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Manufacturing Automation using PLCs

CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

Chapter 7: RLL Design for Sequencing System


7.1 Commonly used industrial machine sequence.
7.2 Sequencing chart
7.3 Design Relay Ladder Logic for Sequencing Problems using PLCs.
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5

Design RLL for Single-Path Machine Sequence Having Non-Sustain Control Signals
Design RLL for Single-Path Machine Sequence Having Sustain Control Signals
Design RLL for Multi-Path Sequencing Systems with Sustain Outputs
RLL for machine sequence with two or more alternative parallel paths
RLL for machine sequence with option of bypassing certain steps.

7.3.6

RLL for machine sequence with the option of repeating certain steps.

7.1

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

RLL Design, for Sequencing System


Most manufacturing process controls are based on sequencing control systems.
Different techniques can be used to assist engineer to design the Relay Ladder
Logic based on sequencing control technique. Sequencing charts, Cascade and
Huffman methods techniques are examples, which can be used to design sequencing
control systems. The two former techniques will be illustrated in this Chapter.

7.1 Commonly used industrial machine sequence


Sequencing control system can be considered as single path or multi-path systems.
Multi-path or parallel path sequencing control system cover controlling multi-tasks
in one time, while single task is considered for single-path sequencing system. Fig.
7.1 shows a sequencing machine systems commonly used by industry [7.1].
A1

A2

A3

Ak

Ak+1

An-1
Aj-1

Bk+1

Bj-1

Ck+1

Cj-1

xp=1
.xp=0

A..

A1

A..

B1

Aj

B..

xp=0 A1

An
Aj

An+1

(a)

Aj+1

(b)

I+1

I+2

(c)

Bk

A..

Aj

I+1

I+2

(d)

.xp=1

A1

A2

A..

Aj xp=0 Aj+1
.xp=1

(e)

Fig. 7.1 Common machine sequence used by industry.


Single path machine sequence.
Parallel path machine sequence.
Parallel path machine sequence with two or more alternative
path selection.
Single path machine sequence with option bypass machine
sequence.
Single
path machine sequence with optional repeat certain steps.
7.2 Sequencing
chart
charts (also called time-motion diagrams, state diagram, or bar charts) are
useful for visualizing the operation of switching systems. They can be used to
describe the step-by-step operation of relay systems, pneumatic systems, or any
other type of switching systems.
Sequence

7.2

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CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

To illustrate how sequence charts are constructed, consider the Relay Ladder Logic
given in Fig. 7.2. This relay ladder diagram used to actuate two double-acting
pneumatic cylinders A and B, (see Fig. 7.2). 5/2 directional-control valves with
solenoid and a return spring actuate each cylinder. The solenoids are labeled by A+
and B+, respectively, signifying that the cylinder moves in the + direction (i.e
forward or extend position) whenever the solenoid is energized. Two limit switches,
a+ and b+, are mounted to monitor when the respective cylinder reaches the
extreme + position.
-

A+

L1

REVERS

.a+

A+

a+

.b+

II

III

IV V VI

ACylinders

B+
B-

b+

R2

.a+
Limit switches

R2

L4

B+

R1

L3

L6

.a+

R1

L2

L5

START

..b+
START

R1

R1

A+
Memory relay

R2

B+

R2
A+

Solenoids

B+

Fig. 7.2 Relay ladder logic (RLL) developed using sequencing chart to control two
double acting cylinders using 5/2 solenoid valve with return spring and two limit
switches. Machine sequence START, A+,A-,B+,BThe sequencing chart corresponding to this system also is shown in Fig. 7.2. To
construct this chart, we draw horizontal lines for each of the elements taking parts
in the action, and vertical lines representing the different stages, or steps, in the
systems sequence. The horizontal axis represents time, with no fixed time scale.
Whenever a new event takes place, a new vertical line is allocated. These lines are
labeled with Roman numbers, see Fig. 7.2 Thus the time between two adjacent
vertical lines depends on when the events occur. Note, also that each cylinder is
allocated two horizontal lines, to make it possible to represent cylinder motion
between its two extreme positions. All other elements are preferably allocated only
a single line. The time period during which a given element is actuated is indicated
by a thick line stop (its horizontal line), with the beginning and end of actuation
shown by short vertical lines. Machine sensors and actuators as well as the
corresponding addresses used in PLC are listed below:

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

Machine sensors & operator control buttons


Addresses
1. START push button (NO contact)
2. REVERSE push button for Emergency (NC contact)
3. Limit switch ( a+) for cylinder (A), forward position
(NO contact).
4. Limit switch ( b+) for cylinder (B), forward position.
(NC contact).
Machine actuators
Addresses
1. Solenoid direction valve drives cylinder (A) called VA.
2. Solenoid directional valve drives cylinder (B) called VB.

X001
X000
X002
X003

Y022
Y023

Machine operations
Machine operations cover three stages given as follows:
1. The system is assumed to be in its initial position before the START button has
been pressed. We assume both cylinders at their backward or retracted positions. After
pressing the START push button, solenoid (A) energized, this will hold the memory of
the valve VA; R1, which result in forward movement of cylinder (A).
2. Limit switch (a+) which is NO switch, is closed when cylinder A is expanded and
results in, breaks or reset the memory of valve VA; R1 i.e solenoid (A) de-energized.
Hence cylinder (A) moves backward or retracts. At the same time, solenoid (B) is
energized (or setting memory of the valve VB; R2) and result in cylinder (B)
movement to the forward direction.
3. Limit switch (b+), which is NC contact, is open when the cylinder (B) reaches the
forward position. This result in, solenoid (B) de-energized or breaking the valve
memory VB; R2 and cylinder (B) will move to the backward position.
Now the machine cycle is ready for next operation cycle when the operator presses
START push-button again. Push button REVERS will reset both memory VA; R1
and VB; R2 in case of Emergency, when pressed by operator which result in both
cylinders (A and B) move to backward position. Hence, the machine operation
cycle can be written as START, A+, A-, B+, B-.
PLC Relay Logic Ladder operation
Stage 1, The initial condition of the system, all the cylinders are at backward
positions and all solenoids are de-energized (off state).
Stage 2, When the START push button pressed, the internal relay R1 is energized,
which turn the NO contact of R1 in line 2 on the RLL to be closed. This result in
energizing the relay solenoid A (having address Y022) and remains energized due to
memory R1 in line 2. This will also energize the solenoid valve (A; valve VA) and
cylinder (A) will move forward or extend.

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

Stage 3, when cylinder (A) reaches the extreme position, limit switch ( a+), which
has an address of X002, will allow the current flow to internal relay R2, which
energizes the solenoid valve (B), having address Y023 (i.e. VB) which results in :
Internal relay R01 will close the contact in line 6 (on RLL) and energizes
solenoid valve VB, having address of Y023, this results in forward movement of
cylinder (B).
Open the NC contact of the internal relay R1 in line 1 (on RLL), which breaks
the memory of the internal relay R1. This results in opening the contact R1 in
line 5. This will de-energize the solenoid valve VA, which results in backward
movement of the cylinder (A).
Close the contact R2 in line 4, which provide memory to internal relay R2. The
cylinder (B) will reach the forward extreme position at which limit switch (b2),
(address X003, NC type), is open. This will result in limit switch (b2) open, and
the memory of R2 will breaks in line 3, so solenoid (B) de-energized causing
cylinder (B) to move backward to its initial position.
Exercise: Modify the above example to carry out the following control sequence ;
1.
2.
3.
4.

START push button.


Cylinder (A) forward and keep it in the forward position.
Cylinder (B) forward.
All cylinders (A) & (B) backward.
Machine cycle will be ; START, A+, B+,A-,B-.

Laboratory work 7.1 : Simulates the machine cycle given in the illustrated above example
and exercise, using TOSHIBA PLCs.

7.3 Design Relay Ladder Logic for Sequencing Problems using PLCs.
One of the efficient methods to design sequencing control problems is the
CASCADE method [7.1]. This technique can be used to control the sequence of
operations of machine sequence having non-sustain control signals or sustain
control signals. To illustrate the difference between the two techniques, let us start
with the simple technique, which is the machine control sequence, having nonsustain control signals.
7.3.1 Design RLL for Single-Path Machine Sequence Having Non-Sustain
Control Signals
This technique based on dividing the machine sequence into groups, such that no
opposing output command appears in the same group. In another wards: a new
group must be started the moment it becomes necessary to shut off any output
actuated during the present group.
To describe the technique, consider the given machine sequence having three
pneumatic double acting cylinders and having a machine cycle given as follows;
START, A+, A-, B+, C+, B-, C-. Note, A+ means forward movement of cylinder A,
while A- backward movement for cylinder A. Two limit switches were located at

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

the two extreme positions of the pneumatic cylinder to monitor the cylinder
position. Each limit switch is labeled by a small letter having or + sign to indicate
its extreme position. For example, a+ letter indicating that the limit switch located
at the forward extreme position, while a- letter indicating the backward extreme
position, as shown in Fig. 7.3. Each cylinder, e.g. X cylinder, is actuated using a 5/3
directional valve having two solenoids, X+ and X-, respectively, with two return
spring to provide the middle position of the directional valve. The middle position
of the directional valve will block all the 5 ports of the directional valve, as shown
in Fig. 7.3. The left and right positions of the directional valve represent the
positions of the cylinder at the two extreme positions, see Fig. 7.3. This type of

x+

+
x
-

Sol X-

+
Sol X+

Fig. 7.3, Cylinder X operation having two electric limit switches x+ and x- showing
two- solenoid valve 5/3 symbol with two-spring return.
directional valve will provide a mechanical memory for cylinder movement.
The solenoid X+ must shut off the moment solenoid X- is energized. To achieve this
requirement, the given machine sequence can be divided into three groups such that
no letter is repeated in any group and given as follows;
Machine control sequence : START, A+, A-, B+, C+, B-, C-.
Group I | Group II | Group III
The relay ladder logic divided into TWO modules called Flip-flop module and
Output module.
(1) Flip-flop module :
Each group is now allocated by one control relay (internal relay in RLL) used as RS
flip-flop (memory). These flip-flops are SET and RESET using the following
methods:
Flip-flop SET : 1st group flip-flop is SET using START signal. The 2nd and 3rd
groups flip-flops are SET using NO contact of the previous flip-flop connected in

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

series with sensor signal indicating the complement of the last step of the previous
group, as shown in Fig.7.4a.
Flip-flop RESET : The reset signal of each flip-flop consists of an NC contact of the
next flip-flop. The sensor for the last program step, however, resets the last flipflop, as shown in Fig. 7.4a.
This way, only ONE flip-flop is SET at any given time or what is called ONE-HOT
CODE.
(2) Output module :
The output modules of the ladder diagram drawn with various input signals are
illustrated directly on the diagram without addressing for the meantime. The address
(Y020, Y021, .., X00, X01, ) can be added later.
Note: Two ladder lines connected in parallel (i.e. using two rungs) actuate repeating
output signals (such as A+ & A-).
Any output signal that is to appear at the beginning of a new group is produced by
an NO contact of the relay assigned to that group. All the other outputs are
produced by two contacts in series, which covers: a NO contact of the relay
assigned to its group, and the sensor signal indicating the complementation of the
previous step. The complete ladder logic diagram is shown in Fig. 7.4(a), while the
sequencing chart is given in Fig. 7.5.
7.3.2 Design RLL for Single-Path Machine Sequence Having Sustain Control
Signals
The sustained output signal mean that the control signal to be maintained from step
to step until the step does not required to be sustained. An example of sustain signal
requirement; consider the control sequence of 3 cylinders with 5/2 ways directional
valve with spring return. The 3 cylinder operations can be written with sustain

Machine control sequence : START, A+, A-, B+, C+, B-, C-.
Group I | Group II | Group III
signals as follows:
A system of this type requires sustained output signals, the previously described
method must be modified. As before, divide the system into groups so that no letter
is repeated within any group. Since A-, B-, and C- solenoids do not existing in this
problem, and obtained by switching off these solenoids. Hence, the required
motions are obtained simply by cut off the respective + solenoid in the output
module. As before, the moment a new group is activated, all the outputs of the
previous groups are automatically cut off. If it is required to maintain a certain
output into the next group, that output has to be maintained in that group. To show

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

this, horizontal lines were drawn on top of the machine sequence for those sustained
control signals. For example, B+ must be maintained through part of group II, up to
group III just before B-, at this moment, B+ must be cut off, to produce stroke B-,
(see Fig. 7.4b). The sequencing chart is also shown in Fig. 7.5.

START

R02

R01
Input switches

R01
R01

a+

R03

R02

R02
R02

Flip-flop
Modules.
c+

c-

R03

R03
R01

A+

R02

A-

R02

a-

Address

Start
a+
ab+
bc+
.cSTOP(not shown)
Group memory

Flip-flop1
Flip-flop2
Flip-flop3

X00
X01
X02
X04
X05
X06
X07
X03

Address

R01
R02
R03

B+
Outputs

R03

B-

R02

b+

C+

R03

b-

C-

Output
Modules

A+
AB+
BC+
C-

Address

Y20
Y21
Y22
Y23
Y24
Y25

(a) Relay ladder logic without sustain outputs

R01
R02

A+
a-

B+

R02

b+

R03

b-

C+
Output
Modules

(b) Relay ladder logic with sustain outputs

Fig. 7.4 Relay ladder logic for machine sequence START, A+, A-, B+, C+, B-, C-. (a)
7.8
without sustain outputs, (b) with sustain outputs.

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

Group I |
Group II |
Group III
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
START
A+
AB+
C+
BC-

|
VIII

IX

A+
ACylds.

Solds.
Non-sus

Solds
sus

B+
BC+
C-

A+
AB+
BC+
CA
B
C

Switches

a+
ab+
bc+
cSTART

Fig. 7.5 Sequencing chart for machine cycle START,A+,A-,B+,C+,B-,C-.

7.3.3 Design RLL for Multi-Path Sequencing Systems with Sustain


Outputs
Cascade method also can be applied to multi-path machine control sequence. Fig.
7.6, schematically shows a program sequence with two (or more
than two) simultaneous parallel paths for machine sequence.

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

The program proceeds as regular sequence up to the completion of step(i). At this


point, two parallel paths A and B are carried out simultaneously. Path A has j steps,
and path B has k steps; the j and k are not necessarily equal. Only after both paths
have been completed AND function, the program continue with the next single-path
step(i+1).
The corresponding relay ladder logic is also shown in Fig. (7.6). Only the key
ladder lines are indicated, with all output lines omitted for clarity. On completion
step i , (xi+ or xi depend on the problem) is actuated, setting flip-flops relay YA1 and
YB1. These flip-flops cover one or more steps each, depending on the way paths A
and B must be divided into groups. When both parallel paths are completed, sensor
signal xAj and xBk are both actuated, that will set the next flip-flop Yi+1 .
Note, the normally closed contact yA2 and yB2 (which provide RESET signals for
flip-flop YA1 and YB1, respectively) refer to the next flip-flop along the path. For
instance, if all of path (A) should belong to same group, then yA2 would become yi+1
. Similarly, contacts yAj and yBk refer to the last flip-flops of the two parallel paths. If
all of path (A) should belong to the same group, yAj would be identical with yA1.

A1

A2

B1

B2

Aj

.i+1
Bk

.yi-1

yA1
.yi

.yi

Yi

yB1
Xi

yA2 ( or yi+1 )

YA1

Xi

yB2 ( or yi+1 )

YB1

.yA1
.yi
.yB1
.yAj

yBk

XAj

XBk

yi+2

Yi+1

.yi+1

Fig 7.6 Simultaneous parallel machine sequence and keyed RLL.

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Example 7.1 Consider the following machine control sequence with two parallel paths :

A,B
START,A ,A , , A ,B ,C .
C G3

START ,G1, G2 , G .5

The machine sequence can be grouped as follows:

Developed RLL for given machine sequence assuming non-sustain control signals?

G4

The RLL for the given machine sequence is shown in Fig. 7.7

START

R02

STOP

R01

R01
R01

a+

R03

R02
R02

STOP

R02

R04
a-

Flip-flop
Modules.

R05

STOP

R03

R03

R02

a-

R05

STOP

R04

Input switches
Start
a+
ab+
bc+
.cSTOP

Address
X00
X01
X02
X04
X05
X06
X07
X03

Group memory
Flip-flop1
Flip-flop2
Flip-flop3
Flip-flop4
Flip-flop5

Address
R01
R02
R03
R04
R05

Outputs
A+
AB+
BC+
C-

Address
Y25
Y26
Y27
Y28
Y29
Y2A

R04
R03

R04

b+

c+

c-

STOP

R05

R05
R01

A+

R03

R02

A-

Output Modules

R05
R03

a+

R05

a-

R04
R05

B+

BC+

b-

C-

Fig. 7.7 RLL of two parallel paths with non-sustain control signals (for example 7.1)
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7.3.4 RLL for machine sequence with two or more alternative parallel
paths
Some of machine control sequence require two or more alternative parallel
sequence. Hence, this required to use multiple RLL sequence for each path. Any
parallel machine sequence can be enabled using selector switch/switches, or any
other external switch. For example consider Fig. (7.8), after completion of step i,
the next step is either A1 or B1 , depending on whether input signal xp has been set to
1 or 0, respectively. This xp signal can be selected manually, e.g. using selector
switch, or automatically depending on the outsider machine sequence condition.
The machine control sequence will continue along the selected parallel path. Once
either path A or B is completed, OR gate function is used, the control sequence will
continue with next step i+1.
The keyed RLL for this machine sequence is illustrated in Fig. (7.8), After step i is
completed and after switch xI is set logic 1, either flip-flop YA1 or YB1 is set,
depending on whether xp = 1 or 0, respectively. Compellation of either step Aj or Bk
sets flip-flop Yi+1 .
A RLL with alternative parallel paths is useful for operating multipurpose machines.
Programs with more than two alternative parallel paths or more can be applied in
the same manner. For example, with n different xp variables (or n switches)
required to accommodate 2n alternative paths. Using xp1 and xp2 can be used to
accommodate 4 alternative paths : 00, 01, 10 and 11.
i-1

i xp=1 A

A2

xp=0
B1
yi-1

B2

Aj-1

yA1

Aj
Bk-1

yB1

i+1

..

Bk

Yi

yi
yi

xp

xi

yA2 or yi+1

YA1

yA1
yi

xp

xi

yB2 or yi+1

YB1

yB1
yAJ
yBK

xAJ

yi+2

Yi+1

xBK

Fig. 7.8 Machine sequence, keyed RLL with two alternative parallel paths.
yi+1

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Example 7-2 Given the following alternative parallel machine sequence, group the
machine sequence using Gascade method and develop the RLL for machine sequence:

Start
R01
R01
R02

Path1

R02
R03
R01
R04

Path2

R04

xp 1;(B,B,C)
START ,A , ,A ,C .
x 0;(B ,C ,B )
p
xp 1;G ,2 G3
START,G1, ,G6
x 0;G4 ,G5
p
R02

The RLL machine sequence as follows, (see Fig.7.9):

R04

E.Stop

R01

Xp

a+

R03

E.Stop

R02

Xp

b+

R06

E.Stop

R03

Xp

a+

R05

Xp

c+

E.Stop

R06

E.Stop

R04

R05

R05
R03

c+

R05

b-

c-

E.Stop

R06

Switch
Start
E.Stop
.a+
.a.b+
.b.c+
.c.Xp
Output

address
X0
X1
X2
X3
X6
X7
X8
X9
XA
Address

A+
AB+
BC+
C-

Y22
Y23
Y24
Y25
Y26
Y27

R06
R1

A+

R6

A-

R2

B+

R4
R3

B-

Output Module

R5
R3

b-

R4

b+

R6

a-

C+

C-

Fig. 7.9 RLL for alternative machine sequence (for example 7.2).
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7.3.5 RLL for machine sequence with option of bypassing certain


steps.
Fig. 7.10, shows a program for machine sequence with the option of bypassing
certain machine sequence steps. At the completion of step i, if input control signal
xp =1, then the system goes through program steps from A1 to Aj , and continue with
step I+1. If, on the other hand, xp = 0, then the system jumps directly from step I to
I+1.
The keyed RLL for machine sequence is shown in Fig. 7.10. It can be observed that
flip-flop Yi can be reset by either yA1 or yi+1 . Flip-flop YA1 is set by the ANDing
function xp xI yI and rest by yA2 (or by yI+1 if the by passed section is all included in
one group). Flip-flop YI+1 is set by either the AND function xp xI yI or xAJ yAJ .

i-1

i xp=1

A1

A2

Aj-1

Aj

i+1

..

xp=0
.yi-1

yA1

yi+1

Yi

yi
yi

xp

xi

yA2 or yi+1

YA1

yA1
yi
yAi

xp

xi

yi+2

Yi+1

xAj

Fig. 7.10 Keyed RLL for machine sequence with option bypassing certain steps.
yi+1
Example 7.3 Develop the RLL for machine sequence with option bypassing certain
steps:

START, A+ ,
G1

Xp=1; ( B+, B-)


G2 | G3
Xp=0; by pass

, A- .
G4

The RLL for the given machine sequence is shown in Fig. (7.11).

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RLL Design for Sequencing System

START

R2

R4

E.Stop

R1

R1
R1

Xp

a+

R3

Xp

b+

R4

E.Stop

R2

R2
R2

E.Stop

R3

Switch
Start
E.Stop
.a+
.a.b+
.bXp
Output

R3
R1

Xp

R3

a+

a-

E.Stop

R4

b-

A+
AB+
B-

address
X0
X1
X2
X3
X6
X7
XA
Address
Y22
Y23
Y24
Y25

R4
R1

A+

R4

A-

R2

B+

R3

B-

Fig. 7.11 The developed RLL for machine sequence with option bypassing
machine steps (for example 7.3).

7.3.6 RLL for machine sequence with the option of repeating certain
steps.
Fig. 7.12, shows a multi-path machine sequence with the option of repeating certain
steps. At the completion of step Aj , the system will continue with step i+1, provided
xp =1 . If, however, xp = 0 , then steps A1 to AJ are repeated indefinitely until xp
becomes 1. This circuit is suitable for machine sequence to be repeated until the
desired effect is achieved.
The corresponding keyed RLL for this machine sequence is illustrated in Fig. (7.12).
It can be seen that the flip-flop YA1 can be set using AND function either xi yi OR by
xp xAj yAj and reset using yA2 . Furthermore, the flip-flop yAj is reset by either yA1 OR
yI+1 , depending on weather the machine steps are repeated or not.

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Note; at least three flip-flops must be allocated for repeated machine steps. If
only one or two flip-flops were assigned for the repeated machine steps, they will
set and reset simultaneously and multifunction would occur. Even the rule to divide
the machine sequence into groups calls for only two groups to cover the repeated
steps, a third dummy group must be added. Completion of the last repeated step
sets this dummy flip-flop, and the sequence carries on from there, depending
whether xp=0 or 1.
Example 7.4 Develop the RLL for a machine sequence with option repeated certain
i-1

A1

A2

Aj-1

Aj

i+1

xp=1

xp=0
yi-1

yA1

Yi

yi

yi

xi

yAj

xp

yA2

YA1

xAj

yA1
yA1

xA1

yA3 or yAj

YA2

yA2
yAj-1

xAj-1

yi+1

yA1

YAj

yAj

yAj

xp

xAj

yi+2

Yi+1

yi+1

Fig. 7.12 Keyed RLL for machine sequence with option of repeat machine
sequence steps.
machine steps:
START , A , x p 0; repeat ( B , C , B , C ) , A .
START , G1,

G2

, G 3, G 4

G5

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Manufacturing Automation using PLCs


CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

The RLL for the given machine sequence shown in Fig. 7.13 (note, group G4 is
added as dummy group to include three groups, as minimum, for repeated machine
sequence steps).

START

R2

E.STOP

R1

R1
R1
R4

a+
xp

R3

E.STOP

R2

c-

R2
R2

c+

R3

b-

R4

E.STOP

R3

R3
R5

R2

E.STOP

R4

a- E.STOP

R5

R4
R4

xp

c-

Input
Start
E.Stop
.a+
.a.b+
.b.c+
.c.xp

address
X0
X1
X2
X3
X6
X7
X8
X9
XA

Output
A+
AB+
BC+
C-

address
Y21
Y22
Y23
Y24
Y25
Y26

R5
R1

A+

R5

A-

R2

B+

R3

B-

R2
R4

b+

C+
C-

Fig. 7.13 RLL for machine sequence with option of repeat machine
sequence steps (example 7.4).

PROPLEMS:

Laboratory Work 7.2 : Simulate the machine sequences for examples 7.1 to 7.4
using Toshiba PLC.
7.1) Develop the sequencing chart for the following machine cycles using
double acting cylinder having two limit switches, at the two extreme

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CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

positions. Solve the problem assuming non-sustain control signals (5/3


double solenoids and two spring for valve center);
a) START, A+, A-, A+, A-, B+, B-.
b) START, A+, B+, B-, B+, B-, A-.
c) START, A+, A-, B+, C+, B-, C-.
d) START, A+, B+, A-, A+, B-, A-.
e) START, A+, B+, A-, B-, A+, A-.
7.2)

Group the machine cycles given in Prob. 7.1 using Cascade method then
develop the RLL?

7.3)

Resolve Problem 7.1 using sustain control signals (5/2 solenoid valve with
return spring)?

7.4)

Resolve Problem 7.2 using sustain control signals (5/2 solenoid valve with
return spring)?

7.5)

Group the following parallel path machine cycles using Cascade method,
develop the sequencing chart, and RLL using non-sustain control signals;

a)

A
START , A , A , , A ,B .
B

b)

7.6)


START , A, A, B ,C, B, A.

C

Group the following machine cycles using Cascade method and develop
the RLL for the given machine sequence having three alternative paths and
using two selector switches Xp1 and Xp2. The machine sequence given as
follows (assume non-sustain control signal for cylinders B,C and D, while
sustain control signal for
cylinder A ):

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Manufacturing Automation using PLCs


CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

xp1 1, x p2 1;(B , B )

or

START , A , xp1 1, x p2 0;(C ,C ) , A .


or

xp1 0, x p2 1;(D , D )

7.7)

Group the following machine cycle using Cascade method and develop the
RLL for the given machine sequence having two alternative paths and
bypass machine cycle path. The selection of machine paths and bypass path
is achieved using two selector switches Xp1 and Xp2. The machine sequence
given as follows(assuming non-sustain control signals for all cylinders):

xp1 1, xp2 1;(B , B )

or

START , A , xp1 1, xp2 0;(C ,C ) , A .


or

xp1 0, xp2 1;bypass

7.8)

Develop RLL for machine sequence with optional repeat machine steps.
The selection of repeated machine path is achieved using two selector
switches xp1 and xp2 for the machine sequence given as follows (assuming
non-sustain control signal for all cylinders):

START , A , x p1 1 & x p 2 1; repeat (until x p1 1 & x p 2 0; B , B ) , A .


7.9)

Resolve Prob. 7.8 by adding alternative path of machine sequence as


illustrated below:

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Manufacturing Automation using PLCs


CHAPTER 7

RLL Design for Sequencing System

xp1 1 & xp2 1; repeat (until x p1 1 & x p2 0; B , B )

START , A , or

xp 0 & x p2 1; (C ,C )
1

, A .

REFERENCES:
[7.1] : David W. Pessen, Industrial Automation, Circuit Design & Components
, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.

7.20