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# EXAMPLE 1

## In the diagram above, which two

figures are similar?
Solution:
If all the corresponding angles of the
two figures are the same and all their
corresponding sides are similar in the
same ratio, then the two figures are
similar.
Therefore, figure B is similar to figure C.

EXAMPLE 2

Solution:

10.2 ENLARGEMENT

## Enlargement is a transformation with a fixed point

known as the centre of enlargement.

## All the other points on the plane will move from

the fixed point following a constant ratio.

## The ratio is known as scale factor.

Properties of enlargement
- the object is similar to the image.
- C'B' is the image of CB under an enlargement at
centre O and scale factor of k.

## Draw the image of triangle PQR under

an enlargement at centre O with scale
factor 3.

EXAMPLE
Solution:

Area of image:

## Where k is the scale factor.

CHAPTER 11
LINEAR EQUATIONS II

## Linear equation in two variables is an equation

involving numbers and linear terms in two
variables.

Example : x + 2y

## Linear equation in two variables can be formed

based on given information.

## The value of a variable can be determined when the

value of the other variable is given.
EXAMPLE
Given that x + 2y = 5, find the value of
x if y = 1.
Solution:
Substitute y = 1 in the equation,
x + 2 (1) = 5
x=5-2
x=3

EXAMPLES
Determine whether 2x + 3 = 9 is a
linear equations in two variables.
Solution:
No, because it is a linear equation in
one variable.
Given that 7x - y = 3, find the value
of y, if x = 1.
Solution:
7(1) - y = 3
y=7-3
y=4

## Form a linear equation in two variables

based on the given information.
Siti bought a few postcards, some
postcards cost RM1.20 and some cost
80 sen each. The total amount Siti paid
is RM4.00.
Solution:
Let the number of postcards costs
RM1.20 be x and the number of
postcards costs RM0.80 be y.
Therefore, 1.2x + 0.8y = 4
Multiply by 2.5, 3x + 2y = 10

## Simultaneous linear equation in two variables are two

linear equations in two variables having a common
solution.

## Simultaneous linear equations in two variables can be

solved by substitution method and elimination method.

2x + 5y = 3 ...!
x - y = 5 ..."

EXAMPLE 1
Solve the following simultaneous
equations.

2x + 5y = 3
x-y=5

Method 1: Substitution

From ", x = 5 + y
Substitute x into !,
2 (5 + y) + 5y = 3
10 + 2y + 5y =3
2y + 5y = 3 - 10
7y = -7
y = -1
From ", x = 5 + (-1)
=5-1
=4
Therefore, x = 4, y = -1

2x + 5y = 3 ...!
x - y = 5 ..."

Method 2: Elimination

!
2x + 5y = 3
" x 5 = 5x - 5y = 25
Form an equation which is
# ... (2x + 5y) + (5x - 5y) = 3 + 25
2x + 5y + 5x - 5y = 28
7x = 28
x=4
From ", 4 - y = 5
-y = 5 - 4
y = -1
Therefore, x = 4, y = -1

CHAPTER 12
LINEAR INEQUALITIES

12.1 INEQUALITIES

## An inequality is a relationship between two unequal

quantities.

Symbol

Definition
Greater than
Less than
Greater than or equal to
Less than or equal to

lines.

Symbol

Definition
Include
Not included

## The condition of inequality is unchanged when both

sides are;
(a) added or subtracted from a number
(b) multiplied or divided by a positive number.

EXAMPLES

(a)

15 > 7
15 + 4 > 7 + 4
19 > 11

## State the new inequalities when a

number is added to or subtracted from
both sides of the following inequalities.

(b)

x > 10
x - 4 > 10 - 4
x-4>6

(c)

21 < 27
21 x 3 < 27 x 3
63 < 81

## (a) 15 > 7 (add 4)

(b) x > 10 (subtract 4)
(c) 21 < 27 (multiplied by 3)

## When an inequality is multiplied or divided by a

negative number on both sides, the inequality
symbol is reversed.
EXAMPLES

State a new inequality when both sides of the following inequalities are multiplied
or divided by a negative number.
(a) 4 > -3, multiplied by -2

## The solution for a linear inequality in one variable is

the equivalent inequality in its simplest form.

EXAMPLE

## Solutions for two simultaneous linear inequalities in

one unknown are the common values that satisfy
both inequalities.
EXAMPLES
Solve the following linear inequalities.

CHAPTER 13
GRAPHS OF FUNCTIONS

13.1 FUNCTIONS

## A function expresses the relationship of a variable in

term of another variable.

## For a coordinate (x,y), x is called the independent

variable and y is called the dependent variable.

EXAMPLES