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University of Mauritius

Department of Civil Engineering

Industrial Training Report

CIVE 3000

04 Feb 2013 to 21 Jun 2013

(a 20 weeks training)

Name : Jeedaran Arshaad ID: 1012358 Course: BEng (Hons) Civil Engineering Year : 3 Industrial Supervisors : 1. H. Kalisaran 2. R. Hassarup

University Supervisor:

Mrs. K. Moonshiram- Baguant

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Certification from industrial supervisors

I hereby certify that the information in this report is accurate and does not contain any confidential data.

……………………

R. Hassarup

(Project Manager)

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Acknowledgement

This report would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several persons

who I hold in high esteem that in one way or another contributed and extended their valuable

assistance and support during my training.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my two industrial training supervisors, Mr. H. Kalisaran and Mr. R. Hassarup for their support, coaching, guidance and advice.

I would also like to thank the WMA Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project Lot 2 team and all staffs from the contractor and consultant for their kind support and advice.

Special thanks to the staffs from the WMA Head office who has also contributed in this training.

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Table of Contents

A. Executive summary

 

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B. Introduction

6

Overview

of

the

WMA

6

Overview of the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project

9

C. Aims and objectives of the industrial training

12

D. Scope of

works

 

13

Technical

aspect

13

Tests carried on site

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Commissioning

26

Health & Safety issues on site

27

Environment Impact

28

Traffic Impact

28

Project Management Aspect

29

Public Relation Aspect

29

E. Assignments carried out during the industrial placement

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F. Outcomes and Evaluation

38

G. Conclusion

 

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Appendix A

 

41

Appendix

B

43

Appendix C

 

45

Appendix D

47

Appendix E

48

Appendix

F

49

Appendix

G

 

50

Appendix

H

52

Appendix I

 

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A. Executive summary

The industrial training consisted of a 20 weeks placement at the WMA (Wastewater Management Authority) which operates as an autonomous organisation under the aegis of the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities.

My training involved permanent mobilization to the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project-Stage 1, Construction of Reticulation Network and House Connections for Lot 2, contract WW81F under the guidance of the Project Manager who was my industrial supervisor. The site office is located at Avenue Hirondelles, Quatre-Bornes.

I was given several assignments in view to achieve the aims and objectives set for the industrial training. These are described in details in this report.

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B. Introduction

Overview of the WMA

The WMA operates as an autonomous body under the aegis of the Ministry of Public Utilities and is

responsible for the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater. Its functions are defined in

the WMA Act, 2000 and the following two agreements:

(a) Contrat De Maitrise D’Ouvrage Déléguée”, whereby the Government delegates to WMA the duties of constructing new wastewater assets; (b) “Contrat De Délégation”, whereby the Government entrusts to the WMA the operation and maintenance of all Government’s assets pertaining to the public sewerage systems. The WMA is empowered to charge rates to those connected to the sewerage systems in the country. The prevailing wastewater tariffs cover, inter-alia, operation and maintenance costs, and 25% depreciation of assets.

The WMA is also responsible for the following tasks:

(a) Regulate, monitor and control industrial effluent discharges to the public sewer network;

(b) Monitor and evaluate public and private wastewater treatment plants’ effluent in

compliance with the Environmental Protection Act discharge standards;

(c)

Review and approve wastewater related infrastructure and industrial development applications ; and

(d)

Provide advice and assistance on wastewater related issues and nuisances, drafting of Standards and Guidelines.

The WMA manages the public sewerage system consisting of 515 km of sewer network, 19 treatment plants and 50 pumping stations, the main treatment plants being at St-Martin, Grand- Baie, Baie-du-Tombeau, and Montagne Jacquot.

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WMA Mission

To protect Water & Marine Environment of Mauritius and to ensure sustaina bility of its waterWMA Mission To be a reliable and high quality Wastewater Service provider in Mauritius To achieve

To be a reliable and high quality Wastewater Service provider in Mauritiusof Mauritius and to ensure sustaina bility of its water To achieve a financial sustainability To

To achieve a financial sustainabilityand high quality Wastewater Service provider in Mauritius To forge a reliable partnership with all stakeholders

To forge a reliable partnership with all stakeholders sensitive to the cause of the environment.provider in Mauritius To achieve a financial sustainability WMA vision To equip Mauritius with a state

WMA vision

To equip Mauritius with a state of art Sewerage System thereby providing a high standard of sanitation that would preserve public health and ensure a sustainable clean environment for maintaining the reputation of Mauritius as a dream destination.

Sections/Division in the Organisation

1. Project Management Unit & House Connection

2. Pollution Control and Laboratory Division

3. Operation and Maintenance Division

4. Public Relations & Customer Care Unit

5. Finance & Stores

6. Human Resources & Administration Section

7. IT Unit

8. Planning and Transport Unit

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My placement for industrial training was at the Project Management Unit & House Connection (PMU) section under the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project.

Overview of the PMU section

This section consists of three sub-sections.

A. Project Management Unit

Implementation of the major wastewater projects identified in the National Sewerage Programmeconsists of three sub-sections. A. Project Management Unit Manage the procurement process throughout the feasibility,

Manage the procurement process throughout the feasibility, design, tender, construction and commissioning stages.projects identified in the National Sewerage Programme To follow up on projects To report on the

To follow up on projectsdesign, tender, construction and commissioning stages. To report on the progress of projects to relevant

To report on the progress of projects to relevant stakeholders.and commissioning stages. To follow up on projects B. Land survey Unit Responsible for all procedures

B. Land survey Unit

Responsible for all procedures for lands and wayleaves acquisitions for all sewerage projects throughout the island.of projects to relevant stakeholders. B. Land survey Unit C. House Connection Investigations for Notary Clearances,

C. House Connection

Investigations for Notary Clearances, building clearance, private connections, opening of accounts for new house connections.all procedures for lands and wayleaves acquisitions for all sewerage projects throughout the island. C. House

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Overview of the Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project

The Plaines Wilhems Sewerage Project is divided in two stages. At present only Stage 1 contracts is being executed. Stage 1 includes:

WW73F- Construction of New Trunk Sewer

WW80F- Construction of Reticulation Network & House Connections Lot1A

(South west Quatre Bornes and west Rose Hill)

WW99F- Construction of Reticulation Network & House Connections Lot1B (west Rose Hill)

WW81F- Construction of Reticulation Network & House Connections Lot2

(Central and north east Quatre Bornes)

This Stage 1 of the project forms part of the recommendations of the Sewerage Master Plan (1993). The overall project comprises of the construction of 27km of trunk sewer, 235 km of reticulation network with 29,000 house connections in unsewered areas.

The outfall for this network, collecting and conveying wastewaters f rom the Plaines Wilhems Area drains to the St Martin Treatment Plant located at St. Martin in the Black River District.

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Main objectives

The main objectives of the Project are:

- to provide the inhabitants of the Project area with effective sanitation services

- to improve the efficiency of the sewerage network in order to minimize ground water infiltration and wastewater overflow during times of heavy rainfall

- to protect the aquifer from the risk of wastewater contamination

- to permit the viability of the St. Martin Wastewater Treatment Plant

- to generate revenues to WMA, following the connection of new users to the sewer system.

Scope of work under Lot2

The works under the Lot2 project area comprise of the civil works for the construction of approximately 100 km of secondary and tertiary street sewers as well as the sewerage property connections for about 12,500 house connections in the region of Central, North East and South west Quatre Bornes.

Approximately 50km of potable water pipes, together with associated house connections, are expected to be damaged during the sewerage works. Replacement of these potable water pipes and house connections will be undertaken under this contract.

The whole sewer network was designed to collect wastewater from the houses in the project area and to flow by gravity to a main sewer pipe and sent to the Saint Martin Treatment Plant. A layout plan of the Plaine Wilhems Lot2 project area is found on the next page.

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Project details

Client:

Wastewater Management Authority (WMA)

Contractor:

Beijing Construction Engineering Group (BCEG)/

Sotravic Ltee Joint Venture

Supervision:

C.Lotti/LuxConsult Joint Venture

Defects Liability Period:

(364 Calendar days as per contract)

Start Date:

14 January 2008

Original Completion Date:

13 July 2008

Revised Completion Date:

20 December 2013

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C. Aims and objectives of the industrial training

The main aim of the training is to give exposure to the world of work. At the end of the training, maturity is expected in the following fields:

1. Ability to take initiatives and responsibilities

2. Capability to identify and solve technical problems

3. Capacity to work in gro ups

4. Capacity to communicate effectively with people at all levels

Other skills are also expected to be developed at the end of the training

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D. Scope of works

Civil works were divided into several phases and the project was at its final phase during the period of the industrial placement. A brief overview on the different aspects of the project will be given in this report.

Technical aspect

The technical side of the project can be broadly divided into the following:

1. Street sewer

2. House connection

3. Replacement of water pipes

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Street sewer

Civil works for laying pipes for street sewer are carried out in the following sequence:

1. Clearance from the Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit (TMRSU)

2. Clearance from the Municipality

3. Public Relation (PR)

4. Trial pit excavation (where necessary)

5. Transferring of Temporary Benchmark (TBM)

6. Setting out

7. Excavation

8. Setting of sight rail

9. Placing of bedding

10. Pipe laying

11. Backfilling

12. Compaction

13. Excavation for Y-branch

14. Double Bitumen Surface Treatment (DBST) (Temporary re- instatement)

15. Asphalting (Final re- instatement) (Full width or trench width)

16. Manhole construction (starts after activity No.7 above but is independent of pipe laying works)

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1. Clearance from the Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit (TMRSU)

Before any civil work is carried out on a particular stretch of road, the contractor must request the approval of the TMRSU. The latter then devise a traffic diversion plan of that particular road before giving approval to start works. A model traffic diversion plan has been enclosed in the appendix. [Appendix A]

2. Clearance from the Municipality of Quatres-Bornes

Approval must also be given by the Municipality for works to start. The contractor must submit information about duration of works and give details about the stretch to be excavated. Site meetings are carried out by the WMA, together with representatives of the Municipality of Quatres-Bornes, consultant and contractor for strategic roads and avenues of special importance. In those meetings, health and safety, infrastructure, vehicular access and traffic diversion are discussed and a consensus is reached between the different parties. A copy of one of the minutes of meeting is enclosed in the appendix for one of these site meetings. [Appendix B]

3. Public Relation (PR)

This is an important step before works are started. Public Relation Officers inform the inhabitants the starting date for civil works and the stretch of road to be closed. This is done by distribution of flyers on which all necessary details are given like whether pedestrian and vehicular access will be provided, including contacts (telephone number) of the site agent and WMA site office for any queries. Where possible, inhabitants are also informed verbally. In cases of classified roads or major roads, the public is also informed by radio announcement and written press. A copy to a typical flyer is enclosed in the appendix. [Appendix C]

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4. Trial pit excavation

Excavation for a trial pit is carried out to locate existing services like water pipes and telecom cables when their exact location is unknown. The positioning of the sewer alignment is determined in such a way to avoid damaging of those services during excavation.

a way to avoid damaging of those services during excavation. 5. Transferring of Temporary Benchmark (TBM)

5. Transferring of Temporary Benchmark (TBM)

A flying level is carried out with an automatic level and staff from a nearby TBM whose invert level is known. This TBM is transferred to a location near the working front. This is done by the site agent or surveyor and chainman from the contractor’s side. Then, a civil works inspector from the consultant’s side cross checks invert levels recorded by repeating the flying level exercise. He then gives approval for works to proceed.

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6. Setting out

Markings on the road surface for setting o ut are done by paint, usually of yellow colour. These markings indicate the boundary of the trench to be excavated. Location of manholes, invert levels for Temporary Benchmarks and chainages are also marked where necessary.

Benchmarks and chainages are also marked where necessary. 7. Excavation Excavation is carried out with a

7. Excavation

and chainages are also marked where necessary. 7. Excavation Excavation is carried out with a n

Excavation is carried out with a n excavator. The excavated soil is carted away by lorry to the contractor’s compound where the big rocks are removed and the sieved soil is normally used for backfilling. Trench width normally takes consideration for allowing access for labour and equipment. It may vary from 600mm to 1m depending on the geology (rocky areas may require larger width), diameter of pipe used and other factors.

600mm to 1m depending on the geology (rocky areas may require larger width), diameter of pipe
600mm to 1m depending on the geology (rocky areas may require larger width), diameter of pipe

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8. Setting of sight rail

The setting of a sight rail is important to determine the depth of excavat ion, depth of bedding, and invert levels of pipe. To control the extent of excavation and bedding, a traveller is used. The traveller can be either a boning rod or staff.

is used. The traveller can be either a boning rod or staff. 9. Placing of bedding

9. Placing of bedding

can be either a boning rod or staff. 9. Placing of bedding A layer of bedding

A layer of bedding material is placed up to a depth of 150mm before laying of sewer pipes according to specification. The sewer pipe is placed on this layer of bedding. Its purpose is to protect the sewer pipe from damage.

specification. The sewer pipe is placed on this layer of bedding. Its purpose is to protect

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10. Placing of manhole

Heavy duty manholes for street sewer consist of several precast concrete rings whose heights vary according to the depth of the manhole. Before laying the first ring, a blinding layer of 50mm is laid on the soil surface.

ring, a blinding layer of 50mm is laid on the soil surface. 11. Pipe laying Before

11. Pipe laying

layer of 50mm is laid on the soil surface. 11. Pipe laying Before laying of sewer

Before laying of sewer pipe, the depth of bedding along the trench is checked using the traveller. Pipe alignment is verified by visual inspection using the sight rails. After pipe laying, invert levels at every 1 m are checked according to the construction drawings.

the sight rails. After pipe laying, invert levels at every 1 m are checked according to

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12.

Backfilling

After laying of sewer pipe, backfilling is carried out by filling the trench with soil containing rocks of not more than 150 mm diameter according to specification. Backfilling is carried out in layers of depth not exceeding 150 mm.

is carried out in layers of depth not exceeding 150 mm. 13. Compaction Compaction of backfilled

13.

Compaction

out in layers of depth not exceeding 150 mm. 13. Compaction Compaction of backfilled soil is

Compaction of backfilled soil is carried out with a vibration plate compactor in layers not exceeding 150mm. This process must not be carried out in rainy condition. Crusher run is used for the last layer of backfilling.

150mm. This process must not be carried out in rainy condition. Crusher run is used for

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14.

Excavation for Y-branch

Wastewater pipes for house connection are connected to the main sewer network on the road by a fitting called “Y- branch”. Excavation for the part of the wastewater pipes for house connection which lie on the road is carried out after backfilling of the road trench. It is not carried out simultaneously with road excavation due to lack of space for the JCB.

with road excavation due to lack of space for the JCB. 15. Double Bitumen Surface Treatment
with road excavation due to lack of space for the JCB. 15. Double Bitumen Surface Treatment

15. Double Bitumen Surface Treatment (DBST) (Temporary re- instatement)

A temporary re- instatement of the road is carried out with bitumen before proceeding with final re-instatement. A tack coat is sprayed on the road surface before spreading the bitume n layer. The bitumen is laid in two layers.

A tack coat is sprayed on the road surface before spreading the bitume n layer. The

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16. Asphalting (Final re- instatement)

Asphaltic concrete is laid as final re - instatement. This can be either trench width, i.e. asphalt is laid only along on the trench that was excavated or it can cover the full width of the road. A tack coat is sprayed on the road surface before the layer of asphaltic concrete is laid.

road surface before the layer of asphaltic concrete is laid. House connection Generally, the criteria to

House connection

the layer of asphaltic concrete is laid. House connection Generally, the criteria to be satisfied for

Generally, the criteria to be satisfied for each house connection were:

a) Avoid excavating through tiles, concrete or bricks where possible so as to minimise the

cost for repairing damaged surfaces. The lines must pass preferably through easily excavated and easily re- instated surface such as soil or aggregates. However, it was dependent to a large

extent on the availability of such options.

b) Minimise the use of manholes where possible.

c) Align the sewer pipe in such a way so as to make provision for future constructions in the

yard of the house owner, which may interfere with the laid pipeline. Y-Branches were also provided on bare lands to cater for future connections due to future constructions.

d) The slopes of the 110 mm diameter pipes are designed to a gradient in the range of 1 in

40 to 1 in 80 and with respect to the pipe dia meter and to provide adequate cover to the pipe. The

slopes were also designed based on the criterion that the pipe must be self cleansing, that is, sediments must not clog the pipe due a too low velocity.

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Consultant has the duty to verify the following:

i. Pipes (110 mm dia. or 160 mm dia. depending of type of waste wate r being carried for Contract WW81F)

ii. Gully traps

iii. Grey water pipes

iv. Water Closet and bathroom connections

v. Air vents

vi. Inspection Chambers

Replacement of water pipes

According to the contract, 50km of water pipes need to be replaced. The old asbestos water pipes are replaced by HDPE pipes. Excavation dep th for water pipes are normally than that for sewer pipes.

water pipes are replaced by HDPE pipes. Excavation dep th for water pipes are normally than

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water pipes are replaced by HDPE pipes. Excavation dep th for water pipes are normally than

Tests carried on site

1. Test for watertightness

The water tight test is done to locate any losses in the casted concrete manholes on the road. For this, the ends of the pipe are closed by means of airtight plugs. The manhole is saturated with water and after 24 hours of saturation, the water level in the manhole is noted. After 30 minutes, the new water level is noted again. If the drop in water level is around 10 mm or less as per contract specification, then, it can be concluded that the manholes were well casted and that there are no significant water losses.

well casted and that there are no significant water losses. 2. Air test for sewer The

2. Air test for sewer

there are no significant water losses. 2. Air test for sewer The ends of the pipe

The ends of the pipe to be tested are closed by means of airtight plugs, with one of them consisting of an entry pipe controlled by a stopcock. The entry pipe is connec ted to an air pump provided with a U tube manometer capable of reading up to 200 mm head of water.

Air is pumped into the system until a 100 mm head is registered. This pressure is maintained for 15 minutes. The air pressure must not fall by more than 25 mm of water for a period of 5 minutes. If the loss in pressure is more than specified, the pipe must be searched for leakage and the test repeated again.

A typical sheet for recording data for air test is included in the appendix. [Appendix D]

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3. Compaction test

Compaction test using troxler equipment is carried out. The troxler equipment is placed on the layer whose degree of compaction need to be tested. This can be either compacted soil or crusher run. The equipment is activated and after 15 seconds, the values are noted. This delay is because the troxler emits radioactive rad iation. A 95% compaction is required for the test to pass.

4. Benkelman deflection test

The Benkelman deflection test is carried out on classified roads under the responsibility of the RDA (Road Development Authority). During the industrial training, one deflection test was carried out at avenue Berthaud by the RDA’s technical team in the presence of WMA representative, and consultant’s supervisory staff.

The Benkelman beam is a simple device that operates on the lever arm principle. A loaded truck

is used with 80 kN on a single axle with dual tires inflated 550 kPa.

placing the tip of the beam between the dual tires and measuring the pavement surface rebound as the truck is moved away. Readings for deflection are taken on the le ft, right and center of the road.

Measurement is made by

is moved away. Readings for deflection are taken on the le ft, right and center of
is moved away. Readings for deflection are taken on the le ft, right and center of

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Commissioning

Commissioning takes place after all constructions have been completed. It involves a routine check to assess whether the sewer network is functioning properly and is ready for operation. This check is carried out by a WMA civil works inspector in the presence of the site agent from the contractor’s side and the consultant’s civil works inspector.

The following aspects are checked during the commissioning stage:

1. Whether manhole has been constructed according to the construction drawing

2. Quality of benching (the slope and texture must be appropriate so that was tewater is drained

away)

3. Slope of the channel

4. Manhole cover (whether the dimension and the concrete seating around the manhole cover are

appropriate and whether its level is even with the road surface).

5. Presence of any leakage

6. Making good (whether texture and appearance is appropriate).

7. Flow test

The flow test involves the pouring of water in one manhole to check if the water drains away. Another manhole in the same sewer line is checked for drainage of the water.

manhole to check if the water drains away. Another manhole in the same sewer line is
manhole to check if the water drains away. Another manhole in the same sewer line is

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After the commissioning, the necessary remedial measures are taken by the contractor. A table

for recording data during commissioning is included in the appendix. [Appendix E]

Health & Safety issues on site

Health and safety is an important issue in any constructio n project and guidelines set in the

specification need to be strictly followed by the contractor. The guidelines cater for both workers

and public safety during civil works. The following are outlined in the specification:

Good site management practicesworks. The following are outlined in the specification: Trenches to be protected to prevent cave-in Protective

Trenches to be protected to prevent cave-inin the specification: Good site management practices Protective clothing to workers Boards indication

Protective clothing to workerspractices Trenches to be protected to prevent cave-in Boards indication construction activity shall be displayed

Boards indication construction activity shall be displayedprotected to prevent cave-in Protective clothing to workers Dewatering of trenches safe access to properties Proper

Dewatering of trenches safe access to propertiesBoards indication construction activity shall be displayed Proper site supervision Adequate barriers at work places

Proper site supervisiondisplayed Dewatering of trenches safe access to properties Adequate barriers at work places Immediate backfilling of

Adequate barriers at work placestrenches safe access to properties Proper site supervision Immediate backfilling of trenches after completion of

Immediate backfilling of trenches after completion of collector installation/testingProper site supervision Adequate barriers at work places A Health and Safety officer is responsible for

A Health and Safety officer is responsible for ensuring that the above are respected. A typical

report by the contractor’s health and safety officer is included in the appendix. [Appendix F ]

safety officer is included in the appendix. [Appendix F ] In the above two pictures, proper
safety officer is included in the appendix. [Appendix F ] In the above two pictures, proper

In the above two pictures, proper netting, signs, and barricading were provided. Workers also wore protective helmets and reflective jackets.

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Environment Impact

Dust, noise and flooding are main environment nuisances that need to be addressed and mitigation measures include the following:

-water sprinkling in dry weather,

-covering of stock piles of excavated material,

-maintenance of roads clear of mud and dirt from the site

Another important issue which needs to be addressed is the provision of access to local residents and to various business premises within the project area. Proper programming of construction activities and provision of access through installations over trenches is a solution to this problem.

Traffic Impact

The contractor is responsible for maintenance, control, and safeguarding of traffic. These include orientation, elevation, offset and location of all signs erected.

Civil works have several negative impacts on traffic namely: impact on residents along roads, and traffic congestion. Some of the mitigation measures for these include:

-Proper planning and co-ordination of traffic diversions,

-limitation of open trenches length

-informing public in advance of diversions

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Project Management Aspect

The WMA, being the client, has the responsibility to ensure that the project is being implemented within the time and budget defined in the contract. Quality of work is also monitored by the WMA’s technical team.

The WMA monitors the performance of the co nsultant and the contractor through the consultant. The consultant submits progress reports at regular intervals to show the amount of work that has been achieved and whether the target set has been reached.

The WMA ensures communication with the different authorities like the CWA, CEB, Municipality, and the Ministry for matters related to the project through meetings, letters and by phone. Complaints from residents are also processed and the necessary actions are taken where necessary.

Public Relation Aspect

The public relation (PR) team is responsible for establis hing the link between all stakeholders and the WMA. Complaints from residents are taken, processed and referred to the contractor for remedial actions. PR officers also sensitize the public before any excavation works.

Also, before any road closure, the PR team has to carry out an awareness explaining the nature of works and its duration.

The PR team is mostly responsible for providing a positive image of the organization which enhances community building.

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E. Assignments carried out during the industrial placement

During the placement, I assisted the WMA project team for the following assignments:

1. Daily site visits to check progress of work

This involved recording of all progress on site (at which stage works have reached), whether works are carried out according to quality expected and reporting of any other problems if any. The data are recorded and reported back to the Project Manager or site Engineer. These data are required for project management and decision-taking. A sheet for site records is included in the appendix.

2. Witnessing of repairs on CWA pipes

On several occasions, water pipes were damaged due to excavation works and required immediate repairs. The procedures for repair were witnessed and progress was reported to the Engineer.

and required immediate repairs. The procedures for repair were witnessed and progress was reported to the

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3. Assignments on site

During the industrial placement, several assignments were carried out on site together with the consultant’s supervisory staffs. These are:

(a)

Transferring of Temporary Benchmarks (TBM)

This was done with an automatic level and staff by the flying level method. These TBMs were used for setting sight rails to control depth of excavation on the site required.

(b)

Setting out of sewer alignment

During setting out, the different chainages and the boundary of the trench to be excavated were marked.

(c)

Checking of sight rails and levels of sewer line

(d)

Checking of compaction on road base

This is performed with troxler equipment. Compacting test is carried out both on compacted soil for backfilling and crusher run on road base. A 95% compaction is expected for the test to pass.

(e)

Manhole construction

(f)

Checking invert levels and slope of pipe

(g)

Checking of Y-branch as per construction drawings

4. Witnessing of tests carried on site

Several tests were witnessed on site. These are:

(a)

Compaction test

(b)

Water tightness test

(c)

Air test for manhole

(d)

Benkelman beam deflection test

(e)

Flow test

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5. Assisting the WMA civil works inspectors during commissioning

This consists of making checks as mentioned previously on the manhole and sewer network and recording of the required data.

6. Monitoring Health and Safety on site

Health and Safety is a very important issue which needs to be monitored closely and

continuously. This was done during site visits to check progress of work. If guidelines for Health

and Safety were not respected by the contractor’s staffs on site, the cases were rep orted back to

the WMA’s Project Manager. He then refers to the consultant to give the necessary instructions

to the contractor.

7. Assisting WMA’s audit team with respect to billing

The WMA’s audit team carries out checks for houses to assess whether they are already

connected to the sewer network or works are still overdue. These checks are required to start the

billing of the customers connected to the sewer network. The audit team is assisted by the

WMA’s technical team. If final connection has not been completed, the Project Manager is

notified. The latter will then instruct the contractor through the consultant to do the needful.

8. Reconnaissance survey of roads and trenches within the project area.

This survey consisted of checking the presence of snags, state of the manhole covers and

concrete seating around it, whether manholes are leveled with the road surface, and the state of

the roads where excavation and final re- instatement have already been completed. A report was

written about the road conditions and where necessary remedial works were required; the

contractor was instructed by the WMA through the consultant to do the needful. (A sample page

of the report is included in appendix I)

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9. Survey to check state of road markings

Road markings are an important issue since their absence is the cause of many road accidents. The contractor has the responsibility to re- instate the road markings on roads where excavation works took place. This survey was done to assess the condition of the road markings. A report was written giving details of road markings that are incomplete or have faded away. This was sent to the contractor through the consultant to do the remedial works where necessary.

10.

Survey to quantify number of house connections

where final connection is long

overdue.

There are many houses where final connection was not completed by the contractor and several complaints were registered by the WMA from the house owners. This survey was carr ied out to check which of these houses final connection is not completed. A report was written which was sent to the contractor through the consultant to complete the work.

11. Survey to assess socio-economic issues before excavation works

A survey is nor mally carried out by the WMA to assess socio - economic issues before excavation works start in city centers. I was assigned to assist the WMA Public Relation team to carry out the survey for phase 16 of St-Jean road. During this survey, a site visit is carr ied to locate presence of Hospitals, Schools, shops and other buildings where services are offered to the public. The data is recorded and an assessment is carried out on the impact of excavation works on the Health of the people and activities in the site area. This facilitates a proper planning and sequencing of works in order not to affect the socio-economic activities in the area.

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12. Site visit to attend complaints

Site visits were carried out with the WMA’s technical and Public Relation team in the presence of representatives from the contractor and consultant. The objective was to assess the problem and find solution. The following cases were attended:

(a)

blockage problems

(b)

wayleave issues

(c)

property damaged due to excavation works and not properly re- instated.

13. Meetings attended

Meetings that were attended during the industrial placement consist of both site meetings and office meetings. The following meetings were attended:

(a) CWA meeting

This meeting is held once every month to discuss the problems arising and to monitor progress of works for replacement of CWA water pipes and pipe repairs. The parties present are the CWA, WMA, representatives from the contractor and the consultant.

(b) Complaints committee

The Complaints committee is held every week to discuss about the complaints that were registered from residents. The parties involved are the Public Relation Officers from the WMA and the contractor and a representative from the consultant. An evaluation is made to assess the complaints that were attended on a case to case basis and those that are still overdue.

(c) Meeting for Health & Safety issues

A meeting, chaired by the Project Manager of the WMA, was organized at the WMA site office to discuss matters related to Health & Safety. Guidelines were not respected by the contractor’s staffs on site. Parties present were representatives of the WMA, consultant and

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contractor. I was assigned to take the notes of meeting. The contractor was instructed to take appropriate remedial actions and to abide by the Health & Safety guidelines.

(d) Site meeting before the opening of the working front on Avenue Girofliers

A site meeting was organized by the WMA before the start of excavation works on Aven ue

Girofliers to discuss on the methodology of work, time frame, Health and Safety and Public Relation issues involved. This is because this working front is situated in near a market place where sellers need to have vehicular access for loading and unload ing of goods. Parties presents were representatives from the WMA, municipality, consultant and contractor.

(e) Site meeting for re- instatement of road markings on St-Jean road

A site meeting was organized by the WMA with representatives from the contractor and

consultant and the RDA to re-instate the yellow boxes on St-Jean road. These faded away due to excavation works and their re- instatement was a top priority as absence of yellow boxes can be a cause of road accident. The contractor was instructed to do the necessary

remedial works by the WMA through the consultant.

(f) Site meeting for emergency works at Residence St-Jean

A site meeting was organized by the WMA at Residence St-Jean in the presence of representatives from the contractor and consultant. This was due to overflow of an absorption pit. Accumulation of water on the ground surface resulted in breeding of mosquitoes and germs which are dangerous for the health of the inhabitants. The WMA instructed the

contractor through the consultant to start final connection works so that the absorption pit can

be de-commissioned.

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14. Office works

(a) Checking of Interim Payment Certificates

Due to the long duration of the project, payment to the contractor were made after each month to depending on the progress of works.

The payment certificate is a well- structured detailed document about payments of items that the contractor claimed for. In the payment certificate, the quantities of items (where defined) are checked as per works progress records. Pre vious amounts as well as actual amounts are noted and the cumulative quantities are also mentioned in the payment certificates. The rates inserted are cross-checked in the Bill of Quantities; and errors, if any, rectified. The quantities of items are calculated at the corresponding rates and the total sum noted.

Moreover, if any mistakes in payment (either more or less) to the contractor were made, the mistakes are rectified in the payment certificate. The contractor is notified of any changes made.

The payment certificates are sent to the audit section of the company to cross-check the payments after being verified by the WMA’s engineer and approved.

(b) Writing of notes of meetings

Notes of meeting were written for the different meetings attended during the placement.

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(c) Exposure and awareness of contract documents

The contract document generally consists of the following:

Contract Agreement

General Conditions of Contract

Special Conditions of Contract

Bill of Quantities

Drawings

Specifications

Pricing Schedules

Insurances and Bonds (Performance and Retention Bonds)

(d) Perusal of claims

One of the claims that I perused during the placement is the Claim 23. The contractor claimed for an extension of time to complete the works. The fundaments of the Claim are:

1. “ Additional depths of excavation for street sewers which are much greater than the

depths as outlined in tender documents. The additional works have reduced the productivity of the contractor’s Equipment, as it takes a lot longer to excavate and lay pipes in deeper trenches”.

2. “Additional street sewers from additional lanes which were not shown on the Tender

drawings but required sewer pipe. These street sewers are of different nature as was included in the tender as these additional sewers are predominantly found in narrow lanes in which the activities of street sewer teams are hindered and the teams can only achieve a reduced output. This increases the cost of construction of the sewers thereby further slowing down the progress and hence prolonging the completion date”.

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F. Outcomes and Evaluation

The 20 weeks placement has successfully achieved the aims and objectives set for the industrial training. The following outcomes were achieved:

1. Ability to take initiatives and responsibilities

Initiatives and responsibilities were successfully taken through the various assignments given.

2. Capability to identify and solve technical problems

During the whole of the placement, I was exposed to several civil engineering problems on site where theoretical knowledge acquired at the university was used to find solutions. Some of them are:

(a) During one of the commissioning exercise, there was a need to find a practical solution. The slope of the channel of one manhole was too low for wastewater to be carried away. The solution was to increase the slope.

(b) There was a situation where slope of a sewer pipe was such that the latter could not be connected to an existing manhole. New invert levels were found through back-calculation based on a new gradient to solve the problem.

3. Ability to work in groups

Team-working proved to be vital in this project. Proper coordination was established between the Technical and Public Relation teams together with other parties to fulfill the duties required. Leadership skills were also acquired from the different assignments.

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4. Capacity to communicate effectively with people at all levels

Communication was established at all levels. These include communication with the WMA,

contractor’s and consultant’s staff, and with the public. I had to report information to the P roject

Manager and site engineer about the progress of work and site conditions effectively and

accurately. I also took complaints from residents and give advice where necessary.

Medium of communication was in various forms: verbally, by telephone, emails, letters and reports.

5. Code of ethics

These guiding principles had to be respected :

To fulfill lawful obligations with professionalism, integrity and loyalty.of ethics These guiding principles had to be respected : To fulfill duties honestly, faithfully and

To fulfill duties honestly, faithfully and efficiently while respecting the rights of the public and their colleagues.obligations with professionalism, integrity and loyalty. The training also helped to develop qualities like

The training also helped to develop qualities like integrity, selflessness, impartiality, objectivity,

accountability, openness, honesty and justice.

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G. Conclusion

This industrial placement of 20 weeks at the WMA was a very enriching experience in the field of Civil Engineering, especially Wastewater Engineering. Theoretical knowledge previously learnt at the university was put into practice to solve Engineering prob lems. These include Engineering Management and Economics, Geotechnical Engineering, Environmental and Wastewater Engineering and many other theories learnt during the three years at university.

Successful integration in the world of work and all-round development were achieved and I do believe that this formation will contribute greatly in the field of civil engineering for the coming academic year and in my professional career.

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Appendix A

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Appendix B

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Appendix C

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Appendix D

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Appendix E

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Appendix F

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Appendix G

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Appendix H

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Appendix I

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