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3.

PAVEMENT DESIGN

3.1

INTRODUCTION
Volume 2 Exhibit D Special Specifications Part DI Employers Requirements
details the following salient consideration for the airfield pavements:
1.

The pavement design for the various airfield elements shall comply with the
Federal Aviation Administration FAA standards and proposed practices.

2.

For flexible pavement type - layered flexible pavement shall be considered


including the following exclusive succession of layers from top to bottom:
bituminous concrete surface course, tack coat, bituminous base course,
prime coat, unbound crushed aggregate base and/or aggregate sub-base
courses, compacted subgrade, and natural subgrade etc.

3.

For rigid pavement - jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) shall be


considered with adequately spaced contraction joints, while using dowel
bars for load transfer across joints (it is assumed that dowelling is only in
one direction). Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) shall be used
only when odd shaped slabs are encountered. For the rigid Jointed Plain
Concrete Pavement, layered rigid pavement shall be considered including
the following exclusive succession of layers from top to bottom: Portland
Cement Concrete Slab, cement or asphalt treated base course, unbound
crushed aggregate base and/or aggregate subbase courses, compacted
sub-grade, and natural sub-grade.

4.

The properties of the subgrade soil shall be studied in order to determine


the corresponding subgrade soil design parameters (CBR, Modulus of
Elasticity, Modulus of subgrade reaction, etc.).

5.

The airfield fleet mix using KAIA shall be analyzed and generated for the
design life, taking into account the annual growth in air traffic.

6.

The distribution of the aircraft loading around the various zones of the
airport and consequently the anticipated load on each airfield element shall
be determined separately.

7.

The airfield pavement design shall be carried out using the latest state-ofthe-art computer programs (software) that cater for the large body aircraft
wheel configuration such as the A380, A340, B777, B747, AN225, etc. and
that can account for the wander effect in order to optimize the resulting
pavement thicknesses. Fatigue equations shall conform to the
requirements of the US Corps of Engineers for asphalt concrete and
granular materials and subgrade and to those of the Portland Cement
Association for cement concrete.

8.

The pavement design of shoulder shall be checked to accommodate


occasional passages of critical aircrafts considered in pavement design and
the critical axle load of emergency or maintenance vehicles which may
pass over the area, according to the International standards.

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3.2

BASIS OF DESIGN

3.2.1

Overview
The pavement design for the aircraft pavements associated with the development
of the Saudi Aerospace Engineering Industries Aircraft Maintenance Hangars,
Jeddah - individual hangar pavements, external apron, Taxiway MA and Taxilane
LB, has considered a range of factors including:
The existing site conditions
Existing subsoil conditions
Proposed operating conditions
Current and proposed aircraft types
Aircraft wheel and body jacks
Aircraft tugs
Emergency service vehicles
Concrete strength
This report presents a summary of the key assumptions and input data used to
develop the designs for the individual hangar pavements, external apron,
Taxiway MA and Taxilane LB in terms of:
Aircraft loads
Aircraft tug loads and operating frequency
Aircraft jacking operations
Frequency of operations
Subsoil strength
Concrete strength (for rigid) pavements
Emergency service vehicle loads and operating frequency
A number of design scenarios have been considered in developing the pavement
thicknesses. These design scenarios were undertaken to test the sensitivity of
the pavement thickness for both rigid and flexible pavements to variations in the
design assumptions in terms of:
Frequency of aircraft operations
Frequency of jacking operations
Subsoil strength

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The results of the individual analyses are summarized in this report, while
complete details are included in Appendices C and D.
3.2.2

Pavement Types
Flexible Pavements
Flexible pavements generally consist of a dense, hot mix asphalt surfacing
placed on an unbound crushed aggregate base and/or aggregate sub-base
courses), and the pavement is then supported by the subgrade. The design for
Saudi Aerospace Engineering Industries Aircraft Maintenance Hangars is being
carried out using the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) design program FAARFIELD, used in conjunction with the
FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5320-6E. This AC includes guideline
requirements for the various materials for the pavement layers. Where the AC
requires engineering judgement regarding the material to be used this is detailed
and justification for the choices made is given.
For flexible pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum vertical strain at
the top of the subgrade and the maximum horizontal strain at the bottom of the
asphalt surface layer as the predictors of pavement structural life. FAARFIELD
provides the required thickness for all individual layers of flexible pavement (in
this case surface, base and sub-base) needed to support a given aircraft traffic
mix over a particular subgrade for the given design period.
Rigid Pavements
The basic composition of an airfield rigid pavement is a Portland cement concrete,
PCC (which is often referred to as Pavement Quality Concrete PQC), on a
granular or stabilised sub-base supported on the in-situ subgrade after suitable
compaction. The purpose of a base course under a rigid pavement is to provide
uniform stable support for the pavement slabs, and support across the joints. A
minimum thickness of 100mm of base is required under all rigid pavements.
According to FAA, stabilized materials are required for a base course under rigid
pavements serving airplanes weighing 45,359kg or more to improve load transfer
across joint lines and reduce pumping type erosion effects due to flexure of the
slabs at the joint lines.
For rigid pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum horizontal stress at
the bottom edge of the PQC slab as the predictor of pavement structural life. The
maximum horizontal stress for design is determined using an edge loading
condition with approximately 30% load transfer to the adjacent slab.
Once load transfer exceeds 40% across a joint line the interior thickness of the
slab then becomes the critical element. Localised thickened edges are required
at transitions from concrete to asphaltic surfacing or at box outs for manholes,
service pit, grated drains, etc. FAARFIELD provides the required thickness of the
rigid pavement slab needed to support a given aircraft traffic mix over a particular
subgrade/base course for the given design period. The life of the concrete
surfacing is very sensitive to changes in slab thickness, and the stiffness of the
immediate supporting layer.

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The required thickness of concrete pavement is related to the strength of the


concrete used for construction of the pavement. For airfield pavement design, the
strength of the concrete is characterized by the flexural strength (since the
primary action and failure mode of a concrete pavement is in flexure), rather than
the more commonly used unconfined crushing strength tests (UCS) associated
with building works.
The construction of rigid pavements will be done in slabs which are as square as
possible, and with joints spaced to minimize the warping stresses that occur due
to variations in temperature and moisture. These joints also act to minimize
random cracking. Slab thickness relates to joint spacing with slabs typically being
jointed at between 4.5 and 5.0m (slab size is a ratio of typically 12-15 times the
slab thickness).
In the direction of paving, joints will be saw-cut across the paving lane when the
concrete has reached sufficient strength (contraction joints). This will act to
induce cracking of the pavement at these locations. In the transverse direction,
joints will be dowelled to ensure effective load transfer across the joints (dowelled
construction joints).
Pavement Joints
Pavement joints and transitions are of particular importance in a successful
pavement design, especially for airports where maintenance access is often
difficult. Areas adjacent to structures (e.g. drainage channels, pits, manholes, etc.)
can be subject to differential settlement issues and these need to be designed
out where possible. Transitions from rigid to flexible pavement are also a
common area of concern. Our design addresses such issues by presenting our
detailed jointing and transition details.
3.2.3

Aircraft Types and Masses


The range of aircraft assumed to be accessing the aircraft maintenance facility
and individual hangars are summarised in Table 3.1. The aircraft mix assumed in
the initial pavement designs was based on the information contained in the
Tender Documents. Specifically, Drawings PD-APR-TR-005, PD-APR-TR-006,
PD-GD-A-003 and PD-G-AD-100 to 103 indicated a range of aircraft types in the
each hangar.
Following a tender query, Notice to Tenderers No 11 provided the following
clarification in relation to aircraft types:
The intent is to service the combination of aircraft shown in each hangar. The
design is driven by limitations in adjustability of work docks between aircraft types.
1.

Line maintenance hangars shall receive all types of aircrafts.

2.

Wide body heavy maintenance hangars shall be designed to receive all


wide body aircrafts except the A380.

3.

Narrow body heavy maintenance hangars shall be designed to receive all


narrow body aircrafts.

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4.

A380 heavy maintenance hangars shall be designed to received A380


aircrafts.

5.

Wide body paint and wash hangars shall be designed to receive all wide
and narrow body aircrafts except the A380.

6.

A380 paint and wash hangars shall be designed to receive all types of
aircrafts.

The pavement thickness designs as presented in subsequent sections are based


on the aircraft indicated in Table 3.1.
The design criteria for the pavements associated with the aircraft maintenance
facility is based on the aircraft at operating empty weight (OEW) with provision for
varying amounts of fuel.
The internal pavements of the paint hangars, wash hangars and heavy
maintenance hangars are based on operating empty weight (OEW) + 10%
fuel.
The internal pavements of the line maintenance hangars are based on
operating empty weight (OEW) + 50% fuel.
The aircraft parking apron is based on the aircraft arriving at the
maintenance facility at operating empty weight + 50% fuel, prior to being
de-fuelled and moved into the hangars.
Departing aircraft are assumed to be at operating empty weight + 50% fuel
following refuelling.
Table 3.2 provides a summary of a range of masses for individual aircraft.

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3.2.4

Aircraft Jacking Operations and Movements


The initial pavement designs were based on a range of assumptions regarding
the frequency of aircraft jacking in each of the hangars.
Following a tender query, Notice to Tenderers No 11 provided the following
clarification in relation to aircraft jacking frequency:
Line maintenance is unscheduled. The hangar is likely to be in use 24 hours a
day and for minor overnight repairs and for RON positions in poor weather. It is to
support typical line maintenance activity.
Heavy maintenance hangars are expected to be fully occupies with aircraft in C
and D checks. As such, aircraft are likely to be in the narrow hangars for 20-40
days and in the widebody hangars for 30-45 days. Assume a regular cycle of
aircraft in and out of each hangar bay on that schedule.
Aircraft will be in the paint hangar for approximately 6 days, and assume a
regular cycle of aircraft in and out of that hangar on the schedule. The wash
hangar is less regularly scheduled, but assume it is used daily. The designers are
assumed to know the normal operations of MRO facilities for the line and heavy
maintenance.
Aircraft Wash Hangars
The previous pavement designs assumed two (2) aircraft per day through
each of the wash hangars Wash Hangar 1 (A380-800 only), Wash
Hangar 2 (B747-400 only).
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been designed for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at a
frequency of two (2) aircraft per day through each of the wash hangars.
The number of annual movements are summarised in Table 3.3.
No body jacking is assumed in the wash hangars.
No wheel jacking is assumed in the wash hangars.
Aircraft Paint Hangars
The previous pavement designs assumed one (1) aircraft per month
through each of the paint hangars Paint Hangar 1 (B747-400 only), Paint
Hangar 2 (A380-800 only).
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been designed for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at a
frequency of one (1) aircraft every six (6) days through each of the paint
hangars.
The number of annual movements are summarised in Table 3.3.
No body jacking is assumed in the paint hangars.

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No wheel jacking is assumed in the paint hangars.


Heavy Maintenance Hangar No 1 (A380)
The previous pavement designs assumed two (2) aircraft per week were
being jacked in the hangar.
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been redesigned for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at the
following a frequencies:
-

Body jacking operations are based on one (1) aircraft being jacked
per month or 12 annual jacking operations.

Wheel jacking operations are based on one (1) jacking operation per
landing gear assembly per month or 12 annual wheel jacking
operations.

Heavy Maintenance Hangar No 2 & 3 (Narrow Body including B757)


The previous pavement designs assumed two (2) aircraft per week were
being jacked in the hangar.
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been redesigned for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at the
following a frequencies:
-

Body jacking operations are based on one (1) aircraft being jacked
ever three (3) weeks or 18 annual jacking operations.

Wheel jacking operations are based on one (1) jacking operation per
landing gear assembly every three (3) weeks or 18 annual wheel
jacking operations.

Heavy Maintenance Hangar No 4, 5, 6 & 7 (Narrow Body excluding B757)


The previous pavement designs assumed two (2) aircraft per week were
being jacked in the hangar.
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been redesigned for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at the
following a frequencies:
-

Body jacking operations are based on one (1) aircraft being jacked
ever three (3) weeks or 18 annual jacking operations.

Wheel jacking operations are based on one (1) jacking operation per
landing gear assembly every three (3) weeks or 18 annual wheel
jacking operations.

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Heavy Maintenance Hangar No 8, 9, 10,11 & 12 (Wide Body)


The previous pavement designs assumed two (2) aircraft per week were
being jacked in the hangar.
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been redesigned for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at the
following a frequencies:
-

Body jacking operations are based on one (1) aircraft being jacked
per month or 12 annual jacking operations.

Wheel jacking operations are based on one (1) jacking operation per
landing gear assembly per month or 12 annual wheel jacking
operations.

Line Maintenance Hangars


The previous pavement designs assumed four (4) aircraft per day through
each of the line maintenance hangar positions Line Maintenance hangar
1 (A380-800/B747-400), Line Maintenance Hangar 2 (B747-400 only).
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements
have been redesigned for all aircraft types indicated in Table 3.1 at a
frequency of four (4) aircraft per day through each of the maintenance
hangar positions.
The number of annual movements are summarised in Table 3.3.
No body jacking is assumed in the line maintenance hangars.
Wheel jacking operations are based on one (1) jacking operation per
landing gear assembly per day or 365 annual wheel jacking operations.
Table 3.3 Aircraft Jacking Operations
--

-

--

-

--

Wash Hangar 1

730

Wash Hangar 2

730

Paint Hangar 1

61

Paint Hangar 2

61

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 1

12

12

12

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 2

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 3

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 4

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 5

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 6

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 7

18

18

18

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 8

12

12

12

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Table 3.3 Aircraft Jacking Operations (cont.)


--

-

--

-

--

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 9

12

12

12

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 10

12

12

12

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 11

12

12

12

Heavy Maintenance Hangar 12

12

12

12

Line Maintenance Hangar 1

365

1,460

Line Maintenance Hangar 2

365

1,460

Note:

3.2.5

One aircraft operating in and out of the hangar is equivalent to two movements
for the purposes of pavement design.

Aircraft Jacks
Body Jacks
Two types of body jacks have been adopted, these being inner main wing jacks
and remainder of fuselage and outer wing jacks. All jacks are assumed to be
pneumatic tripod jacks with circular base plates. The following jack details have
been assumed in the development of the pavement design for the hangars:
Main wing jacks assumed base plate diameter = 300mm
Forward fuselage jack - assumed base plate dimension = 300mm
Rear fuselage jack assumed base plate dimension = 300mm
Reminder of jack positions assumed base plate diameter = 300mm
Wheel Jacks
For all wide body aircraft, the wheel jacks have been assumed as 225mm x
450mm for the main landing gear and nose landing gear.
For all narrow body aircraft, the wheel jacks have been assumed as 200mm x
450mm for the main landing gear and 125mm x 300mm for the nose landing gear.

3.2.6

Aircraft Jacking Loads


The basis of the individual aircraft body and wheel jacking loads is based on
adopting relevant information from aircraft facility manuals and other reference
documentation where possible (Appendix A). For body jacking the maximum
loads have been adopted. Body jacking loads are summarised in Table 3.4.

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Table 3.4 Aircraft Body Jacking Loads

A318

6,800

6,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A319

6,800

2,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A320-100

6,800

2,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A320-200

6,800

2,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A321-100

6,800

2,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A321-200

6,800

2,000

33,400

n/a

n/a

A330-200

11,135

4,500

73,446

n/a

n/a

A330-300

11,135

4,500

73,446

n/a

n/a

A340-200

12,300

4,500

80,982

n/a

n/a

A340-300

12,300

4,500

81,084

n/a

n/a

A340-500

18,000

9,000

96,000

n/a

n/a

A340-600

18,000

9,000

96,000

n/a

n/a

A350-800

no data

no data

no data

n/a

n/a

A350-900

no data

no data

no data

n/a

n/a

A350-1000

no data

no data

no data

n/a

n/a

A380-800

51,000

12,000

190,000

n/a

n/a

B737-600

7,900

9,900

31,700

n/a

n/a

B737-700

7,900

9,900

31,700

n/a

n/a

B737-800

7,900

9,900

31,700

n/a

n/a

B737-900

7,900

9,900

31,700

n/a

n/a

B737-900ER

7,900

9,900

31,700

n/a

n/a

B747-300

17,900

43,900

90,700

13,600

11,300

B747-400

17,900

43,900

90,700

13,600

11,300

B757-200

12,200

1,800

49,200

n/a

n/a

B757-300

12,200

1,800

49,200

n/a

n/a

B767-200

12,700

30,400

68,000

9,500

n/a

B767-200ER

12,700

30,400

68,000

9,500

n/a

B767-300

12,700

30,400

68,000

9,500

n/a

B767-300ER

12,700

30,400

68,000

9,500

n/a

B767-400ER

12,700

30,400

68,000

9,500

n/a

B777-200

20,400

44,9900

94,300

10,000

7,800

B777-200ER

20,400

44,9900

94,300

10,000

7,800

B777-300

25,900

57,100

119,000

12,700

9,900

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Table 3.4 Aircraft Body Jacking Loads (cont.)

B777-300ER

25,900

57,100

119,000

12,700

9,900

B787-9

20,000

37,200

77,600

8,200

5,400

MD-11F

27,800

n/a

109,100

n/a

3,600

The wheel jacking loads have been determined by adopting the proposed aircraft
design loads, the percentage of the design aircraft mass on the landing gears
and the number of wheel jacking points on the undercarriages of the individual
aircraft.
The distribution of the wheel jacking operations has been assumed as distributed
as 80% on the main undercarriage (split 50/50 each side) and 20% on the nose
wheel.
For aircraft with a centre main landing gear, the distribution of the wheel jacking
operations has been assumed as distributed as 30% on the each of the main
landing gears, 25% on the centre landing gear and 15% on the nose wheel.
3.2.7

Aircraft Tug
The following tender query has been raised in relation to aircraft tugs, the
clarification of which is pending.
In addition to the data on fire tenders and other emergency vehicles (RFI Register No
28), additionally we require details of the aircraft tugs likely to be used by Saudi
Aerospace.

The following data related to the aircraft tug has been assumed for the
development of the pavement design for the hangars pending clarification of the
tender query:
Wide Body Aircraft
The assumed operating mass of the tug is 50,000kg.
The assumed operating tyre pressure is 520kPa.
Movements are based on four (4) movements (on average) in and around the
hangar per aircraft.
Narrow Body Aircraft
The assumed operating mass of the tug is 30,000kg.
The assumed operating tyre pressure is 520kPa.
Movements are based on four (4) movements (on average) in and around the
hangar per aircraft.

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3.2.8

Emergency Service Vehicles


The following tender query has been raised in relation to emergency services
vehicles, the clarification of which is pending.
Please provide details of the fire tenders and other emergency service vehicles currently
operating at KAIA.

The following data related to the emergency services vehicles has been assumed
for the development of the pavement design for the hangars pending clarification
of the tender query:
The emergency services vehicle is assumed to be a 6 wheel Panther or
similar.
The assumed operating mass of the emergency service vehicle is 40,000kg.
The assumed operating tyre pressure is 1,000kPa.
3.2.9

Subgrade Strength
As discussed in Section 2, the pavement design is based on a CBR of 15%. The
sensitivity of pavement thickness to a reduction in the CBR has been assessed
with CBR 10%.
The rigid pavements are designed for a modulus of subgrade reaction, equivalent
to CBR 15%. The modulus of subgrade reaction, or k value, can be calculated
approximately from the CBR value using the equation:
k = (1500 x CBR/26)0.7788
This gives a value in pci (pounds per cubic inch). For the 15% CBR, the k value is
calculated as 194 pci, which converts to 52.4 MN/m3. Similarly, the modulus of
subgrade reaction equivalent to a CBR of 10% is 38.4 MN/m3.
This report has been prepared on the basis of construction of the fill embankment
to provide a stable, uniform subgrade with an equivalent minimum CBR of 15%.
Insitu testing will be required to confirm that such works have been completed as
specified prior to pavement works commencing.

3.2.10

Concrete Strength
The specification (Section 321313) issued with the Tender Documents nominates
a design flexural strength of 4.6 MPa at 28 days.
Load transfer will take place through the provision of dowel bars through the
doweled construction joints and sawn contraction joints.

3.2.11

Design Period
The design period for the pavements (both rigid and flexible) has been assumed
as 30 years.

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3.3

PAVEMENT DESIGNS

3.3.1

Taxiway MA
Taxiway Pavement
All aircraft entering or leaving the facility will access Taxiway MA, entering the
apron initially. Aircraft are assumed to enter the taxiway at OEW + 50% fuel and
park on the apron. Aircraft are assumed to leave the apron (departing the
maintenance facility) at OEW + 50% fuel.
The exception to this is the length of taxiway to the paint hangars and wash
hangars. The aircraft using this portion of the taxiway are assumed to be at OEW
+ 10% fuel maximum.
To simplify the analysis at this stage, a uniform pavement thickness is proposed
for Taxiway MA along its length.
The total number of aircraft entering the facility on an annual basis is derived
from the annual usage of each of the maintenance hangars annually. These
same aircraft are assumed to leave the facility annually.
The previous pavement design proposed a pavement structure of 60mm PMB on
60mm Binder Course on 200mm CABC on 250mm CASBC based on the
assumptions made at the time.
Based on the clarifications in Notice to Tenderers No 11, the pavements have
been redesigned. Table 3.5a provides the pavement thickness requirements for
varying subgrade strengths and operational scenarios.
Table 3.5a

Taxiway MA Pavement Thickness



Base Case

Double Aircraft

CBR 15%

60mm PMB on
60mm Binder Course
200mm CABC
305mm CASBC

60mm PMB on
60mm Binder Course
200mm CABC
325mm CASBC

CBR 10%

60mm PMB on
60mm Binder Course
200mm CABC
445mm CASBC

60mm PMB on
60mm Binder Course
200mm CABC
475mm CASBC

A pavement structure of 60mm PMB on 60mm Binder Course on 200mm CABC


on 350mm CASBC is proposed for Taxiway MA at this time bearing in mind the
assumptions being made. This pavement structure would seem to cover a range
of potential operating scenarios. The proposed pavement extent is indicated on
Drawing SK001.
Shoulder Pavement
The shoulder to Taxiway MA is to be designed for occasional aircraft traffic as per
the Employers Requirements, in addition to use by emergency service vehicles.
Aircraft are assumed to operate on Taxiway MA at OEW + 50% fuel.
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