancelled if:


all Sensors for Tire Pressure receive a
tire pressure over alarm threshold 1
0.2 bar (2.9 psi (20 kPa)) under the stored
specified tire pressure, and
the tire pressures are stored again using
the DIS menu.

51

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

Pressure

Slow loss of pressure priority 1,


wrong pressure setting stored
using the DIS menu

2 bar
(29.02 psi
(200 kPa))

Filling

Filling
1.9 bar (27.57 psi (190 kPa))

1.7 bar (24.67 psi (170 kPa))

Normal loss
of pressure
(through diffusion)
1 bar
(14.51 psi
(100 kPa))

SSP219/022

X
Time in Months

Color Coding
Specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.
Actual tire pressure.

Alarm threshold 3 . . .
. . . is the lower pressure limit calculated
from the encoded tire pressure for the
partly loaded condition.
For example, according to the coding
table for an Audi A8 under partial load, the
lower pressure limit is 1.7 bar
(24.67 psi (170 kPa)) at a specified inflation
pressure of 2.2 bar (31.91 psi (220 kPa)).

This diagram shows a wrong pressure


setting stored using the DIS menu. Alarm
threshold 3 is established by the encoded
tire pressure for the partly loaded condition.
In this example, a priority 1 message is
displayed when the tire pressure drops
below the lower pressure limit of 1.7 bar
(24.67 psi (170 kPa)).

52

A priority 1 message is
always displayed as from
alarm threshold 3!

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Priority 2 Messages
are displayed under any of the following
conditions:

The system is turned off or unavailable


due to faults.
If position recognition has not
been performed by the system,
no priority 2 messages
registering actual pressure drop
or pressure differential will be
displayed.

The actual tire pressure drops below


alarm threshold 1.
The pressure differential at the wheels
on the same axle is greater than 0.4 bar
(5.80 psi (40 kPa)).
Slow loss of pressure priority 2

Pressure

Filling

Filling
2.3 bar (33.37 psi (230 kPa))

2 bar
(29.02 psi
(200 kPa))

2.1 bar (30.47 psi (210 kPa))


1.9 bar (27.57 psi (190 kPa))
1.7 bar (24.67 psi (170 kPa))

Normal loss
of pressure
(through diffusion)
1 bar
(14.51 psi
(100 kPa))

X
Time in Months

Color Coding
Specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.
Actual tire pressure.
Alarm threshold 1 . . .
. . . is 0.2 bar (2.9 psi (20 kPa)) below the
specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.
Alarm threshold 2 . . .
. . . is 0.4 bar (5.80 psi (40 kPa)) below the
specified tire pressure stored using the
DIS menu.

Alarm threshold 3 . . .
. . . is the lower pressure limit calculated
from the encoded tire pressure for the
partly loaded condition.
For example, according to the coding
table for an Audi A8 under partial load, the
lower pressure limit is 1.7 bar (24.67 psi
(170 kPa)) at a specified inflation pressure
of 2.2 bar (31.91 psi (220 kPa)).

SSP219/020

53

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Priority 2 messages displayed
when the actual tire pressure drops
below alarm threshold 1

Front left

Front right

50

40

30

20

These messages are displayed when the


actual tire pressure in a wheel is 0.2 bar
(2.9 psi (20 kPa)) less than the specified tire
pressure stored using the DIS menu (alarm
threshold 1).
At the same time, the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502 must
know the positions of the Sensors for Tire
Pressure (priority 2, position-related).
In addition, a difference of more than
0.1 bar (1.45 psi (10 kPa)) between actual
tire pressure and the stored specified tire
pressure must not be received from any of
the other three Sensors for Tire Pressure.

Rear left

Rear right

SSP219/035

Front left

Front right

Rear left

Rear right

If a wheel reaches alarm threshold 1 and if


one or more of the other wheels is 0.1 bar
(1.45 psi (10 kPa)) below the stored
specified tire pressure, the DIS displays the
yellow status message symbol and all four
positions. No single position is isolated as
the location of the fault.

50
40

30
20
SSP219/036

54

In this way, the driver is prompted to check


the tire pressures of all the wheels and
correct them as needed.
This ensures optimum tire pressure
maintenance and reduces the number of
system alarms.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Further conditions relating
to actual tire pressure drops
below alarm threshold 1
The temperature value transferred by the
Sensors for Tire Pressure must not be more
than 27F (15 C) above the ambient
temperature when the ignition is turned on.
If this temperature threshold is exceeded,
the alarm message is suppressed.
The alarm messages concerning
actual tire pressure drops below
alarm threshold 1 are not
displayed until the ignition is
turned on again.
The alarm messages concerning actual tire
pressure drops below alarm threshold 1 are
cancelled if:
a tire pressure which deviates from the
stored specified tire pressure by less
than 0.1 bar (1.45 psi (10 kPa)) is
received from all Sensors for Tire
Pressure, and

Front left

Front right

50

6
Rear left

40

Rear right

30

20

Front left

Front right

Rear left

Rear right

the pressures are stored again using the


DIS menu.
Priority 2 messages displayed when
the pressure differential between
wheels on the same axle is greater
than 0.4 bar (5.80 psi (40 kPa))

SSP219/037

These messages are displayed when


the pressure differential between
the wheels on an axle (front axle, rear axle
or on both axles) is greater than 0.4 bar
(5.80 psi (40 kPa)).
This can occur if tire pressure correction is
not performed properly, such as if a wheel
has been omitted from the checking and
correction routine.
If this happens, the driver must recheck
and correct the tire pressures and repeat
the Save pressures! function using the
DIS menu.

The alarm messages concerning


the condition that the pressure
differential between wheels on
the same axle is greater than 0.4
bar (5.80 psi (40 kPa)) are
displayed immediately after the
evaluation is performed.

55

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Further conditions relating
to the pressure differential
between wheels
The temperature values determined by the
Sensors for Tire Pressure must not be more
than 54F (30C) above the ambient
temperature. The alarm message is
suppressed when this temperature
threshold is exceeded.
The alarm messages concerning the
condition that the pressure differential
between wheels on the same axle is
greater than 0.4 bar (5.80 psi (40 kPa)) are
cancelled if the pressures are stored again
using the DIS menu.
Priority 2 messages displayed when
the system is turned off or unavailable
due to faults

OFF

The tire pressure monitoring system can


be deactivated by the driver using the
DIS menu.

50
40

30
20

This is expedient when wheels with


Sensors for Tire Pressure are transported in
the luggage compartment or when wheels
without Sensors for Tire Pressure are
mounted (winter wheels with snow tires
for example).

SSP219/038

This status message is displayed briefly as


information for the driver whenever the
ignition is turned on.

56

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring

If the system is not available due to


radio frequency interference, these
yellow status message symbols will
appear on the DIS display.
This can occur when the Antennas for Tire
Pressure Check receive no data messages
due to interference from electromagnetic
fields. Possible interference factors include
stray ignition shorts to ground (spark plug
wire not installed correctly) or the use of
infrared headphones.
The message is cancelled when the radio
frequency interference is no longer present
and the data messages from the Sensors
for Tire Pressure have been received.

50

40

30

20
SSP219/039

This message is only


indicated at vehicle
road speeds greater
than 3.1 mph (5 km/h).
This yellow status message symbol
appears on the DIS display in the event of
other system disturbances, indicating that
the tire pressure monitoring system is not
available. (See also Temperature cut-out.)
Examples of other system disturbances
include:
Fault in the system such as an open
circuit, defective Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502, etc.
No radio signals are received from the
Sensors for Tire Pressure such as
after installing snow chains or wheels
without Sensors for Tire Pressure.
The own wheel recognition and
position recognition operations were
not completed by the system within a
driving time of 30 minutes.

50

40

30

20
SSP219/040

If data messages are received from


more than five Sensors for Tire
Pressure while travelling such as
during the transportation of wheels
with Sensors for Tire Pressure in the
luggage compartment.
If the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 has detected an erroneous
code or is not properly encoded.

57

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Own Wheel Recognition
Each of the Sensors for Tire Pressure has
its own ID code in the form of a 10-digit
number. The ID codes are included in the
data messages from the Sensors for Tire
Pressure and are transferred continuously
to the Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502.
The Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 defines and stores the
ID codes for the Sensors for Tire Pressure
belonging to the vehicle under
specific conditions.
This process is referred to as own wheel
recognition.
Up to five Sensors for Tire Pressure can be
managed by the system (including the
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Spare Tire G226).
The ID codes received are compared
continuously with the ID codes stored in
the memory, and only the data messages
of the stored sensors are processed.
This ensures that signals from non-system
sensors located within radio reception
range do not affect the system.
The own wheel recognition system is an
adaptive system. The Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502 recognizes
when wheels with different Sensors for
Tire Pressure are mounted. The new
Sensors for Tire Pressure are recognized
and stored under specific conditions
through algorithmic evaluation.

58

Sensors for Tire Pressure are only adapted


to the system while the vehicle is moving.
This protects the system against
interference from the tire pressure
monitoring systems of other vehicles
parked in the vicinity, for example.
When the function Save
pressures! is invoked from
the DIS menu, the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502
is requested to repeat the
own wheel recognition and
position assignment processes
in addition to storing the new
tire pressures.
Transporting wheels with
Sensors for Tire Pressure inside
the vehicle is a source of RF
interference and may cause
the system to generate
erroneous information.
The ID codes of the individual
Sensors for Tire Pressure
can be displayed under various
display groups with the
Vehicle Diagnosis, Test and
Information System VAS 5051,
using function 08 Read
measured value block.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module J502

List of own wheels (ID code)


1 ... 0000578100
2 ... 0000597200
3 ... 0000598100
4 ... 0000602300
5 ... 0000755100
List of wheel positions (ID code)
Left Front ... 0000755100
Right Front ... 0000597200
Left Rear... 0000602300
Right Rear ... 0000578100
Spare ... 0000598100
ID codes

MENUE

RETURN

INFO

0000602300
0000598100
0000578100

0000597200
0000755100

SSP219/041

59

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Position Recognition
To be able to display position-related alarm
messages to the driver, the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502 must
know the locations of the Sensors for Tire
Pressure on the vehicle.
Position recognition is an additional function
performed by the Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502. It assigns the
Sensors for Tire Pressure automatically and
independently to the installed locations of
the wheels on the vehicle at the front left,
front right, rear left and rear right, as well as
the spare wheel.
This is made possible by the use of four
receiver Antennas for Tire Pressure Check
and evaluating the reception signals of
varying strength from the individual
Sensors for Tire Pressure.
The Tire Pressure Monitoring Control
Module J502 determines the theoretical
positions of the Sensors for Tire Pressure
(installed locations of the wheels at the
front left, front right, rear left and rear right,
as well as the spare wheel) using
algorithmic calculations and statistics.

60

Because of the many factors


that can affect signal strength
in radio transmission (e.g.
shielding by metal parts,
distance from transmitter to
antenna, environmental
influences etc.), the system
cannot always determine
the position of each Sensor
for Tire Pressure with 100%
certainty. Therefore, the term
theoretical position is used.
Monitoring function when
the vehicle is stationary
To ensure that the monitoring function also
works when the vehicle is stationary, the
Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module
J502 remains active after the ignition has
been turned off. The Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502 enters
energy-saving mode. It self-activates at
regular intervals shortly before the data
messages are transmitted by the Sensors
for Tire Pressure at each wheel.
This function helps to preserve the vehicle
battery charge and ensures that a flat tire is
indicated on the DIS display before the
vehicle is moved.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module J502

List of own wheels (ID code)


1 ... 0000578100
2 ... 0000597200
3 ... 0000598100
4 ... 0000602300
5 ... 0000755100
List of wheel positions (ID code)
Left Front ... 0000755100
Right Front ... 0000597200
Left Rear... 0000602300
Right Rear ... 0000578100
Spare ... 0000598100
ID codes

MENUE

RETURN

INFO

0000602300
0000598100
0000578100

0000597200
0000755100

SSP219/042

61

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Spare Wheel
The spare wheel has a special status in
the tire pressure monitoring system.
It is equipped with a Sensor for Tire
Pressure, Spare Tire G226. Unlike the
other wheels, the tire pressure monitoring
system does not have a separate Antenna
for Tire Pressure Check for spare tire
pressure monitoring.
The Antennas for Tire Pressure Check at
each of the four wheel housings receive
the data message radio signals from the
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Spare Tire G226,
and send these signals to the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502. The own
wheel and position recognition functions
identify the fifth wheel as a spare wheel,
and it is registered as such in the Tire
Pressure Monitoring Control Module J502.

The tire pressure in the spare


wheel can be monitored using
the Vehicle Diagnosis, Test and
Information System VAS 5051,
using Address Word 65,
Function 08, Read measured
value block, Display group 13.
The prerequisite for this is that
the position recognition process
has been completed.
This is the case when 015
is displayed under Display
group 19.
Although the Tire Pressure Monitoring
Control Module J502 manages the spare
wheel, system alarm messages pertaining
to the spare wheel are suppressed and
not indicated.
A priority 1, no position status
message may be caused by the
spare wheel if the tire inflation
pressure is below alarm
threshold 3 and position
recognition has not yet been
performed by the system.
This could occur after Save
pressures! has been initiated
using the DIS menu or after
a wheel change, but before the
vehicle has been driven long
enough for the system
to complete the own wheel
recognition and position
assignment processes.

SSP219/043

62

The message is cancelled


once position recognition has
been completed by the system
and the spare wheel is
recognized as such.

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Convenience CAN Data Bus Interface
Information interchange between the
Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module
J502 and the vehicle is performed by
the Instrument Cluster Combination
Processor J218 through the convenience
CAN data bus.
Information received by the Tire Pressure
Monitoring Control Module J502

Tire Pressure Monitoring


Control Module J502

Instrument Cluster
Combination Processor J218

60

70

80

100

120

140
160

50

180

40

200

30

220

20

240

10

90
50

120

10:02
18.01.1999

Information sent by the Tire Pressure


Monitoring Control Module J502

260

km

0.0
12.345

280

1/2
0

1/1

SSP219/025

Ignition on
For requesting that available messages be
sent immediately, and for the diagnosis of
terminal 15.
Engine speed
For suppressing the voltage diagnosis function
at engine speeds below 500 rpm.
System controls
For activating the tire pressure monitoring
function.

SSP219/013

System active
Information for the self-diagnosis.
Signal status
For displaying the various system messages.
System state
Answer to system conditions.

Save pressures! request


Initiated by the driver from the DIS menu.
Road speed
For enabling the own wheel recognition and
position recognition functions.
Ambient temperature
For filtering the messages.

Convenience
CAN Data Bus

63

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


Tire Pressure Monitoring
Functional Diagram

+ 30

+ 15

G222

G223

R59

R60

G224

G225

R61

G226

R62

INFO

J502

CAN-HIGH

CAN-LOW

TV14
31

64

Tires Tire Pressure Monitoring


+ 30

Components

+ 15

E272
G222
G223
G224
G225
G226
J218
J502
R59

MENUE
RETURN

E272

R60
01

R61
R62
TV14
X

Function Selector Switch II


Sensor for Tire Pressure, Front Left
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Front Right
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Rear Left
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Rear Right
Sensor for Tire Pressure, Spare Tire
Instrument Cluster Combination Processor
Tire Pressure Monitoring Control Module
Antenna for Tire Pressure Check,
Front Left
Antenna for Tire Pressure Check,
Front Right
Antenna for Tire Pressure Check,
Rear Left
Antenna for Tire Pressure Check,
Rear Right
Data Link Connector (DLC) Wire Connector
Terminal 58s
Gold Contact

Color Codes
X

Input Signal
Output Signal
Positive
Ground
Convenience CAN Data Bus

60

70

80

100

120

140
160

50

180

40

200

30

220

20

240

10

90
50

J218

120

10:02
18.01.1999

260

km

0.0
12.345

280

1/2
0
R

1/1

SSP219/019

65

Steering Servotronic II
Servotronic II Variable
Effort Power Steering
The Servotronic II variable effort power
steering system uses the proven basic
steering valve design and the same
principles to vary the steering wheel effort,
but incorporates several improvements in
the feedback mechanism over the
previous design.

Feedback Mechanism

The basic valve is a rotary steering valve


with a roller bearing encased in a
steering box.

A piston stroke in two directions,


depending upon the rotation direction of
the steering valve.

The principles used to vary the steering


wheel effort still include active hydraulic
feedback from the feedback mechanism:

Two feedback chambers.

Valve resistance increases with vehicle


speed. Therefore, the effort required to
move the steering wheel is increased to
enhance straight-line stability at higher
speeds.
Power steering assist to the mechanism
at the steering gear is not limited at high
vehicle speeds.

The feedback mechanism converts the


rotation of the steering valve into axial
feedback piston movement.
The ball screw feedback mechanism used
in the previous design requires:

The Servotronic II uses a feedback


mechanism with centering lugs to convert
steering valve rotation into feedback piston
axial movement. In this design the piston
stroke is always in the same direction
regardless of the rotation direction of the
steering valve. The benefits of this
design include:
Only one feedback chamber is required.
Greater feedback piston surface area.
Simplified hydraulic switching.
Increased resistance to contamination.
Wider spread of the variation of effort
curve is possible.

66

Steering Servotronic II
Servotronic II System Overview

Speedometer
Vehicle Speed
Sensor (VSS) G22
+

R
T

Control Module with


Indicator Unit in Instrument
Panel Insert J285

Pump
Torsion Bar

Torsion
Bar

Rotary
Slide Valve

Centering Unit
Electro-Hydraulic
Converter

Steering Box

78500001

67

Electrical System
CAN Data Bus
Networking Overview
J285
Gateway

Diagnosis System

J220
J386

J387

J217
TRACK
SEEK

FR

FF

EJECT

J389

J388

TUNE
CD

J104

CDC

AM

FM

PLAY

TAPE

EJECT

Audi symphony

BASS

MIDDLE

TREBLE

BALANCE

SDE

SCAN
AS
TP

DOLBY SYSTEM

FADER

RDS
RANDOM

R
J393

J234
E87

J446
J401
J527

J136

J519
J527

R
T

J453

G85
78500015

68

The ignition switch,


and multifunction and
Tiptronic steering
wheel control signals
are registered
through Steering
Column Electronic
Systems Control
Module J527.

Electrical System
Extended CAN Data Bus System
The new Audi A4 and A6 are equipped with
a widely extended CAN data bus system.
Due to the ever increasing number of
control modules installed in the vehicle and
the associated requirement for data
exchange, the importance of the CAN data
bus system increases significantly.
For communication between the
installed control modules and the
diagnostic tester, two diagnosis
wires (K and L) are available.
The newly developed
adapter VAS 6017A enables
communication with all
control modules.

SSP254/112

Components
E87

A/C Control Head

G85

Steering Angle Sensor

J104
J136
J217
J220
J234
J285

ABS Control Module with EDL/ASR/ESP


Memory Seat Control Module (Optional)
Transmission Control Module
Motronic Engine Control Module
Airbag Control Module
Control Module with Indicator Unit in
Instrument Panel Insert
Door Control Module, Drivers Side
Door Control Module, Passenger Side
Door Control Module, Rear, Left
Door Control Module, Rear, Right
Central Control Module for Comfort System
Control Module for Navigation with
CD Mechanism
Control Module for Parking Aid

J386
J387
J388
J389
J393
J401
J446

J453
J519
J527
R

Control Module for Multi-Function


Steering Wheel
Vehicle Electrical System Control Module
Steering Column Electronic Systems
Control Module
Radio

Color Coding
Drivetrain CAN Data Bus
Convenience CAN Data Bus
Infotainment CAN Data Bus
Diagnosis Connection K Wire
Diagnosis Connection L Wire (2nd K wire)

69

Electrical System
Compass
The compass and its control button are
integrated into the inside rear view mirror
housing. When the ignition switch is on,
the direction of vehicle travel is displayed.

78500016

The compass is capable of distinguishing


eight primary directions:
North (N)
Northeast (NE)
East (E)
Southeast (SE)
South (S)
Southwest (SW)
West (W)
Northwest (NW)
For the most accurate readings, the
compass must be calibrated and adjusted
to match the compass set zone for the area
in which the vehicle is operated.

70

Electrical System
Calibration
The compass is self-calibrating. It will
display C until it calibrates itself during
vehicle operation or is calibrated manually.

Calibrating the Compass

The compass may require calibration if:

2. If C is not displayed, use a ballpoint


pen or similar tool to press the button
on the bottom of the mirror for about
6 seconds until C is displayed, then
release the button.

The vehicle has been involved in a


collision or experiences a jarring force
that is sufficient to disturb the inherent
magnetic field of the vehicle.
The vehicle has been operated near a
high magnetic field such as a car wash or
overhead train.
The vehicle battery has been
disconnected for a long period of time.

1. Turn the ignition switch to position II.


The rearview mirror display should show
the letter C.

3. Calibrate the compass by driving the


vehicle in circles at a speed of 5 mph
(8 km/h) or less until the mirror display
shows a direction symbol (N, NE, etc.).
Normally this will take about two circles.

The compass will eventually


correct itself for these conditions
during normal vehicle use.
Manual calibration will speed the
process.

78500017

Recessed
Control Button

71

Electrical System
Compass Set Zones
1

15
14

13
4
12
11
5
10
6

9
7

78500002

Variations in the earths magnetic field will


cause changes in the compass readout
when the vehicle is driven from one
compass set zone to another. However,
since the magnetic variation between
adjacent zones is only 4 degrees, for most
driving situations, resetting the compass
should only be necessary if the vehicle has
crossed more than one zone.
The precise points at which
the set zones change cannot
be accurately plotted.
Vehicles operated in an area
where zones converge should
not normally need to have the
compass reset every time the
vehicle crosses from one zone
to another.
Setting the Compass Zone

Recessed
Control Button

1. Determine the appropriate compass


set zone for your location from
the illustration.
2. Turn the ignition switch to position II.
3. Using a ballpoint pen or similar tool, press
and hold the button on the bottom of the
rearview mirror for about 3 seconds until
a zone number appears on the display,
then release the button.

78500017

The compass automatically


defaults to zone 8.

4. Alternately press and release the button


until the desired zone number appears.
5. About 10 seconds after releasing the
button, the directional display will appear,
completing the zone setting process.

72

Electrical System
Bi-Xenon Headlights
Components
The headlight modules consist of the
following components:
Ballast Unit for Gas-Discharge Headlight,
Left J426; or Ballast Unit for
Gas-Discharge Headlight, Right J427

Left High Beam Lamp L125 or Right High


Beam Lamp L126 (normal H7 lamps).
High-Intensity Gas-Discharge Lamp L13.
Housing with laminated clear glass lens.

Left Headlight Beam Adjusting Motor


V48 or Right Headlight Beam Adjusting
Motor V49.

Both headlamps can be


switched from asymmetrical
to symmetrical low beam
for traveling in countries where
driving is on the left side of
the road.

Housing with Laminated


Clear Glass Lens

Right Front Turn


Signal Light M7
High-Intensity Gas-Discharge
Lamp L13 (Low and High Beam)

Right High Beam Lamp L126


(Normal H7 Lamp Additional
High Beam, Headlight Flasher)

78500003

73

Electrical System
Functional Principles

Low beam

High beam

When the bi-xenon headlights are set to


low beam, an electro-magnetically actuated
screen is moved into position in front of the
reflector, to block out part of the light cone.

When the bi-xenon headlights are set to


high beam, the entire light cone reflected
from each High-Intensity Gas-Discharge
Lamp L13 is effective. In addition, the Left
High Beam Lamp L125 and Right High
Beam Lamp L126 (normal H7 lamps) are
turned on.
High Beam

High-Intensity
Gas-Discharge
Lamp L13

Lens
Reflector
Screen

Electromagnet

Low Beam

78500004

74

Electrical System
Audi Telematics by OnStar
Audi Telematics by OnStar is an in-vehicle
communication system using cellular
telephone, internet, and global positioning
system (GPS) technologies to provide
safety, security, and convenience services
at the touch of a button. New services will
be added as the technology advances and
the market demands. Refer to the OnStar
users instructions for details on features
and their availability.

OnStar Design Principles


Minimize the time the driver spends with
eyes off the road, or hands off the wheel.
Minimize the number of steps required to
perform a task.
Create a common interface for
interaction with the system.
Preclude the use of systems that make
excessive demands of the driver.

GPS is an array of 24 satellites


that orbit the earth and constantly
broadcast radio signals. The
OnStar Telephone/Telematic
Control Module J526 in the
vehicle receives the GPS data,
decodes it, and transmits the
vehicle location to the OnStar call
center using cellular technology.

75

Electrical System
OnStar System Components
Driver Information System Display

Telematic
Control Head
E264

Auxiliary Antenna
(Telematic) R90

Multi-Function
Steering Wheel
Telephone/Telematic
Control Module J526
78500012

76

Electrical System
How OnStar Works
OnStar relies on the cellular telephone
network for communication between the
vehicle and the OnStar advisor, and uses
GPS data to determine the vehicle location.
When the OnStar button is pushed, GPS
vehicle location longitude and latitude
data is transmitted along with the vehicle
station identification code.
The receipt of this information at the
OnStar call center triggers a display of
the customer account information and
GPS map location to the OnStar advisor.

Most areas in the United States and


Canada have two cellular service providers,
assigned to either band A or band B. With a
single OnStar button press, the system will
attempt to connect four times, alternating
between these bands with each attempt.
The fourth call attempt will route to a
different number, will not transmit data, and
will yield a Fail to Voice result with no
airtime charges for the call.
An emergency button press or an air bag
deployment notification will retry for a
connection continuously.

OnStar modems switch the vehicle from


data to voice transmission. Voice and
data are not transmitted simultaneously.

For further information


about OnStar, please refer
to the Self-Study Program
Audi Telematics by OnStar,
Course Number 993203.

GPS Satellites
Cellular Network

Mobile Telephone
Switch
Long Distance
Carrier Switch

OnStar
Call Center
In-Vehicle OnStar System:
Telephone/Telematic Control Module J526
Inside Microphone R74
Telematic Control Head E264
Auxiliary Antenna (Telematic) R90
(Includes GPS and Cellular Antennas)

OnStar Advisor
PC Application

78500013

77

Electrical System
Audi Digital Phone by Motorola
A new Audi hands-free digital phone by
Motorola is available for vehicles equipped
with Audi Telematics. This V-series portable
telephone can be used as a stand-alone
cellular phone or as a hands-free phone
when installed in the vehicle cradle.

78500014

78

The following features are available with


this option:
Phone cradle in front center armrest.
Concealed microphone, antenna, and
dedicated speaker.
FM stereo.
Wireless web communication enabled by
WAP 1.1 browser.
Voice recognition for voice-activated
dialing and voice notes to record personal
messages.
Multi-language support.
Digital phone book with capacity for up to
400 names.
Up to 20 phone numbers can be stored
for recall through voice-recognition
activation.
Telephone numbers are displayed on the
Driver Information System screen.
Personal information management
system.
Turbo dialing.
96 by 64 graphic display.
Integrated headset jack.
Ring sound style can be changed to one
of 32 different tones.
180 minutes talk time and 300 hours
standby time.
CDMA operation: 800/1900 CDMA, 800
amps.
TDMA operation: 800/1900 TDMA, 800
amps.
When the Audi digital phone by Motorola is
mounted in the vehicle phone cradle, the
Telephone/Telematic Control Module J526
mutes the radio whenever the phone is
placing or receiving calls. This allows handsfree operation.

Electrical System
Symphony II Radio
Transport Mode
New Audi vehicles equipped with
Symphony II radios are shipped from the
factory with their radios in transport mode.
This reduces the parasitic voltage drain
on vehicle batteries during shipping
and storage.
Normally, the Symphony II radio transport
mode is deactivated during the new vehicle
pre-delivery inspection process, prior to
delivery of the vehicle to the customer.

78500018

If the radio is in transport mode, pressing


any radio button when the ignition switch is
on will cause TRANSPORT to come up
on the radio display.
Deactivating Transport Mode
The transport mode can be deactivated
using the Vehicle Diagnosis, Test and
Information System VAS 5051 and K-lead
adapter VAS 6017A.
The transport mode deactivation
sequence is accessed through
Address Word 56 Radio.
Refer to Audi Technical Bulletin
C 91-01-07 for more information.

79

Notes

80

Knowledge Assessment
An on-line Knowledge Assessment (exam) is available for this Self-Study Program.
This Knowledge Assessment may or may not be required for Certification. You can find this
Knowledge Assessment in the Learning Management Center at:

www.accessaudi.com

For assistance please call:

Certification Program Headquarters


1-877-CU4-CERT (1-877-284-2378)
(8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EST)

81