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EXAMPLE 1

In the diagram above, which two


figures are similar?
Solution:
If all the corresponding angles of the
two figures are the same and all their
corresponding sides are similar in the
same ratio, then the two figures are
similar.
Therefore, figure B is similar to figure C.

EXAMPLE 2

Find the value of x.


Solution:

10.2 ENLARGEMENT

Enlargement is a transformation with a fixed point


known as the centre of enlargement.

All the other points on the plane will move from


the fixed point following a constant ratio.

The ratio is known as scale factor.

Properties of enlargement
- the object is similar to the image.
- C'B' is the image of CB under an enlargement at
centre O and scale factor of k.

Draw the image of triangle PQR under


an enlargement at centre O with scale
factor 3.

EXAMPLE
Solution:

Area of image:

Where k is the scale factor.

CHAPTER 11
LINEAR EQUATIONS II

11.1 LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Linear equation in two variables is an equation


involving numbers and linear terms in two
variables.

Example : x + 2y

Linear equation in two variables can be formed


based on given information.

The value of a variable can be determined when the


value of the other variable is given.
EXAMPLE
Given that x + 2y = 5, find the value of
x if y = 1.
Solution:
Substitute y = 1 in the equation,
x + 2 (1) = 5
x=5-2
x=3

EXAMPLES
Determine whether 2x + 3 = 9 is a
linear equations in two variables.
Solution:
No, because it is a linear equation in
one variable.
Given that 7x - y = 3, find the value
of y, if x = 1.
Solution:
7(1) - y = 3
y=7-3
y=4

Form a linear equation in two variables


based on the given information.
Siti bought a few postcards, some
postcards cost RM1.20 and some cost
80 sen each. The total amount Siti paid
is RM4.00.
Solution:
Let the number of postcards costs
RM1.20 be x and the number of
postcards costs RM0.80 be y.
Therefore, 1.2x + 0.8y = 4
Multiply by 2.5, 3x + 2y = 10

11.2 SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Simultaneous linear equation in two variables are two


linear equations in two variables having a common
solution.

Both equations must have two common variables.

Simultaneous linear equations in two variables can be


solved by substitution method and elimination method.

2x + 5y = 3 ...!
x - y = 5 ..."

EXAMPLE 1
Solve the following simultaneous
equations.

2x + 5y = 3
x-y=5

Method 1: Substitution

From ", x = 5 + y
Substitute x into !,
2 (5 + y) + 5y = 3
10 + 2y + 5y =3
2y + 5y = 3 - 10
7y = -7
y = -1
From ", x = 5 + (-1)
=5-1
=4
Therefore, x = 4, y = -1

2x + 5y = 3 ...!
x - y = 5 ..."

Method 2: Elimination

!
2x + 5y = 3
" x 5 = 5x - 5y = 25
Form an equation which is
# ... (2x + 5y) + (5x - 5y) = 3 + 25
2x + 5y + 5x - 5y = 28
7x = 28
x=4
From ", 4 - y = 5
-y = 5 - 4
y = -1
Therefore, x = 4, y = -1

CHAPTER 12
LINEAR INEQUALITIES

12.1 INEQUALITIES

An inequality is a relationship between two unequal


quantities.

Symbol

Definition
Greater than
Less than
Greater than or equal to
Less than or equal to

12.2 LINEAR INEQUALITIES

Linear inequalities can be represented on number


lines.

Symbols on the number line:

Symbol

Definition
Include
Not included

12.3 OPERATIONS INVOLVING LINEAR INEQUALITIES

The condition of inequality is unchanged when both


sides are;
(a) added or subtracted from a number
(b) multiplied or divided by a positive number.

EXAMPLES

(a)

15 > 7
15 + 4 > 7 + 4
19 > 11

State the new inequalities when a


number is added to or subtracted from
both sides of the following inequalities.

(b)

x > 10
x - 4 > 10 - 4
x-4>6

(c)

21 < 27
21 x 3 < 27 x 3
63 < 81

(a) 15 > 7 (add 4)


(b) x > 10 (subtract 4)
(c) 21 < 27 (multiplied by 3)

When an inequality is multiplied or divided by a


negative number on both sides, the inequality
symbol is reversed.
EXAMPLES

State a new inequality when both sides of the following inequalities are multiplied
or divided by a negative number.
(a) 4 > -3, multiplied by -2

(b) x < -18, divided by -6

12.4 SOLVING LINEAR INEQUALITIES IN ONE VARIABLE

The solution for a linear inequality in one variable is


the equivalent inequality in its simplest form.

EXAMPLE

12.5 SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR INEQUALITIES IN ONE VARIABLE

Solutions for two simultaneous linear inequalities in


one unknown are the common values that satisfy
both inequalities.
EXAMPLES
Solve the following linear inequalities.

CHAPTER 13
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS

13.1 FUNCTIONS

A function expresses the relationship of a variable in


term of another variable.

For a coordinate (x,y), x is called the independent


variable and y is called the dependent variable.

EXAMPLES