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madona niJaraZe

dimitri bagrationis poemis - `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa"


ideur_mxatvruli mimoxilva

dimitri bagrationi XVIII-XIX saukuneebis mijnaze cxovrobda da


moRvaweobda, rogorc samefo gvaris sxva mravali STamomavali, isic
iZulebuli gamxdara ruseTSi damkvidrebuliyo da ganegrZo vaxtang VI-is
droidan dawyebuli qarTuli literaturuli tradiciebi.
d. bagrationi (1746-1826) gaxldaT iese mefis SviliSvili, iese ki
vaxtang VI-is umcrosi Zma iyo. radgan vaxtang VI-m mahmadianoba ar miiRo,
Sahma 1714 wels qarTlis mefed daniSna gamahmadianebuli iese, magram,
rogorc cnobilia, 1716 wels vaxtangma taxti daibruna da gaZevebuli iese
da misi memkvidreebi yovelnairad cdilobdnen Zveli mdgomareobis
aRdgenas.
d. bagrationi mixvda, rom taxtisaTvis brZola uSedego iyo da isic
ruseTis gzas daadga. moskovSi damkvidrebuli dimitri samxedro
samsaxurSi Sevida, rac dasturdeba 1793 wlis moskovis sacnobaro wigniT.
aq is ixsenieba kapitnis CiniT da miTiTebulia misi sacxovrebeli
misamarTic (r. nakaSiZe, 1978, gv. 7). mas colad hyavda mariam ciciSvili,
romelTanac SeeZina ori qaliSvili _ elisabedi da anastasia. elisabedi
cnobili mogzaurisa da mwerlis _ giorgi avaliSvilis meuRle gaxldaT, xolo
anastasia ar gaTxovila. d. bagrationi memkvidreebze ocnebobda, magram es
survili ar Seusrulda. elisabeds Svili ar SesZenia. d. bagrationi
dasaflavebulia moskovSi, vsesviatskoes qarTvelTa sasaflaoze.
ruseTSi mcxovrebi d. bagrationi mTeli sicocxle saqarTveloze
ocnebobda. Tavisi poeturi qmnilebebiT iqarvebda samSobloze dardsa da
wuxils.
`ruseTSi sakuTari nebiT da iZulebiT emigrirebuli qarTvelebis
udidesi nawili yvelafers akeTebda saimisod, sulierad mSobel qveyanas rom
ar moswyvetoda da kvlavac qarTuli saqmeebi ekeTebina. maT Soris iseTebic
sakmaod iyvnen, romlebic poeturi sityviT cdilobdnen samSoblos
ganSorebiT gamowveuli naRvelis ganqarvebas. marTalia, bevr maTgans saamisod
aucilebeli RvTaebrivi niWi sakmarisad ar gaaCnda, magram mTavari, amjerad, es
ki araa, aramed is faqti, rom TavianTi literaturuli saqmianobiT isini
Soreul samSoblosTan sulieri kavSiris urTierTobis SenarCunebas
cdilobdnen" (a. nikoleiSvili, 2006, gv. 180-181).
swored am Taobas miekuTvneba d. bagrationi. mas Tanamedroveni `karg
mestixed" ixsenieben.
d. bagrationis Semoqmedeba 1978 wels gamosca r. nakaSiZem `dimitrianis"
saxelwodebiT. aq warmodgenilia lirikuli leqsebi da ramdenime poema. yvela
nawarmoebi erTnairi poeturi siZlieris araa da maT Soris maRali
mxatvrulobiT gamoirCeva `elisabediani", romelic qaliSvils miuZRvna da
ramdenime leqsisagan Sedgeba: `Ramis alersi", `sulis yvavili", `nanina",
`vardis alersi" da sxv.
d. bagrationis SemoqmedebaSi Sinaarsobrivad da mxatvrulad yvelaze
saintereso nawarmoebia poema `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa", romelic pirvelad
peterburgSi daibeWda 1819 wels, e.i. poetis sicocxleSive gamoqveynda da
gaicno farTo sazogadoebam. am poemisaTvis grigol muxranbatons vrceli qeba
daurTavs, xolo 1822 wels ivane muradovs leqsiT Seumkia.
sayuradReboa is garemoebac, rom aRniSnuli poema d. bagrationma
miuZRvna erekle II-is asuls _ qeTevans, albaT, imitom, rom qeTevan
batoniSvili ruseTis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli SeTqmulebis aqtiuri monawile
iyo. swored am mizeziT 1805 wels qeTevani ruseTs gadaasaxles.
Teimuraz I-ma aRwera ra Tavisi dedis _ dedofal qeTevanis wameba, poemis
saSualebiT yvelas neba darTo kvlav dabrunebodnen am mniSvnelovan faqts. d.
bagrationmac avtoriseuli nebarTvis gamo gabeda da xelaxla aRwera qeTevan
dedoflis wameba. Sinaarsobrivad es ori poema erTmaneTTan Zalian axlos
dgas, meore pirvelis TiTqmis aslia, magram ufro vrceli da mxatvrulad
gaformebuli d. bagrationisaa. teqstSive igrZnoba, rom qeTevan bagrationis
cxovreba qeTevan dedoflis cxovreba-wamebis gamoxmaurebaa. poemaSi qeTevan
dedoflis droindeli saqarTvelos tragikuli ambebia asaxuli da
paralelurad d. bagrationis droindeli saqarTvelos tragediacaa naCvenebi.
poemis dasawyisSi avtori mimarTavs im pirovnebas, visac miuZRvna
nawarmoebi. es gaxlavT qeTevan batoniSvili.
`aw axlad Tqmuli wameba qeTevanisa didisa...
mosaxelisa Senisa mis netarisa wmindisa".
Semdeg strofSi ukve ixseniebs adresats: `mefis asulo, qvel_keTil
sulo, Zvir_ufasulo, qeTevan rqmulo, zneobiT srulo, mwve_unaklulo,
qebiT aRmkulo, saxelganTqmulo" da a.S.
d. bagrationis am Txzulebas, aSkarad etyoba SoTa rusTavelis gavlena.
`vefxistyaosnis" msgavsad, poemis dasawyisSive avtori mimarTavs RvTaebas (6
strofi). aq ufali RmerTi gandidebulia mravalgvari da momxiblavi
metaforebiT. d. bagrationi RvTaebas uwodebs bnelTa, wyvdiadTa, ukunTa
damlevsa da damavsebels, soflis damaarsebels, cisa da miwis Semqmnels, kacTa
dambadebelsa da borotTa damcems. avtori dasZens, rom mravalma adida ufali,
magram sityva SemoakldaT da azustebs: `SeuZlebel ars kacTagan RmrTaebis
miwdomebani", an kidev: `vervin gamoTqva jerovnad saRmrToni viTarebani".
amis Semdeg poeti TxovniT mimarTavs ufals: `Sen gevedrebi, vina xar mis
uJamosa xanisa, maTqmio sparsTgan wameba dedofal qeTevanisa". aqve poeti
qeTevan dedofals qarTvelTa manaTobel mTvares uwodebs.
momdevno strofebSi aRwerilia qarTvelTa Zliereba manamde, vidre
mtrebi `iverTa samefos" Suaze gaiyofdnen. poeti gadmogvcems sparselebis
mier qarTvelTa Seviwroeba-wamebas. nawarmoebSi gandidebulia
qristianobisaTvis Tavdadebul mefeTa da sxva gmirTa saxelebi: `sisxli
dasTxives qristesTvis, tanjva Tavs idves mxneobiT, arCil, luarsab, dimitri,
SuSanik pirad mzeobiT".
aseTi Sesavlis Semdeg avtori mowiwebiT axsenebs qeTevan dedofals,
romlis msgavsad arc erTi qali (deda) ar dasjila urjuloTagan. imasac
aRniSnavs, rom pirvelad misi qeba mis Svils _ mefe Teimurazs uTqvams:
`mefes uTqvams, Teimurazs, maSindeli misi vneba...
magram brZanebs: `ar uSlio, vinca ityvis" _ darTo neba".
aqedan moyolebuli d. bagrationisa da Teimuraz I-is poema erTmaneTs
hgavs, Tumca es arcaa gasakviri, radgan oriveni erTsa da imave istoriul faqts
aRweren: gagulisebulma Sah-abazma Tavdapirvelad qeTevanis SviliSvilebi
awama, xolo Semdeg TviT qeTevanis dasja brZana. didebulma qarTvelma qalma ar
uaryo qristianoba da sparselTagan movlenil sasjels gmirulad Sexvda.
d. bagrationi pirvel avtorTan SedarebiT ufro vrclad aRwers
Sah_abazisagan kaxeTis aoxrebas.: dedawulianad amoxoca yvela da tyved
waiyvana Teimurazis Svilebi. qeTevanis Txovnam ar gaWra da SviliSvilebi
wamebiT moukla.
avtori Zalian lamazi mxatvruli saxeebiT gadmogvcems SviliSvilebis
glovas: `vardno, kokobno, uSlelno, zambaxno gafurCqvnilebo, sikvdilis
celiT momkilno, uJamod gardacvlilebo".
am nawilSi avtors qeTevan dedoflis gansadideblad erTi
mravlismetyveli sityva aqvs gamoyenebuli: `uTqvenod sawylad suldgmulman
viTaRa viqeTevano?"
avtori tyveobaSi myofi qeTevanis momxibvlel portrets gvixatavs:
`cixes jda mTvare patimrad, pirmcxrali, mi-ca-leuli, sakvdavad
ganmzadebuli, tarigi mravalwleuli".
ambis mowme sazogadoebas egona, rom mrisxane Sah-abazi damSviddeboda da
dedofals Seiwynarebda, magram is ufro gamZvinvarda. saSineli siZulviliT
amkobs poeti Sahis saxes: `dasabamiTve kacTmkvlelman, sisxlTa damTxevman
Zmisaman... brZana dedoflis wameba mpyrobelman sparseTisaman".
imam-yuli-xanma Sahis werili didxans mala, magram bolos iZulebuli
Seiqna misi brZaneba Seesrulebina. poemaSi CamoTvlilia is iaraRebi,
romlebsac Teimurazi aRwers. qeTevani ar SeSinda: `ara mrCans Wiri saWirod,
var umagresi rkinisa, ar meSiniso Tqvenisa gaxurvebulis rkinisa".
amis Semdeg teqstSi warmodgenilia qeTevan dedoflis Svidstrofiani
locva-vedreba RvTisadmi. qeTevanTan Sesuli jalaTebi gaocebulni darCnen
misi Tavaziani da dinji gamometyvelebiT. Sewuxebuli mxleblebi dedofals
urCevdnen, rom formalurad dahyoloda Sahis nebas, guliT isev qristianad
darCeboda, magram dedofali ar daTanxmda, piriqiT, Tavis msaxurebsa da
xucebs mouwodebda gamZleobisaken, qristes msgavsad daeTminaT wameba da ar
eRalataT rjulisaTvis: `SeuZaxa dedofalma xma Zlierad, viTa lomma,
saRmrTos madliT ganxmobilman, mis sulmoklis garemzomman".
jalaTebma daiwyes dedoflis wameba: daanTes cecxli, gaaxures: Wurvebi,
SanTebi, rkinebi, lursmnebi, qeTevans xel-fexi Seukres da daawvines
gacxelebul lursmnebze, zemodan sabnad cxeli rkinebi daayares: `miT daaZines
qeTevan, akvans urwevdnen mkvlelebi". mtarvalebma cxeli barebiT dauseres
Subli da Semdeg gvirgvinis nacvlad cxeli qvabi daamxes Tavze: dedofali
usityvod, ucremlod gardaicvala.
Teimuraz mefis msgavsad d. bagrationic imeorebs, rom indoelebs,
sparselebs, midielebsa da frangebs surdaT misi wminda nawilebis Sesyidva.
qarTvelebsac SexvdaT dedoflis sxeulis nawilebi. am poemaSic meordeba
saflavis gaxsnis epizodi, Tumca iq gvami aRar daxvdaT.
Semdegi ToTxmeti strofi warmoadgens avtoris mier qeTevanis qebas:
`sisxli dasTxiva qristesTvis, xorci Seiwva nebiTa". d. bagrationi qeTevans
uwodebs `did mowames" da `zecis sZals". dedofali `didi RvawliT Seimosa" da
`Zlevis gvirgvini" daidga.
poemis dasasruli warmoadgens avtoris oTxtaepian monologs. poeti
gamoxatavs gulistkivils, rom kargad ver SeZlo dedoflis wamebis aRwera: `me
misTa RvawlTa moTxroba ver viZel razomc meneba".
rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, d. bagrationis poemaSi axali TiTqmis araferia,
is imeorebs Teimurazis TxzulebaSi mocemul Sinaarss, xolo ufro farTod
da mxatvrulad aRwers dedoflis wamebis suraTs. d. bagrationis es poema
marto imiT ki ar aris RirsSesaniSnavi, rom Cveni qveynis istoriuli warsuli
aiRo mTavar Temad, `aramed, rac gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo da
mniSvnelovania, wmindanad Seracxuli dedoflis gmiruli Tavgadasavlis
moTxrobiT Tavisi drois qarTvelebSic cada im grZnobaTa ramdenadme mainc
gaRviZeba da gamZafreba, rac Cveni didi winaparis rainduli Tavganwirvis
safuZveli gaxda" (a.nikoleiSvili, 2006, gv. 197).
d. bagrationis poema `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa" 16 marcvliani SairiTaa
dawerili da aSkarad ganicdis rusTavelis gavlenas. poemis frazebi,
calkeuli sityva-Tqmani da riTmebi rusTvelur CarCoebSia moqceuli.
SeimCneva d. guramiSviliseuli sityvebisa da frazebis gamoyenebac (Zveli dRe,
uJamo sityva, uJamosa xanisa), magram, ZiriTadad, poema originaluri,
damoukidebeli nawarmoebia da TanamedroveebSi didi mowoneba
daimsaxura.
Teimurazisagan gansxvavebiT, am poemaSi didi fsiqologiuri
datvirTviTaa aRwerili wamebis suraTebi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom d. bagrationis
Txzuleba didad ar Camouvardeba Teimurazis nawarmoebs. sayuradReboa,
rom poeti xSirad ubrundeba saqarTvelos istoriuli warsulis aRweras,
Cveni qveynis tanjvas dampyroblebis xelSi da amiT saqarTvelosagan mowyvetil
emigrantebSi samSoblosadmi siyvarulsa da TanagrZnobas aRZravs. emigraciaSi
myofi poeti Tavisi ocnebiT gvixatavs saqarTvelos bunebis silamazes, qarTul
wes-Cveulebebsa da adaT-wesebs, zne-Cveulebebs da amiT iklavs samSoblos naxvis
ganuzomel survils.

damowmebuli literatura

r. nakaSiZe, 1978 - r. nakaSiZe, dimitriani, Tb., 1978.


a. nikoleiSvili, 2006 - a. nikoleiSvili, qarTuli emigrantuli
mwerloba, dimitri bagrationi, quTaisi, 2006.
MADONA NIZHARADZE

IDEA AND ARTISTIC ANALYSIS OF DIMITRI BAGRATIONI’S EPIC POEM


“THE PASSION OF QUEEN KETEVAN”

Dimitri Bagrationi (1746-1826) is an emigrant Georgian poet. He was a grandson


of King Iese.
Aggravated political situations in Georgia and intrigues related to the throne D.
Bagrationi left Georgia to join the Russian military service. He had a wife Mariam
Tsitsishvili and two daughters Elisabeth and Anastasia. Elisabeth married Giorgi
Avalishvili, a prominent writer and traveler. They did not have children. So that Dimitri
Bagrationi died heirless.
A.Nikoleishvili published an interesting study about D.Bagrationi. R.Nakshidze
edited the book “Dimitriani, “ a complete collection of D. Bagrationi’s works. Here are
his lyric poems and some epic poems, “the Passion of Queen Ketevan” among them. The
epic poem repeats almost unchanged the plot of Teimuraz I’s epic poem with the same
title but is much longer and has more literary images and tropes and other poetic
embellishments.
In the opening lines of the poem we see that the poem was dedicated to Ketevan
Batonishvili, a daughter of King Erekle II. The princess conspired against the Russian
government and was punished to exile to Russia in 1805.
D.Bagrationi describes the passion of Queen Ketevan on the background of his
country’s tragic fate to relate the past to his contemporary Georgia and with this he tries
to stir love and compassion to the homeland in emigrant Georgians.