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P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDY SKILLS OF 1ST YEAR AND 2ND YEAR


COMPUTER ENGINEERING STUDENTS OF POLYTECHNIC
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Presented to the Faculty of the Institute of Technology


Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the


Diploma in Computer Engineering Management Technology

by
ANGELICA MAE V. ALCANTARA
ALLEN NICOLE P. ANGAT
RALPH ANTHONY I. ANGELES
ELIJAH PHILIPPE D. BARRO
WELJEM A. DANIEL
JAYMALIN P. JAMOLIN
ELMERTO M. MARTINEZ II
ANNA JANE E. SALVADICO
ABIGAIL B. TAYLAN
LUDI JANE G. TERANA

March 2014

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction
People say Education is a greatest treasure that can achieve. Education is
all around us. Education is everywhere. It is not just about the lesson that can get
in schools and textbooks; its also about the lessons of life. It gives us knowledge
and changes into something better. It builds the character of a person. Excellent
education leads to the success of life.
The learners cannot learn simply by being told what to do or by watching
others, they have to practice and practice frequently. Successful students employ
time management systems to create study patterns that work and use active
learning methods to add meaning and interest to their study time and maintaining
their motivation by connecting reasons for study to their life goals and values.
Learners must develop and established good study habits in doing school work,
which can raised their academic performance.
It is a common knowledge that many students fail in studying; even those
who work hard often study in ways considered unproductive. Several others are
just contented with barely passing grades, never developing their skills and abilities
to the highest level attainable. What to study, where to study and how to study are
indispensable to every student in class. In fact, proper study habits are the tool for
acquiring deeper understanding in different subjects.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
It takes a good study skills, patience and persistence to attain good grades.
Learning is never easy. Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing,
knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing
different types of information and a continuous process.
Today, a lot of college students dropping and failing their subjects. These
may be occurring due of lack of study skills. Study skills play a major role to get
and maintain a high grades. Moreover, it is a key to cope up easily with the
discussions, sharpens your mind and improve your time management. There are
many factors which may affect study skills. Study skills can be affected by the
environment in which the student studies. The amount of time used for studying is
another affecting factor. Good study skills minimize failure and enable students to
take advantage of learning oppurtunities.
The researchers believe to achieve a good study skills, one must have a
desire to learn and to improve. Motivation and persistence is very essential in
learning because the researchers know that learning is a continuous process.

Background of the Study


One of the goals of PUP is the provision of undergraduate and graduate
education which will meet the international standards of quality and excellence. It
continues to provide highly qualified, competent and multi-skilled faculty members
to produce progressive leadership, integrity in governance and globally competitive
students.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Through the mission and vision of PUP, the researchers aims to helps the
students for enable to explore topics in a deeper and more expansive way,
incorporating creative and expressive modes into their learning, and developing
deeper insights into the complex connections between the subjects they are
studying and as a result Students have a vital personal model for intellectual
inquiry and growth and the faculty enjoys a continuously challenging and changing
teaching environment, and the rewards of playing a primary role in student
development.
Institute of Technology (Itech), formerly known as College of Technology, is
one of the colleges of PUP that offers diploma programs with ladderized
curriculum. Itech focuses merely in the integration of technology and skills
development to its students. It intends to develop knowledge, skills, values and
attitudes that will prepare the students for entry into world of work. Itech provides
six different ladderized diploma programs to its students which lead to Bachelor
Science degree.
This study aims to assess levels of the study skills of 1 st year and 2nd year
Computer Engineering students of Institute of Technology at the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.

Theoretical Framework

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
The theoretical framework that used in the study is the Input-Process-Output
Model. In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of boxes (processing
elements) connected by inputs and outputs. Information or material objects flow
through a series of task or activities based on a set of rules or description points.
Flow charts and process diagrams are often used to represent the process. What
goes in is the input; what causes the change is the process; what comes out is the
output. Figure 1 illustrates the basic IPO model:

Input

Proce
ss

Outp
ut

Figure 1. Input-Process-Output Model

The components of the IPO model are defined as:

Input - The information, ideas, and resources used


Process - Actions taken upon/using input or stored material
Output - Results of the processing that then exit the system

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework is a set of coherent ideas or concepts organized
in a manner that makes it easy for them to communicate with each other. It uses
an IPO model that shows how the data is bringing together in order to be

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
processed and provide a certain output. The IPO includes requirements that are
needed for the study.

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm


Figure 1 shown for the input, the researchers sought for the profiles of the
students: gender, and year level. It also includes the level of study skills of the
students in terms of Concentration, Time management, Note taking, Test
preparation and Reading. The process included the collection of data through used
of survey questionnaires, analysis and interpreting of data. The output of the study
is to assess the current level of study skills of the students. Improvement of study
skills and excellent grades can be achieve as Feedback.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Statement of the Problem
This study sought assessed the levels study skills of Computer Engineering
students.
Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions.
1. What are the profiles of the respondents in terms of the following
demographic:
1.1 gender
1.2 year level
2. What is the level of study skills of the students according to the following:
2.1 concentration
2.2 time management
2.3 note taking
2.4 test preparation
2.5 reading
3. Is there a significant relationship between the levels of study skills of the
respondents to their demographic profile?

Hypothesis
1. There is no significant relationship between the levels of study skills of the
respondent to their demographic profile.

Scope and Limitations


The study seeks to determine the factors that affect the study skills among
Computer Engineering students. The researchers will give a self-evaluation
questionnaire that is required to answer by 1 st year and 2nd year students of
Institute of Technology, regarding with their study skills in terms of: Concentration,

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Time management, Note taking, and Test preparation. The study is largely
dependent on the honesty, sincerity, and integrity of the respondents.
This study will not cover the graduating students, due to the fact that we have
limited sources. Moreover, 1 st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students
are only allowed to participate in the research.

Significance of the Study


The researchers believe that following will be benefited from the findings of
this study.
Computer Technology Department. The study may also be guided in the
formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies
toward a more effective delivery of learning.
Professor. The study will also be help in understanding better the diversity of
learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more
effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter.
Students. The study will benefits students most specially the Institute of
Technology will be given information on how study skills affect their academic
performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study
skills among their co- education students.
Parents/Guardian. The study will help the parents in encouraging their
children in achieving academic performance in school or increase their study skills.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Future Researcher. The study may be able to use the result of the study in
farther research similar to what the study is.

Definition of Terms
For the purpose of definiteness and in order to avoid confusion and ambiguity,
the following terms were defined conceptually and operationally.
Conceptually
Factors. It is one that actively contributes to an accomplishments, results or
process.
Integrity. It is basing of one's actions on an internally consistent framework of
principles.
Knowledge. It is the state of being aware of something
Motivation. It is the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented
behaviors.
Study skills. It is the process of organizing and taking in new information,
retaining information, or dealing with assessments manner in which you
consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson.
Synthesize. It is to combine so as to form a new, complex product.
Operationally
Factors. These refer to anything that affects study habits.
Integrity. It refers to states of being whole.
Knowledge. It refers to the capacity of the students.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Motivation. It refers to the drive that gives the student to perform better and
further improve their productivity.
Study skills. It refers to the strategies in studying on a particular subject.
Synthesize. It refers to summarizing information.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The purpose of the review of related literature and studies is to give several
ideas on how the researchers formulate the proposed study.

Foreign Literature
In conformity with Mcknight (2006) he explained that habits are formed
through repetition. Once formed, habits are difficult to break. And it is formed when
we are young and are likely to stay with us in all our lives. It requires experiences
whether they may bad or may be good. Sometimes, it may refer also as a routine
of a person as he or she lives his or her life. Habits are being chosen and not hut
something that happens without a reason. As for the study habit specifically, it has
to be processed and developed in order to come up with a good one. It is not easy
for students especially those who are not consistent with what they are doing to
develop their study habit because it requires consistency and persistence in order
to let ones study habit stay in our lives. Attaining ones ideal study habit is a longway process..

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Mark Crilly (2000) said that Successful students are able to balance social
activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and
help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that
he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some
cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with anew acquaintance. For this way, that
student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity
afterwards. He said, To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits.
After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and
quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks
every 45 minutes or so. Making friends with whom you share similar study habits,
and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing
study habits as what Mark said.
Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail.
What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years
ago still rings true today-students fail because they do not know how to study. The
best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student
should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a
sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere.
That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second,
get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work. Know what skills,
facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
cover. Start with most difficult subjects first, while the mind is freshest and most
receptive.
In terms of age, Andrew (2006) stated that the older the respondent, the
better grade he gains, expecting that results of this study will yield more older
respondents with better performance. Older existence means better experience.
Experience enhances the way of thinking and gains a sharper view for studying.
Age surely doesnt matter but when it comes to thinking, it does. Critical thinking
and understanding are developed through time and studying
From a reliable source (Abderisak, 2007), students cannot study properly
without considering the time as the main factor of study habit. It is most certainly a
study technique in itself. The schedule given in each student should guide them in
how to allocate the available time among the academe works, extracurricular
activities and social life. Time is the most important element of studying. It must be
properly observed and practice the studying accordingly to the given time span.
According to Palm Beach Community College (PBCC, 2008), they
recommend that students study should have at least three hours out of class for
every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place
to study with plenty to work. And students should not be cramped. They
presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the stat
to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair usually best. Dont get
comfortablea bed is a place to sleep, not to study as what they said. A student
must have everything close at hand (book, pencil coffee, dictionary, computer,

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
calculator, tape recorder, etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested
to on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggested also that
distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some
people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what
work for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. Consider a Do not disturb and
turning your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits
according to the PBCC
Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical
reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and
synthesizing. But Fieldens study was slightly opposed by the work of Gladen
(2008) who mentioned that there is no definite way to define good study skills. As
every student is different and works.
Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable
students work private. The best thing students should be doing is self-testing and
self-monitoring, Van Blerkom says. So many students read over the material and
say, Ive got this. Maybe this worked with high school tests. However, when they
study by reading over the material for their college exams, they are surprised when
they do not excel because they thought they knew the material.
In accordance, Kelly (2000) explains that learning is very significant on the
study habits of students. If no learning takes place, studies are useless. The
study is somehow a general term and in fact, it is being measured by learning.
When a student study, it means they will be learning something. And the quality of

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
their study habits whether they may be bad or good depends on the learning that
they have acquired because the mere fact in here is that if the students learn a lot,
it means that they have applied the a sound study habits. The more the learning
that a student learns, the better they have studied.
In addition, Richards (2009) stated, it will be a big help in studying to divide up
large tasks into smaller ones. In this way, students may limit their allotted tie for
studying. Dividing large tasks into smaller ones is one of the few ways to lessen
the time for studying and also organizes the material for studying.
As it is said in the study of Crede and Kuncel (2008), study habit, skill, and
attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and
previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial
incremental validity in predicting academic performance. Study motivation and
study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and
grades in individual classes. Academic specific anxiety was found to be an
important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the
validity of specific inventories is shown.
Study groups help solve the problem of forgetfulness. Studying one hour
immediately after a class will do more good in developing an understanding of the
material as several hours a few days later. Studies show that as much as 80% of
material learned in class is forgotten within 24 hours if there is no review. Maryland
Community College S.O.A.R. Program Revised. (April 2002)

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Simmons (2003) said. professors in the developing countries said that the
undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the
capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to
learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind. Study habits are said to be
improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and
multimedia resources which greatly Affects the Study Habits. Liu (2005)
According to Allan Paivio (2006), an emeritus professor of psychology at the
University of Western Ontario, noted that habits of study, which are formed in
school have greater significance and students must realize the need to acquire
these effective study habits. Effective studying will help students to prepare
schoolwork in less time and achieve greater degree of mastery of the lesson.
Students who study effectively and efficiently make use of methods of learning
which provide gaining in the acquisition, retention, application of knowledge, facts
and information from textbook and class discussion, lectures and other resources.
While Bolivar Pascual MD, a psychiatrist, stated that study skills/habits or study
strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to
success in school, are considered essential for acquiring good grades, and are
useful for learning throughout one's life. There are arrays of study skills, which may
tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining
information, or dealing with assessments. They include mnemonics, which aid the
retention of lists of information, effective reading and concentration techniques, as
well as efficient note taking. Acquiring effective study habits are often left up to the

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
student and their support, however there is and evidence that they increasingly
taught at high school and university level.
Li (2009) explained that students dont need to study for a long period of time
but instead, but instead, enough time is recommended for healthy amount.

Local Literature
Ortinero (2000) particularly highlights the role of family and environment in
students acquisition of rational capacities and skills. It has been scientifically
confirmed that family upbringing, neighborhood culture, schooling experience, and
the national milieu positively or adversely affect the shaping of rational capacities.
It is believed that good study habits and positive attitude towards learning
proven in many studies enhance the process of learning skills, including reasoning
skills. Good study habits lead to enhancement in learning, as ability improves and
sharpens through mastery of principles and by means of training, exercise and
constancy of application. (Ortinero, 2000, pg. 56)
Local studies (Muega, 2003; Acuna, 2000; Orteza, 1999) have also stressed
the need for students to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think
critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues.
In support, Salcedo, Lumantas, and Masunong (2006) affirmed that motivated
students are most successful when learning a target language are those who are
like the people that speak the language, admire the culture, and have desire to

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
become familiar with or even integrated into the society in which the language is
used.
In the local setting specifically in Davao City, Nacito (2006) and Azarcon, et.al.
(2004) found that Grade Six students enrolled in Piedad District of Toril S.Y. 20052006 as well as the freshmen students of Erico T. Nograles National High School
both need to improve their study habits due to their low academic performance. In
addition, college students of the University of Mindanao, where the researcher is
currently studying, observed that most of the students lack study habits
As recommended by Borro (2006), the good study habit should be taught by
parents first at home. The school will later on guide the students on studying their
lessons. Teachers should impart the good values of studying.
According to Salandanan (2008), the most important goal of education is to
teach the students how to learn on their own. The quotation on the side margin
stresses this. It is vital that students acquire the skills of how to learn; and that
these skills enable them to learn not just while they are in school but for a lifetime.
This entails a deeper awareness of how one processes information, the ability to
evaluate his own thinking and to think of ways to make his own learning process
more effective. Proficiency in employing a variety of instructional methodologies is
the best guarantee of attaining a desired learning outcome. There is no single best
method in accomplishing a planned objective one may be selected as the most
appropriate for learning episode but may not be suited for the same objective in
another learning engagement. The teachers decision in choosing one is crucial.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Each of teaching approaches and strategies will be discussed highlighting their
effectiveness in achieving learning objective.
The cause of this drastic decrease in the performance of the students was
supported by a study conducted by Acido (2010) who identified students in public
high school in Manila who performed low due to poor study habits.
Manila Bulletin (2011).The point of having good study habits is to be effective
and efficient. Effective: retaining, understanding, and having a good grasp of the
subject matter. Efficiency: maximizing the time you study in order to spend as little
of it as possible. Having good study habits helps greatly in achieving one's goals in
college.
Lee-Chua (2011). He believes that the most common problem of students is
not bullying, cheating or drug abuse. Those three are insidious, but procrastination
may be the most prevalent.
Teachers must always motivate their students to submit the assignments on
time and have the regular consultation of students who need more assistance and
guidance. Teachers must treat the students equally even the slow learners and
give them proper attention to develop the appropriate way of study habits and
practices inside and outside the classroom. Parents must keep away their children
from watching television most especially during weekdays to concentrate from
studying and finishing their assignments. Teachers must also explain or discuss
clearly all the topics being discussed and they must consume the complete hours
allotted for the subject. It is recommended that guidance services where affective

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
behavior of students can be properly monitored and worked on to all freshmen
students to established a better academic foundation and facilitate the
achievement of the objective of the universal basic education (Aquino, 2011).
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado,
Jeannette (2012) Says that a breakup affects students' perceived academic
performance including their concentration, homework and test scores.

Foreign Studies
Crede and Kuncel (2008) found that non-cognitive factors like study habit,
skill and study motivation, among other attitudinal constructs, accounted for
incremental variance in academic performance beyond standardized tests and
previous grades. Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju (2004) pointed out that
for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important.
A substantial amount of research has examined the role of students study
habits and their attitudes to study on academic performance. The study of OsaEdoh and Alutu (2012) which examined the usefulness of imbibing in the students
study habit, as a means of enhancing their academic performance, revealed a high
correlation between study habits and students academic performance. This
suggests that it is only when students imbibe or cultivate proper study habits that
their academic performance can be improved upon.
De Escobar (2009) stated that if students are a college student, high school
student or in elementary school students still need good study habits in order to

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
perform better and succeed in school. Good study habits for students start at
home, however we learn the most of them by practicing them and through trial and
error. For instance students should start with taking notes in class. Write down
what the teachers says but only what students think is important and could be on
your next test. Use colors and high light the most important things because this will
help you study better and in less time for your next test. Pay attention in class.
Sometimes we go to class and start thinking about who knows what. You know
what I am talking about right? Well, try to actually listen to what is going on in
class, what the professor is saying and other people's questions as well. Another
good study habits for students is to do homework at school. This is very rewarding
for anyone because by the time you get home you will have more than enough
time to enjoy what you like to do most without worrying about your assignment for
the next day. Studying for tests and exams ahead of time is also a very good habit.
If one knows a test is approaching the way then start going through ones notes
today, read little by little every day so when the time comes one is prepared and
ready to take on it. The above examples are only a few good study habits one
could implement into ones routine (De Escobar, 2009).
According to Chambers (2009), student days are considered to be one of the
busiest moments in our lives. Recitations, assignments, projects, and exams are
the things that make students feel exhausted. Aside from that, there are work
commitments and social events that they would like to attend. All of these
competing demands influence time management. If the students do not have any

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
idea about budgeting time and keeping a schedule they can easily spin out of
control, get stressed out and fall into bad practices such as cramming or doing 'allnighters. This gives rise to the importance of time management for students. Here
are some positive benefits to learning student time management skills.
Firstly, academic time management can help the student better learn new
material. By taking a steady and consistent approach he/she absorbs the material
in small chunks so that he/she is better prepared when exam time comes around.
Secondly, student time management also helps one for class preparation. Often
concepts that are introduced in a previous class need to be properly understood in
order to build a new understanding of concepts that are introduced. By allocating
time to study material as one learns, one can improve class absorption rate and
efficiency. Thirdly, student time management also ensures the structuring of
commitments by priority. By properly scheduling requirements, one can avoid
running into competing demands. This can happen if one is disorganized. Next,
time management also allows setting aside time for leisure and social events. If
one has priorities to attend to, one won't find the position of having to skip social
events that one has been looking forward to. Moreover, student time management
is a proactive approach to making best use of all available time. By knowing when
to have breaks between classes one can set aside that time to attend to study
commitments. By setting up a schedule this way one can get to take control of the
day to day student requirements. This can help avoiding falling into the trap of
'goofing off' between classes and frees time at night for other activities. Getting

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
started on student time management is often the most difficult task. Taking the time
to learn this skill will pay dividends throughout college life and will also be a
valuable skill one can take forward for managing life. Be prepared and learn is
needed to know early in life to make the best use of time (Chambers, 2009).
Nonis and Hudson (2010) also conducted a study on performance of college
students-impact of study time and study habits in which they found that some study
habits had a positive direct relationship on student performance but others had a
negative direct relationship.
Hassanbeigi et al. (2011), in their study of the relationship between various
study skills and academic performance of university students, noted that the study
skills scores of students with GPA of 15 and above (out of 20) were statistically
higher than those students with GPA of less than 15 in all of the seven skills (time
management and procrastination, concentration and memory, study aids and notetaking, test strategies and test anxiety, organizing and processing information,
motivation and attitude, and reading and selecting the main idea).
According to Menzel, cited by Rana and Kausar (2011), many students fail
not because they lack ability but because they do not have adequate study skills.
Students who have difficulty in college frequently do not have adequate study habits
that affect their academic achievement. A central problem noted was that many of
these students had not learned how to take effective notes and manage time for
studying (cited by Mutsotso S.N. & Abenga E.S., 2010). Moreover, a study by

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Nagaraju (2004) found that students usually do not devote sufficient time to their
studies and seldom have proper study habits.
The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between
an individual's amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study session and the
individual's study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam
preparation was not significant There were participants, 20 male and 58 female
college students (N=78), answered self-ratings on their personal consumption of
caffeine as well as their study habits when preparing for a test/exam. It was
hypothesized that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more
accurately his or her study habits would be labeled as 'unhealthy', as determined by
the researchers. Unhealthy study habits were operationally defined as low scores
on amount of time per study session, time (in days) when preparation began, and
amount of information the participants believed they had retained. High scores on
anxiety level were included in 'unhealthy' study habits. A Pearson correlation
indicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed while studying and
the individual's effectiveness of studying and preparation.

Local Studies
According to Muega (2003), students need to acquire reasoning skills that
would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on
issues. Reasoning entails presentation of arguments. It is when one makes

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
conclusions from what he reads. It is from reading and reasoning one gets to
extend his knowledge critically.
The Filipino females under study are more likely to procrastinate and they are
relaxed-pleasure seeking type of procrastinators. In the Filipino culture, women are
expected to be the helper of the husband, and support the family with their income
after school or marriage. These conforming to these roles easily, they tend to put
off doing or performing them instead. Males on the other hand, are tensed-afraid
type of procrastinator. Their basic characteristics as task-oriented, directive and
dominating others may explain why they are tense-afraid type of procrastinator.
Dela Cruz, M.C. (Baguio City, 2004)
Based from an unpublished thesis of Jabonete (2004), Study Habits
Enhancement Program: Its Effectiveness, it states that the Study Habits
Enhancement Program was established in order to eliminate deficiency in class
performance and promote awareness in improving their learning styles. The
researches formulated the program based on the students baseline data which
was gathered from their given survey of study habits and attitudes in assessment
of adjusting their program. Specifically, the researchers were able to obtain data
from their selected students as profile: sex and grade. As revealed in the survey,
the researchers were able to discover and identify the problems the students have.
These are delayed attention, learning styles, and educational background.
In the Philippine concept, as cited in a research conducted by Cabahug and
Ladot (2005), the University of the Philippines greatest failure is in mathematics. It

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
is also said that repetition in mathematics is common among UP students that
almost one out of three repeat a mathematics course. Cabahug and Ladot (2005)
also said that the faculty of the UP Cebu Natural Science and Mathematics
Division or NSMD has felt the declining performance of students in basic
mathematics. It is also stated that the attitude towards mathematics and
achievement in mathematics have always been a great concern.
The Department of Educations (DepEd) Monitoring and Evaluation Report for
SY 2004-2005 also showed that 44% of the students who were under the Bridge
Program cited parental neglect as a major hindrance to student learning (DepEd,
2005).
According to the study of Torres and Fajardo (2006) 63.25% of the
respondents spend more time in studying rather than of playing. 79.14% out of the
302 respondents can be considered healthy for the reason that they do not get sick
or ill often. This contributes to a result of a high percent of 94.04% respondents
who attend their class regularly.
Based on the study of Alexis D. Tan (2010) majority of the students often
gets 82% and below in minor subjects while 83%-85% in major subjects.
In the 2010 professional licensure examinations given by the PRC, almost 70
percent of college graduates in the country failed and, last year, only 125,419 of
the 345,182 or 36.3 percent college and technical school graduates passed their
respective professional eligibility examinations, as per PRC records. This statistics
were based on the results of licensure examinations for 45 groups of professionals.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Among the lowest number of passing rates were posted by: elementary teachers
(15.4 percent); secondary teachers (23.3 percent); electronic engineers (23.5
percent); and registered electrical engineers (31.9 percent) (Philippine Education
Sector Assessment Project, 2011)
Aquino, L (2011) Students generally do not approve teacher methods and
classroom management and have inefficient time management. Intervention
programs based on the theory of confluent education which can improve the study
habits and attitudes of students was proposed.
The study of Cadosales (2013) reveals that the first year students have the
skills in organizing and planning their work, preparing assignments or projects, and
note-taking and reading. The students skills in organizing and planning ones work;
working with others and utilizing resources and feedback; note-taking and reading;
and preparing an assignment/project correlate with their grades. The best predictor
of students academic performance is note-taking and reading. First year college
students need to develop the habit of studying their lessons, reading, and taking
down notes to improve their academic performance

Synthesis and Relevance of Related Literature and Studies


Each literature and studies are come from articles, thesis/dissertation and
journals that are related to the proposed study.
Each literature and studies are come from articles, thesis/dissertation and
journals that are related to the proposed study.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
According to the study of Borro (2010) the common reason of drastic
decrease of academic performance of the student is a weak study habit. In the
present study the researcher seeks for the factors that affect the study habits of a
student; the factors that causes a weak study habit.
Fielden (2004) once stated that a good study habits have a good effects
towards the academic performance of the student which is hypothetically true.
The present study finds similarities to the study of Jabonete (2004), wherein
the study identified the problems of students to their study skills.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the method of research, population, sample size and
sampling technique, description of respondents, research instrument, datagathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data.

Method of Research
The type of research method that is used by the proponents in this study is
the descriptive research method. That it is focused on the study skills of 1 st year
and 2nd year Computer Engineering students. The descriptive design focuses at
the present condition.
Applied research defined as scientific study and research that seeks to solve
practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies. It accesses and uses
some part of the research communities' accumulated theories, knowledge,
methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven
purpose. Applied research usually involves solving useful problems and real world
protocols. Krishnakumar (2011)
Applied research is used in the study because the study aims to help the
students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines more specifically to the
students of Itech, to assess the level of study skills that they currently have.
According to Krishnakumar (2011), Quantitative research refers to the
systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical
or correlational research. This was applied in the study because the study aims to
measure the levels of study skills and wants to determine if theres a relationship
between the levels of study skill to their demographic profile.
Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique
The respondents of the study took from 1 st year and 2nd year Computer
Engineering students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of
Technology. The number of respondent each level will be determine through the
below formula.
Slovin Formula:
n=

N
1+ NE 2

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Where:

n = sample size
N = population size
E = margin of error

The researchers have chosen first year and second year Computer
Engineering students to be the respondents. First year level has a total number of
128 students while second year level has 109 students. The total number of
respondents is 251 students. The computation below shows the number of the
respondents that will answer the survey questions.
It shows that only 117 students from first year and 98 students from second
year will be picked to answer the questionnaire.
The respondents of the study are composed of 215 out of population of 237.

Description of Respondents
The respondents are the 1 st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students
of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Institute of Technology.
SECTIONS

TOTAL NUMBER OF
STUDENTS
1st Year Level

SAMPLE SIZE

CET 1-1

26 students

24 respondents

CET 1-2

35 students

32 respondents

CET 1-3

36 students

33 respondents

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
CET 1-4

31 students

28 respondents

TOTAL

128 students

117 respondents

2nd Year Level


CET 2-1

33 students

30 respondents

CET 2-2

33 students

30 respondents

CET 2-3

43 students

38 respondents

TOTAL

109 students

98 respondents

Table No. 1. Total number and sample size of the students


As manifested in Table No. 1, 54% of the respondents came from 1 st year
level and 46% respondents from 2 nd year level. The total number of respondents in
the study is 215 students.

Research Instrument
The study used test questionnaires in gathering data. It was adapted from a
source: Study Skill Inventory questionnaire developed by Dennis H. Congos
(2010), formerly of Central Piedmont Community College, Charlotte, North
Carolina.
The research instrument were the questionnaire for study skills which will be
described in terms of concentration, time management, note taking, test
preparation, and reading. The test questionnaire will have five questions for each
indicator. The respondents again will choose from always, often, sometimes, and
never and put a check on the corresponding box which will be based on the level

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
of study skills that they are experiencing. Appendix A shows the questionnaires of
this study.
The researchers obtained the respondents level of study skills through selfrating. Level of study skills are measure with the following rating scale with
definitions:
1 Always
The respondents have outstanding study skills in terms of
concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation;
and reading.
2 Often
The respondents have average study skills in terms of
concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation;
and reading.
3 Sometimes
The respondents have fair study skills in terms of concentration;
time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading.
4 Never
The respondents have poor study skills in terms of
concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation;
and reading.

Data-Gathering Procedure
The researchers personally administered the test questionnaires to the
respondents and provided them with clear instructions on how to answer. The

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
respondents answered the test questionnaire at their convenient time and place
within the school campus.
The questionnaires were retrieved on the same day of the administration.
Data that was extracted from the questionnaires will be classified, organized and
tabulated accordingly.
The

researchers

tabulated

the

data

gathered

from

the

answered

questionnaires. Analyzation and interpretation of data helped to formulate findings,


conclusions and recommendations.

Statistical Treatment of Data


For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the responses to the terms on
the questionnaires were tallied and recorded accordingly and the following
assessment tools will be used:

Frequency and Percentage. This is used to determine the proportion of students


who answered in a certain way.
Formula
P=
Where:
P
F
n

=
=
=

Percentage
Frequency
No. of respondents

F
X 100
n

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Weighted mean. It is the mean of each weighted value when it is multiplied by
some weight.
Formula
x =

f i xi
fi

Where:
x

fi =
xi =

=
=

Weighted mean
Summation
Frequencies
Items given

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter provided the gathered data and the researchers analysis and
interpretation of the results of the distributed surveys. The data were presented in
a clear and concise form, most which used graphs and tables.

Out of the 215 surveys distributed to different sections of first year and
second year Computer Engineering students, only 145 surveys were completed

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
and returned; the remaining 65 were missing, presumably lost, forgotten, and/or
unreturned. Most of the respondents preferred not to write their name and remain
anonymous.

Sub problem No. 1. Profiles of the respondents in terms of the following


demographic:
Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

92

63%

Female

53

37%

Total

145

100%

Table 1.1. Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Gender


The Table 1.1 shows that 63% of our respondents are male and 37% of them
are female, we have a total of one hundred forty-five respondents and the table
clearly shows that majority of them are male with sixty-three respondents and the
remaining thirty-seven are female.

Year level

Frequency

Percentage

1st Year

70

48%

2nd Year

75

52%

Total

145

100%

Table 1.2. Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Year Level

The Table 1.2 shows that majority of the respondents came from 2 nd year level
that has 52% and the remaining 48% were from 1 st year level.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Sub problem No. 2. Level of study skills of the respondents according to the following
categories:

Legend:
SCAL
E

MEAN

VALUE

DESCRIPTION

1.00-1.75

Always

1.76-2.50

Often

2.51-3.25

Sometime
s

3.26-4.00

Never

The respondents have outstanding study skills


in terms of concentration; time management;
note taking; test preparation; and reading.
The respondents have average study skills in
terms of concentration; time management; note
taking; test preparation; and reading.
The respondents have fair study skills in terms
of concentration; time management; note
taking; test preparation; and reading.
The respondents have poor study skills in terms
of concentration; time management; note
taking; test preparation; and reading.

Table 2. Criteria of levels of study skills


To determine the level of study habits of the respondents

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Concentration
Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

4% 10%
25%

61%

Figure 2.1. According to Concentration


Figure 2.1 presents the level of study skills according to concentration. 61%
out of 145 respondents have average study skills in terms of Concentration.
25% have below average, 10% have an excellent skill and the remaining 4%
has a weak concentration skill.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Time Management
Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

15% 6%
33%
46%

Figure 2.2. According to Time Management


Figure 2.2 presents the level of study skills according to time management.
Majority of the respondents have below average study skills in terms of
managing of time. 33% have average, 6% have an excellent skill and the
remaining has a weak skill.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Note Taking
Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

8% 11%
30%
51%

Figure 2.3. According to Note Taking


Figure 2.3 presents the level of study skills according to note taking. It
illustrates that half of the respondents were have an average time to take
down notes, re-read notes or summarizes lessons.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Test Preparation
Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

3% 13%
37%
48%

Figure 2.4. According to Test Preparation


Figure 2.4 presents the level of study skills according to test preparation. It
illustrates that almost half of the respondents have an average time to review
and get ready for the examinations; Only 13% of the respondents have an
absolute time to prepare for the exams.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Reading
Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

6%

18%

28%

48%

Figure 2.5. According to Reading


Figure 2.3 presents the level of study skills according to reading. It illustrates
that 48% of the respondents have an average time to have an advance
reading and average skill to analyze sentences or paragraphs. 28% have a
below average skill; 18% have excellent skills in reading; the remaining have
weak reading skills.

Sub problem No. 3. The relationship between the levels of study skills of the
respondents in terms of Concentration, Time management, Note taking, Test
preparation and Reading to their demographic profile.

3.1 The Depicts of the Level of Study Skills of the Respondents in terms of
Type of Secondary School according to the following:

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Concentration
70%
60%
50%
Axis Title

40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.1.1. Level of Study Skills in Terms of Concentration According to


Gender
Figure 3.1.1 illustrates that majority of male (58 out 92) and female (30 out of 53)
respondents have an average study skill in terms of concentration. 22% of male
respondents and 30% of female have fair concentration skills.

Time Management

Axis Title

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.1.2. Level of Study Skills According to Time Management in Terms of


Gender

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
In Figure 3.1.2, illustrates that the percentage in terms of time management,
the male has the highest percentage on sometimes which got 49%. It only
means that most male has poor study habits in terms of gender. In female,
the often and sometimes has same percentage which is 40% each, which
means that the female respondents has an average percentage and also has
an fair percentage in terms of gender.

Note Taking
60%
50%
40%
Axis Title 30%
20%
10%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.1.3. Level of Study Skills According to Note Taking in Terms of Gender
In figure 3.1.3, it illustrates that majority of the male and female respondents often
do the note taking in terms of gender.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Test Preparation
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
Axis Title 25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.1.4. Level of Study Skills According to Test Preparation in Terms of


Gender
Figure 3.1.4 illustrates that male and female respondents has almost same
percentage with all levels.

Reading
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
Axis Title 25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.1.5. Level of Study Skills According to Concentration in Terms of


Gender
Figure 3.1.5 illustrates that majority of male and female respondents have an
average and fair reading skills.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
3.2 The Depicts of the Level of Study Skills of the Respondents in terms of
Year Level according to the following:

Concentration
70%
60%
50%
Axis Title

40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.2.1. Level of Study Skills According to Concentration in Terms of


Year Level
Figure 3.2.1 illustrates that 1st year students has greater percentage of students who
have outstanding concentration skills than 2nd year students.

Time Management
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
Axis Title 25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.2.2. Level of Study Skills According to Time Management in Terms of

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Year Level
Figure 3.2.2 illustrates that 1 year and 2nd year students suffering from lack of time
management.
st

Note Taking
60%
50%
40%
Axis Title 30%
20%
10%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.2.3. Level of Study Skills According to Note Taking in Terms of


Year Level
in figure 3.2.3, it illustrates that majority of the 1 st and 2nd year respondents has an
highest percentage in often which if 53% to 1 st year and 47% to 2nd year students. it
only means that most of the students often do the note taking in terms of year
level.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S

Test Preparation
60%
50%
40%
Axis Title 30%
20%
10%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

Figure 3.2.4. Level of Study Skills According to Test Preparation in Terms of


Year Level
In figure 3.2.4, it illustrates that majority of the 1 st yearstudents are often do the
test preparation. In 2nd year students the percentage on often and sometimes has
same percentage which means that the 2 nd year students are often and
sometimes do the test preparation in terms of year level.

Reading
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
Axis Title 25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Always

Often

Sometimes

Never

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 3.2.5. Level of Study Skills According to Reading in Terms of
Year Level
In figure 3.2.5, it illustrates that majority of the 1 st and 2nd year students, they have
average skills with regards of reading.

Chapter 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary
The study assessed the levels of study skills of Computer Engineering
student of Polytechnic University of the Philippines at the Institute of Technology
from first year and second year level. Hypothetically, there is no significant
relationship between the levels of study skills according to concentration, time
management, note taking,

test preparation, and reading to the demographic

profile of the students. Descriptive method and qualitative research were applied in
the study. Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted mean were used in statistical
treatment.

Findings
Based on the results gathered, the following findings are thereby presented:
1. What are the profiles of the respondents in terms of gender, year level,
and type of secondary school?
Majority of the respondents are male with frequency number of
92 respondents out of 145. 52% of the respondents were sophomore

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
students, the remaining 48% were freshmen. Respondents came from
public schools are dominant, only 21% of the came from private.
2. What are the levels of study skills of the students according to the

following:
2.1 Concentration
61% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It
means that majority of the respondents have the capacity to
concentrate most often.
2.2 Time Management

46% of the respondents have mean range of 2.51 to 3.25. It


means that lot of the respondents barely not manage their time in
studies well.
2.3 Note Taking
51% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It
means that majority of the respondents take down notes and
summarizes lessons most oten.
2.4 Test Preparation
47% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It
means that majority of the respondents have average skills when it
comes in preparing before the exams.
2.5 Reading

48% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It


means that majority of the respondents have average reading skills
and strategies.

Conclusions
Based on the findings, the researchers came up with following conclusions:

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
1. The researchers conclude that students have poor time management
skills and reading skills.
2. The researchers conclude that students have common problems with
regards of their study skills.
3. The researchers also conclude that there is no significant relationship
between the levels of study skills to the demographic profile of the
students.
Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions gathered, the researchers would like
to recommend the following:
1. The researchers recommend that students should improve their
concentration. Below are the study skills that might help to improve
concentration::
Reduce interference
Minimize intervening activity
Do not study with multiple of subjects
Systematized your tasks
Find a comfortable place to review.
2. The researchers recommend that used of study system is the best skill
that will help to have outstanding remarks. One of the oldest and bestknown study system is "SQ3R", stand for Survey, Question, Read, Recite,
Review.
3. The researchers recommend that students must use the Cornell, outline,
mapping or charting method to condense and synthesize reading, lectures
and discussions.

P O LY T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
4. Lastly, the researchers recommend that students must learn to manage
time effectively. Make study schedule or plans and stick to it, make list of
things to do and less cramming. These will help to have a good time
management.