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Job Number Sheet Job Title Software Consultants (Pty) Ltd Internet: http://www.prokon.com E-Mail : mail@prokon.com
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Example: Braced slender column with bi-axial moment
C12
Circular column design by PROKON.
(CirCol Ver W2.5.06 - 01 Sep 2011)
Design code : BS8110 - 1997
Input tables
General design parameters and loads:
Load
Ultimate Limit State Design Loads
Case
Description
P (kN)
Mx top (kNm)
My top (kNm)
Mx bot (kNm)
My bot (kNm)
1
DL+LL
20
10
10
0
0
Ø
(mm)
300
d'
(mm)
41
Lo
(m)
6
fcu (MPa)
25
fy
(MPa)
460
General design parameters:
Y
Given:
300
d
= 300 mm
d'
= 41 mm
Lo = 6.000 m
fcu = 25 MPa
fy = 460 MPa
200
X
X
100
Therefore:
0
.
2
d
Y
Ac = p
4
p
× 300 2
=
4
=
70.69×10 3 mm²
diax' = dia -
d'
= 300 -
41
= 259.000 mm
diay' = dia -
d'
=
300 -
41
=
259.000 mm
Assumptions:
(1) The general conditions of clause 3.8.1 are applicable.
(2) The section is symmetrically reinforced.
(3) The specified design axial loads include the self-weight of the column.
(4) The design axial loads are taken constant over the height of the column.
0
100
200
300
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Design approach:
The column is designed using an iterative procedure:
(1) The column design charts are constructed.
(2) An area steel is chosen.
(3) The corresponding slenderness moments are calculated.
(4) The design axis and design ultimate moment is determined .
(5) The steel required for the design axial force and moment is read from
the relevant design chart.
(6) The procedure is repeated until the convergence of the area steel
about the design axis.
(7) The area steel perpendicular to the design axis is read from the relevant
design chart.
Check column slenderness:
End fixity and bracing for bending about the X-X axis:
At the top end: Condition 2 (partially fixed).
At the bottom end: Condition 3 (pinned).
The column is braced.
\
ßx = 0.95
Table 3.21
End fixity and bracing for bending about the Y-Y axis:
At the top end: Condition 2 (partially fixed).
At the bottom end: Condition 3 (pinned).
The column is braced.
\
ßy = 0.95
Table 3.21
Effective column height:
.
lex = ßx
L
o
= .95 ×6
= 5.700 m
.
ley = ßy
L
o
= .95 ×6
= 5.700 m
Column slenderness about both axes:
l
ex
lx
=
dia
5.7
=
.3
=
19.000
l ey
ly
=
dia
5.7
=
.3
=
19.000
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Minimum Moments for Design:

   

Check for mininum eccentricity:

 

3.8.2.4

 

For bi-axial bending, it is only necessary to ensure that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum about one axis at a time.

 

For the worst effect, apply the minimum eccentricity about the minor axis:

 

emin = 0.05

.

d

 

= 0.05 ×.3

 

= 0.0150 m

 
 

Mmin = emin N

.

 
 

= .015 ×20

 

= 0.3000 kNm

 

Check if the column is slender:

3.8.1.3

 

lx = 19.0 > 15

 

ly = 19.0 > 15

\

The column is slender.

 

Check slenderness limit:

3.8.1.7

 

Lo = 6.000 m < 60×dia' = 18.000 m

 

\

Slenderness limit not exceeded.

Initial moments:

 

The initial end moments about the X-X axis:

 
 

M1 = Smaller initial end moment = 0.0 kNm M2 = Larger initial end moment = 10.0 kNm

The initial moment near mid-height of the column :

3.8.3.2

 

Mi =

-

0.4

.

M1

+

0.6

.

M2

= - 0.4 ×0 + 0.6 ×10

= 6.000 kNm

 

Mi2 = 0.4

.

M2

 

= 0.4 ×10

= 4.000 kNm

 

\

Mi ³ 0.4M2 = 6.0 kNm

 
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The initial end moments about the Y-Y axis:
M1 = Smaller initial end moment = 0.0 kNm
M2 = Larger initial end moment = 10.0 kNm
The initial moment near mid-height of the column :
3.8.3.2
.
.
Mi =
-
0.4
M1
+
0.6
M2
= - 0.4 ×0 + 0.6 ×10
= 6.000 kNm
.
Mi2 = 0.4
M2
= 0.4 ×10
= 4.000 kNm
\ Mi ³ 0.4M2 = 6.0 kNm
Deflection induced moments:
3.8.3.1
Design ultimate capacity of section under axial load only:
.
.
.
.
Nuz = 0.4444
f cu
A
c
+ 0.95
f
y
A sc
= 0.4444 ×25000 ×.07069 + 0.95 ×460000 ×.0003
= 916.466 kN
Maximum allowable stress and strain:
Allowable compression stress in steel
.
f
sc = 0.95
f
y
= 0.95 ×460
= 437.000 MPa
Allowable tensile stress in steel
.
f
st = 0.95
f
y
= 0.95 ×460
= 437.000 MPa
Allowable tensile strain in steel
ey = f Es st
= 438.1
200000
= 0.0022
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Allowable compressive strain in concrete
e c = 0.0035
For bending about the X-X axis:
Balanced neutral axis depth
dia
-
dcx
xbal =
ey
1
+
cstrain
.3
-
.041
=
.00219
1
+
.0035
= 0.1593 mm
Nbal calculated from basic principles using x = xbal = 368.3 kN
Nuz
-
N
K =
Nuz
-
Nbal
756.77
-
20
=
756.77
-
368.34
= 1.897
2
1
l
ex
.
ßa =
2000
dia
2
1
5.7
=
×
2000
.3
= 0.1805
Therefore:
.
.
Madd = N
ßa . K
dia
= 20 ×.1805 ×1 ×.3
= 1.083
For bending about the Y-Y axis:
Balanced neutral axis depth
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dia
-
dc
xbal =
ey
1
+
cstrain
.3
-
.041
=
.00219
1
+
.0035
= 0.1593 mm
Nbal calculated from basic principles using x = xbal = 368.3 kN
Nuz
-
N
K =
Nuz
-
Nbal
756.77
-
20
=
756.77
-
368.34
= 1.897
2
1
l
ey
.
ßa =
2000
dia
2
1
5.7
=
×
2000
.3
= 0.1805
Therefore:
.
.
Madd = N
ßa . K
dia
= 20 ×.1805 ×1 ×.3
= 1.083
Design ultimate load and moment:
Design axial load:
P u = 20.0 kN
For bending about the X-X axis, the maximum design moment is the greatest of:
3.8.3.2
(a)
3.8.3.2
M 2 = 10.0 kNm
(b)
3.8.3.2
M = Mi + Madd
= 6 + 1.083
= 7.083 kNm
(c)
3.8.3.2
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Madd
M
= M1 +
2
1.083
= 0
+
2
= 0.5415 kNm
(d)
3.8.3.2
.
M
= emin N
= .015 ×20
= 0.3000 kNm
Thus
3.8.3.2
M = 10.0 kNm
Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the X-X:
At the top, Mx = 10.0 kNm
Near mid-height, Mx = 7.1 kNm
At the bottom, Mx = 0.0 kNm
Moments about X-X axis( kNm)
Mx=10.0 kNm
Mxtop=10.0 kNm
Madd/2=0.5 kNm
Mxmin=0.3 kNm
+
=
Initial
Additional
Design
For bending about the Y-Y axis, the maximum design moment is the greatest of:
3.8.3.2
(a)
3.8.3.2
M 2 = 10.0 kNm
(b)
3.8.3.2
M
= Mi + Madd
= 6 + 1.083
= 7.083 kNm
(c)
3.8.3.2
Mxadd/2=1.1 kNm
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Madd
M
= M1 +
2
1.083
= 0
+
2
= 0.5415 kNm
(d)
3.8.3.2
.
M
= emin N
= .015 ×20
= 0.3000 kNm
Thus
3.8.3.2
M = 10.0 kNm
Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the Y-Y:
At the top, My = 10.0 kNm
Near mid-height, My = 7.1 kNm
At the bottom, My = 0.3 kNm
Moments about Y-Y axis( kNm)
My=10.0 kNm
Mytop=10.0 kNm
Madd/2=0.5 kNm
Mymin=0.3 kNm
+
=
Initial
Additional
Design
Design of column section for ULS:
Through inspection:
The critical section lies at the top end of the column.
The column is bi-axially bent: the moments are therefore added vectorially
to obtain the final design moment:
M' =
Mx 2 +
My 2
10 2 + 10 2
= 14.142
=
Myadd/2=1.1 kNm
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Design axial load:
P u = 20.0
For bending about the design axis:
Column design chart
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
5%
6%
2%
3%
4%
0%
1%
400
200
-200
-400
-600
-800
-1000
-1200
-1400
-1600
-1800
Bending Moment (kNm)
From the design chart, Asc = 299 = 0.42%
Design chart for bending about any axis:
Column design chart
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
4%
5%
6%
3%
0%
1%
2%
400
200
-200
-400
-600
-800
-1000
-1200
-1400
-1600
-1800
Bending Moment (kNm)
Axial Load (kN)
Axial Load (kN)
10.0
10.0
20.0
20.0
30.0
30.0
40.0
40.0
50.0
50.0
60.0
60.0
70.0
70.0
80.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
100
100
110
110
120
120
130
130
140
140
150
150
160
160
170
170
Moment max = 141.5kNm @ 315 kN
Moment max = 141.5kNm @ 315 kN
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Summary of design calculations:

 

Design results for all load cases:

 
 

Load case

Axis

N (kN)

 

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Madd (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

M' (kNm)

Asc (mm²)

 

X-X

   

0.0

10.0

6.0

 

1.1

X-X

10.0

   

1

Y-Y

20.0

0.0

10.0

6.0

1.1

Top

10.0

14.1

299 (0.42%)