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Unit I Spiral Exam The Renaissance, Reformation, &

Absolute Monarchs
(75 points total)
DIRECTIONS Please answer the following multiple-choice questions with the
best possible answer. No answer will be used more than once. (45 questions
@ 1 point each = 45 points)
1) Prior to the start of the Middle Ages, Europe was a very chaotic place.
What form of government, based on land and loyalty, came along to
help bring law and order back to Europe?
a. Totalitarianism
b. Feudalism
c. Democracy
d. Absolute monarchy
2) Martin Luther, the German monk and religious leader, was considered
a major leader of the Reformation. What action did he take that helped
to set off the Reformation in the first place?
a. He created a plan called the Final Solution
b. Wrote letters to influential European rulers about the abuses of
the Church
c. Gave public addresses about the evils of Church indulgences
d. Wrote his grievances down and posted them as the 95 Theses
3) We have spent a lot of time talking about some of the dangers to be
aware of when studying culture. One of the major pitfalls of this is
developing the belief that your culture is racially superior to another.
What is that danger called?
a. Segregation
b. Racism
c. Stereotyping
d. Ethnocentrism
4) When studying different areas of the world, it is important to have an
idea of a particular regions culture before continuing. But, how do we
define culture?
a. A particular persons lifestyle
b. A delicious desert from Oregon Dairy
c. All the elements that make up a society or civilization

d. A particular segment that has interesting values

5) Known as ________________ the Lawgiver, this gifted Ottoman sultan
created lasting reforms within the Ottoman Empire while writing laws
that are still on the books. Who was he?
a. Suleiman
b. Muhammad
c. Louis
d. Peter
6) During the violence that followed the Reformation in Europe, what
event in Spain and England saw Catholic King Phillip II raise a massive
fleet to attack Protestant England that ended in failure?
a. The Spanish Armada
b. The Peace of Augsburg
c. The Mejia Revolt
d. The Peasants War
7) The Age of Monarchs saw the rise of all-powerful kings like Phillip II of
Spain, Louis XIV of France, and Peter the Great of Russia. What did
these European monarchs use to justify their God-given right to rule?
a. A written constitution
b. Divine right
c. The Mandate of Heaven
d. The consent of the people
8) Under the practices of Islam, Muslims are expected (if they are
financially able) to visit the holy city of Mecca once in their lifetime.
What is this pilgrimage known as?
a. Ramadan
b. AahRem
c. Hajj
d. Jihad

9) Children in medieval China were taught from a very early age to show
complete love and obedience to their parents and also show great
respect for their familys past. What was the name given to this

philosophy, another invention of the Chinese philosopher and teacher

a. Ancestor worship
b. Confucianism
c. Catholicism
d. Filial Piety
The Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in art and
culture in Europe after the horrors of the Middle Ages. What philosophy
dominated this era, stressing the idea of human potential and using
your gifts for the betterment of all mankind?
a. Imperialism
b. Militarism
c. Nationalism
d. Humanism
Anthropology is one of the main areas that helps us to analyze
and interpret different cultures from around the world. But what is
anthropology the study of?
a. Creationism
b. Government
c. Mankind
d. Culture
The Reformation was known throughout Europe as a
___________________ movement geared towards the Catholic Church.
What word best fits into this statement?
a. Religious
b. Wide-spread
c. Reform
d. Protest
For much of the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church
dominated the political, social, and religious lives of Europeans. Which
of the following was one of the major reasons why the Catholic Church
was so powerful?
a. It controlled vast amounts of scientific knowledge
b. It was the only source of education in the Medieval world
c. It was not under the control of any European king
d. All of the above
All anthropologists, when in the field, try to minimize mistakes
and provided clear evidence of a new discovery by using a series of
steps known as what?


Question and Answer Methods

Scientific Questioning
The Scientific Method
The Anthropological Method

This Reformation-inspired group, known for their conservative
views of technology and their slow simple life, rallied around their
leader Jacob Ammen and eventually immigrated to the New World,
searching for religious freedom. Who were they?
a. The Mennonites
b. The Anabaptists
c. The Amish
d. The Lutherans
This Chinese philosophy was developed by the absolute
monarchs of China as a way to justify their rule and develop a fatherfigure-like image with the Chinese people. What was it called?
a. Filial Piety
b. Mandate of Heaven
c. Ancestor Worship
d. Christianity
A superior force on the battlefield, what technological innovation
did the Ottomans borrow from the Chinese in order to make them
unstoppable conquerors?
a. Better armor
b. Firearms
c. Superior arrows
d. Better tactics

The Ottomans were one of the most successful civilizations in
history at bringing quick peace and security to the new areas of the
world that they conquered. Besides their advanced military tactics and
support, what made the Ottomans so successful when dealing with
conquered peoples?

a. Their ability to convert people quickly to Islam and make them

life-long converts
b. Their sultans were able to inspire confidence and dedication with
their leadership both on and off the battlefield
c. Conquered people were generally afraid of what might happen if
they tried to revolt against Ottoman rule
d. They were extremely tolerant of other ethnic groups religious
and cultural practices, as long as they paid taxes to the Ottoman
The Vatican estimates that between three thousand and five
thousand people were executed at the hands of the Churchs own
private court, the Inquisition, though this was not its main function.
Contemporary historians put that number much higher. What was the
main purpose of this medieval religious court?
a. The seek out and punish critics of the Church
b. To investigate charges of corruption or unacceptable behavior
among clergy
c. To hear and decide upon new interpretations of religious doctrine
d. To re-write the Bible in the language of the common person so all
could understand its teachings
This segment of European medieval society was the foundation
on which the self-sufficient manors were built. By their long hours of
labor, heavy taxes, and isolated social class, the lords who controlled
the manors were able to turn a profit. What was this segment of
society called?
a. The lower class
b. The workers
c. The peasants
d. The serfs
Powerful absolute monarchs known as the czars once ruled
Russia. What famous Russian czar helped to establish Russia as a
major world power following the turmoil of the Middle Ages with the
help of European technology and know-how?
a. Nicholas II
b. Ivan the Terrible
c. Peter the Great
d. Catherine the Great
Social mobility was limited in medieval European society so few
people of the lower classes could realistically expect to become a
knight, whose main function was to protect and enforce the laws of the

manor. What was the name of the code of conduct that all knights were
required to follow in their dealings with one another and people of
different classes?
a. The Code of Conduct
b. The Ethical Mandate
c. The Code of Chivalry
d. The Expectations of Knights
This Jews carpenter-turned-religious leader started preaching to
the people of Judea at age 30 and was viewed by many as someone
who would lead the Jews to their freedom against Roman rule. He
eventually would be executed. Who was he?
a. Ivan
b. Peter
c. Paul
d. Jesus
Often a misconception, Islamic tradition also borrows heavily
from what other religion(s)?
a. Buddhism
b. Christianity
c. Judaism
d. Both b & c
What was the weapon most often associated with the Japanese
samurai class, not just as a tool of war, but also as a work of art?
a. Their dagger
b. Their sword
c. Their armor
d. Their noble steads

In feudal Japan, the shoguns enforced their rule and protected
their individual kingdoms with the help of the samurai warrior class.
Much like the knights of Europe, these honorable wars were governed
by an ethical code that preached ritual suicide if dishonored. What was
their ritual suicide called?
a. Bushido
b. Kamikaze
c. Seppuku

d. Kung Pao
When the Spanish Mens and Womens Olympic basketball team
posed for the cameras doing the slit-eyed gesture, what was this an
example of that we have to be cautious of when studying other
a. Segregation
b. Racism
c. Stereotyping
d. Ethnocentrism
These Christian-turned-Ottoman soldiers made up the heart of
the Ottoman army and served as the sultans personal bodyguard.
Later, they would enjoy high positions within the Ottoman government.
Who were they?
a. The Janissaries
b. The Knights
c. The Samurai
d. The Oprichnina
This Chinese teacher and philosopher developed the principles of
filial piety because he believed that in order for a society to survive, it
needed to look to its elders for wisdom and experience. Who was he?
a. Confucius
b. Aristotle
c. Meng-zi
d. Lucretius

Just like the knights of Medieval Europe, the samurai of ancient
Japan believed in a very strict code of ethics that governed their
behavior in everyday life. What was the name of this code of conduct
that was later adopted by the Japanese military in World War II?
a. Seppuku
b. Kamikaze
c. Bushido
d. Toyota

What event in the life of Czar Ivan turned him from a just and
noble leader to a bloodthirsty tyrant known as Ivan the Terrible?
a. The murder of his son and heir
b. An invasion from Poland
c. An outbreak of the Black Death
d. The death of his wife
This group developed in Germany and Switzerland following the
Reformation and broke away from the Anabaptists under the leadership
of a former Catholic minister named Menno Simons. Who was this
a. The Amish
b. The Mennonites
c. The Baptists
d. The Catholics
What was the name of the secret police force that Czar Ivan
created to hunt down and execute political opponents? (Hint: Known
for their black robes, they were mistaken for priests before it was too
a. The Janissaries
b. The Knights
c. The Samurai
d. The Oprichnina
In 313 AD, the Roman emperor Constantine issues an order that
made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. What was
the name of this proclamation?
a. The Twelve Tables
b. The Edict of Mize
c. The Edict of Milan
d. The Emancipation Proclamation
What was the name of group of Christian church elders who
formalized a final set of practices and rules that turned the Christian
Church into the Roman Catholic Church in the year 382 AD?
a. The Council of Milan
b. The Council of Mica
c. The Council of Rome
d. The Council of the Vatican

As one of the largest and fastest going religions in the world,
Islam is a major force when it comes to our world today. Like any
religion there are certain rules and guidelines that Muslims must follow
in order to show their obedience to Allah or God. What is this set of
rules called for Muslims?
a. The Four Noble Truths
b. The Eightfold Path
c. The Caste System
d. The Five Pillars
What was the name given to the male servants of the Ottoman
sultan who also looked after his wives? (Hint: The lacked their
a. Concubines
b. Eunuchs
c. Serfs
d. Janissaries
This Reformation-inspired group agreed with many of the
criticisms of the Catholic Church brought up by Martin Luther, but also
had issues of their own like the idea of baptism when you are an
adult. What was this group called?
a. The Amish
b. The Anabaptists
c. The Brethren
d. The Drunkards
In order to focus their minds on their religion and also to pay
respect to Allah, which direction do Muslims pray five (5) times a day?
a. East
b. West
c. The direction of the prophet prayed
d. Towards the city of Mecca
Despite the negative stereotypes often associated with the
taking of many wives by the Ottoman sultans, what benefit did these
women provide (other than producing a heir to the throne)?
a. Entertainment
b. Extra manpower during times of war
c. Wives for Janissaries lost in battle
d. Truthful advice

In European feudal society, what was the name given to the dayto-day managers of the manor, who directed workers and made sure
that the orders of the lords were carried out?
a. The daimyos
b. The samurai
c. The Janissaries
d. The vassals
During the violence that followed the Reformation in Europe,
what event in Germany saw Protestant peasants / serfs rising up
against their Catholic lords, resulting in the massacre of thousands of
a. The Spanish Armada
b. The Peace of Augsburg
c. The Mejia Revolt
d. The Peasants War
Which practice in the religion of Islam does the casual follower or
the world media as a whole often overlook?
a. Prayer five times a day
b. The practice of charity
c. The practice of fasting
d. The idea of pilgrimage
Besieged by the Ottoman for months, the city of Vienna was able
to stand up and turn back an attack that would have swallowed up all
of Europe if successful. What victory snack did the people of Vienna
create to celebrate their victory?
a. The crape
b. The croissant
c. The bagel
d. The donut
His Renaissance writer was best known for his how-to manual
on being an effective ruler. What was the name of this influential
political thinker?
a. William Shakespeare
b. Amerigo Vespucci
c. Martin Luther
d. Nicole Machiavelli

Map Section
Strait of Gibraltar Sweden





Baltic Sea

English Channel


Ural Mountains

Aegean Sea

United Kingdom Albania



Pyrenees Mountains

Czech Republic


DIRECTIONS Use the word bank and process of elimination to locate the
Lithuania Luxembourg
following items on the attached map. Each item will only be used once. (15
questions @ 1 point each = 15 points)
1) Ireland
2) Luxembourg

11) Pyrenees Mountains

12) Baltic Sea

3) Finland

13) Czech Republic

4) Athens

14) Portugal

5) Spain

15) Lithuania

6) Berlin
7) Romania
8) London
9) English Channel


Essay Questions
DIRECTIONS Please select ONE (1) of the following essay topics to
complete your exam on a separate piece of paper, making sure the
questions are answered fully and in complete sentences. (1 question @ 15
points = 15 points)

1. The Black Death was one of the most horrible epidemics in the history
of the world. To complete this essay prompt, consider the following
What is an epidemic? (Define it)
How was the Black Death spread from person to person?
What were some methods (give at least two [2]) that Europeans
used to combat the Black Death and were they successful?
How did the Black Death influence the course of World History on
the continent of Europe? (Give two [2] examples to support your

2. Consider the following source below of an eyewitness to the Ottoman

capture of the former Christian city of Constantinople:
After [the siege] the Sultan entered the city [of Constantinople] and looked
about to see its great size, its situation, its grandeur and beauty, its
teeming population, its lovelinessWhen he saw what a large number had
been killed and the ruins of the buildings, and the wholesaledestruction of
the city, he was filled with compassiontears fell from his eyes as he
groaned deeply and passionately: What a city we have given over to
plunder and destruction
To complete this essay prompt, consider the following points:
Why was Constantinople significant to the Ottoman Empire and
what is the history behind the siege of this city? Explain.
What is the source telling you about the siege itself and how the
Ottoman sultan reaction at the end of it? Explain.
What does the source tell you about the Ottomans philosophy
towards conquered territories and how they successful ran their
empire for so long? Explain.

3. Consider the following source below written by Renaissance writer

A prince must also show himself a lover of merit [excellence], give
preferment [promotion] to the able, and honor those who excel in every art.
Moreover, he must encourage his citizens to follow their callingswhether it
be in commerce, or agriculture, or any other trade that men follow[The
price] should offer rewards to whoever does these things, and to whoever
seeks in any way to improve his city or state
Niccole Machiavelli:
To complete this essay prompt, consider the following points:
In your own words, what is the lesson to government leaders that
Machiavelli is trying to get across? Explain why your
interpretation is the way it is using supports from the document.
Based on your knowledge from this unit, how does this source
showcase the broader theme or philosophy of the Renaissance
and its effect on world history? Explain your answer using
support from the document.