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TOPIC: METABOLISM & CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Outline:

l.
ll.

lll.
lV.

V.

Metabolism: Description and Significance


Sub types of Metabolism: Catabolism & {nabolism
Oxidation & Reduction
lmportant Metabolic Intermediate Compounds
CellularRespiration

A. Glycolysis
B. Kreb's Cycle
C. Electron Transport Chain

l. Metabolism- comes from the greek word "metabolismos" meaning "change'lor'overthrow'.


- biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells.
- sum total of all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and thus the
organism.

- process that enables organisms to procesg nutrients into biochemical tools and structures they need to
maintain a living state (growth, reproduction, movement, homeostasis, respond to environment etc.)
Brief History: In 1614, first controlled experiments in human metabolism weie published by Santorio in
his book Ars de statica rnedecina. He described how he weighed himself before and after eating,
sleeping etc., and found out that most of the food he took in was lost through perspiration insen-sibilis
"insensible perspiration
ll. sub-

of Metabolisnr
Basis of Comparison

(1) Kind of Metabolism


(2) Process lnvolved

(3) Energy Requ ired/Reteased

Anabolism

Destructive Metabolism

Constructive Metabolism

Breaking down of large or complex


molecules into smaller or simpler

Building

molecules

molecules

Energy Released/ Produced


(

(3) Example:

Catabolism

Exe rgo n ic/Exoth

e rrn

ic)

-Hydrolysis of complex molecules/


macromolecules

-Glycolysis & Fermentation


C6H12O6 + Oz

CoHrzOo

lll.

ATP + CO, +

11rg

)COz+C'HsOH

up of large or

molecules from precursor

complex

or

small

Energy Required
(Endergonic/Endotherm ic)
-Biosynthesis of macromolecules
(nucleic acids, proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates),
-Photosynthesis in plants
tight

CO. +l1rg

C6H12O6 +

Q,

chlorophyll

Oxidation-Reduction (Redox Reactions)


- paired reactions in which electrons are transferred from one compound to another
- occur simultaneously in a chemical reaction, one cannot take place without the other.
oxidation- involves the loss of electrons or removal of H atoms
when atom/ ion/ molecule losses one or more electrons, the molecule is oxidized
- in redox reactions, electron acceptor is the oxidizing agent. lt is a substance that causes an increase in
the oxidation state/no. (no. of electrons losUgained oiunequally shared by an atom) of another

substance.

electrons lost do not float, they reactively attach immediately to another molecule
biologicaloxidations are referred to as dehydrogenation reactions ( H and electrons are removed)
Reduction- involves gaining of electrons or H atoms
- when atom/ ion/ molecule gains one or more electrons, the molecule is reduced
- in redox reactions, electron donor is the reducing agent. lt is a substance that causes a decrease in the
oxidation state of another substance.
e-

--.------}
A (Reducing

agent)

B ( Oxidizin g agent)

tv. lmportant Metabolic Intermediate Compounds


(1) Adenosine Phosphate
NQeqos i ne & lts several forms : monoohosnhate, dirtfqsphate, triphosphate and cyclic monophosphate

5l

Adenosine

o_cll)/o\

t(
I \-{
o:l)-o

otj

oAdenosinc monophosplratc (AM Ir)

Aclcnosine 3.' -5'- cyclic monophosphate

(*,clic r\r\{P; cAI\lp)

Adenqsllq4ipf

osphare

({Dp)=-

Adenosine triphosphate (ATIr)

Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)- structural component of RNA


Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)- a stable form; can be used as emergency source of energy by removal of
phosphate group producing AMp
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- a nucleotide triphosphate
-major energy storing/ carrying molecule in a cell.
- main energy cunency of the cell
- energy is stored in the bonds of ATP
- its hydrolysis (breaking of high energy bond) yields energy and ADP (Adenosine
diphosphate) also a key compound in nnetabolic pathways

+
n nP +
ATP

l- +
nD -rI qfiO
rrr v+

FI2O

-------->

I,l2c)

_+

AMP+HPO,:
I r rr vl

- -L anpro\/

+ H'-Pner('v

N.B. Other examples of nucleotide triphosphate


UTP- Uridine Triphosphate -involvedtparticipate in cHo metabolism
GTP- Guanosine Triphosphate -CHON and CHO metabotism
CTP- Cytidine Triphosphate - lipid metabotism

cAitP- function is associated with activity of epinephrine (hormone) which stimulates gAMP synthesis that
help regulate release of glucose from glycogen.

(2) Coenzymes- nonprotein organic molecule which can be frequently separated from the apoenzyme which is a
polypeptide segment of the enzyme/ protein portion which is inactive by itself.
a) Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FADF required in numerous metabolic redox reactions
-two components: flavin and ribitol (reduced form of
ribose)constituting Vit B Riboflavin are attached to ADp
Riuitor'
-active portion: flavin subunit; Flavin is reduced converting FAD to
FADH2 (reduced form); FAD is oxidized form.

iFlfifrff-

o
CHO
r

r---oH

H-_]-oH
r"r-J-oH
I

llihosc

\-*d-^-H

Hr'

-l--J-\"

CH,OH

IH-f-oH
H--OIJ

u-]-ou

ct-iroH
r

Hr-

cHroFI
r

r'l{ i hitol

Ii
FAI)
(oxirlizcrl lirrnr)

H,C

In metabolic pathrvays in r'vhich it is involved, flavin adenine dinucleotidc continually changes back ancl forth between
its oxidized and reduced fbrms.

2ll* +2e- + FAD :-

I:ADH:

FADH,
(reduced form)

o\
ilI
lzffilfc-NH,
I
\--cz
t

Nicotinamide

ol

\' ./
-,/-Zri\
9H, \-./

]o0.",".,

vr./

ttl

otr orl

i
o

o<,*i:..'r\

\j{
It' o

)*,0"."
Nrl,

-O- l,=O
I

(:,zz'\Ax
ll'l )o0."'".
'xixz

Flavin

Ribitol

ADP

Adcnosinc rliphosp,tatc (A I)l))

-o- lr:o
I

g-CIt:

Riboflavin
orr

(a)

r)rr

Figure 12.5
Stluctural formulas of the motecules
flavin adenine'dinucleotide. FAD (a) and
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide,
NAD* (b).

b)

I
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)- like FAD has Vlt B as a structural component that is
nicotinamide
- active portion: nicotinamide subunit; Nicotinamide is
reduced converting NAD'to NADH (reduced form); NAD is
the oxidized form.

iffio
{Z-r.l\:'l"li

rl

I\Nl" ll

t",- +t{*+

fltr?
K-")-c-Nu.
lt,tl
-N/

2e-

Ii

c)

I{

NAt)'

NADH

(oxi<lizcrl frrrrn)

(reduced form)

Goenryme A (CoA)- derivative of B vitamin pantothenic acid.


NH.

2-aminocthanethiol

HS ---

cH2c

H,-N I-{ -fr


o

c l.l2c

>'Ax
(//
I

t2-N
"

- fi -

?',
f

o H

oo
il
o-

i\

ll
f'r,,
cFI,
-o-o|I
f

CH]

o- c H l

\I

ltl

--\ul

o-

2-o-,Po
f -A nliil( 'ctlriUrct

Ir

i,)l

Phosphorylatc-d AD[)

- active portion: sulfhydrylgroup (-SH group) in the ethanethiolsubunit. Abbreviation


CoA,SH is
used. (A reflects a general metabolic function: transfer of acetyl groups bond
to CoA-SH through a
thioester bond in metabolic pathways)

..o
'll,
CH..-CAccryl

hond

? /"-Thiocstcr

CH3_C_OII

group

cu.-tjs-coA

Acctic rcid

AccrYl CoA

V.

Cellular Respiration- a.k.a aerobic respiratian which refers to complete


catabolism of glucose to produce energy
in the form of ATp.
M

itochorrd rr5

:lllgr-

from g,reeK
reek m
mrros-rnreao;
itos-th read ; chondriong
cnondrionranule;
ra n ute; a.k.a
a. k. a "power house of the cell"
- sausage shaped organelle that have central role in energy
enerov production
oroductic
- outermembrane: 50 % lipid and 50 % protein which is plrmeaote
to small
molecules

innermernbrane: 2oYo lipid and B0 o/o protein which is impermeable


to most

substances
Matrix- inner or interior region: matrix
ltefmeryblane space- re$ion between inner and outermembrane
Cristae- folds of the innermembrane p
I rotruding in mdtrix
ATP synthase complex- spherical knobs at the cristae for energy productloh

A. Glycolysis- from greek "glyco"- sweet and "rysis'- breakdown


?.k,a gry.corytic pathway or Embden Meyerhof-parnas pdthway
-1930's-.discovered by German biochemists Gustav Embden
Otto Meyerhof
-occurs.in the cytoplasm ofboth prokaryotic and eukaryotic "nO
cell
-anaerobib process but can take place in the presence or absence
of 612 (oxygen doesn,t
participate in this phase)
-metabolic pathway (series of linked biochemical reactions that
occur stepwise manner leading
from a starting materialto an end product) which involves breakdown
of gtucose (6c) sugar into
two molecules of pyruvate (3c). At the
process, 2 ATp's
I runou Lr'proiu"*0.
-involves oxidation process, coenzyme 91!_oj.nis
"nJgilu"or" is oxidized to
NAD* is the oxidizing agent" Ar
pyruvate in glycotysis, NAq is reduced to NADH
-a ten step process in whrch every stbp is enzyme oataryzed
-Two stdges: 6C stage (Steps 1_3) and 3C stige (Stepi 4_10).

'

',,

$lx- Carbon Stage of Glycotysls (Steps i-3)


- intermediates die all either glucose or fructose derivdtives in which phosphate grdLps are
present.

Step 1 Formation of Glucose 6- phosphate


- Glycolysis begins with phosphorylation of glucose to yield glucose 6- phosphate
(phosphate group attached to the hydroryioxygen on coyl enost[at! jroup
came
ATP.
- Hexokinase which requires Mg t* ion cataryzes this reaction.
- Require energy provided by breakdown of ATp.

from

',1H

H-O-C-FI
ATP

\1
_:/>

ADP
The symbol

is a shorthand

notation for a f'tCrr- unit.

llcx c,kinase

OH
E3Luco+e
OFI "
6" ?tv'cst - c"Tkcsyk'|..
Step 2 Formation of Fructose 6-phosphate
- Glucose 6- phosphate is isomerized to Fructose 6-phosphate by phosphogluco-isomerase.
(lsomers- different compounds with same atoms bui oirer in spatial
arrang6ment)
- C1 of glucose is no longer part of the ring structure.
Glucose an aldose forms a six
membered ring while fructose, a ketose forms a five membered ring. Both however
contain

6 C atoms.

@)-o

1r,-

\'phosphosrucoisomcrase.

@- OU'Cra,-,-ulCH'OH

\*i34"

,.lwt r,s,"(-'6' p\'a:PLe*c


|
..t..org-\^a5PLe*c
I
HO
oH. '
Step 3 Formation of Fructose 1,O-bisphosphate
- a phosphorylation reaction and requires energy.
- Phosphofructokinase requires Mg " ion to catalyze this reaction
- Fructose 1,6-biphosphate contains 2 phosphate groups

cl-l'ol-l Alr

@-otr, c -o'r

l.'t
\
\*/

ll\)

HO
I

Ito

HO

Fructr:c 1.6-bisphosphatc

[:ruct(]sc 6-l)lr(]sIll.rlc

Three- Carbon Stage of Glycolysis (Steps 4-10)


- intermediates are phosphorylated derivatives:

o.
\/,

oC,,OII

1l

,I-

'u-c-ou

\ --\/
ctjrou
a'-_i

,. .-l

cH.o-{P)
t-

\DP

I'lrr'.t':,rrllrrrttrkitrl:c

-\/ oFI

-'-

\vwc*o:v'6'g\-osgL-ic-

C
I

-oH

cll20H

I)ihy(tio\yrcc(\)rc

C I vccnr ldch

Ct'r,OH
C Ir

vrlc

o-

CH:

ccratc

[)r ru r rrl c

Step 4 Fbrmation of Triose Phosphate


- Reacting G5species (Fructose 1,6- bisphosphate) which is unsymmetrical is split into

two Gs (triose) species which are not identical.

- Products: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate


'cti,o{
- Enzyme:Aldolase 'ctlro-@
H\1'z/.o
,l'c:o
.I
^
'c:o
c

ll.l
Holc-H
-:*+t t-oC-ori
.l
H-C-OH

,.I
''(lHro-{]l)

Step 5 lsomerization

Ho--ic-H
I
II

Aldoksc,

H-"c-oH
.l
'cH,tl.-?

Dih)-dro\) ircct()nc
Pll()\l)llirlc

, llrttclrrsc l.(t-bisphosplrrtc

of I nose Phosphate

CIlceraldchldc
.1-ph{)\phxlc

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (ketose) is readily converted to glyceraldehyde 3- phospftatr:


(aldose). Both are isomers.
Enzyme: Triosephosphate isomerase

cH2o--@
I
O---C
|

isorrrcrr.c
..'--------------.'.._

Fro-c-H
|
HOH

c:H'o-
|

rri^.-^,...^!,
lno\(-ltiu\l)n.tt(

t''n;1,1;;li,::''"'

l1(J-\'

)_

--il

L
,rL'."..,,:;::ll;li...

Step 6 Formation of 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate


- A phosphate group is added to glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate to produce 1, 3
bisphosphoglycerate

- Enzyme: glyceratdehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase


- The H of the aldehyde group becomes part of NADH.