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Midwestern Winters and Monocoupes

he holidays have come

and gone, and heres hoping each of you experienced a wonderful and
joyous Christmas season.
Happy New Year to you all as well.
The holidays were especially exceptional for my family. I am blessed
with the fact that nearly all of my
immediate and extended family live
reasonably close by, and therefore
the farthest travel we must endure
during the holidays is to the in-laws,
who mostly live within a couple of
hours of our home. I am especially
blessed with the fact that my three
grandboys are a mere 20 minutes
from my home. Heres hoping that
2010 will be yet another grand year
for all of aviation, as well as aviators.
The year 2009 was a remarkably
busy time for your Vintage Aircraft
Association. A lot was accomplished
during the year, including the new
Vintage Hangar on the AirVenture
grounds in Oshkosh and a much
improved business relationship with
EAA. A lot of work remains ahead
as we continue to improve on the
benefits of being a member of the
Vintage Aircraft Association.
The winter solstice has passed,
and we are now in my favorite time
of the year, where the days are finally beginning to get a little longer, rather than shorter. This is a
really good sign that we may actually have a spring sometime this
year. Old Man Winter has really
been barking at us here in Northeast Indiana. The winds and low
temps have been especially brutal
so far. Oh, how I long for those

days of having the fresh-air breezes

blowing in through the open doors
of the hangar. I think Ill have a lot
of icicles to deal with before that
happens again.
I realize that I make it sound like
there is no fun at all in aviation
through the winter months, and
of course this is not actually true.
There is the sensational Skiplane
Fly-In at EAAs Pioneer Airport every January. This fly-in also serves
as a birthday celebration for EAAs
first lady, Audrey Poberezny. This
years event is scheduled for January 23, 2010.
By now you have all had the opportunity to review the newly revised format of the January issue
of Sport Aviation magazine, EAAs
flagship publication. I am confident that this new format will be
well-accepted by the membership
as a significant enhancement of
this publication. My hat is off to
everyone at EAA who had a hand in
this giant step forward in improving Sport Aviation. It is exceptional
in all areas when compared to
similar magazines, aviation or otherwise. Congratulations to the leadership as well as the staff members
who had a hand in this remarkable
Speaking of publications, be sure
to check out the VAAs relatively
new e-newsletter. Its easy to subscribe to, and it is chock-full of interesting news items relevant to the
vintage aircraft movement. Simply
go to
and youll see a hyperlink near the
top of the page to subscribe.

This past fall saw a lot of activity at the Vintage Chapter 37 Hangar here at home. With the Harold
Neumann Monocoupe now back in
the hangar, we have renewed our
efforts to see this project through.
We are now re-installing the interior in the fuselage and are also
busy with installing the fully restored instrument panel and the
skylight assembly. We are planning
another visit to Oshkosh sometime
this winter to prep and paint the
one-piece wing assembly.
We are finally approaching the
end of our hangar addition here
in Auburn, Indiana. I know, I have
probably mentioned this in at least
two or three other columns, but in
actuality, by the time you read this
column it will be officially completed. Stop and see us if you get
anywhere close to KGWB in Fort
Wayne, Indiana. We would be
happy to show it off to our fellow
VAA/EAA members.
Remember, its time to run your
checklist and buckle your seat belts,
because 2010 is shaping up to be
yet another exciting year for the
Vintage Aircraft Association.
VAA is about participation: Be a
member! Be a volunteer! Be there!
Lets all pull in the same direction for the good of aviation. Remember, we are better together.
Join us and have it all.
Come share the passion! See you
at EAA AirVenture OshkoshJuly
26-August 1, 2010.

Vol. 38, No. 1


j a n u a ry

IFC Straight & Level
Midwestern Winters and Monocoupes
by Geoff Robison


A Biplane Dream Comes True

Earning her ticket in an RNF
by Andy Heins

Whats the Story With That Prop?

Jim Nelsons 250 Comanche
by Budd Davisson


One Harlows Hallowed Family History

From grandfather to grandson
by Sparky Barnes Sargent


My Friend Albert Vollmecke

Part I: His early career
by Robert G. Lock


The Powell Racer

by Jack McRae


EAA Publisher
Director of EAA Publications
Executive Director/Editor
Production/Special Project

Mystery Plane
by H.G. Frautschy


Light Plane Heritage

The Vintage Mechanic

Instrument systems
by Robert G. Lock


Type Clubs


Classified Ads


Advertising Coordinator
Classified Ad Coordinator
Copy Editor
Director of Advertising

Tom Poberezny
Mary Jones
H.G. Frautschy
Kathleen Witman
Jim Koepnick
Bonnie Kratz
Sue Anderson
Lesley Poberezny
Colleen Walsh
Katrina Bradshaw

Display Advertising Representatives:

Specialized Publications Co.
U.S. Eastern Time Zone-Northeast: Ken Ross
609-822-3750 Fax: 609-957-5650


FRONT COVER: Jim Nelsons Piper PA-24 Comanche is one of those neat airplanes

that at first glance you may miss the many fascinating details that make up this modified family speedster. Read all about it in Budd Davissons article beginning on page
7. EAA photo by Bonnie Kratz.
BACK COVER: The Harlow PJC-2 is often referred to as a Baby Spar tan. They
are both professor/student aircraft projects from a time when that type of arrangement created some of the greatest aircraft of the past centur y. Read about this restoration by Matt Malkin of Seattle, Washington, in Sparky Barnes Sargents ar ticle
star ting on page 12. Photo by Gilles Auillard.

U.S. Eastern Time Zone-Southeast: Chester Baumgartner

727-532-4640 Fax: 727-532-4630
U.S. Central Time Zone: Gary Worden and Todd Reese
800-444-9932 Fax: 816-741-6458;
U.S. Mountain and Pacific Time Zones: John Gibson
916-784-9593 Fax: 510-217-3796
Europe: Willi Tacke
Phone: +49(0)1716980871 Fax: +49(0)8841 / 496012


VDER Update
Since the announcement earlier
this year that the FAA was creating
an addition to the designated
engineering representative (DER)
program administered by the
regional aircraft certification offices
(ACO), the VAA has spoken or
written to more than three dozen
members interested in applying
to become a DER. During our
conversations, its become clear
there are some misconceptions
regarding the qualifications
needed to be appointed a vintage
The VDER program is a specific
designation under the umbrella
of the DER programthe
qualifications needed for becoming
a VDER are nearly identical to
those needed for being appointed
a DER by the FAA. It isnt a DER
light program, nor does it create
a new program for those who
have no engineering expertise.
Thats not to say the appointment
cant be made if someone is not
an engineer; it simply means
applicants must prove their
expertise to be considered for
the appointment. As stated in
the Vintage DER Checklist, The
intent of the authority is to allow
individuals who dont meet the
conventional DER appointment
criteria to become VDERs with
limited approval authority in
multiple technical specialties
for repairs and/or alterations of
specific makes of vintage airplanes
and/or engines.
It is intended to allow a
person who has both real-world
maintenance experience with a
specific vintage aircraft type and
the appropriate level of engineering
expertise to create engineeringrelated data that is acceptable to
the ACO. The goal of the program
is to streamline the data-creation
process, shortening the time

2 JANUARY 2010

needed to gain an FAA approval for

modification or repair data.
That data still needs to be
engineering-based, with a good
dose of real-world maintenance
added into the mix so that the
data can be applied to subsequent
work done on similar aircraft. An
example of an ideal candidate for
a VDER appointment would be an
engineer who has been working
with a particular type club on its
vintage aircraft, but who perhaps is
currently only an airframe DER
or something similar.
VDER applicants educational
background would have both
maintenance and engineering
components; a person with an
aircraft maintenance engineering
degree would be a good candidate,
as would an aeronautical engineer
who is actively involved in type
club maintenance-related activities.
Another good candidate would
be an airframe and powerplant
mechanic with inspection
authorization as well as engineering
expertise who has been regularly
creating data the flight standards
district office (FSDO)/ACO find
acceptable without additional
engineering work.
Without a formal engineering
degree, applicants must show the
FAA they have the engineering
expertise to generate the data.
An example would be someone
without a formal engineering
degree who has worked with his
local FSDO and ACO to create data
related to field approvals. If his
engineering work has been shown
to be acceptable to the FAA, that
experience can be used to show
compliance with the requirements
for a VDER appointment.
The FAA can then choose to,
upon his or her application,
add a VDER designation to the
appointment when the applicant
can show that he or she has

engineering expertise to deal with

the changes related to that type of
vintage airplane.
I hope that helps explain the
expectations of the FAA with regard
to the experience and educational
requirements for a VDER
appointment. If youd like to review
the material concerning becoming
a VDER, you can read our checklist,
created in cooperation with the
FAA, at

An Airport Christmas (Valley) Story

The airfield at the wonderfully
named Christmas Valley, Oregon, is
not a facility one would think would
be in the center of a national aviation
debate. The airport has only five
taxiways leading to a single airstrip,
primarily used by homeowners
with their private aircraft hangared
adjacent to their houses.
EAA came to the aid of those
aviators, however, when their
airport access was threatened by
a n e w FA A p o l i c y a n n o u n c e d
through a Compliance Guidance
Letter issued on September 30,
2009. The letter outlined a policy
that would eliminate through-thefence (TTF) operations at publicly
owned or financed airports. TTF
operations, prior to the letters date,
were defined as those where the
owner of a public airport permits
access to the public landing area
by residential homeowners with
aircraft based on land adjacent
to the airport and/or commercial
operators offering an aeronautical
a c t i v i t y. H o w e v e r , t h e n e w
policy clearly stated, Under no
circumstances is the FAA to support
any through-the-fence agreement
associated with residential use
This policywhich was
forwarded to EAA and other
associations for comment in
mid-October, two weeks after its
issuancewould severely restrict

private individuals, businesses, and

emergency services from direct
access to airports adjacent to their
property. EAA immediately stepped
in to defend aviation access for
airports where TTF operations
provide economic benefits and
more to both a community and an
aviation facility.
Meanwhile, the residents at
Christmas Valley found themselves
in a quandary. FAAs new policy
would cut off access from the
airfield where they had specifically
purchased homes because of the
airport access. EAA members at that
airport contacted staff headquarters
in Oshkosh to get help sorting out
their options.
In early October, EAA wrote
to the FAA, stating how the new
policy would effectively shut
out Christmas Valley residents,
the areas primary airport users,
which could eventually lead to
the airports closure. This is just
one example of hundreds of
similar situations throughout the
nation that shows how restricting
TTF access could threaten an
airports future.
EAA staff asked members to
join them in reviewing the FAAs
document and to post their
comments at Oshkosh365 (www. These comments
will be considered when EAA
submits its official response,
emphasizing a long-standing policy
that promises to consider all local
factors when determining whether
to allow TTF operations at airports.
For example, the Oshkosh365
online network showcases a home
video produced by a couple in
nearby Creswell, Oregon, whose
home adjacent to Hobby Field
includes a hangar for their aircraft.
The video personifies the everyday
aviators who use airport access as
much as most of us use driveways
for our cars and trucks.
E A As e f f o r t s h a v e a l r e a d y
produced at least one piece of
good news. On November 19, EAA
received a letter from the FAAs
acting associate administrator for

airports, Catherine Lang, stating

the agency would work with local
authorities at Christmas Valley to
better reflect its public purpose.
Currently, previous TTF residential
operations can remain, preserving
homeowner access at the field.
But this issue is far from settled
nationwide. EAA staff and members
will continue to work toward
allowing airport access nationwide
wherever it reasonably makes
sense to develop aviation facilities.
Your input is welcome as part of
these efforts to promote aviation
participation and to support the
flying community.

The Final Word

By Earl Lawrence, EAA Vice President of
Industry and Regulatory Affairs
The FAA released a new Airport
Compliance Manual, or FAA
Order 5190.6, this past October.
The document went from an
original 94 pages to 691 pages!
This policy covers the compliance
items an airport must meet to
qualify for federal funding of
airport improvements. This
funding comes from fuel taxes
paid by pilots and aircraft owners
like you.
EAA contends FAA Order
5190.6B was issued without
appropriate public input that
would have helped facilitate broad
community acceptance. Not only
was there a lack of public input
in the development of the vastly
expanded policy, but the FAA
also published the revision with
an immediately effective date.
Knowing the potential damage
this policy change will have on
thousands of airport managers,
business operators, and pilots, EAA
believes its only proper for the FAA
to have a process for public review
and comment.
Making the situation worse,
t h e FA A m a d e t h e s t a t e m e n t ,
Under no circumstances is the
FAA to support any through-thefence agreement associated with
residential use. It made that
statement with the knowledge

that thousands of pilots and

aircraft owners live in homes with
TTF access, and that the generalaviation community is particularly
passionate about the dream of
living near or with their aircraft.
The FAA listed many reasons why
it believes you should not have
clear access to a public airport,
but EAA believes that each issue
noted could be easily addressed.
Instead of fighting TTF
activities, I think the FAA should
actively support such activity and
work with communities to develop
standardized criteria on how such
agreements can be made while
protecting the safety and viability
of our nations public airports.
What do you say? Share your
comments in the Hangar Talk
forum on

Its Electr(on)ic! EAA Offers More

Two new electronic newsletters
have joined the EAA family of
publications: Briefing was launched
in November for EAA Warbirds of
America members and warbirds
lovers, while Light Plane World,
for ultralight and lightplane
enthusiasts, launched in early
December. Still to come is an asyet unnamed publication for the
International Aerobatic Club and
aerobatic enthusiasts.
Other e-publications include:
Experimenter, for homebuilt
aircraft enthusiasts;
Vintage Aircraft Online, for
members of the Vintage Aircraft
Aviation Insider, the Young
Eagles e-newsletter;
Reach for the Sky, for those
interested in learning to fly;
Bits and Pieces, the e-newsletter
for Canada; and
E - H o t l i n e , E A As f l a g s h i p
weekly e-newsletter, which reaches
90,000 members weekly.
Its easy to subscribe to EAA
e-publications. Simply visit www. and select from
the menu which titles you wish
to receive.


A Biplane Dream

Comes True
Earning her ticket in an RNF
his story begins in the
spring of 2003 when
I became acquainted
with a wonderful
woman, Susan Theodorelos, who possessed
a zest for life. Over the coming
months, we could always be found
at the airport or a fly-in, which,
looking back, shouldnt be too surprising; shes always been pursuing
adventure in one form or another.
Susan grew up the daughter of a
naval aviator, moving frequently
from city to city and country to
country. She always maintained
an interest in flying because of her
father. She even collected airplane
photos and built models. After receiving her undergraduate degree,
like her father, she joined the U.S.
Navy, rising to the rank of lieutenant commander until she left the
service in February 1993. Following
her tour in the Navy, she went back
to school and obtained her law degree. Upon graduation, she secured
a position with the U.S. Air Force at
Wright-Patterson in Dayton, Ohio.
Over that first summer, Susan
had the opportunity to ride in nu-

4 JANUARY 2010


merous antique aircraft and quickly

developed a love for antique opencockpit biplanes. Her favorite ride of
the year was at Brodhead, Wisconsin, in a 1930 Waco RNF owned by
John Livesay of Pana, Illinois. She
remarked to me after the flight, If I
ever had a chance to buy a biplane,
an RNF would be my first choice.
She loved to fly, both as passenger and as a pilot. She was a
natural. Finally I asked, So why
havent you ever learned to fly?
She stopped and thought about it
for a few moments and simply answered, I guess I never really considered it. The very next sentence
was, How do I start?
I explained what she should do
in order to get the best training; she
needed to go to Red Stewart Airfield
in Waynesville, Ohio, and fly either
its Piper J-3 Cub or its Aeronca 7AC
Champ. As far as Im concerned, if
you learn tailwheel flying to begin
with, everything else is easy. My biased opinion is that it makes you
a better pilot, as you truly learn
how to control the airplane. I also
had only one choice for an instructor, Emerson Stewart, son of

owner Cubby Stewart. Emerson

has grown up in tailwheel airplanes
and is a local air show pilot, known
for his amazing dead-stick routine
in his Citabria.
Susan began instruction in the
Aeronca 7AC in June of 2003. Over
the summer she took lessons primarily in the Champ but also a
few in the J-3. By late fall she was
close to solo, but then the typical
Ohio bad weather hit. She did not
resume flying again until September 2004, and on October 7, 2004,
she soloed the Aeronca 7AC with a
total of 13.2 hours logged. It was a
dream realized, and Susan returned
with a smile on her face and tears of
happiness in her eyes. Her very first
thought was to make an excited
phone call to her father, the Navy
pilot. Naturally, he was extremely
proud and was always keen to hear
how her lessons were going and
what flying adventures we had. She
was able to make a few more solo
flights before winter once again
stepped in and stopped her flying.
While at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2005, we received bad news.
Susans father had been hospital-

Our two Wacos, a 1935 Waco YKC-S, NC14620, and a 1930 Waco RNF, NC663Y.

Susans bright red and yellow Waco RNF.

ized while visiting friends in Atlanta. Sadly, after a successful
operation, her father suddenly collapsed and died. It was after the funeral that Susan made a decision.
She would finish her flying, and she
would do it in a biplane. Not just
any biplane, but a Waco RNF, if she
could find one for sale.
The search began, but there were
not many for sale. In fact, there
were only two out of the 21 still
flyable that were being offered. We
contacted one of the sellers, Pam
Cooley, and made arrangements
to come inspect the airplane. Pam
and I had been friends for nearly
20 years. Pam had purchased the
airplane as a complete basket case
in 1991 and completed the restoration in 1994. Susan and I went
to look at the airplane and a deal
was quickly sealed. Best of all, Pam
agreed to deliver it!
Fast-forward to October 28, 2005.
Susan and a host of friends were

there patiently waiting with all eyes

strained toward the east. Soon, Susan heard the distinctive sound of
a radial engine and quickly spotted
the RNF in the distance. As the RNF
entered the pattern, I looked over
at Susan, and tears were streaming
down her cheeks. She was simply
overcome with emotion that this
was truly happening. Pam circled
around and set up for landing. Just
as she was on short final I heard
the power come in, and she flew
it down the runway in a nice pass
for all to enjoy. Susan was beyond
giddy. After zipping around the pattern again, the Waco gently glided
down to a perfect wheel landing on
the pavement, and as the tail came
down it rolled to a stop. Pam taxied
the RNF over to the hangar and shut
down. As Pam climbed down from
the cockpit, Susan gave her a big hug
and a heartfelt thank you! Pam
laughed and then said, If you have
changed your mind let me know,

because this was a ball, and Im willing to take it back. To which Susan
replied, No way, its my airplane
now! We all had a great laugh and
pushed the Waco into the hangar
and opened a bottle of champagne
to celebrate the arrival.
We were only able to make a few
flights in the RNF prior to bad winter weather setting in. As spring
2006 arrived, Susan resumed her
flying lessons. She became reacquainted with the Aeronca Champ
and quickly soloed again. We then
had her go to the Piper J-3 to get
used to not being able to see forward, especially when taxiing. She
soloed the Cub in 6.8 hours on
March 30, 2006. Susan flew it solo
several times, and then we moved
her to the Waco. After 5.6 hrs of
dual instruction in the Waco she soloed on May 21, 2006. At this point
in time, over a three-year span, Susan had a grand total of 29.7 hours
logged and had soloed three different types of airplanes. She was now
in command of her own little red
biplane, and she never looked back.
She could be found nearly every
night at the airport either taking a
lesson or flying around by herself.
Over the next three years Susan
spent a lot of time flying the RNF.
In fact, just one month after soloing
the Waco, she led a four-ship formation of Wacos on a short crosscountry flight to the National Waco
Club reunion! She continued to get
90-day signoffs to remain current,
but she just didnt take that last
step to finish. What she dreaded
most was having to fly something
else besides her little Waco to accomplish the requirements for radio work and instrument and night
flying. Finally, she had to relent
and go fly a nosewheel airplane, a
Cessna 152. Over this past summer
she completed all the remaining
requirements and now faced the
checkride. The previous summer
Susan had spoken to a local examiner, Martha Lunken, a local legend
in her own right, about the possibility of using the Waco RNF for her
checkride. Martha seemed to think


The Cub proved to be helpful as Susan transitioned to an airplane with less visibility over the nose.

So why havent you

ever learned to fly?
She stopped and
thought about it for a
few moments and
simply answered,
I guess I never really
considered it . . .
How do I start?

Susan soloed in this Champ.

Andy, Susan, and the flying Corgi,

that might be possible and told
Susan to call when she was ready.
With her requirements completed
and 206 hours now in her logbook,
Susan called Martha. True to her
word, Martha agreed to do the entire checkride in the Waco! Now all
we had to do was wait for weather.
October 20 was the day, and we
awoke to blue skies with scattered
clouds. The only issue was going
to be the winds, which were forecast at 12 knots gusting to 20 knots
from the south-southwest, meaning a direct crosswind to our eastwest runway. Obviously we both

6 JANUARY 2010

were concerned, but Susan felt she

could handle the situation. I, myself, was having sympathy checkride pains and was feeling nervous!
Soon Susan disappeared and began
the oral with Martha. After an hour
or so they returned to the hangar
to commence the flight. She was
still smiling, and the crowd was
growing bigger. They climbed into
the Waco after the preflight, and
I propped the airplane. The first
thing Martha said over the batteryoperated intercom was, I love that
smell! They taxied out and quickly
disappeared to the west.
After an hour or so of pacing
back and forth in the hangar and
trying to keep busy, we heard a radial engine entering the pattern.
The winds had not died down, and
we all stood out front to watch the

landing. Susan turned final, slipped

down, and gently touched at the approach end to the runway, rolling
only about 50 feet before coming
to a stop. As they taxied up to the
hangar, I saw my wife was all smiles.
Martha was smiling too and obviously was having a good time. As
they climbed down from the Waco,
Martha declared that the little RNF
was a fine-flying airplane, and she
commented on how well Susan
flew it. She remarked that of all the
checkrides she has given over the
years, this had to be one of the best,
with maybe only her P-51 Mustang
checkout beating this one. Needless
to say, Susan was ecstatic, and she
should be. She certainly has to be
one of the only female pilots alive
who can say she took her checkride
in a 1930 Waco RNF!

Whats the Story

With That Prop?
Jim Nelsons 250 Comanche



f you stood at the end of

Row 91 on the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh grounds,
where Jim Nelson had
his Comanche parked,
you could absolutely count on
peoples reactions to it. Theyd
be walking along and casually
glance over at Jims airplane.
Maybe theyd smile slightly at its
pleasing appearance. Theyd be
in the process of continuing to
the next airplane, when theyd
catch a glimpse of the Comanches prop, do a double-take worthy of a vaudeville comedian,
grab the sleeve of the guy next
to them, and make a beeline for

the prop card, hoping it would

explain what they were seeing.
Theyd be staring at the unique
flaps hanging off the back of
each of the blades, with a thought
balloon over their head that said,
What the . . . ?
Its a shame that the unusual
prop, which well explain later,
overshadows many of the more
subtle details on what is a very
subtle airplane. The airplane, a 62
Comanche 250, is also unique in
that it has never been restored. At
least not in the conventional sense
of the word. It hasnt spent years
in a hangar, having every single
piece of skin and mechanism mas-

saged, straightened, caressed, and

painted within an inch of its life.
In fact, it is one of those airplanes
that midway in its life, its new
owner, Jim Nelson, most recently
of Spearfish, South Dakota, started
on such a long string of continual
upgrades that the airplane never
reached the point that it actually
needed restoring. It has been in
progress for so long, more than
20 years, that although the years
went past, they never caught up
with it. Even though it is 47 years
old, it never spent a single day
abandoned on the back tie-down
line being ignored. It is just a good
old airplane that was kept flying.


Jim is retired from several careers,

the first being a U.S. Air Force navigator who, among other things, spent
much of the Cold War in an RB-47
snuggled up against the borders of
countries such as China and Russia.
He said, I went in the Air Force in
51 and stayed in for over 31 years,
almost a third of it as aircrew, first
on B-29s in Korea, then KC-97s, RB47s and finally, AC-47 gunships and
C-47, flareships in Vietnam. I was
fortunate enough to be involved in
the engine wars, where there was
a major amount of engine development going on in qualifying the engines that would be powering the
F-15, F-16, B-1, and B-2 bombers, to
name just a few. What made it really fun was that, as deputy for propulsion, my systems program office
(SPO) managed those engine programs for aircraft programs. Plus it
was during the Reagan years, when
there was plenty of defense budget
to go around. When I got out in 84
I almost immediately went to work
for General Electric in their aircraft
engines group. I also spent some
years on the board of Allison Advanced Development Co., as well as
doing some consulting work for the
USAF on jet engine development
and management.
I started pilot training in the
Forbes AFB aero club, gaining my
license in 1959. I flew in aero clubs
at several other bases, gaining time
in a variety of single-engine aircraft. Id spend eight hours in an
RB-47 training for overseas deploy-

8 JANUARY 2010

ments, then transition the next day

into a Cub or an Aeronca. They also
had Cessnas, Mooneys, Bonanzas,
T-34s, and the Comanches.
Forbes is where I first flew in,
and fell in love with, the Comanche. Id fly my family all over the
place in them and especially liked
that it was a fast, efficient hauler
that was also pretty hard to load
out of CG limits.
I bought my first airplane a little
over 21 years ago, and it was this very
same Comanche, serial number 243158, built in the last half of 1962.
It was sitting in Cincinnati, and it
was definitely nothing special. It was
just a good, old, very sound airplane,
with 1,100 hours on the engine. I
bought it knowing that my goal was
to update it where needed and make
it very much my airplane.
Much of what I was doing
professionally at the time was engineering oriented, and I was constantly solving problems and trying
to be more efficient with our propulsion projects. But those were
huge projects, and even though I
was in management, they werent
mine. The Comanche was going
to be mine, pure and simple. I had
a whole series of things I wanted to
do to it, but I was in no hurry (neither was our budget!). They would
get done, when their time came,
although in truth, by the time I got
to some of the updates, it was time
to redo some of the earlier ones. For
instance, even though Ive owned
the airplane over 21 years and



Jim Nelson and his wife Ruth.

have been updating it constantly
the whole time, Ive done the instrument panel three times, as I
changed direction or new equipment was introduced.
The airplane was based at Lunken
Airport in Cincinnati, where I was
working at GE. At the time, 1987,
Dennis Walter, now at Clermont
County Airport, Sportys home base,
had his shop at Lunken and installed
a new interior for me. At the same
time we shaped the seats for more
comfort. I did a little panel work at
that time, but only to get rid of the
old autopilot and add a new DG.
The airplane was never down
for any long period of time, but we
were constantly doing something
to it, so its a little hard to put all of
the modifications in order.


The late Roy LoPresti spent a lot of time engineering revisions to the Comanche to make it even faster. The changes
include a new cowling with full-length nose wheel door and door motor, flap track fairings, flap gap seals, horizontal
stabilator mass balance, and counterweights. The modification to the Hartzell propeller with the very noticeable trailing
edge extensions, or flaps, is also a LoPresti design, manufactured by Hartzell.

those were
huge projects,
and even
though I was
in management,
they werent
mine. The
Comanche was
going to be mine,
pure and simple.
Shortly after the interior was installed, copper wiring replaced the
aluminum wiring of that eras Comanches, followed by a full panel
of King radios and Johnston wingtips. Those were specially shaped
to flare upwards just enough to let
the wingtip vortices spill around
the wing in such a way that it improved the tip vortex action and,
especially, aileron sensitivity. The
tips also had the running lights
faired into them. That was the first
of many little changes we made
with the goal of reducing drag and
improving performance.
Drag reduction was why we
changed the gear legs from the
double-fork units to the single-fork
ones. On the double-fork legs, the

The Johnston wingtips are specially shaped to flare upwards to allow the
wingtip vortices to spill around the wing so that aileron sensitivity is enhanced.

Many pilots see the Piper Comanche as one of the sleekest four-place airplanes
ever built in its original form. The design has lent itself well to modifications that
enhance the already good performance of the low-wing four-place speedster.


The new medium/light blue interior with sculpted seats keeps a vintage 60s
feel to the airplane, while a neatly installed suite of modern avionics keeps the
airplane up to date in modern airspace.
brake assemblies and part of the
fork hang out into the airflow. The
337 for the installation requires
some wing rib doublers for the single-fork installation and results in
the brake assemblies and fork being
completely retracted into the wheel
wells, with a much cleaner lowerwing surface resulting. I also took
the airplane to Webco in Newton,
Kansas, for installation of half-inch
glass all around during this period.
Even though he spent a lot of
time working on the airplane, it
flew more than it sat, and he and
his wife and family thought nothing of crossing the country in it.
It was on one of those trips,
when the engine was just about

10 JANUARY 2010

at TBO, 2,000 hours, when we decided it was time we overhaul it.

Living in Prescott, Arizona, at the
time and operating often at 11,00015,000 feet in the Arizona, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico areas, it
was taking higher power settings
to maintain speed and altitude. We
figured since we were going to have
to do the engine, we might as well
do several other needed improvements, which we had planned to
eventually do to the airplane and
make it as efficient as possible.
When talking about efficiency
of an airplane, that is another way
of saying itll be made to go faster
without adding any more horsepower so the miles per gallon go up.

More speed, same fuel burn. And

with a Piper Comanche that meant
the obvious: LoPresti speed mods.
While completing the engine
overhaul at Arizona Air-Craftsman
in 1998 and knowing my two-bladed
prop was not going to pass the new
AD for that series, we installed the
LoPresti-designed, Hartzell-built,
three-bladed, swept propeller (scimitar shape) and Comanche 260 engine
counterweights to allow operation to
2700 rpm versus the Comanche 250
operating limits of 2550 rpm. The
prop also has trailing edge flaps to
provide some additional ram air into
the LoPresti cowl, which had yet to
be installed.
In the spring of 1999, I took the
airplane from Prescott to Vero Beach,
where Roy LoPresti had his speed
mod operation and had him do his
cowl modification program on the
airplane. That included his cowling
with full-length nose wheel door and
door motor, flap track fairings, flap
gap seals, horizontal stabilator mass
balance, and counterweights.
Everyone comments on the
shape of the prop blades, Jim said.
They are scimitar shaped to cut
down the local Mach number in the
airflow at the tips so they are further
from going transonic, which makes
them more efficient and quieter. The
little trailing edge flaps were developed by LoPresti, and his tests show
that besides increasing the manifold
pressure by nearly an inch because
of the airflow pulses into the induction system, the cowl design evens
out the airflow across the cylinders.
This provides better cooling and consistent cylinder head temperatures.
When were flying, it warms up
quickly, curing the takeoff and climb
to just below redline [problem], then,
no matter what were doingcruising, maneuvering, holding, letting
down, whateverthe CHT temperatures stay relatively stable.
This is the entire LoPresti package, and it works. This airplane
originally only did 176 mph against
the factory-claimed 180 mph at
cruise power, which many Comanches did achieve. I caution anyone


that they need to carefully calibrate what their airplane will do in

its original form before doing any
modifications. I had calibrated the
true airspeed annually over the 12
years I had owned it before modification. I have similarly calibrated
the true airspeed many times since
modification and am confident in
the 10-14 mph increase in TAS for
my airplane. I have seen, on the occasion of a very calm fall or winter
day, with close to standard atmosphere, TAS of 190-plus at 8,000
feet. However, I am typically in the
range of 185-190. Recently, for example, I cruised consistently at 188
mph at normal power settings at
7,000-9,000 from Spearfish, South
Dakota, to Kansas City, then to Atlanta and return. We went after this
as an engineering project and carefully calibrated everything, so we
know that the 185-188 mph were
now seeing at cruise is real, as is the
flat-out top end of 193-195 mph. So
we actually did improve the performance a significant amount with
no change in fuel burn per hour.
Since he was doing major things
to the airframe, it seemed like a
good time to do the panel again.
The instrument panel was done
in bits and pieces going all the way
back to the beginning, but the
trend was to make it more modern, which, considering that I was
brought up on steam gauges, meant
working in more glass and an
S-TEC 30 autopilot, which required
installation of a gyro-stabilized
fluxgate heading system, with the
autopilot itself done in two stages.
We went through a King 135, then
a Garmin 300 and a Sandel EFIS.
I also replaced the King 155 radio

with an SL30. I have just added a

Garmin 496, yoke-mounted, that is
tied into the Garmin 300 and replicates the 300 output to the Sandel, but also provides weather and
terrain information. This combination now comes close to the capabilities of a Garmin 430.
When you start playing with
avionics, you never actually finish.
We did put the Sandel EFIS right
in the middle of the instrument
T where its in the center of your
scan. But, who knows? I may yet
change that again.
I have also installed an electric
horizon as a backup to the vacuum
horizon. In the many panel modifications, we also moved the engine instruments to the pilots side and put
the mechanical CDI/glide slope on
the right side, because the Sandel provides an electronic CDI/glide slope.
After the stint at LoPrestis, the airframe was definitely beginning to acquire a work in progress look as the
various panels, including the cowling, were still in primer. Plus, other
than the speed mods, nothing had
been done to the airplane to improve
its cosmetics. It was time for a paint
job to replace the 1982 Imron.
We took the airplane down to
Arizona Aeropainting in Eloy, Arizona, in 2000 to have it stripped
and painted. After stripping we
found some prior repairs under
the old paint that we didnt think
had been done very well. So, I took
the unpainted airplane to Chandler Aviation, in Chandler, Arizona,
where we installed some new wing
skins and several new wing ribs to
provide a virgin surface for the new
fasteners. We also replaced some
skin on the horizontal stabilator to

assure all structure was sound before painting.

We also replaced the coffee
can air scoop on the top of the fuselage with a Comanche 260 ventral fin and air scoop and removed
the rotating beacon on top of the
fuselage replacing it with a Whelen
three-light system. Finally, we
added Knots 2U wing-root fairings
and a small nose wheel. We then
returned the aircraft to Eloy to finish the painting. The airframe itself
was pretty clean, no corrosion, so
by replacing the questionable skins,
and doing an excellent strip and
paint job, we wound up with a really clean airframe.
We primed it and top-coated
with Matterhorn White Jet Glo
trimmed with Fighter Blue and
Flight Red Acry Glo paints. That was
nine years ago, and the paint has
held up beautifully, without cracking, chipping, rough spots, etc.
As he stood back and looked at
his airplane Jim came to an inescapable conclusion, From both a performance and an appearance point
of view, theres really not much else
we can do to it. And when I look at
the instrument panel, I cant help
but smile: This airplane has avionics
capability (GPS, moving map, etc.)
that was unknown to us when flying the polar areas in RB-47s to get to
the positions needed to gain the electronic reconnaissance data needed to
program equipment in our B-47 and
B-52 bombers during the Cold War.
In fact, in looking back, Id have to
say that we were working with some
pretty crude equipment, although it
was the most advanced available at
that time. Even though we had radar, electro-mechanical navigation
computers, and such, we still did a
lot of celestial navigation over the
polar areas.
Id also have to say that Im really
pleased with the way the Comanche has turned out. Its everything
Id hoped it would be. However, I
saw the new-generation Garmin at
a booth a few minutes ago and.
After more than 21 years, why
should he stop updating now?


One Harlows

From grandfather to grandson


att Malkin of Seattle,

Washington, is a doubly fortunate young
man. First, he inherited
his grandfathers rare airplane, and
second, his wife, Wendy, is happy
to hop in the 1940 Harlow PJC-2
and fly with him. Last fall, the couple attended the AAA annual fly-in
in Blakesburg, Iowa. Matts PJC-2
turned many a head during the
long weekend, and for quite a few,
it was their first time seeing an airworthy Harlow.
The Harlow is a unique airplane
in that it was the successful result
of a class project. Just imagine designing and building a full-scale airplane as a college student, guided
by the expertise of Professor Harlow, who had real-world experi-

12 JANUARY 2010


ence as an aircraft engineer. The

first model was the PJC-1, followed
by the PJC-2, which incorporated a
larger rudder and vertical stabilizer.
Being similar in appearance to
the Spartan Executive, yet smaller
in stature, the PJC-2 has sometimes
been called the baby Spartan.
Eleven PJC-2s were built prior to
the United States active engagement in World War II; today, there
are only six listed on the FAA registry, one of which is in the EAA AirVenture Museum.

Engineer Max
Max B. Harlow was a Stanford
University aeronautical engineering graduate who started using his
engineering skills in 1928. He was
chief engineer, or design engineer,

for aircraft companies such as Security National Aircraft Corp. of Van

Nuys, California, and Kinner Airplane & Motor Corp. Ltd. of Glendale, California. Harlow had his
hand in a variety of projects for
Lockheed, Kinner (Sportster K and
Envoy C-7), Northrop, and Douglas
(DC-2), as well as providing input on
the Hughes H-1 Racer. Harlow began
his professorial aeronautical career
at Pasadena Junior College (PJC) in
1935. He soon persuaded administrators to allow his aeronautical
students to design and build an airplanethe all-metal PJC-1under
his direct supervision. The students
embarked upon the rather unusual
project in late 1936. According to
the Pasadena City College (formerly
Pasadena Junior College) website


Family History


missing/harlow/harlow.cfm), the first
step was building an experimental
plywood mock-up of the fuselage,
which the students used to determine cabin space and size. Then they
went to the drawing board, designing and refining the design under
Harlows watchful eye. Next, they
built airframe components and procured items such as the powerplant,
propeller, wheels, and tires. Final assembly was completed at the local
airport, and the airplane was ready
to be test flowna mere 10 months
after the project had started.
Aviation historian and author Joseph Juptner wrote that the PJC-1
was test flown on September 14,
1937. As the last part of its certification tests the PJC-1 was loaded

with 400 lbs. of lead shot for the

critical spin test; crossed-controls
during this maneuver had promoted
an unrecoverable flat spin, so the
pilot parachuted out and the airplane was destroyed. the second
airplane (PJC-2) was completed with
limits in place to eliminate crossedcontrols; it thus came through with
its government approval [ATC #659]
in August 1938. The Harlow Aircraft
Co. was incorporated in 1939 with
some money from Howard Hughes,
and the plant was set up in a hangar
on the Alhambra Airport [in California]. (U.S. Civil Aircraft Series, Vol. 7)
According to the Aircraft Year Book
(1941), Harlow Aircraft Co. completed the development of two types,
one a 4-place cabin plane of all-metal
construction, powered with a 145 hp

Warner engine and fixed pitch Curtiss metal propeller, and the other a
2-place enclosed tandem trainer of
all metal construction powered with
a 165 hp Warner engine and a Hamilton constant speed propeller. During the year Harlow secured an order
of PC-5A trainers for export.

Construction Features
The all-metal PJC-2 was designed
to be strong and relatively simple
to build. Its neatly tapered, semimonocoque fuselage was composed
of narrow lengths of Alclad sheet
riveted to transverse rings and longitudinal extrusions. Its one-piece,
cantilever wing was wide at the wing
root and tapered toward the tip, and
it also was semi-monocoque construction, with a NACA 23012 airfoil





Wendy and Matt Malkin enjoy the

Harlow, in part thanks to the family
heritage; Matts grandfather owned
the airplane before him.

Close-up view of the Harlows streamlined metal fuselage.


Matt hopes to return the panel to its

original configuration.

Matt likes the performance of this

Aeromatic 220 self-adjusting propeller.
14 JANUARY 2010


section. The PJC-2s perforated, splittype flaps were electrically operated

and had 45 degrees of deflection. The
cantilever tail group was metal, with
the exception of the elevators and
rudders, which were fabric-covered.
The Harlow sported electrically operated retractable landing gear and
a lockable, full-swiveling tail wheel.
The 21-inch wheels were equipped
with hydraulic brakes, and Aerol (airoil) shock absorbers cushioned the
short-coupled airplanes touchdown.
The PJC-2 originally sold for $6,985.
Matts four-place PJC-2 is now
powered by a 165-hp Warner, with
an Aeromatic 220 self-adjusting propeller. The airplane measures 23 feet

Matt Malkin and his sister Anya on the wing of Grandpa Macs Harlow.
4 inches from nose to tail wheel, and
its one-piece wingspan is 35 feet 10
inches. It has an empty weight of
1,661 pounds and a gross weight of
2,294 pounds. It carries 34 gallons of
fuel and burns about 9.5 gph while
cruising at 138 mph (max 160 mph)
for a range of nearly 500 miles.

Grandpa Mac
Californian John C. MacPherson
owned Serial No. 7 from 1960 until
2003. During World War II, Mac
was a primary flight instructor, teaching in PT-19s, at Hemet, California.
He worked a variety of jobsone as
a commercial fisherman, fishing albacore up and down the West Coast.
He also owned a wrecking yard in
Lancaster, and he was an aircraft and
powerplant (A&P) and inspection authorization (IA) mechanic for a very
long time in Salinas, said Matt. He
retired from the military in 1963 as a
lieutenant colonel. One of his claims
to fame is that he flew the N9M flying wing in 1945 while he was in the
Army Air Corps at Muroc Army Air
base [now Edwards Air Force Base].

Serial No. 7
Serial No. 7 was completed August 5, 1940. Originally powered
by a 145-hp Warner S-50A, it was
equipped with a Curtiss fixed-pitch
metal prop. Interestingly, this PJC-2
was first owned by the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) in
Washington, D.C., and was used for
business purposes. Records show that
it had certificate number NC67 in

The tallest fellow (third from the left) in this group shot from World War II is
Matt Malkins Grandpa Mac.
1940 and 1941. CAA pilots flew it
118.5 hours in its first year, and in
May 1942, they increased its range
by having an auxiliary fuel tank installed in the baggage compartment.
Historian Juptner, in his U.S. Civil
Aircraft Series, Vol. 7, stated, The
Harlow was a lovely little airplane
of very advanced design. The first
large order came from the Bureau of
Air Commerce which stationed the
airplanes in districts scattered around
the country for use by government
inspectors. Even tho the prototype
(PJC-1) had crashed in an unfair
spin test, the Bureau felt somewhat
obligated for the mishap and gave
the subsequent examples a clean bill
of health, as it were. The government
inspector-pilots enjoyed the little
Harlow, and were more than happy
to use it in their work.
After World War II, a February 19,

1946, bill of sale stated: That the War

Assets Corporation, a corporation
created by Reconstruction Finance
Corporation . . . is authorized, by the
Surplus Property Board to dispose
of the following described property
owned by the United States of America and which has been declared to
be surplus pursuant to said Surplus
Property Act of 1944: 1 Harlow Aircraft, Model PJC-2 Manufacturers Serial No. 7, Identification No. NC-67
[and a handwritten NC65296], For
and in consideration of the sum of
One Thousand, Seven Hundred and
Fifty Dollars . . . unto I. Lease whose
address is Dublin, Georgia. I. Lease
sold the Harlow PJC-2 Interstate
the very next day to 34-year-old N.A.
Kalt of Dallas, Texaswho ended up
buying and selling the airplane three
times in the next five years.
Throughout the years, the airplane



was based in a variety of states, including Michigan, Florida, Missouri,

Oklahoma, Arkansas, and California.
Matt, commenting on one facet of
the airplanes history, said, An interesting claim to fame for this Harlow
is that the maintenance logbook is
signed by William Barnes, Pancho
Barnes son.
In 1954, Serial No. 7 was owned
by Kansas City Flying Service and Air
College Inc., and they completely
overhauled the airplane. John C.
MacPherson bought N65296 in December 1960 from James K. Stuart of
Lancaster, California.

Family Memories
Matt inherited NC65296 in October 2003 after his maternal Grandpa
Mac passed on. The family decided
that I would be the one to take care
of it, reflected Matt. Grandpa originally bought the airplane in Lancaster, California, and in the 1970s he
moved to Salinas, California, where
he had it the majority of the time he
spent with it. His flying was all just
private flying, for pleasure. During
the summers my mom and my sister
and I would visit him. I did [fly with
him in this airplane], and there are
photos of my sister and [me] standing on the wing. I was probably 8 or
9 years old then, so its likely that this
was the first small plane that I was
ever in. I do remember my grandfather being a pretty positive influence in my young life; he was a man
of good humor and just a real gentle
characterand someone I admired
greatly as a child.
Matt soloed in a Cessna 150 and
has logged close to 800 hours since
then. Like his grandfather, his flying

16 JANUARY 2010

is all for pleasure. He transitioned to

tailwheel flying in an Aeronca Champ
and recalled that he had never been
in a plane that light or that small, and
I really enjoyed it. My flying club had
a Citabria, so Ive done Citabria flying as well. The PJC-2 is my first airplane, and it was probably Grandpas
very first airplane, too. My mom used
to go flying with Grandpa in this airplane, and so did my unclehe said
it flies great upside down!

Grandson Matt
Since the Harlow was down south
in Salinas and Matt was living in Seattle, he literally traveled the extra
miles for about nine months in order to bring NC65296 into airworthy condition. Every month Id go
down there, said Matt. Id fly commercially to San Jose, rent a car, stay
with my grandmother at her house,
and spend a weekend working on
the plane. It was generally flyable,
though out of annual, and it needed
a bunch of minor things. Clay Anderson helped me work on it, and
I also worked with my Uncle Tim,
who was a mechanic, and he knew
the airplane well, since hed worked
on it with Grandpa.
When the PJC-2 was ready to be
flown, Matt had the good fortune
of finding a local instructor at Salinas who had once given Mac a biennial flight review in the airplane.
He checked me out in itthe Harlow has brakes on both the left and
right sidesand we flew together
on several weekends. I never felt uncomfortable in the airplane, Matt
said and smiled. Its actually fairly
well-behaved, though its a little
short-coupled, so on the ground you

watch out. But I think Im fairly conservativeboth weatherwise and all

other formsso I try to just maintain within what I know my capabilities and my envelope to be. When
I was speaking with Grandpa about
the Harlow before he passed on, he
told me to maintain 90 mph on final, and Ive always done that. He
never really said why; I think its just
that he wanted me to be safe. Its a
fairly honest airplane; the stall characteristics are a little bit odd because
it does drop the left wing pretty hard,
but I think that has to do with [the
fact that] over the years its been
ground-looped, and its had a gearup landing, so its been a little bit
twisted here and there.
Today the airplane is flying frequently in the skies above Seattle, and
Matt is happy to have the opportunity
to keep his grandfathers spirit alive
by flying and caring for the Harlow.
He loved this airplane, said Matt
thoughtfully. He certainly had style,
and I think this was one of his ways of
expressing it. He was very frugal, and I
think this airplane represented something very extravagant for him, and it
reflected his sense of style and class.
Matt hasnt changed the Harlow
very much in the six years hes been
flying it. The interior upholstery is
what his grandfather chose in the
early 1990s, and the sheepskin covering on the door handle was his
grandmothers special touch. The instrument panel probably isnt original, and at some point Id like to bring
it back to original, said Matt. I had
the yokes chrome-plated not too long
ago. I think the airplane was originally
polished, but this paint scheme was
what my grandfather chose. I do think
about him when I fly itone particular time was when I flew my mom and
my stepfather around, and it made me
think about the family aspect of the
Harlow, which is something unique to
a rare airplane like this. I feel that Ive
been handed this tremendous privilege, and its an honor.
Thats quite an honor, indeed
and its likely that Matt will fly the
familys hallowed Harlow far into
the future.

Thank you from the staff at

AUA. We look forward to
Photo court
esy of JD B
of William
sburg, VA

serving you in the new year.

All the best to you and your
family in 2010!

AUA is Vintage Aircraft Association approved. To become a member of VAA call 800-843-3612.

Aviation insurance with the EAA Vintage Program offers:

Lower premiums with payment options Additional coverages
On-line quote request available AUA is licensed in all states

The best is affordable. Give AUA a call its FREE!

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My Friend

Albert Vollmecke
Part 1: His early career

Albert A. Voellmecke

(the original spelling was Vollmecke,

but he changed it because people in
America could not pronounce his
name correctly) was a native of Osnabrueck, Westphalia, Germany, born
in 1901. He was a 1925 graduate of
the Technical University of Braunschweig with a degree in mechanical engineering with an aeronautical
option. Soon after his graduation he
was appointed technical head of the
Aeronautical Research Association, a
government-financed organization
maintained in connection with the
university. It was while serving in this
capacity that he assisted in launching
the gliding competitions in 1925.
At the conclusion of World War I,
the Treaty of Versailles had limited
Germany to production of aircraft
powered with engines up to only
80 hp. Subsequently the Germans
became experts at building and flying gliders. They created glider clubs
for young boys and perfected the art
of gliding. Vollmecke competed in
glider contests and was a firm believer
that glider experiments in Germany,
France, and other countries did more
to advance flying after World War I
than any other factor.
In 1923 he won second place in
a competition held in Wasserkuppe,

18 JANUARY 2010


Germany, remaining aloft for two and

a half hours in an engine-less plane,
depending solely on the mountain
air currents and his delicately attuned
flying sense to sustain his flight.
He was widely known in Germany as
one of the original promoters of the
annual gliding competition that did
much to stimulate the advancement
of aeronautical science.
Vollmecke designed and flew some
of the most successful gliders of the
time. In Figure 1, a glider rests on a
lawn near a building in Germany. This
photo, found in a bound volume of
aircraft inventions and patents dated
1919 and given to me by Mr. Vollmecke, shows what very well may be
an early picture of one of his designs.
There is no way to determine this
fact, but this is not a clipping from
a book or newspaper but a very early
black and white photograph. There
is a vague similarity in the shape of
the rudder top and size of the vertical
stabilizer when compared with the
shape and size of his Command-Aire
model 3 and 5 designs.
The Arkansas Democrat published
a story about Albert Vollmecke on
November 6, 1927, and reported,
In his homeland, they refer to Vollmecke as a cousin of Captain Gustav
Tweer, famous German ace who, at

the age of 23, succeeded the great Immelmann as squadron commander
when the ace of aces was shot down
over the lines in WWI. Tweer was officially credited with bringing down
32 planes, a record that was surpassed
by few on the other side. By a strange
freak of fate he survived all his air battles only to lose his life while testing a
new plane behind the lines. The plane
caught fire and Tweer fell to his death
when he leaped from the burning
machine at a height of 100 feet near
Hanover. Vollmecke was too young
to enter the German air service until
the closing year of the war, when he
attended an army flying school. The
hostilities came to an end after he had
finished the course and been assigned
to an air unit on the western front.
Vollmecke told the story of a brave
German aviator who was engaged to
his sister. This aviator died when his
flying machine caught fire in the air
and he jumped from the craft before
it hit the ground. Could it have been
this man, Gustav Tweer? Tweer was
born July 5, 1893, in Osnabrueck,
Germany, and died November 1,
1916, in Hanover, Germany, at the
young age of 23. He learned to fly and
earned German pilot license number
180 on April 18, 1912. He became a
protg of the French looping and

diving aviator Adolphe Pegoud. The
photograph in Figure 2 is Tweer and
his Bleriot monoplane.
Pegoud had met Louis Bleriot and
learned to fly in a Bleriot monoplane.
Pegoud made the first parachute jump
from an airplane from an altitude of
250 meters on August 13, 1913, and
accomplished the first loop on September 21, 1913, in a Bleriot Type XI
machine. Pegoud died in World War I
when he was shot down by a former
student from Germany. He was only
26 years old.
In 1914 Tweer met Bleriot in
France. He learned flying and became an early Sturz- und Schleifenflieger (diving and looping
pilot) like Pegoud.


Figure 3 is a German postcard

showing the Frenchman Pegoud
looping his Bleriot monoplane. Note
this illustration is very similar to the
card in Figure 3 showing the German Tweer. Both aviators died young;
Tweer at the age of 23 years and Pegoud at the age of 26 years.
A rare postcard (Figure 4) shows
Tweer looping his Bleriot monoplane,
the feat he learned from Pegoud, who
was considered the first art flier.
Tweer organized imperial flight day
on June 1912 on the Vehrter running
place, a racecourse in Germany. He
made several flight demonstrations
of looping and stunting before his
death. He is buried in Osnabrueck on
the Johannisfriedhof, the city of Vollmeckes birth.
Vollmecke was employed by the
Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke, Germanys second largest manufacturer of
aircraft, as a designing engineer. He
had been with Heinkel for three and a
half years before coming to the United
States in January 1927 as a company
representative and scout for the factory. Heinkel had designed a small
low-powered training airplane, and
the factory was interested in seeing if
the airplane could be manufactured
in the United States under license.
He was also instructed to report on
American aviation developments and
transmit to his employer all worthwhile new ideas he discovered. He
found the field of civilian aviation so
active and promising that he decided
to sever his connection with Hein-

kel and remain in this country, if he

could make a satisfactory connection
with an American firm.
The opportunity came when he
learned, through an aviation publication, that Arkansas, Aircraft Company of Little Rock, Arkansas was
seeking a highly qualified expert to
serve as chief engineer. When company officials learned of Vollmeckes
exceptional qualifications, they decided he was the man they were looking for and promptly offered him a
contract, which he found acceptable
and signed immediately.
He took charge of the Arkansas
Aircraft Companys plant at the foot
of East 17th Street in late September
1927. Vollmecke immediately provided a touch of German efficiency
for the design and production of airplanes. Naturally, Vollmecke hoped
to put into practice some of the advanced ideas he gathered in connection with his work as a designer in
Germany. The officials at Arkansas
Aircraft Company offered him a free
hand in the introduction of innovations, within reasonable limits.
Charles M. Taylor, vice president
of Command-Aire Inc. in 1929 and
1930, reported on one of Vollmeckes
innovations brought over from Germany. Vollmecke had an interesting
program in mind which he postponed and then abandoned when
he started designing for CommandAire. His plan was a novel way for fast
delivery of newspapers throughout
the country. Carrying a load of daily


newspapers in cargo type airplanes
with built-in hoppers, papers would
be jettisoned over a designated spot
from where local carriers would pick
them up and deliver them to their
customers. [See the company stationary in Figure 5.] Some mornings
when I pick up my morning paper
it looks like they were using Vollmeckes invention. The ships were
painted bright colors so people on the
ground would know when the newspaper ship was approaching.
The Heinkel Double Decker biplane was to be manufactured in two
sizes. The Model 39 had a payload
capacity of 1,150 pounds for freight
or passengers, and the Model 40 had
a payload capacity of 2,500 pounds
of freight or 10 passengers (including two pilots). A bundle of 100 average-size newspapers would weigh 28
pounds, thus in one trip the Heinkel
H.D. 40 could deliver 8,707 papers.
You can see the colorful paint scheme
in Figures 6 and 7.
The March 19, 1929, issue of AVIATION magazine carried a story regarding the Heinkel H.D. 40 German
freight and express plane (Figure 8),
which was to be manufactured in
America and powered by an American engine. The Arkansas Aircraft

20 JANUARY 2010

Company of Little Rock, Ark., manufacturer of commercial airplanes, announces it is now preparing to put in
production a type of plane suitable
for freight and express carriers by air
lines operating on regular schedules.
This plane can also be furnished with
a patented mechanical dropping device for the handling of certain commodities. This device was primarily
designed for the delivery of newspapers, and several of the large European newspapers are now using this
plane equipped with the dropping device in the daily delivery of their papers to distant towns. [Figure 9]
The plane was designed by the
Ernst Heinkel Airplane Works of Warnemuende, Germany, and is known
in Europe as the Heinkel model H.D.
40. It is through Albert Vollmecke,
chief engineer for the Arkansas Aircraft Company, who until recently
was associated with the Heinkel
Works in Germany, that arrangements are being made to manufacture
this plane in America.
The H.D. 40 follows Heinkel practice in construction in that it has a
large welded steel tubular fuselage with
high lift wood wings. It is planned
that these planes will be powered with
Pratt and Whitney Wasp or Hornet

engines or with Wright Cyclone engines. The plane was designed in compliance with the requirements of the
German Technical Department for
Aeronautics at Adlershof. Neither Arkansas Aircraft nor Command-Aire
ever constructed the airplane, which
was to be manufactured in the United
States under license to Heinkel.
The Arkansas Democrat newspaper
dated Sunday, November 6, 1927, reported the following interview of
Albert Vollmecke, Just before my departure from Germany I saw, under
construction, a huge plane designed
to carry 100 passengers. It will soon be
ready for testing and I believe it will
prove a success marking the beginning
of a new era in commercial flying. This
plane, built primarily for experimental
purposes, will be driven by six motors
of 1,000 horsepower each. Vollmecke
predicted that the trans-Atlantic planes
of the near future would be big hydroplanes that would fly at great height,
perhaps 15,000 feet and more, thus
soaring high above all fog and atmospheric disturbances. This was predicted just after Charles Lindbergh had
flown solo nonstop from New York to
Paris. Vollmecke offered another forecast for the future. Diesel engines will
eventually be substituted for gasoline

motors. The fuel consumption
of the diesel is much lower than
the types of gasoline motors that
were in use for aerial purposes.
This, he predicted, would help
solve one of the most troublesome problems of long-distance
flightthe excessive weight of
the fuel that had to be carried.
All this in November 1927!
Vollmeckes ideas on aircraft design came mostly from
Germany. In his collection of
technical books was a threevolume set of design ideas for
every type of aeronautical device one could imagine. Gustav
V. Lachmann wrote one such
technical paper that Vollmecke
commonly referred to. It was
authored July 1925 in Germany
but recorded by the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in Washington, D.C., in July 1926 (Figure
10). The title is Development
of Light and Small Airplanes.
Vollmecke was always looking
for the ideal light low-powered
airplane. He was looking for efficiency and safety, and his designs reflected this philosophy.
This poor-quality photograph in Figure 11 comes from
Dr. G. Lachmanns NACA report number 370. It is a small
low-powered lightweight ship
produced by the Ernst Heinkel Airplane Works in Warnemuende, Germany. Asked if
he had designed or helped de-

sign this airplane, Vollmecke
said no, but he had flown it on
several occasions. Vollmecke
added, The wings folded for
storage, and it had full-span
slotted ailerons. The wing brace
struts and fittings were poorly
designed. While doing acrobatics a wing failed and the aircraft was destroyed. Note the
full-span ailerons as developed
and reported on by Dr. Lachmann in his May 1926 report
as published by the NACA in
Technical Memorandum number 393, dated January 1927. In
his report, Dr. Lachmann concluded, There is no doubt that
this form of lateral control has
greatly increased the safety of
flight in the region of the stall.
It is quite likely that it could,
with advantage, be applied to
fighting airplanes, as the ability to start a turn rapidly and
to maintain lateral control
when stalled with full engine,
on a turn of minimum radius,
is of very great importance.
Both model and full-scale experiments were made to see
whether the drag of the airplane had been increased by the
somewhat drastic alterations in
the shape of the wings in the
region of the ailerons. On the
model the increase in drag coefficient was about 0.001, and
on the full scale airplane was
too small to be detected. It was
continued on page 32



Light Plane Heritage

published in EAA Experimenter February 1957, May 1989




EAA 93

he Powell Racer, which

was flown in the 1925 National Air Races, was one of
the most successful lightplanes built at that time. It is one of the
few airplanes that has the distinction
of having won every race in which it
was entered. Its extremely small size
can be appreciated by comparing the
scale drawings with those of the Lincoln Sport biplane and the Pietenpol
Air Camper. Powered with a Bristol
Cherub engine, the little ship won the
Aero Digest trophy, the Scientific American trophy, and $2,000 in prize money.
It clearly showed the superiority of the
horizontally opposed engine over the
converted-motorcycle engines then
used in most of the lightplanes.
The Powell Racer was the result
of some very skilled design and construction work by Professor C.H. Powell, who was at that time in charge of
the Aeronautics Department of the
University of Detroit. Professor Pow-

ell had previously been employed

in the Aerodynamics Department of
the Sopwith Aviation Company in
England, and the design of the racer
shows the effects of his experience
there. It was built along conventional
lines scaled down to a wingspan of 15
feet 9 inches with extreme attention
paid to detail design in order to save
weight and decrease drag for high
performance. The design and construction were done with the help of
Powells students, and the aircraft was
intended as a practical application of
the theory taught in the aeronautical
engineering courses.
The fuselage was of all wood construction consisting of four main
longerons and several lighter stringers, with bulkheads of 3/8-inch plywood. The entire fuselage aft of the
firewall was covered with 1/16-inch
birch plywood.
The landing gear consisted of two
welded Vs of streamline steel tubing

with a steel channel spreader bar supporting the two-piece axle. Each axle
was hinged at its inboard end, which
was about one-third of the distance
between the wheels. Shock absorbers were rubber shock cord wrapped
around the outer end of the axles and
landing gear struts. The tires were 171/2 inches in diameter.
The wings were of conventional
two-spar wood construction with
plywood web-type ribs using the
RAF 15 airfoil. The wire bracing was
of streamline 10-32 drawn steel tie
rods. Because of the high drag of
standard wire fittings, a special type
of end fitting was designed that
could be buried in the wing and still
allow the wire to swivel in all directions without putting a bend in the
threads. This was a difficult problem, as the rear spar was only 1-3/4
inches deep and the front spar was 2
inches deep. Ailerons were used on
the lower wing only with a torque

Editors Note: The Light Plane Heritage series in EAAs Experimenter magazine often touched on aircraft and concepts
related to vintage aircraft and their history. Since many of our members have not had the opportunity to read this series, we plan on publishing those LPH articles that would be of interest to VAA members. Enjoy!HGF

22 JANUARY 2010

At the 1925
National Air
Races held at
Mitchell Field,
New York,
the Powell Racer
was flown by
Jerry V. Dack of
Dayton, Ohio, and
proved to be the
fastest lightplane

tube drive from the cockpit. The upper wing was built in one piece. The
short span allowed the dihedral to
be built in with no splicing.
The tail surfaces were constructed
with a plywood web making up most
of the structure. The hinges for the
tail surfaces consisted of continuous
strips of leather, which worked well.
The elevator control system had a
pushrod back as far as the rear seat and
a cable system from there to the elevator. The aileron control system used
torque tubes and push-pull rods. The
rudder was operated by rudder pedals
with a conventional cable system.
A standard 8-gallon fuel tank was

installed in the fuselage forward of

the cockpit, but for the races a special
2-1/2 gallon tank was made.
The Bristol Cherub engine used
was imported from England. It was
rated at 22 hp at 2500 rpm, but it was
run at speeds up to 3200 rpm. The
displacement was 66.8 cubic inches.
A larger fuel pump was installed, and
three-ring pistons were used instead
of the standard two rings. The weight
of the engine was 81 pounds, and
fuel consumption at cruising speed
was 1.4 gallons per hour. The propeller had a 4-foot 3-inch diameter and a
3-foot pitch and was a special Curtiss
Reed metal type.


At the 1925 National Air Races

held at Mitchell Field, New York, the
Powell Racer was flown by Jerry V.
Dack of Dayton, Ohio, and proved
to be the fastest lightplane entered.
Its best lap speed was 76 mph in the
Scientific American Trophy Race and
was about 8 mph faster than the
second-place winner. The little ship
was very responsive to the controls,
and the pylon turns were flown in
a manner that resembled the larger
Curtiss racers. On account of its small
size the Powell Racer appeared to be
flying extremely fast. The engine ran
smoothly without any of the difficulties that continually bothered the
motorcycle-engine-powered ships. An
altitude test was made by pilot Dack,
during which time he reached 9,800
feet in 38 minutes. He was forced to
return at this point due to the cold
weather, although the airplane was
still climbing at a good rate and had
sufficient fuel available to continue.
The specifications of the Powell Racer
Empty weight

310 pounds

Gross weight with

150-pound pilot and
2-1/2 gallons fuel

475 pounds

Wing area

76 square feet

Fuel capacity

8 gallons

After its success at the National

Air Races, the Powell Racer was returned to the University of Detroit,
where it was used for experimental
work in the test lab. It was eventually broken up in the course of static
tests performed by the aeronautical
engineering students.
In the 1932 edition of the Flying
and Glider Manual there was published
a how-to-build article by Orville Hickman on an airplane called the Powell
P.H. Racer. These plans were based on
the original Powell Racer, but they included a steel tube fuselage and tail
surfaces and other changes. It is not
known if any airplane of this modified design was ever built.
Aero Digest, October 19, 1925
Aviation, December 31, 1925
Flying and Glider Manual, 1932

24 JANUARY 2010


You can buy your tickets online now and save time and money.
Go to
and get to the fun fasterand cheaper.


J U LY 2 6 A U G U S T 1


This months Mystery Plane comes to us
from an e-mail sent by Bill Goebel of Rhome, Texas. Its a scan of a
photo he recently purchased on eBay. The outline certainly looks
familiar, and the slats add a bit of technical interest to the shot.
Send your answer to EAA,
Vintage Airplane, P.O. Box 3086,
Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Your
answer needs to be in no later
than February 15 for inclusion
in the April 2010 issue of
Vintage Airplane.
You can also send your response via e-mail. Send your
answer to
Be sure to include your name
plus your city and state in the
body of your note and put
(Month) Mystery Plane in the
subject line.


We enjoy your suggestions for

Mystery Planesin fact, more than
half of our subjects are sent to us by
members, often via e-mail. Please
remember that if you want to scan
the photo for use in Mystery Plane,
it must be at 300 dpi resolution
or greater. You may send a lowerresolution version to us for our re-

26 JANUARY 2010

view, but the final version has to be

at that level of detail or it will not
print properly.
Our October Mystery Plane was
an interesting multiengine airplane
from the Curtiss factory. Heres our
first answer:
The October Mystery Plane would
be a Curtiss Kingbird. Probably the last

Kingbird that existed was (NC622V)

operated by Alaska Coastal Airlines out
of Juneau until it was wrecked in 1952?
It was wrecked at the Tulsequah Mine
just on the Canadian side of the border
on the Taku River about 50 miles from
here. They get an enormous amount
of snow in that area, and rather than
plow the runway, they just compacted
the snow with a Caterpillar tractor.
The Kingbird with its large Airwheels
usually had no problems. The accident
happened in early spring; the tires broke
through the crust and the airplane ended
up on its back and was not rebuilt. My
dad, Don Bedford, worked on the Kingbird a lot because Alaska Coastal was
mostly a seaplane operation based out
of downtown Juneau, and the Kingbird
was based at the airport 10 miles outside of town but near my parents home.

The construction of the Kingbird was

fairly conventional (steel truss wing
spars and aluminum ribs, fabric-covered
aluminum structure tail surfaces, etc.)
except that the fuselage structure was
aluminum tubing secured together with
aluminum gussets and rivets.
The fuselage was so flexible that a
heavy load or hard landing could (and
did) wrinkle and even tear the fabric. The
wing spars were used for many years as
the core of the roof structure in a wood
shed here. We just rounded up the spars,
vertical fins, and a few other bits and
pieces and shipped them to the Aviation
Heritage Museum in Anchorage. The
original Kingbird engines were Wrights
rated at 300 hp. Coastals airplane had
later Wrights installed that were rated
at 420 hp. But the installation called for
throttle stops limiting them to 300.
The airplane was said to be a marvelous performer. Legendary bush pilot and
founder of Alaska Coastal Airlines Shell
Simmons when he was in his 80s told
me that if he was just a little younger,
hed round up a Kingbird and go barnstorming in the States.Dennis Bedford, Juneau, Alaska
And a portion of a note from
Dave Jackson of Toulon, Illinois:
The photo in Vintage Airplane is the
D2 flown by Walter Beech and Owen G.
Harned in the 1930 National Air Tour
and shows the aircraft waiting to be
flagged off from the starting line. They
finished in sixth place. The Vintage
Airplane version of the photo has the
race number, #9, blacked out. Much
more information about the Kingbird
can be found in Joseph P. Juptners U.S.
Civil Aircraft Series Vol. 4, page 158.
Plus this bit of information: A
Kingbird D-3 was operated in the Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse, Yukon,
area by White Pass Airways and later
by British Yukon Navigation Co. from
1931 to 1942.Gerry Norberg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
It seems the Kingbird had a personal connection for a few of our
members. Here are excerpts from
two notes we received. From Craig
Kern, Dayton, Ohio:
My father, Frank B. Kern, was a
production test pilot for the CurtissRobertson Division (Lambert Field, St.

Louis, Missouri) of the Curtiss-Wright

Corporation from August 1929 until
December 1930. During this time he
flew Curtiss Robins, Thrushes, and the
Kingbird. He first flew the Kingbird on
February 28, 1930, and delivered the
first Kingbird (NC600V) to Eastern Air
Transport at Richmond, Virginia, on
December 9, 1930. He subsequently retired from Eastern Air Lines on October
25, 1967, after flying his last trip to
Vietnam in a DC-8-61.
And this little addition: As a personal side note, the chief engineer and
chief test pilot on the project was H.
Lloyd Child. Lloyd was the pilot for
my first airplane ride in August 1937
in Buffalo, New York.Pete Jansen,
Seattle, Washington
Other correct answers were received from Brian Baker, Sun City,
Arizona; Allen Herr, Yuba City, California; Andy Heins, Dayton, Ohio;
Wayne Muxlow, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Tom Lymburn, Princeton,
Minnesota; Wayne Van Valkenburgh,
Jasper, Georgia; and James Stubner,
Mercer Island, Washington.





Instrument systems

ur subject for this issue is instrument systems.

Discussion will focus on the primary instrument
panel, those instruments required by regulation
91.205 (b) for visual flight rules daytime flight.
These instruments would be airspeed indicator, altimeter, magnetic direction indicator, engine tachometer
(for each engine), oil pressure and oil temperature
gauges (for each engine), a coolant temp gauge for liquid-cooled engines, a manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine,
and a fuel gauge for each fuel tank.
Also needed is a landing gear position indicator for aircraft equipped
with retractable landing gear.
The owner may wish for further
instrumentation, but the above
gauges are required equipment.
Other instruments may be added by
necessity, such as an ammeter if an
electrical system is installed, a fuel
pressure gauge if a pressure-fed fuel
system is installed, and a turn and
bank indicator or a rate-of-climb indicator. All instruments should be
installed using brass hardware. This
is done to protect the compass from
magnetic deviation. Now, lets look
at the primary instruments individually, starting with the compass.

to install directly below the compass. There are two

methods to correct a compass for deviation; use a compass rose at the local airport or use a master compass.
The most common method is to place the airplane on
a compass rose and make mechanical corrections to
the instrument in the N-S and E-W headings. On the
face of the compass are two screws marked N-S and
E-W. These screws rotate tiny magnets to cause the
compass card to move. Always use a
non-magnetic screwdriver when adjusting. I take a small piece of brass
brazing rod and flatten it to turn the
screws. The most accurate compass
correction will be with the electrical
system ON and the engine running and the tail positioned as it
would be for flight. Most folks dont
run the engine. If there are no electrical wires near the compass, then
theres no need to activate the electrical system.

An airframe and
mechanic (A&P)
cant make any
adjustments to
aircraft instruments
other than
swinging the

COMPASS: The magnetic compass is preferably

installed in line with the center of the fuselage. Accuracy of the compass is affected by metallic objects
that are magnetic. Therefore, non-magnetic hardware
is always used for installation. Compass deviation is
caused by anything magnetic located nearby, such as
steel hardware and/or electrical wires. Deviation can
be corrected by swinging the compass once the airplane is completed. You will need a correction card

28 JANUARY 2010


Place the aircraft on the compass
rose with the main landing gear
on the E-W line and the tail wheel
on the N-S line (longitudinal axis
aligned over the N-S line), and then
move the N-S screw until the compass reads 0 degrees (north). Move
the airplane 180 degrees, line up on N-S and E-W lines,
and note the compass reading. Example: If the compass reads 176 degrees instead of 180 degrees, adjust
the heading until the compass reads 178 degrees (take
1/2 of the error and adjust the N-S screw). Then repeat
the process on the E-W direction. Once the cardinal
headings are adjusted, dont make any more adjustments. Now, place the airplane in the north heading
and note the compass reading on a piece of paper.

Then move the airplane so as to
change the heading by 30 degrees,
noting the compass reading, until
back to the north heading. Your figures can then be transferred to the
compass correction card that will
be installed just below the compass.
If there are heading errors of more
than 10 degrees, the compass must
be overhauled or replaced. Figure
1 details a typical compass correction card.
TACHOMETER (Figure 2): All
old tachs were mechanically driven
off the engine accessory case. There
were no electric or recording tachs

made in the early days. Use care
when measuring the length of the
drive cable and housing; dont
make it too long, as excessive coils
or changes in direction can cause
friction and errors in rpm indication. Note the direction of the tach
cable drive at the engine, and make
sure the drive cable is wound in the
direction of the engine drive, not
in opposition to the drive direction. Also note that the drive cable
is slightly longer than the housing
so as to properly engage in both
the engine drive and tachometer

instrument fitting. I lubricate my

drive cables with graphite grease
during assembly. There is an oil seal
or other type of mechanism in the
engine drive to keep oil from entering the tach drive housing and
eventually getting into the instrument. If oil ever appears in the instrument, check the oil seal on the
accessory case of the engine. The
tachometer should be redlined at
maximum operating rpm. A simple
red radial line adjacent to the appropriate rpm will suffice. Have the
instrument overhaul shop install
the red line at the time of overhaul
or place the marking on the instrument glass. If the marking is placed
on the glass, provide a small white
line crossing from the instrument
case to the glass so any glass rotation can be detected.
OIL PRESSURE GAUGE (Figure 3): Oil pressure gauges are
Bourdon tube instruments. Inside
the instrument is a small semicircular tube that springs out under pressure. This tube drives the
needle through a series of gears
and rocker arms. Aluminum tubing is used to connect the instrument to the pressure port on the
engine. The most common tube diameter is 3/16 inch, although 1/4
inch may be used. There should be


a flexible area of tubing at the engine attachment point. Either use a

hose or coil the tube so it is free to
flex when the engine moves in the
mount. Initial installation of the
tube to the instrument should be
done by first removing all air from
the line. Disconnect the line from
the instrument and turn the engine
over with the starter until oil in the
line is visible; reconnect the line to
the instrument fitting. The engine
operating oil pressure, both maximum and minimum, should be
marked with small red radial lines.
(Figure 4): The oil temp gauge is
also a Bourdon tube type instrument; however, a capillary line and
bulb is permanently connected to
the back of the instrument. The line
is filled with methyl chloride, a liquid that expands with temperature,
thus causing the Bourdon tube to
move. Small changes in movement
cause the needle to read a temperature. Never cut or twist the capillary
line off the instrument or the liquid
will immediately turn to a gas and
the instrument will becomes useless. The capillary line should be
the desired length; however, excess
length can be carefully coiled and
clamped behind the instrument
panel. The oil temperature gauge
should have a red radial line indicating the maximum inlet oil temperature as specified by the engine
AIRSPEED INDICATOR (Figure 5): Airspeed indicators are pitot and static instruments; that is,
they operate by measuring the difference between pitot (ram air) and
static (ambient) pressures. A common location for the pitot/static
probes on a biplane is on the left
or right interplane strut, about
four-fifths of the gap above the
lower wing. Pitot (ram air) operates a diaphragm, which expands
under pressure and moves a series of rocker arms and gears that
make the needle move. Static air
surrounds the diaphragm inside


the case of the instrument. There
usually is a tee connection that allows static air to be connected to
the altimeter, and through another
tee to the rate-of-climb instrument
(if installed). Some simple installations will have the static air source
directed only to the airspeed indicator; the altimeter static air will
be opened directly into the cockpit
of the airplane through a 1/8-inch
pipe plug with a small-drilled hole.
The airspeed indicator should have
a red radial line marking the neverexceed speed (VNE) of the aircraft.
Figure 6 shows a typical early
pitot-static installation to an airspeed indicator.


30 JANUARY 2010

ALTIMETER (Figure 7): There

are two types of altimeters used in
the older airplanes: standard and
sensitive. Both use static air derived from the pitot/static system.
The instrument case is airtight and
contains one to three sealed diaphragms that expand as the aircraft
gains altitude. This expansion is
transferred to a needle that reads
the aircrafts altitude. Standard altimeters contain just one needle
on the dial, and the local altimeter setting in inches of mercury
cannot be set; you just set it to the
field elevation or zero, depending
on your needs that day. These instruments have significant accuracy
errors and are best set to zero so as
to read the airplane altitude above
the ground. Sensitive altimeters
have a window to adjust the instru-

ment to the local altimeter setting.
In the United States we use inches
of mercury as the unit of measurement. When these instruments are
accurate they are actually an aneroid barometer, which uses a type
of diaphragm that is more sensitive
to smaller pressure changes than
a simple diaphragm. To use it, set
the needle on the field elevation
and the instrument will tell you
the barometric pressure in inches of
mercury. When installing the sensitive altimeter, a placard on the rear
of the case should indicate that the
instrument is a 0-20,000 foot altimeter. Sensitive altimeters have two
or three needles on the dial and an
adjusting knob at the 6 oclock or
8 oclock position. The sensitive altimeter can be overhauled and certified for accuracy; the standard
altimeter can be overhauled but
cannot be certified for accuracy.
PLUMBING: The most common
type of tubing for instrument systems is soft aluminum alloy 3003.
It is easily hand-formed and flared,
and standard aluminum AN fittings
(blue in color) can be used. Route
the tubing so it does not chafe, and
clamp it to the structure if necessary.
OPERATION: Aircraft instruments need a certain amount of vi-

bration to work properly. It there is
no vibration, the needles tend to
be jumpy, especially the airspeed
indicator and the altimeter. Some
instrument panels were shockmounted, and some were not.
Many older airplanes did not have
shock-mounted panels; rather the
panels were mounted directly to
the fuselage frames.
common problem will be an obstruction in the pitot line causing
an erroneous reading on the airspeed indicator. Remove the pitot line from the instrument case
(its the one in the middle) and reverse blow out the line with compressed air. Caution: Use a regulator
and start at 20 psi; continue raising pressure until the obstruction
is removed. Dont blast away with
a line pressure of 100 psi and above
or you can do damage to the system, especially if rubber hose was
used to join the tubing together.
If oil temperature gauge accuracy
is in question, heat water until it
boils, place the instrument probe in
the water, and check the reading. It
should read 212F or 100C. No adjustment can be made to the instrument. At overhaul each instrument
has a calibration card furnished, and
you might want to review that card.

An airframe and powerplant

(A&P) mechanic cant make any adjustments to aircraft instruments
other than swinging the compass. If instrument indication is
not accurate, the gauge should be
removed and sent to a qualified
repair station for maintenance.
However, most simple aircraft instruments will give many years of
trouble-free service. If problems do
occur, check the system first before
removing the instrument.
MAGNETO SWITCHES (Figure 8): Magneto switches ground
magnetos when the switch is placed
in the OFF position. When the
switch is on BOTH, the left and
right magneto grounding circuits
are open. When checking magnetos for proper operation, if the
switch is on L, the right magneto
is grounded; if the switch is on R,
the left magneto is grounded. At
idle speed, moving the switch to
the OFF position will ground the
output of both magnetos, causing
the engine to stop. If it doesnt,
then one or both magnetos are not
grounded (we call this hot mags).
You can check the magneto switch
circuits with an ohmmeter or continuity light. Wiring from magnetos to the switch (P-leads) should
be shielded, and the shielding


grounded on both ends of the wire.

Some instruments require range
markings. The airspeed indicator
needs a red radial line at the maximum operational airspeed (V NE);
the oil pressure gauge needs a red
radial line marking minimum and
maximum pressure. The oil temperature gauge needs a red radial line
marking maximum inlet oil temperature. The tachometer needs a
red radial line at maximum engine
rpm. Engine operating limits can
be gleaned from the manufacturers
overhaul manual. Placards state operational limitation requirements.
Examples are Solo Rear Seat Only,
Intentional Spins Prohibited,
and Avoid Continuous Operation
Below 1650 rpm and Above 1800
rpm. Markings and placards must
be in plain view of the pilot. FAA
type certificate aircraft and engine data sheets (TCDS) are a good
source for placarding and markings. The FAA Aircraft and Engine
Listing is a poor source for this information, since it contains such
limited data. Since all older aircraft rarely had flight operations
manuals, they must be operated
in accordance with markings and
placards, commonly called the
Operation Limitations. Some aircraft had a CAA-issued Operation
Limitations form, which listed
engine and airspeed limits. This
form was to be displayed in full
view of the pilot.
CONCLUSION: Simple markings and placards are important to
the proper operation of the aircraft
and engine. I suggest you include a
copy of the type design data for the
aircraft and engine in your paperwork file and even in the data carried in the aircraft. There is a large
difference in data contained in FAA
Aircraft or Engine Specifications
versus the FAA Aircraft or Engine
Listing. Your A&P mechanic or A&P
with an inspection authorization
can be helpful in obtaining this information. Happy flying!

32 JANUARY 2010

continued from Page 21

this type of aileron system Vollmecke used on

all Command-Aire aircraft he designed.
It is interesting to
digress slightly at this
point to explore an
invention of a British
aircraft designer, Mr.
L.G. Frise (pronounced
Freeze). In the June
12, 1942, issue of THE
AEROPLANE, there appeared an article titled,
is the report of a talk
given on the Forces
Programme of the BBC
on Monday, May 25,
1942. Mr. Frise stated,
I have been asked to
mention the Frise aileFIGURE 12
ron, which I patented
as far back as 1921. The
aileron, as you know, is the control on the wing tips used to carry
out most of an aeroplanes maneuvers. This idea was born whilst
I was working on a means of improving the safety of flight, and it
was awarded the Wakefield Gold Medal by the Royal Aeronautical
This control became practically standard throughout the world, and
soon its original purpose of improving safety was overshadowed by its
ability to increase the fighting maneuverability of aircraft in war. The
only enemy aircraft not so fitted at the beginning of the War [WW2] was
the Messerschmitt ME-109, but this suffered so badly at the hands of the
Spitfires and Hurricanes using the Frise aileron, that it is not surprising to
find that the latest model of the Messerschmitt, the 109F, has returned to
the fight wearing Frise ailerons. Is it possible that the English chap Frise
and the German Lachmann invented the same system independently of
each other? It is also interesting to note that when Mr. Vollmecke was
asked if he had employed the Frise slotted aileron on his Command-Aire
designs, he replied, Oh no, I used the slotted aileron invented by the
German, Dr. Lachmann.
In the original factory photograph furnished by Albert Vollmecke (Figure 12), his Lachmann slotted aileron is shown; the design is great for
low-speed lateral control. Note the sketch for license numbers on the left
lower wing, but not yet painted. This type of aileron offers superior lowspeed roll control. The photograph was taken outside the factory building
in Little Rock, probably early 1929. The photographers name, Wolff, is in
the lower right corner of picture. Mr. Wolff did most of the factory photos,
and his trade name was Wolff-foto.

Aeronca Aviators Club

Bellanca-Champion Club

Cessna 150/152 Club

Robert Szego
P.O. Box 66
Coxsackie, NY 12051
Dues: $29 1-yr, $55 2-yrs;
Intl $37 1-yr, $69 2-yrs
Aeronca Aviator, Qtrly

Robert Szego
P.O. Box 100
Coxsackie, NY 12051
$38 1-yr, $72 2-yrs;
Intl $43 1-y, $81 2-yrs
Publication: B-C Contact!, Qtrly

Lori Parsons
P.O. Box 1917
Atascadero, CA 93423-1917
$35/yr Internet; $45/yr Print U.S.
Intl see website
Publication: 6/yr

Bird Airplane Club

Cessna Flyer Assoc.

Fearless Aeronca Aviators (f-AA)

John Rodkey
280 Big Sur Dr.
Goleta, CA 93117
Dues: None, contribute with email exchanges
Email at

National Aeronca Assoc.

Auster Club
Stuart Bain
31 Swain Court
Lake Ronkonkoma
New York, NY 1179

Beech Aero Club

Chris Linderman, President
P.O. Box 899
Georgetown, KY 40324
Publication: 3/yr

T-34 Association, Inc.

880 North County Road, 900-E
Tuscola, IL 61953
Mentor Monitor, Qtrly

Jeannie Hill
P.O. Box 328
Harvard, IL 60033-0328
Postage donation

American Bonanza Society

Nancy Johnson, Exec. Dir.
Mid-Continent Airport
PO Box 12888
Wichita, KS 67277
$55/yr. US/Canada
ABS Magazine, Monthly

Natl Bcker Jungmiester Club

Celesta Price
300 Estelle Rice Dr.
Moody, TX 76557

Bcker Club

Buhl LA-1 Bull Pup Owners Group

William R. Bill Goebel
894 Heritage Creek Dr.
Rhome, TX 76078

Intl Bird Dog Assoc. (L-19/O-1)

Sam Dawson
7 Kristin Circle
Niceville, FL 32578
$30/yr US; $50 Intl
Magazine Qtrly; E-newsletter Monthly

Trevor Janz
Waupaca Municipal Airport
The Blue Hangar
P.O. Box 381
Waupaca, WI 54981
Publication: Monthly

Cessna Owner Organization

Dan Weiler
N7450 Aanstad Rd.
Iola, WI 54945
Publication: Monthly

Cessna Pilots Assoc.

John Frank, Exec. Director
3940 Mitchell Rd.
Santa Maria, CA 93456
$55 US, Canada, Mexico;
$70 Intl
CPA Magazine, Monthly
E-ATIS Electronic Wkly

Cessna T-50 The Flying Bobcats

Jon D. Larson
P.O. Box 566
Auburn, WA 98071
Contact club for dues info
Publication: Qtrly


Eastern Cessna 190/195 Assoc.

Ercoupe Owners Club

Canadian Harvard Aircraft Assoc.

Cliff Crabs
25575 Butternut Ridge Road
North Olmsted, OH 44070
$15 initial, then as required
Publication: 4/yr

Carolyn T. Carden
P.O. Box 7117
Ocean Isle Beach, NC 28469
$25/yr Electronic
$30/yr Paper
Coupe Capers, Monthly

244411 Airport Road; Box 175

Tillsonburg, ON N4G 4H5
ROAR of the Harvard, Qtrly

Intl Cessna 120/140 Assoc.

Christian Vehrs, President
225 Middling Lane
Fayetteville, GA 30214
$25/yr US
Publication: 6/yr

Intl Cessna 170 Assoc.

22 Vista View Ln.
Cody, WY 82414
170 News, Qtrly

Intl Cessna 180/185 Club

Keith Peterman
40087 Mission Blvd. # 392
Fremont, CA 94539-3680
Publication: 6/yr

Intl Cessna 195 Club

Coyle Schwab
632 N. Tyler Rd.
St. Charles, IL 60174
Web area for Members Only

Corben Club
Robert Taylor
P.O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 magazines

Culver Club
Brent Taylor
P.O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues

de Havilland Moth & Chipmunk Club

David M. Harris
2024 75th St.
Kenosha, WI 53143
Paper Tiger, 4-6/yr Electronic

34 JANUARY 2010

Fairchild Club
Mike Kelly
92 N. Circle Dr.
Coldwater, MI 49036
Publication: Qtrly

Fairchild Fan Club

Robert L. Taylor
P. O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues. Fairchild Fan

Intl Fleet Club

Jim Catalano
8 Westlin Ln.
Cornwall, NY 12518
Publication: 3-4/yr

Funk Aircraft Owners Assoc.

Thad Shelnutt
2836 California Av.
Carmichael, CA 95608
Funk Flyer, Monthly

Great Lakes Club

Robert L. Taylor
P. O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues

The American Yankee Assoc.

Stewart Wilson
P.O. Box 1531
Cameron Park, CA 95682
$50/yr US & Intl
1st yr U.S. +$7.50; Intl +$10
American STAR, 6/yr

Hatz Biplane Assoc.

Chuck Brownlow
P.O. Box 85
Wild Rose, WI 54984
Publication: Qtrly

Hatz Club
Barry Taylor
P. O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues, Hatz Herald

Heath Parasol Club

William Schlapman
6431 Paulson Road
Winneconne, WI 54986

Howard Club &

Howard Aircraft Foundation
Dennis Lyons, Treasurer
P.O. Box 38
San Miguel, CA 93451
Publication: Qtrly

The Arctic & Interstate League

Steve Dawson, 262-642-3649
Wayne Forshey, 740-472-1481
Newsletter Qtrly via email

Interstate Club
Robert L. Taylor
P.O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues, Interstate Intercom

Continental Luscombe Assoc.

Mike Culver, President & Editor
17514 NE 33rd Pl.
Redmond, WI 98052
$25/yr US; $27.50 Canada; $30 Intl USD
The Courant, 6/yr

Luscombe Association

Navion Pilots Assoc.

Piper Aviation Museum Foundation

Steve Krog
1002 Heather Lane
Hartford, WI 53027
$30 US/Canada; $35 Intl USD
Publication: 6/yr

Jon Hartman
P.O. Box 6656
Ventura, CA 93006

John R. Merinar, President

1 Piper Way
Lock Haven, PA 17745
The Cub Reporter, Qtrly

The Luscombe Endowment Inc.

Doug Combs
2487 S. Gilbert Rd Unit # 106, PMB 113
Gilbert, AZ 85295
Online and Print

Meyers Aircraft Owners Assoc.

Navion Skies
Raleigh Morrow
P.O. Box 2678
Lodi, CA 95241
Fax: 209-367-9390
Email newsletter monthly

Parrakeet Pilot Club

Doug Eshelman
1563 Timber Ridge Dr.
Brentwood, TN 37027
Postage fund donation
Newsletter: 3-4/yr

Barry Taylor
Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues
The Parrakeet Pilot

Monocoupe Club

Brodhead Pietenpol Assoc.

Frank & Carol Kerner

1218 Kingstowne Place
St. Charles, MO 63304
Optional, help cover website fees

Doc Mosher
P.O. Box 3501
Oshkosh, WI 54903-3501
Publication: Qtrly

Western Assoc. of Mooney Mites

Cub Club

Michael Harms
P.O. Box 391641
Mountain View, CA 94039
Dues: None

Steve Krog
1002 Heather Lane
Hartford, WI 53027
$35 US/Canada; $40 Intl USD
Cub Clues, 6/yr

N3N Owners & Restorers Assoc.

H. Ronald Kempka
2380 Country Road #217
Cheyenne, WY 82009
Newsletter: 2/yr

American Navion Society

Gary Rankin
PMB 335, 16420 SE McGillivray # 103
Vancouver, WA 98683
May - Oct: 360-833-9921
Nov - April: 623-975-4052
$60/yr US; $64 Canada; $74 Intl USD
The Navioneer, 6/yr

Intl Comanche Society

Piper Flyer Assoc.

Trevor Janz
Waupaca Municipal Airport
The Blue Hangar
P.O. Box 381
Waupaca, WI 54981
Piper Flyer, monthly

Piper Owner Society

N7450 Aanstad Rd.
Iola, WI 54945
$49.95/yr U.S., add $20 Intl
Publication: Monthly
Steve Pierce
196 Hwy. 380 East
Graham, TX 76450
Donations: Min $25/yr
Online Discussion Forum
Straight & Level Productions, Inc
PO Box 150
Waldron, MO 64092
Donations: Min. $25/yr
Online Discussion Forum

PO Box 1810
Traverse City, MI 49685-1810
$66/yr US, Canada, Mexico
The Comanche Flyer, Monthly

Porterfield Airplane Club

Piper Apache Club

Rearwin Club

John J. Lumley
6778 Skyline Drive
Delray Beach, FL 33446

Robert L. Taylor
P. O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues

Tom Porterfield
3350 Cty. Rd. U; Hangar A
Abernathy, TX 79311


Intl Ryan Club

West Coast Swift Wing

Western Waco Assoc.

John R. Hodges
11298 Twin Spires Dr.
Flint, TX 75762
$15/yr Internet, message boards

Gerry or Carol Hampton

3195 Bonanza Dr.
Cameron Park, CA 95682
530-676-7755 voice & fax
Publication: Monthly

Rich Nurge
7780 Oak Spring Circle
Gilroy, CA 95020
$10/yr Electronic; $20 Print
Publication: Qtrly

1-26 Association (Schweizer)

Beverly Beckwith
106 W Crosswind Ct.
Tullahoma, TN 37388
$15/yr (website has addl options)
Publication: 6/yr

Taylorcraft Foundation, Inc.

13820 Union Ave. NE
Alliance, OH 44601

Other Aviation Organizations

Aircraft Engine Historical Society
1019 Old Monrovia Road NW Ste 201
Huntsville, AL 35806

Stearman Restorers Assoc.

Taylorcraft Owners Club

7000 Merrill Ave., Box 90

Chino Airport
Chino, CA 91710
$35/yr US
The Flying Wire, Qtrly

Steve Krog
1002 Heather Lane
Hartford, WI 53027
Publication: Qtrly

American Aviation
Historical Society

Travel Air Club

Beechcraft Heritage Museum

Robert L. Taylor
P. O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$18 for 3 issues
Travel Air Talks

P.O. Box 550; 570

Old Shelbyville Hwy
Tullahoma, TN 37388
$50/yr; $60 Intl USD

Intl Stinson Club

Travel Air Restorers Assoc.

Cross & Cockade

Anthony L. Wright
2264 Los Robles Road
Meadow Vista, CA 95722
Publication: Monthly

Jerry Impellezzeri
4925 Wilma Way
San Jose, CA 95124
$15/yr US; $20 Intl
Travel Air Log, Qtrly

Bob Sheldon, Secretary

14329 S. Calhoun Ave.
Burnham, IL 60633
Publication: 6/yr

Stinson Historical &

Restoration Society
Robert Taylor
P.O. Box 127
Blakesburg, IA 52536
$24 for 3 issues
Publication: SHARS

National Stinson Club

George Alleman
1229 Rising Hill Road West
Placerville, CA 95667
530-622-4004 voice & fax
$20 US & Canada; $25 Intl
Stinson Plane Talk, 4/yr

Sentinel Owner & Pilots Assoc.

(Stinson L-5)
James H. Gray
1951 W. Coolbrook Ave.
Phoenix, AZ 85023
$22 Electronic
$30 US/Canada Print
$35 Intl Print
Newsletter: Qtrly

36 JANUARY 2010

American Waco Club, Inc.

Phil Coulson
28415 Springbrook Dr.
Lawton, MI 49065
$35 US; $45 Intl
Waco World News, 6/yr

National Waco Club

Andy Heins
50 La Belle St.
Dayton, OH 45403
$25/yr US; $30 Intl
Waco Pilot, 6/yr

2333 Otis Street

Santa Ana, CA 92704
$39.95/yr U.S.
Publication: Qtrly

Deaf Pilots Assoc.

Kevin Willis, DPA Treasurer
4641 Myra Avenue
Cypress, CA 90630

Eastern Reg. U.S. Air Racing Assoc.

Jack Dianiska, President
26726 Henry Road
Bay Village, OH 44140

Florida Antique Biplane Assoc.

Larry Robinson
10906 Denoeu Road
Boynton Beach, FL 33472
The Flying Wire, Monthly

Florida Cub Flyers

Larry Robinson
10906 Denoeu Road
Boynton Beach, FL 33472
Cub Tales, Monthly

Intl Fellowship of Flying Rotarians

Peter More
1437 Kinnard Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90024
$40/yr US

Intl Flying Farmers

105 S. Broadway
Wichita, KS 67202
Publication: 6/yr

Intl Liaison Pilot

& Aircraft Assoc.(ILPA)
Bill Stratton
16518 Ledgestone
San Antonio, TX 78232
210-490-4572 voice & fax
Liaison Spoken Here

Intl Wheelchair Aviators

P.O. Box 4140
Big Bear Lake, CA 92315

Lake Amphibian Flyers Club

Marc Rodstein
7188 Mandarin Dr.
Boca Raton, FL 33433
$59, $69 Intl
Lake Flyer newsletter

National Air Racing Group

Betty Sherman
1932 Mahan Avenue
Richland, WA 99354
$15 for first member in household
$3 for each additional
Professional Airracing, 4-13/yr

Natl Assoc. of Priest Pilots

hat O
ur Members Are Restoring

Are you nearing completion of a restoration? Or is it done and youre busy

flying and showing it off? If so, wed like to hear from you. Send us a 4-by-6-inch
print from a commercial source (no home printers, pleasethose prints just dont
scan well) or a 4-by-6-inch, 300-dpi digital photo. A JPG from your 2.5-megapixel
(or higher) digital camera is fine. You can burn photos to a CD, or if youre on a
high-speed Internet connection, you can e-mail them along with a text-only or Word
document describing your airplane. (If your e-mail program asks if youd like to
make the photos smaller, say no.) For more tips on creating photos we can publish,
visit VAAs website at Check the News page for a hyperlink
to Want To Send Us A Photograph?
For more information, you can also e-mail us at or call us at


Ninety-Nines, Inc.,

Swift Museum Foundation

Women Pilots Organization

4300 Amelia Earhart Rd.
Oklahoma City, OK 73159
Publication: 6/yr

Charlie Nelson
P. O. Box 644
Athens, TN 37371-0644
Headquarters: 423-745-9547
Parts Department: 423-744-9696
Publication: Monthly

North American Trainer Assoc.

(T6, T28, NA64, NA50, P51, B25)
Kathy & Stoney Stonich
25801 NE Hinness Rd.
Brush Prairie, WA 98606
$50 U.S./Canada; $60 Intl USD
NATA Skylines, Qtrly

OX5 Aviation Pioneers

R.R. Duke Iden, Treasurer
3015 Homeworth Rd.
Alliance, OH 44601
Dues: $20/yr
OX5 News, Monthly

Seaplane Pilots Assoc.

3859 Laird Blvd.
Lakeland, FL 33811
$45/yr U.S.; $55/yr Intl
Water Flying, 6/yr

Sentimental Journey to Cub Haven

Anna Rusty Wallace
P.O. Box J-3
Lock Haven, PA 17745-0496
$12/yr Individual, $17 Family
Publication: 2/yr

Bart Bratko
19 Bay State Rd.
Natick, MA 10760
UFO newsletter, 6/yr

Vintage Sailplane Assoc.

4673 Sapphire Dr.
Hoffman Estates, IL 60195
Bungee Cord, Qtrly

Waco Historical Society/

Waco Aircraft Museum
Karen Purke, Exec. Dir.
1865 South County Rd. 25A
Troy, OH 45373
937-335-9226; 1-5 Sat-Sun
WACO Word, 4/yr

Women in Aviation, Intl

3647 State Route 503 South
West Alexandria, OH 45381
$39/yr; $29 students
Aviation for Women, 6/yr

WWI Aeroplanes, Inc.

Jerry Reece
3288 Cherryview Ct.
North Bend, OH 45052
Slipstream, Qtrly

PO Box 730
Red Hook, NY 12571-0730

Herman Schaub
168 Marion Lane
Berea, OH 44017
$20/yr US; $23 Intl
Publication: 6/yr

38 JANUARY 2010

EAAs online Calendar of Events is the go-to spot on

the Web to list and find aviation events in your area. The
user-friendly, searchable format makes it the perfect webbased tool for planning your local trips to a fly-in.
In EAAs online Calendar of Events, you can search
for events at any given time within a certain radius of any
airport by entering the identifier or a ZIP code, and you
can further define your search to look for just the types of
events youd like to attend.
We invite you to access the EAA online Calendar of
Events at

U pc oming Major Fl y -In s

United Flying Octogenarians

Silver Wings Fraternity

Society of Air Racing Historians

EAA Calendar of Aviation Events Is Now Online

U.S. Sport Aviation Expo

Sebring Regional Airport (SEF)
Sebring, Florida
January 21-24, 2010
AERO Friedrichshafen
Messe Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen, Germany
April 8-11, 2010
Sun n Fun Fly-In
Lakeland Linder Regional Airport (LAL)
Lakeland, Florida
April 13-18, 2010
Virginia Regional Festival of Flight
Suffolk Executive Airport (SFQ)
Suffolk, Virginia
May 22-23, 2010
Golden West Regional Fly-In and Air Show
Yuba County Airport (MYV)
Marysville, California
June 11-13, 2010
Arlington Fly-In
Arlington Municipal Airport (AWO)
Arlington, Washington
July 7-11, 2010
EAA AirVenture Oshkosh
Wittman Regional Airport (OSH)
Oshkosh, Wisconsin
July 26-August 1, 2010
Colorado Sport International Air Show and Rocky
Mountain Regional Fly-In
Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport (BJC)
Denver, Colorado
August 28-29 2010
Copperstate Fly-In
Casa Grande Municipal Airport (CGZ)
Casa Grande, Arizona
October 21-23, 2010
Southeast Regional Fly-In
Middleton Field Airport (GZH)
Evergreen, Alabama
October 22-24, 2010
For details on hundreds of upcoming aviation happenings,
including EAA chapter fly-ins, Young Eagles rallies, and other
local aviation events, visit the EAA Calendar of Events located


S o m e t h i n g t o b u y,
sell, or trade?
Classified Word Ads: $5.50 per 10 words, 180 words
maximum, with boldface lead-in on first line.
Classified Display Ads: One column wide (2.167 inches) by 1,
2, or 3 inches high at $20 per inch. Black and white only, and no
frequency discounts.
Adver tising Closing Dates: 10th of second month prior to
desired issue date (i.e., Januar y 10 is the closing date for the
March issue). VAA reser ves the right to reject any adver tising
in conflict with its policies. Rates cover one insertion per issue.
Classified ads are not accepted via phone. Payment must
accompany order. Word ads may be sent via fax (920-426-6845)
or e-mail ( using credit card payment (all cards
accepted). Include name on card, complete address, type of
card, card number, and expiration date. Make checks payable
to EAA. Address advertising correspondence to EAA Publications
Classified Ad Manager, P.O. Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086.

Flying wires available. 1994 pricing. Visit or call 800-517-9278.
w w w. a e r o l i s t . o r g , Av i a t i o n s L e a d i n g


AIRPLANE T-SHIRTS 150 different airplanes

call 1-800-645-7739. We also do Custom
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of Hangar/Homes & Lots on 1 to 2.5 Acres
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fabric repairs and complete restorations.
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were, and in the 40s and 50s, these tires were perfectly in
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Geoff Robison
1521 E. MacGregor Dr.
New Haven, IN 46774

George Daubner
N57W34837 Pondview Ln
Oconomowoc, WI 53066

Steve Nesse
2009 Highland Ave.
Albert Lea, MN 56007


Steve Bender
85 Brush Hill Road
Sherborn, MA 01770

Jeannie Hill
P.O. Box 328
Harvard, IL 60033-0328

David Bennett
375 Killdeer Ct
Lincoln, CA 95648

Espie Butch Joyce

704 N. Regional Rd.
Greensboro, NC 27409

Jerry Brown
4605 Hickory Wood Row
Greenwood, IN 46143

Dan Knutson
106 Tena Marie Circle
Lodi, WI 53555

Dave Clark
635 Vestal Lane
Plainfield, IN 46168

Steve Krog
1002 Heather Ln.
Hartford, WI 53027

John S. Copeland
1A Deacon Street
Northborough, MA 01532

Robert D. Bob Lumley

1265 South 124th St.
Brookfield, WI 53005

Phil Coulson
28415 Springbrook Dr.
Lawton, MI 49065

S.H. Wes Schmid

2359 Lefeber Avenue
Wauwatosa, WI 53213

Dale A. Gustafson
7724 Shady Hills Dr.
Indianapolis, IN 46278


Robert C. Brauer
9345 S. Hoyne
Chicago, IL 60643

E.E. Buck Hilbert

8102 Leech Rd.
Union, IL 60180

Gene Chase
2159 Carlton Rd.
Oshkosh, WI 54904

Gene Morris
5936 Steve Court
Roanoke, TX 76262

Ronald C. Fritz
15401 Sparta Ave.
Kent City, MI 49330

John Turgyan
PO Box 219
New Egypt, NJ 08533


Membership Services Directory

Enjoy the many benefits of EAA and
EAAs Vintage Aircraft Association


EAA Aviation Center, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh WI 54903-3086

Phone (920) 426-4800

Fax (920) 426-4873

Web Sites:,, E-Mail:

EAA and Division Membership Services (8:00 AM7:00 PM

MondayFriday CST)
FAX 920-426-4873
New/renew memberships Address changes Merchandise sales Gift memberships
EAA AirVenture Oshkosh
Sport Pilot/Light-Sport Aircraft Hotline 877-359-1232
Programs and Activities
Auto Fuel STCs
EAA Air Academy
EAA Scholarships
Flight Instructor information
Library Services/Research
AUA Vintage Insurance Plan
EAA Aircraft Insurance Plan
800-853-5576 ext. 8884
EAA Hertz Rent-A-Car Program
EAA Enterprise Rent-A-Car Program
VAA Office
FAX 920-426-6579

EAA Members Information Line

888-EAA-INFO (322-4636)
Use this toll-free number for: information about AirVenture Oshkosh; aeromedical and technical aviation questions;
chapters; and Young Eagles. Please have your membership number ready when calling.
Office hours are 8:15 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. (Monday - Friday, CST)


Membership in the Experimental Aircraft

Association, Inc. is $40 for one year, including 12 issues of SPORT AVIATION. Family
membership is an additional $10 annually.
Junior Membership (under 19 years of age)
is available at $23 annually. All major credit
cards accepted for membership. (Add $16 for
Foreign Postage.)


Current EAA members may add EAA

SPORT PILOT magazine for an additional
$20 per year.
EAA Membership and EAA SPORT
PILOT magazine is available for $40 per
year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (Add $16 for Foreign Postage.)


Current EAA members may join the

Vintage Aircraft Association and receive
VINTAGE AIRPLANE magazine for an additional $36 per year.
magazine and one year membership in the EAA
Vintage Aircraft Association is available for $46
per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.)


Current EAA members may join the

International Aerobatic Club, Inc. Division and receive SPORT AEROBATICS
magazine for an additional $45 per year.
EAA Membership, SPORT AEROBATICS magazine and one year membership
in the IAC Division is available for $55
per year (SPORT AVIATION magazine
not included). (Add $18 for Foreign


Current EAA members may join the EAA

Warbirds of America Division and receive
WARBIRDS magazine for an additional $45
per year.
EAA Membership, WARBIRDS magazine and one year membership in the
Warbirds Division is available for $55 per
year (SPORT AVIATION magazine not included). (Add $7 for Foreign Postage.)


Please submit your remittance with a

check or draft drawn on a United States
bank payable in United States dollars. Add
required Foreign Postage amount for each

Membership dues to EAA and its divisions are not tax deductible as charitable contributions

Copyright 2010 by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association, All rights reserved.
VINTAGE AIRPLANE (USPS 062-750; ISSN 0091-6943) is published and owned exclusively by the EAA Vintage Aircraft Association of the Experimental Aircraft Association and is published monthly at EAA
Aviation Center, 3000 Poberezny Rd., PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54903-3086, e-mail: Membership to Vintage Aircraft Association, which includes 12 issues of Vintage Airplane
magazine, is $36 per year for EAA members and $46 for non-EAA members. Periodicals Postage paid at Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes
to Vintage Airplane, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. PM 40063731 Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Pitney Bowes IMS, Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5. FOREIGN AND APO
ADDRESSES Please allow at least two months for delivery of VINTAGE AIRPLANE to foreign and APO addresses via surface mail. ADVERTISING Vintage Aircraft Association does not guarantee or endorse
any product offered through the advertising. We invite constructive criticism and welcome any report of inferior merchandise obtained through our advertising so that corrective measures can be taken.
EDITORIAL POLICY: Members are encouraged to submit stories and photographs. Policy opinions expressed in articles are solely those of the authors. Responsibility for accuracy in reporting rests entirely
with the contributor. No remuneration is made. Material should be sent to: Editor, VINTAGE AIRPLANE, PO Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Phone 920-426-4800.
EAA and EAA SPORT AVIATION, the EAA Logo and Aeronautica are registered trademarks, trademarks, and service marks of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. The use of these trademarks
and service marks without the permission of the Experimental Aircraft Association, Inc. is strictly prohibited.

40 JANUARY 2010

Enjoy the privilege of partnership

EAA Members who are considering the purchase

EcoBoost Leads
the Charge
New Breed of Turbo Engines

or lease of a new Ford Motor Company vehicle

should be sure to take advantage of the
Ford Partner Recognition Program.

Exclusive Pricing.
Exceptionally Simple!
Ford Motor Company, in association with EAA,


is proud to offer members the opportunity to

save on the purchase or lease of vehicles from
Ford Motor Companys family of brands.


Get your personal identication number (PIN)

and learn about the great value of Partner
Recognition/X-Plan at


Certain restrictions apply. Available at

participating dealers. Please refer to or call 800-JOIN EAA.

s2ECIPIENTOFPopular Mechanics Breakthrough Award.