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305 visualizzazioni22 pagineA brief idea about projectile motion, its history and details about Horizontally Launched Projectiles with equations and calculations on a home made simple catapult.

Jul 21, 2015

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A brief idea about projectile motion, its history and details about Horizontally Launched Projectiles with equations and calculations on a home made simple catapult.

© All Rights Reserved

100%(1)Il 100% ha trovato utile questo documento (1 voto)

305 visualizzazioni22 pagineA brief idea about projectile motion, its history and details about Horizontally Launched Projectiles with equations and calculations on a home made simple catapult.

© All Rights Reserved

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institution for giving me such wonderful opportunities.

I would also like to thank my parents for supporting me throughout

the project.

Page 1 of 22

Index

Sr no.

Page No.

1. Introduction

2. History of Projectile Motion

3

5

4. Non-Horizontally Launched

Projectiles

10

5. Applications

13

6. Our Investigation

17

7. Conclusion

19

8. Bibliography

20

9. Remarks

22

Page 2 of 22

Introduction

A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is

gravity. Projectile is any object that once projected or dropped

continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the

downward force of gravity. By definition, a projectile has a single

force that acts upon it - the force of gravity. If there were any other

force acting upon an object, then that object would not be a projectile.

Thus, the free-body diagram of a projectile would show a single force

acting downwards and labelled force of gravity (or simply Fgrav). By

definition, a projectile is any object upon which the only force is

gravity.

Many students have difficulty with the concept that the only

force acting upon an upward moving projectile is gravity. Their

conception of motion prompts them to think that if an object is

moving upward, then there must be an upward force. And if an object

is moving upward and rightward, there must be both an upward and

rightward force. Their belief is that forces cause motion; and if there

is an upward motion then there must be an upward force. They reason,

"How in the world can an object be moving upward if the only force

acting upon it is gravity?" Newton's laws suggest that forces are only

required to cause an acceleration (not a motion). The Newton's laws

stood in direct opposition to the common misconception that a .force

is required to keep an object in motion. This idea is simply not true! A

force is not required to keep an object in motion. A force is only

required to maintain an acceleration. And in the case of a projectile

that is moving upward, there is a downward force and a downward

acceleration. That is, the object is moving upward and slowing down.

To further ponder this concept of the downward force and a

downward acceleration for a projectile, consider a cannonball shot

horizontally from a very high cliff at a high speed. And suppose for a

moment that the gravity switch could be turned off such that the

cannonball would travel in the absence of gravity? What would the

motion of such a cannonball be like? How could its motion be

Page 3 of 22

cannonball would continue in motion in a straight line at constant

speed. If not acted upon by an unbalanced force, "an object in motion

will continue to remain at rest or in motion until acted by an external

force"

Now suppose that the gravity switch is turned on and that the

cannonball is projected horizontally from the top of the same cliff.

What effect will gravity have upon the motion of the cannonball? Will

gravity affect the cannonball's horizontal motion? Will the cannonball

travel a greater (or shorter) horizontal distance due to the influence of

gravity? The answer to both of these questions is "No!" Gravity will

act downwards upon the cannonball to affect its vertical motion.

Gravity causes a vertical acceleration. The ball will drop vertically

below its otherwise straight-line, inertial path. Gravity is the

downward force upon a projectile that influences its vertical motion

and causes the parabolic trajectory that is characteristic of projectiles.

A projectile is an object upon which the only force is gravity.

Gravity acts to influence the vertical motion of the projectile, thus

causing a vertical acceleration. The horizontal motion of the projectile

is the result of the tendency of any object in motion to remain in

motion at constant velocity. Due to the absence of horizontal forces, a

projectile remains in motion with a constant horizontal velocity.

Horizontal forces are not required to keep a projectile moving

horizontally. The only force acting upon a projectile is gravity!

Page 4 of 22

It was Galileo who first accurately described projectile motion.

He showed that it could be understood by analysing the horizontal

and vertical components separately. No one had done this prior to

Galileo.

This illustration reflects the

general opinion before Galileo

which followed largely

Aristotelian lines but

incorporating a later theory of

"impetus" -- which maintained

that an object shot from a

cannon, for example, followed

a straight line until it "lost its

impetus," at which point it fell

abruptly to the ground.

Later, simply by more careful

observation, as this illustration

from a work by Niccolo

Tartaglia shows, it was realized

that projectiles actually follow

a curved path. Yet no one knew

what that path was, until

Galileo. There was yet another

brilliant insight that led Galileo

to his most astounding

conclusion about projectile

motion. First of all, he

reasoned that a projectile is not

only influenced by one motion,

but by two. The motion that

acts vertically is the force of

gravity, and this pulls an object

Page 5 of 22

per second. But while gravity

is pulling the object down, the

projectile is also moving

forward, horizontally at the

same time. And this horizontal

motion is uniform and constant

according to Galileo's principle

of inertia. He was indeed able

to show that a projectile is

controlled by two independent

motions, and these work

together to create a precise

mathematical curve. He

actually found that the curve

has an exact mathematical

shape. A shape that the Greeks

had already studied and called

the parabola. The conclusion

that Galileo reached was that

the path of any projectile is a

parabola.

of air resistance, all objects fall with the same

uniform acceleration. Thus, two objects of different

sizes and weights, dropped from the same height,

will hit the ground at the same time.

Page 6 of 22

motions. So an object projected

horizontally will reach the ground in the

same time as an object dropped vertically.

No matter how large the horizontal

velocity is, the downward pull of gravity is

always the same.

Page 7 of 22

Consider a cannonball projected horizontally by a cannon from

the top of a very high cliff. In the absence of gravity, the cannonball

would continue its horizontal motion at a constant velocity. This is

consistent with the law of inertia. And furthermore, if merely dropped

from rest in the presence of gravity, the cannonball would accelerate

downward, gaining speed at a rate of 9.8 m/s every second. This is

consistent with our conception of free-falling objects accelerating at a

rate known as the acceleration of gravity.

If our thought experiment continues and we project the

cannonball horizontally in the presence of gravity, then the cannonball

would maintain the same horizontal motion as before - a constant

horizontal velocity. Furthermore, the force of gravity will act upon the

cannonball to cause the same vertical motion as before - a downward

acceleration. The cannonball falls the same amount of distance as it

did when it was merely dropped from rest (refer to diagram below).

However, the presence of gravity does not affect the horizontal

motion of the projectile. The force of gravity acts downward and is

unable to alter the horizontal motion. There must be a horizontal force

to cause a horizontal acceleration. (And we know that there is only a

vertical force acting upon projectiles.) The vertical force acts

perpendicular to the horizontal motion and will not affect it

since perpendicular components of motion are independent of each

other. Thus, the projectile travels with a constant horizontal

velocity and a downward vertical acceleration.

Page 8 of 22

a) Horizontal Equation=x=ut

b) Vertical Equation=y=1/2gt2

This is the equation of a parabola, symmetric about y-axis.

Hence the path of the projectile is parabolic.

2) Time Of Descent: Time taken for the projectile to come to the

earth.

t=

2 h

g

horizontal direction

X=u*

2 h

g

Page 9 of 22

Now suppose that our cannon is aimed upward and shot at an

angle to the horizontal from the same cliff. In the absence of gravity

(i.e., supposing that the gravity switch could beturned off) the

projectile would again travel along a straight-line, inertial path. An

object in motion would continue in motion at a constant speed in the

same direction if there is no unbalanced force. This is the case for an

object moving through space in the absence of gravity. However, if

the gravity switch could be turned on such that the cannonball is truly

a projectile, then the object would once more free-fall below this

straight-line, inertial path. In fact, the projectile would travel with

a parabolic trajectory. The downward force of gravity would act upon

the cannonball to cause the same vertical motion as before - a

downward acceleration. The cannonball falls the same amount of

distance in every second as it did when it was merely dropped from

rest (refer to diagram below). Once more, the presence of gravity does

not affect the horizontal motion of the projectile. The projectile still

moves the same horizontal distance in each second of travel as it did

when the gravity switch was turned off. The force of gravity is a

vertical force and does not affect horizontal motion; perpendicular

components of motion are independent of each other.

to the fact that the downward force of gravity accelerates them

downward from their otherwise straight-line, gravity-free trajectory.

Page 10 of 22

displacement from the position that the object would be if there were

no gravity. The force of gravity does not affect the horizontal

component of motion; a projectile maintains a constant horizontal

velocity since there are no horizontal forces acting upon it.

Vxo is the initial velocity along x-axis,

Vy is the velocity along y-axis,

Vyo is the initial velocity along y-axis.

g is the acceleration due to gravity and

Page 11 of 22

Equations related to trajectory motion (projectile motion) are given by

sin is the component along y-axis,

cos is the component along x-axis.

Projectile Motion formula is used to find the distance, velocity

and time taken in the projectile motion.

Page 12 of 22

1) In Sports:

Cricket

Javelin throw

Page 13 of 22

Rugby

Football

Advanced military techniques include missile launching which

uses projectile motion equations to calculate the distance at where

the missile is going to fall. The same goes for canons, catapults,

ballista, trebuchets and rockets.

Page 14 of 22

Missile:-

Canons

Page 15 of 22

Trebuchet:-

the height of the fountain of water and the distance it will go.

Its used in building fountains.

Page 16 of 22

Our Investigation:

Aim: - To investigate the velocity and the

maximum height reached by a projectile

fired at an angle made with the horizontal

from the range and angle and the time

period from the made model.

Apparatus: -

Page 17 of 22

30

Range

Rm

0.81

Velocity

V m/s

3.027

Height

Hm

0.116

Time

Ts

0.30

40

1.18

3.426

0.247

0.45

50

0.82

2.856

0.244

0.44

60

0.8

3.008

0.346

0.53

70

0.63

3.099

0.432

0.59

Ang Sin

le

30

40

50

60

70

Sin2

0.5 29

4

0.6 39

42 2

0.7 49

66 0

0.8 58

66 8

0.9 68

39 6

0.86

6

0.98

4

0.98

4

0.86

6

0.64

2

Sq. Root

of Rg

9.31E-01

9.65E-01

9.92E-01

9.96E-01

9.92E-01

9.96E-01

9.31E-01

9.65E-01

8.01E-01

8.95E-01

Page 18 of 22

the projectile increases till 450 and then decreases

till 900. The velocity component remains the

same as we are stretching the rubber the same

way every time

Page 19 of 22

Conclusion

s

beauty of physics in a completely different way. It helps us calculate

basic components of parabolic motion such as velocity, range and

maximum height etc without the consideration of mass of the body

which makes it less complicate to calculate the components.

Before this investigatory projectile was just the part of the

physics book but now after knowing the applications of projectile our

concepts about it are clear. By doing this project we learned to

connect projectile motion to many real life situations.

Page 20 of 22

Bibliography

http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-1/ProjectileMotion.html

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/vectors/hlp.cfm

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/u3l2e.cfm

http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/compadre/uncertainty/examples/example5.html

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070519032007AAcE7UV

http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-1/ProjectileMotion-Real-life-applications.html

http://homepage.usask.ca/~dln136/projectile/pages/module5.html

http://homepage.usask.ca/~dln136/projectile/pages/module3.html

http://formulas.tutorvista.com/physics/projectile-motion-formula.html

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/u3l2a.cfm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projectile_motion

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/vectors/U3L2b.cfm

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/vectors/U3L2c2.cfm

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/U3L2e.cfm

http://usnavymuseum.org/Education_LP0014.asp

Page 21 of 22

Remarks

Please write suggestions and improvements to be made in the project.

Page 22 of 22

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