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EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Of the

United States

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EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

We the people
oftheUnitedStates,inordertoformamore
perfectunion,establishjustice,insure
domestictranquility,provideforthe
commondefense,promotethegeneral
welfare,andsecuretheblessingsofliberty
toourselvesandourposterity,doordain
andestablishthisConstitutionforthe
UnitedStatesofAmerica.

Article 1
SECTION1.Alllegislativepowersherein
grantedshallbevestedinaCongressofthe
UnitedStates,whichshallconsistofa
SenateandHouseofRepresentatives.

SECTION2.TheHouseofRepresentatives
shallbecomposedofmemberschosen
everysecondyearbythepeopleofthe
severalstates,andtheelectorsineachstate
shallhavethequalificationsrequisitefor
electorsofthemostnumerousbranchofthe
statelegislature.
NopersonshallbeaRepresentativewho
shallnothaveattainedtotheageoftwenty
fiveyears,andbeensevenyearsacitizenof
theUnitedStates,andwhoshallnot,when
elected,beaninhabitantofthatstatein
whichheshallbechosen.

Representativesanddirecttaxesshallbe
apportionedamongtheseveralstateswhich
maybeincludedwithinthisunion,
accordingtotheirrespectivenumbers,
whichshallbedeterminedbyaddingtothe
wholenumberoffreepersons,including
thoseboundtoserviceforatermofyears,
andexcludingIndiansnottaxed,threefifths
ofallotherPersons.TheactualEnumeration
shallbemadewithinthreeyearsafterthe
firstmeetingoftheCongressoftheUnited
States,andwithineverysubsequenttermof
tenyears,insuchmannerastheyshallby
lawdirect.ThenumberofRepresentatives
shallnotexceedoneforeverythirty
thousand,buteachstateshallhaveatleast
oneRepresentative;anduntilsuch
enumerationshallbemade,thestateof
NewHampshireshallbeentitledtochuse
three,Massachusettseight,RhodeIsland
andProvidencePlantationsone,
Connecticutfive,NewYorksix,NewJersey
four,Pennsylvaniaeight,Delawareone,
Marylandsix,Virginiaten,NorthCarolina
five,SouthCarolinafive,andGeorgiathree.
Whenvacancieshappeninthe
Representationfromanystate,theexecutive
authoritythereofshallissuewritsof
electiontofillsuchvacancies.
TheHouseofRepresentativesshallchoose
theirspeakerandotherofficers;andshall
havethesolepowerofimpeachment.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

SECTION3.TheSenateoftheUnited
StatesshallbecomposedoftwoSenators
fromeachstate,chosenbythelegislature
thereof,forsixyears;andeachSenatorshall
haveonevote.
Immediatelyaftertheyshallbeassembled
inconsequenceofthefirstelection,they
shallbedividedasequallyasmaybeinto
threeclasses.TheseatsoftheSenatorsofthe
firstclassshallbevacatedattheexpiration
ofthesecondyear,ofthesecondclassatthe
expirationofthefourthyear,andthethird
classattheexpirationofthesixthyear,so
thatonethirdmaybechoseneverysecond
year;andifvacancieshappenby
resignation,orotherwise,duringtherecess
ofthelegislatureofanystate,theexecutive
thereofmaymaketemporaryappointments
untilthenextmeetingofthelegislature,
whichshallthenfillsuchvacancies.
NopersonshallbeaSenatorwhoshallnot
haveattainedtotheageofthirtyyears,and
beennineyearsacitizenoftheUnited
Statesandwhoshallnot,whenelected,be
aninhabitantofthatstateforwhichheshall
bechosen.
TheVicePresidentoftheUnitedStatesshall
bePresidentoftheSenate,butshallhaveno
vote,unlesstheybeequallydivided.
TheSenateshallchoosetheirotherofficers,
andalsoaPresidentprotempore,inthe
absenceoftheVicePresident,orwhenhe
shallexercisetheofficeofPresidentofthe
UnitedStates.

TheSenateshallhavethesolepowertotry
allimpeachments.Whensittingforthat
purpose,theyshallbeonoathor
affirmation.WhenthePresidentofthe
UnitedStatesistried,theChiefJusticeshall
preside:Andnopersonshallbeconvicted
withouttheconcurrenceoftwothirdsofthe
memberspresent.
Judgmentincasesofimpeachmentshallnot
extendfurtherthantoremovalfromoffice,
anddisqualificationtoholdandenjoyany
officeofhonor,trustorprofitunderthe
UnitedStates:butthepartyconvictedshall
neverthelessbeliableandsubjectto
indictment,trial,judgmentand
punishment,accordingtolaw.

SECTION4.Thetimes,placesandmanner
ofholdingelectionsforSenatorsand
Representatives,shallbeprescribedineach
statebythelegislaturethereof;butthe
Congressmayatanytimebylawmakeor
altersuchregulations,exceptastothe
placesofchoosingSenators.
TheCongressshallassembleatleastoncein
everyyear,andsuchmeetingshallbeonthe
firstMondayinDecember,unlesstheyshall
bylawappointadifferentday.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

SECTION5.EachHouseshallbethejudge
oftheelections,returnsandqualificationsof
itsownmembers,andamajorityofeach
shallconstituteaquorumtodobusiness;
butasmallernumbermayadjournfrom
daytoday,andmaybeauthorizedto
compeltheattendanceofabsentmembers,
insuchmanner,andundersuchpenalties
aseachHousemayprovide.
EachHousemaydeterminetherulesofits
proceedings,punishitsmembersfor
disorderlybehavior,and,withthe
concurrenceoftwothirds,expelamember.

returningfromthesame;andforany
speechordebateineitherHouse,theyshall
notbequestionedinanyotherplace.
NoSenatororRepresentativeshall,during
thetimeforwhichhewaselected,be
appointedtoanycivilofficeunderthe
authorityoftheUnitedStates,whichshall
havebeencreated,ortheemoluments
whereofshallhavebeenincreasedduring
suchtime:andnopersonholdinganyoffice
undertheUnitedStates,shallbeamember
ofeitherHouseduringhiscontinuancein
office.

EachHouseshallkeepajournalofits
proceedings,andfromtimetotimepublish
thesame,exceptingsuchpartsasmayin
theirjudgmentrequiresecrecy;andtheyeas
andnaysofthemembersofeitherHouseon
anyquestionshall,atthedesireofonefifth
ofthosepresent,beenteredonthejournal.

NeitherHouse,duringthesessionof
Congress,shall,withouttheconsentofthe
other,adjournformorethanthreedays,nor
toanyotherplacethanthatinwhichthe
twoHousesshallbesitting.

Everybillwhichshallhavepassedthe
HouseofRepresentativesandtheSenate,
shall,beforeitbecomealaw,bepresented
tothePresidentoftheUnitedStates;ifhe
approveheshallsignit,butifnotheshall
returnit,withhisobjectionstothatHouse
inwhichitshallhaveoriginated,whoshall
entertheobjectionsatlargeontheirjournal,
andproceedtoreconsiderit.Ifaftersuch
reconsiderationtwothirdsofthatHouse
shallagreetopassthebill,itshallbesent,
togetherwiththeobjections,totheother
House,bywhichitshalllikewisebe
reconsidered,andifapprovedbytwothirds
ofthatHouse,itshallbecomealaw.Butin
allsuchcasesthevotesofbothHousesshall
bedeterminedbyyeasandnays,andthe

SECTION6.TheSenatorsand
Representativesshallreceivea
compensationfortheirservices,tobe
ascertainedbylaw,andpaidoutofthe
treasuryoftheUnitedStates.Theyshallin
allcases,excepttreason,felonyandbreach
ofthepeace,beprivilegedfromarrest
duringtheirattendanceatthesessionof
theirrespectiveHouses,andingoingtoand

SECTION7.Allbillsforraisingrevenue
shalloriginateintheHouseof
Representatives;buttheSenatemay
proposeorconcurwithamendmentsason
otherBills.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

namesofthepersonsvotingforandagainst
thebillshallbeenteredonthejournalof
eachHouserespectively.Ifanybillshallnot
bereturnedbythePresidentwithinten
days(Sundaysexcepted)afteritshallhave
beenpresentedtohim,thesameshallbea
law,inlikemannerasifhehadsignedit,
unlesstheCongressbytheiradjournment
preventitsreturn,inwhichcaseitshallnot
bealaw.
Everyorder,resolution,orvotetowhichthe
concurrenceoftheSenateandHouseof
Representativesmaybenecessary(except
onaquestionofadjournment)shallbe
presentedtothePresidentoftheUnited
States;andbeforethesameshalltakeeffect,
shallbeapprovedbyhim,orbeing
disapprovedbyhim,shallberepassedby
twothirdsoftheSenateandHouseof
Representatives,accordingtotherulesand
limitationsprescribedinthecaseofabill.

SECTION8.TheCongressshallhave
powertolayandcollecttaxes,duties,
impostsandexcises,topaythedebtsand
provideforthecommondefenseand
generalwelfareoftheUnitedStates;butall
duties,impostsandexcisesshallbeuniform
throughouttheUnitedStates;
Toborrowmoneyonthecreditofthe
UnitedStates;
Toregulatecommercewithforeignnations,
andamongtheseveralstates,andwiththe
Indiantribes;

Toestablishauniformruleof
naturalization,anduniformlawsonthe
subjectofbankruptciesthroughoutthe
UnitedStates;
Tocoinmoney,regulatethevaluethereof,
andofforeigncoin,andfixthestandardof
weightsandmeasures;
Toprovideforthepunishmentof
counterfeitingthesecuritiesandcurrent
coinoftheUnitedStates;
Toestablishpostofficesandpostroads;
Topromotetheprogressofscienceand
usefularts,bysecuringforlimitedtimesto
authorsandinventorstheexclusiverightto
theirrespectivewritingsanddiscoveries;
Toconstitutetribunalsinferiortothe
SupremeCourt;
Todefineandpunishpiraciesandfelonies
committedonthehighseas,andoffenses
againstthelawofnations;
Todeclarewar,grantlettersofmarqueand
reprisal,andmakerulesconcerning
capturesonlandandwater;
Toraiseandsupportarmies,butno
appropriationofmoneytothatuseshallbe
foralongertermthantwoyears;
Toprovideandmaintainanavy;
Tomakerulesforthegovernmentand
regulationofthelandandnavalforces;

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Toprovideforcallingforththemilitiato
executethelawsoftheunion,suppress
insurrectionsandrepelinvasions;
Toprovidefororganizing,arming,and
disciplining,themilitia,andforgoverning
suchpartofthemasmaybeemployedin
theserviceoftheUnitedStates,reservingto
thestatesrespectively,theappointmentof
theofficers,andtheauthorityoftrainingthe
militiaaccordingtothediscipline
prescribedbyCongress;
Toexerciseexclusivelegislationinallcases
whatsoever,oversuchDistrict(not
exceedingtenmilessquare)asmay,by
cessionofparticularstates,andthe
acceptanceofCongress,becometheseatof
thegovernmentoftheUnitedStates,andto
exerciselikeauthorityoverallplaces
purchasedbytheconsentofthelegislature
ofthestateinwhichthesameshallbe,for
theerectionofforts,magazines,arsenals,
dockyards,andotherneedfulbuildings;
And
Tomakealllawswhichshallbenecessary
andproperforcarryingintoexecutionthe
foregoingpowers,andallotherpowers
vestedbythisConstitutioninthe
governmentoftheUnitedStates,orinany
departmentorofficerthereof.

SECTION9.Themigrationorimportation
ofsuchpersonsasanyofthestatesnow
existingshallthinkpropertoadmit,shall
notbeprohibitedbytheCongresspriorto
theyearonethousandeighthundredand
eight,butataxordutymaybeimposedon
suchimportation,notexceedingtendollars
foreachperson.
Theprivilegeofthewritofhabeascorpus
shallnotbesuspended,unlesswhenin
casesofrebellionorinvasionthepublic
safetymayrequireit.
NobillofattainderorexpostfactoLaw
shallbepassed.
Nocapitation,orotherdirect,taxshallbe
laid,unlessinproportiontothecensusor
enumerationhereinbeforedirectedtobe
taken.
Notaxordutyshallbelaidonarticles
exportedfromanystate.
Nopreferenceshallbegivenbyany
regulationofcommerceorrevenuetothe
portsofonestateoverthoseofanother:nor
shallvesselsboundto,orfrom,onestate,be
obligedtoenter,clearorpaydutiesin
another.
Nomoneyshallbedrawnfromthe
treasury,butinconsequenceof
appropriationsmadebylaw;andaregular
statementandaccountofreceiptsand
expendituresofallpublicmoneyshallbe
publishedfromtimetotime.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Notitleofnobilityshallbegrantedbythe
UnitedStates:andnopersonholdingany
officeofprofitortrustunderthem,shall,
withouttheconsentoftheCongress,accept
ofanypresent,emolument,office,ortitle,of
anykindwhatever,fromanyking,prince,
orforeignstate.

SECTION10.Nostateshallenterintoany
treaty,alliance,orconfederation;grant
lettersofmarqueandreprisal;coinmoney;
emitbillsofcredit;makeanythingbutgold
andsilvercoinatenderinpaymentof
debts;passanybillofattainder,expost
factolaw,orlawimpairingtheobligationof
contracts,orgrantanytitleofnobility.
Nostateshall,withouttheconsentofthe
Congress,layanyimpostsordutieson
importsorexports,exceptwhatmaybe
absolutelynecessaryforexecutingits
inspectionlaws:andthenetproduceofall
dutiesandimposts,laidbyanystateon
importsorexports,shallbefortheuseof
thetreasuryoftheUnitedStates;andall
suchlawsshallbesubjecttotherevision
andcontroloftheCongress.
Nostateshall,withouttheconsentof
Congress,layanydutyoftonnage,keep
troops,orshipsofwarintimeofpeace,
enterintoanyagreementorcompactwith
anotherstate,orwithaforeignpower,or
engageinwar,unlessactuallyinvaded,or
insuchimminentdangeraswillnotadmit
ofdelay.

Article 11
SECTION1.Theexecutivepowershallbe
vestedinaPresidentoftheUnitedStatesof
America.Heshallholdhisofficeduringthe
termoffouryears,and,togetherwiththe
VicePresident,chosenforthesameterm,be
elected,asfollows:
Eachstateshallappoint,insuchmanneras
theLegislaturethereofmaydirect,a
numberofelectors,equaltothewhole
numberofSenatorsandRepresentativesto
whichtheStatemaybeentitledinthe
Congress:butnoSenatororRepresentative,
orpersonholdinganofficeoftrustorprofit
undertheUnitedStates,shallbeappointed
anelector.
Theelectorsshallmeetintheirrespective
states,andvotebyballotfortwopersons,of
whomoneatleastshallnotbeaninhabitant
ofthesamestatewiththemselves.Andthey
shallmakealistofallthepersonsvotedfor,
andofthenumberofvotesforeach;which
listtheyshallsignandcertify,andtransmit
sealedtotheseatofthegovernmentofthe
UnitedStates,directedtothePresidentof
theSenate.ThePresidentoftheSenate
shall,inthepresenceoftheSenateand
HouseofRepresentatives,openallthe
certificates,andthevotesshallthenbe
counted.Thepersonhavingthegreatest
numberofvotesshallbethePresident,if
suchnumberbeamajorityofthewhole
numberofelectorsappointed;andifthere
bemorethanonewhohavesuchmajority,
andhaveanequalnumberofvotes,then

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

theHouseofRepresentativesshall
immediatelychoosebyballotoneofthem
forPresident;andifnopersonhavea
majority,thenfromthefivehighestonthe
listthesaidHouseshallinlikemanner
choosethePresident.Butinchoosingthe
President,thevotesshallbetakenbyStates,
therepresentationfromeachstatehaving
onevote;Aquorumforthispurposeshall
consistofamemberormembersfromtwo
thirdsofthestates,andamajorityofallthe
statesshallbenecessarytoachoice.In
everycase,afterthechoiceofthePresident,
thepersonhavingthegreatestnumberof
votesoftheelectorsshallbetheVice
President.Butifthereshouldremaintwoor
morewhohaveequalvotes,theSenateshall
choosefromthembyballottheVice
President.
TheCongressmaydeterminethetimeof
choosingtheelectors,andthedayonwhich
theyshallgivetheirvotes;whichdayshall
bethesamethroughouttheUnitedStates.

death,resignationorinability,bothofthe
PresidentandVicePresident,declaring
whatofficershallthenactasPresident,and
suchofficershallactaccordingly,untilthe
disabilityberemoved,oraPresidentshall
beelected.
ThePresidentshall,atstatedtimes,receive
forhisservices,acompensation,whichshall
neitherbeincreasednordiminishedduring
theperiodforwhichheshallhavebeen
elected,andheshallnotreceivewithinthat
periodanyotheremolumentfromthe
UnitedStates,oranyofthem.
Beforeheenterontheexecutionofhis
office,heshalltakethefollowingoathor
affirmation:Idosolemnlyswear(or
affirm)thatIwillfaithfullyexecutethe
officeofPresidentoftheUnitedStates,and
willtothebestofmyability,preserve,
protectanddefendtheConstitutionofthe
UnitedStates.

Nopersonexceptanaturalborncitizen,ora
citizenoftheUnitedStates,atthetimeof
theadoptionofthisConstitution,shallbe
eligibletotheofficeofPresident;neither
shallanypersonbeeligibletothatoffice
whoshallnothaveattainedtotheageof
thirtyfiveyears,andbeenfourteenYearsa
residentwithintheUnitedStates.
IncaseoftheremovalofthePresidentfrom
office,orofhisdeath,resignation,or
inabilitytodischargethepowersandduties
ofthesaidoffice,thesameshalldevolveon
theVicePresident,andtheCongressmay
bylawprovideforthecaseofremoval,

SECTION2.ThePresidentshallbe
commanderinchiefoftheArmyandNavy
oftheUnitedStates,andofthemilitiaofthe
severalstates,whencalledintotheactual
serviceoftheUnitedStates;hemayrequire
theopinion,inwriting,oftheprincipal
officerineachoftheexecutivedepartments,
uponanysubjectrelatingtothedutiesof
theirrespectiveoffices,andheshallhave
powertograntreprievesandpardonsfor
offensesagainsttheUnitedStates,exceptin
casesofimpeachment.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Heshallhavepower,byandwiththe
adviceandconsentoftheSenate,tomake
treaties,providedtwothirdsoftheSenators
presentconcur;andheshallnominate,and
byandwiththeadviceandconsentofthe
Senate,shallappointambassadors,other
publicministersandconsuls,judgesofthe
SupremeCourt,andallotherofficersofthe
UnitedStates,whoseappointmentsarenot
hereinotherwiseprovidedfor,andwhich
shallbeestablishedbylaw:butthe
Congressmaybylawvesttheappointment
ofsuchinferiorofficers,astheythink
proper,inthePresidentalone,inthecourts
oflaw,orintheheadsofdepartments.
ThePresidentshallhavepowertofillupall
vacanciesthatmayhappenduringthe
recessoftheSenate,bygranting
commissionswhichshallexpireattheend
oftheirnextsession.

SECTION4.ThePresident,VicePresident
andallcivilofficersoftheUnitedStates,
shallberemovedfromofficeon
impeachmentfor,andconvictionof,
treason,bribery,orotherhighcrimesand
misdemeanors.

Article 111
SECTION1.Thejudicialpowerofthe
UnitedStates,shallbevestedinone
SupremeCourt,andinsuchinferiorcourts
astheCongressmayfromtimetotime
ordainandestablish.Thejudges,bothofthe
supremeandinferiorcourts,shallholdtheir
officesduringgoodbehaviour,andshall,at
statedtimes,receivefortheirservices,a
compensation,whichshallnotbe
diminishedduringtheircontinuancein
office.

SECTION3.Heshallfromtimetotime
givetotheCongressinformationofthestate
oftheunion,andrecommendtotheir
considerationsuchmeasuresasheshall
judgenecessaryandexpedient;hemay,on
extraordinaryoccasions,conveneboth
Houses,oreitherofthem,andincaseof
disagreementbetweenthem,withrespectto
thetimeofadjournment,hemayadjourn
themtosuchtimeasheshallthinkproper;
heshallreceiveambassadorsandother
publicministers;heshalltakecarethatthe
lawsbefaithfullyexecuted,andshall
commissionalltheofficersoftheUnited
States.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

SECTION2.Thejudicialpowershall
extendtoallcases,inlawandequity,
arisingunderthisConstitution,thelawsof
theUnitedStates,andtreatiesmade,or
whichshallbemade,undertheirauthority;
toallcasesaffectingambassadors,other
publicministersandconsuls;toallcasesof
admiraltyandmaritimejurisdiction;to
controversiestowhichtheUnitedStates
shallbeaparty;tocontroversiesbetween
twoormorestates;betweenastateand
citizensofanotherstate;betweencitizens
ofdifferentstates;betweencitizensofthe
samestateclaiminglandsundergrantsof
differentstates,andbetweenastate,orthe
citizensthereof,andforeignstates,citizens
orsubjects.
Inallcasesaffectingambassadors,other
publicministersandconsuls,andthosein
whichastateshallbeparty,theSupreme
Courtshallhaveoriginaljurisdiction.Inall
theothercasesbeforementioned,the
SupremeCourtshallhaveappellate
jurisdiction,bothastolawandfact,with
suchexceptions,andundersuch
regulationsastheCongressshallmake.

SECTION3.TreasonagainsttheUnited
States,shallconsistonlyinlevyingwar
againstthem,orinadheringtotheir
enemies,givingthemaidandcomfort.No
personshallbeconvictedoftreasonunless
onthetestimonyoftwowitnessestothe
sameovertact,oronconfessioninopen
court.
TheCongressshallhavepowertodeclare
thepunishmentoftreason,butnoattainder
oftreasonshallworkcorruptionofblood,
orforfeitureexceptduringthelifeofthe
personattainted.

Article 1V
SECTION1.Fullfaithandcreditshallbe
givenineachstatetothepublicacts,
records,andjudicialproceedingsofevery
otherstate.AndtheCongressmayby
generallawsprescribethemannerinwhich
suchacts,records,andproceedingsshallbe
proved,andtheeffectthereof.

Thetrialofallcrimes,exceptincasesof
impeachment,shallbebyjury;andsuch
trialshallbeheldinthestatewherethesaid
crimesshallhavebeencommitted;but
whennotcommittedwithinanystate,the
trialshallbeatsuchplaceorplacesasthe
Congressmaybylawhavedirected.

SECTION2.Thecitizensofeachstateshall
beentitledtoallprivilegesandimmunities
ofcitizensintheseveralstates.
Apersonchargedinanystatewithtreason,
felony,orothercrime,whoshallfleefrom
justice,andbefoundinanotherstate,shall
ondemandoftheexecutiveauthorityofthe
statefromwhichhefled,bedeliveredup,to
beremovedtothestatehavingjurisdiction
ofthecrime.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Nopersonheldtoserviceorlaborinone
state,underthelawsthereof,escapinginto
another,shall,inconsequenceofanylawor
regulationtherein,bedischargedfromsuch
serviceorlabor,butshallbedeliveredup
onclaimofthepartytowhomsuchservice
orlabormaybedue.

SECTION3.Newstatesmaybeadmitted
bytheCongressintothisunion;butnonew
statesshallbeformedorerectedwithinthe
jurisdictionofanyotherstate;noranystate
beformedbythejunctionoftwoormore
states,orpartsofstates,withouttheconsent
ofthelegislaturesofthestatesconcernedas
wellasoftheCongress.
TheCongressshallhavepowertodispose
ofandmakeallneedfulrulesand
regulationsrespectingtheterritoryorother
propertybelongingtotheUnitedStates;
andnothinginthisConstitutionshallbeso
construedastoprejudiceanyclaimsofthe
UnitedStates,orofanyparticularstate.

SECTION4.TheUnitedStatesshall
guaranteetoeverystateinthisuniona
republicanformofgovernment,andshall
protecteachofthemagainstinvasion;and
onapplicationofthelegislature,orofthe
executive(whenthelegislaturecannotbe
convened)againstdomesticviolence.

Article V
TheCongress,whenevertwothirdsofboth
housesshalldeemitnecessary,shall
proposeamendmentstothisConstitution,
or,ontheapplicationofthelegislaturesof
twothirdsoftheseveralstates,shallcalla
conventionforproposingamendments,
which,ineithercase,shallbevalidtoall
intentsandpurposes,aspartofthis
Constitution,whenratifiedbythe
legislaturesofthreefourthsoftheseveral
states,orbyconventionsinthreefourths
thereof,astheoneortheothermodeof
ratificationmaybeproposedbythe
Congress;providedthatnoamendment
whichmaybemadepriortotheyearone
thousandeighthundredandeightshallin
anymanneraffectthefirstandfourth
clausesintheninthsectionofthefirst
article;andthatnostate,withoutits
consent,shallbedeprivedofitsequal
suffrageintheSenate.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Article V 1

Article V 11

Alldebtscontractedandengagements
enteredinto,beforetheadoptionofthis
Constitution,shallbeasvalidagainstthe
UnitedStatesunderthisConstitution,as
undertheConfederation.

Theratificationoftheconventionsofnine
states,shallbesufficientforthe
establishmentofthisConstitutionbetween
thestatessoratifyingthesame.

ThisConstitution,andthelawsofthe
UnitedStateswhichshallbemadein
pursuancethereof;andalltreatiesmade,or
whichshallbemade,undertheauthorityof
theUnitedStates,shallbethesupremelaw
oftheland;andthejudgesineverystate
shallbeboundthereby,anythinginthe
ConstitutionorlawsofanyStatetothe
contrarynotwithstanding.
TheSenatorsandRepresentativesbefore
mentioned,andthemembersoftheseveral
statelegislatures,andallexecutiveand
judicialofficers,bothoftheUnitedStates
andoftheseveralstates,shallbeboundby
oathoraffirmation,tosupportthis
Constitution;butnoreligioustestshallever
berequiredasaqualificationtoanyoffice
orpublictrustundertheUnitedStates.

Doneinconventionbytheunanimous
consentofthestatespresenttheseventeenth
dayofSeptemberintheyearofourLord
onethousandsevenhundredandeighty
sevenandoftheindependenceofthe
UnitedStatesofAmericathetwelfth.In
witnesswhereofWehavehereunto
subscribedourNames,
G.WashingtonPresidt.
anddeputyfromVirginia

NEWHAMPSHIRE
JohnLangdon
NicholasGilman

MASSACHUSETTS
NathanielGorham
RufusKing

CONNECTICUT
Wm:Saml.Johnson
RogerSherman

NEWYORK
AlexanderHamilton

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

NEWJERSEY
Wil:Livingston
DavidBrearly
Wm.Paterson
Jona:Dayton

PENNSYLVANIA
B.Franklin
ThomasMifflin
Robt.Morris
Geo.Clymer
Thos.FitzSimons
JaredIngersoll
JamesWilson
GouvMorris

DELAWARE
Geo:Read
GunningBedfordjun
JohnDickinson
RichardBassett
Jaco:Broom

MARYLAND
JamesMcHenry
DanofStThos.Jenifer
DanlCarroll

VIRGINIA
JohnBlair
JamesMadisonJr.

NORTHCAROLINA
Wm.Blount
Richd.DobbsSpaight
HuWilliamson

SOUTHCAROLINA
J.Rutledge
CharlesCotesworthPinckney
CharlesPinckney
PierceButler

GEORGIA
WilliamFew
AbrBaldwin

TheConventionsofanumberoftheStates
having,atthetimeofadoptingthe
Constitution,expressedadesire,inorderto
preventmisconstructionorabuseofits
powers,thatfurtherdeclaratoryand
restrictiveclausesshouldbeadded,andas
extendingthegroundofpublicconfidence
intheGovernmentwillbestinsurethe
beneficentendsofitsinstitution;
Resolved,bytheSenateandHouseof
RepresentativesoftheUnitedStatesof
America,inCongressassembled,twothirds
ofbothHousesconcurring,thatthe
followingarticlesbeproposedtothe
LegislaturesoftheseveralStates,as
amendmentstotheConstitutionofthe
UnitedStates;alloranyofwhicharticles,
whenratifiedbythreefourthsofthesaid
Legislatures,tobevalidtoallintentsand
purposesaspartofthesaidConstitution,
namely:

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment 1

Amendment 1V

Congressshallmakenolawrespectingan
establishmentofreligion,orprohibitingthe
freeexercisethereof;orabridgingthe
freedomofspeech,orofthepress;orthe
rightofthepeoplepeaceablytoassemble,
andtopetitionthegovernmentforaredress
ofgrievances.

Amendment 11

Amendment V

Awellregulatedmilitia,beingnecessaryto
thesecurityofafreestate,therightofthe
peopletokeepandbeararms,shallnotbe
infringed.

Amendment 111

Nosoldiershall,intimeofpeacebe
quarteredinanyhouse,withouttheconsent
oftheowner,norintimeofwar,butina
mannertobeprescribedbylaw.

Therightofthepeopletobesecureintheir
persons,houses,papers,andeffects,against
unreasonablesearchesandseizures,shall
notbeviolated,andnowarrantsshallissue,
butuponprobablecause,supportedbyoath
oraffirmation,andparticularlydescribing
theplacetobesearched,andthepersonsor
thingstobeseized.

Nopersonshallbeheldtoanswerfora
capital,orotherwiseinfamouscrime,unless
onapresentmentorindictmentofagrand
jury,exceptincasesarisinginthelandor
navalforces,orinthemilitia,whenin
actualserviceintimeofwarorpublic
danger;norshallanypersonbesubjectfor
thesameoffensetobetwiceputinjeopardy
oflifeorlimb;norshallbecompelledinany
criminalcasetobeawitnessagainst
himself,norbedeprivedoflife,liberty,or
property,withoutdueprocessoflaw;nor
shallprivatepropertybetakenforpublic
use,withoutjustcompensation.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment V 1

Amendment 1X

Inallcriminalprosecutions,theaccused
shallenjoytherighttoaspeedyandpublic
trial,byanimpartialjuryofthestateand
districtwhereinthecrimeshallhavebeen
committed,whichdistrictshallhavebeen
previouslyascertainedbylaw,andtobe
informedofthenatureandcauseofthe
accusation;tobeconfrontedwiththe
witnessesagainsthim;tohavecompulsory
processforobtainingwitnessesinhisfavor,
andtohavetheassistanceofcounselforhis
defense.

TheenumerationintheConstitution,of
certainrights,shallnotbeconstruedto
denyordisparageothersretainedbythe
people.

ThepowersnotdelegatedtotheUnited
StatesbytheConstitution,norprohibited
byittothestates,arereservedtothestates
respectively,ortothepeople.

Amendment V 11

Amendment X1

Amendment X

PassedbyCongressMarch4,1794.RatifiedFebruary7,1795.

Insuitsatcommonlaw,wherethevaluein
controversyshallexceedtwentydollars,the
rightoftrialbyjuryshallbepreserved,and
nofacttriedbyajury,shallbeotherwise
reexaminedinanycourtoftheUnited
States,thanaccordingtotherulesofthe
commonlaw.

Amendment V 111

Excessivebailshallnotberequired,nor
excessivefinesimposed,norcrueland
unusualpunishmentsinflicted.

ThejudicialpoweroftheUnitedStates
shallnotbeconstruedtoextendtoany
suitinlaworequity,commencedor
prosecutedagainstoneoftheUnited
Statesbycitizensofanotherstate,orby
citizensorsubjectsofanyforeignstate.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment X11
PassedbyCongressDecember9,1803.RatifiedJune15,1804.

Theelectorsshallmeetintheir
respectivestatesandvotebyballotfor
PresidentandVicePresident,oneof
whom,atleast,shallnotbean
inhabitantofthesamestatewith
themselves;theyshallnameintheir
ballotsthepersonvotedforas
President,andindistinctballotsthe
personvotedforasVicePresident,and
theyshallmakedistinctlistsofall
personsvotedforasPresident,andof
allpersonsvotedforasVicePresident,
andofthenumberofvotesforeach,
whichliststheyshallsignandcertify,
andtransmitsealedtotheseatofthe
governmentoftheUnitedStates,
directedtothePresidentoftheSenate;
ThePresidentoftheSenateshall,inthe
presenceoftheSenateandHouseof
Representatives,openallthecertificates
andthevotesshallthenbecounted;the
personhavingthegreatestnumberof
votesforPresident,shallbethe
President,ifsuchnumberbeamajority
ofthewholenumberofelectors
appointed;andifnopersonhavesuch
majority,thenfromthepersonshaving
thehighestnumbersnotexceedingthree
onthelistofthosevotedforas
President,theHouseofRepresentatives
shallchooseimmediately,byballot,the
President.ButinchoosingthePresident,

thevotesshallbetakenbystates,the
representationfromeachstatehaving
onevote;aquorumforthispurpose
shallconsistofamemberormembers
fromtwothirdsofthestates,anda
majorityofallthestatesshallbe
necessarytoachoice.AndiftheHouse
ofRepresentativesshallnotchoosea
Presidentwhenevertherightofchoice
shalldevolveuponthem,beforethe
fourthdayofMarchnextfollowing,
thentheVicePresidentshallactas
President,asinthecaseofthedeathor
otherconstitutionaldisabilityofthe
President.Thepersonhavingthe
greatestnumberofvotesasVice
President,shallbetheVicePresident,if
suchnumberbeamajorityofthewhole
numberofelectorsappointed,andifno
personhaveamajority,thenfromthe
twohighestnumbersonthelist,the
SenateshallchoosetheVicePresident;a
quorumforthepurposeshallconsistof
twothirdsofthewholenumberof
Senators,andamajorityofthewhole
numbershallbenecessarytoachoice.
Butnopersonconstitutionallyineligible
totheofficeofPresidentshallbeeligible
tothatofVicePresidentoftheUnited
States.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment X111
PassedbyCongressJanuary31,1865.
RatifiedDecember6,1865.

Section1.Neitherslaverynor
involuntaryservitude,exceptasa
punishmentforcrimewhereoftheparty
shallhavebeendulyconvicted,shall
existwithintheUnitedStates,orany
placesubjecttotheirjurisdiction.
Section2.Congressshallhavepowerto
enforcethisarticlebyappropriate
legislation.

Amendment X1V
PassedbyCongressJune13,1866.RatifiedJuly9,1868.

Section1.Allpersonsbornor
naturalizedintheUnitedStates,and
subjecttothejurisdictionthereof,are
citizensoftheUnitedStatesandofthe
statewhereintheyreside.Nostateshall
makeorenforceanylawwhichshall
abridgetheprivilegesorimmunitiesof
citizensoftheUnitedStates;norshall
anystatedepriveanypersonoflife,
liberty,orproperty,withoutdueprocess
oflaw;nordenytoanypersonwithinits
jurisdictiontheequalprotectionofthe
laws.

Section2.Representativesshallbe
apportionedamongtheseveralstates
accordingtotheirrespectivenumbers,
countingthewholenumberofpersons
ineachstate,excludingIndiansnot
taxed.Butwhentherighttovoteatany
electionforthechoiceofelectorsfor
PresidentandVicePresidentofthe
UnitedStates,Representativesin
Congress,theexecutiveandjudicial
officersofastate,orthemembersofthe
legislaturethereof,isdeniedtoanyof
themaleinhabitantsofsuchstate,being
twentyoneyearsofage,andcitizensof
theUnitedStates,orinanyway
abridged,exceptforparticipationin
rebellion,orothercrime,thebasisof
representationthereinshallbereduced
intheproportionwhichthenumberof
suchmalecitizensshallbeartothe
wholenumberofmalecitizenstwenty
oneyearsofageinsuchstate.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Section3.NopersonshallbeaSenator
orRepresentativeinCongress,orelector
ofPresidentandVicePresident,orhold
anyoffice,civilormilitary,underthe
UnitedStates,orunderanystate,who,
havingpreviouslytakenanoath,asa
memberofCongress,orasanofficerof
theUnitedStates,orasamemberofany
statelegislature,orasanexecutiveor
judicialofficerofanystate,tosupport
theConstitutionoftheUnitedStates,
shallhaveengagedininsurrectionor
rebellionagainstthesame,orgivenaid
orcomforttotheenemiesthereof.But
Congressmaybyavoteoftwothirdsof
eachHouse,removesuchdisability.
Section4.Thevalidityofthepublic
debtoftheUnitedStates,authorizedby
law,includingdebtsincurredfor
paymentofpensionsandbountiesfor
servicesinsuppressinginsurrectionor
rebellion,shallnotbequestioned.But
neithertheUnitedStatesnoranystate
shallassumeorpayanydebtor
obligationincurredinaidof
insurrectionorrebellionagainstthe
UnitedStates,oranyclaimfortheloss
oremancipationofanyslave;butall
suchdebts,obligationsandclaimsshall
beheldillegalandvoid.
Section5.TheCongressshallhave
powertoenforce,byappropriate
legislation,theprovisionsofthisarticle.

Amendment XV
PassedbyCongressFebruary26,1869.
RatifiedFebruary3,1870.

Section1.Therightofcitizensofthe
UnitedStatestovoteshallnotbedenied
orabridgedbytheUnitedStatesorby
anystateonaccountofrace,color,or
previousconditionofservitude.
Section2.TheCongressshallhave
powertoenforcethisarticleby
appropriatelegislation.

Amendment XV 1
PassedbyCongressJuly2,1909.RatifiedFebruary3,1913.

TheCongressshallhavepowertolay
andcollecttaxesonincomes,from
whateversourcederived,without
apportionmentamongtheseveralstates,
andwithoutregardtoanycensusof
enumeration.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment XV 11

Amendment XV 111

PassedbyCongressMay13,1912.RatifiedApril8,1913.

PassedbyCongressDecember18,1917.RatifiedJanuary
16,1919.Repealedbythe21stAmendment,December5,1933.

TheSenateoftheUnitedStatesshallbe
composedoftwoSenatorsfromeach
state,electedbythepeoplethereof,for
sixyears;andeachSenatorshallhave
onevote.Theelectorsineachstateshall
havethequalificationsrequisitefor
electorsofthemostnumerousbranchof
thestatelegislatures.
Whenvacancieshappeninthe
representationofanystateintheSenate,
theexecutiveauthorityofsuchstate
shallissuewritsofelectiontofillsuch
vacancies:Provided,thatthelegislature
ofanystatemayempowertheexecutive
thereoftomaketemporary
appointmentsuntilthepeoplefillthe
vacanciesbyelectionasthelegislature
maydirect.
Thisamendmentshallnotbeso
construedastoaffecttheelectionor
termofanySenatorchosenbeforeit
becomesvalidaspartofthe
Constitution.

Section1.Afteroneyearfromthe
ratificationofthisarticlethe
manufacture,sale,ortransportationof
intoxicatingliquorswithin,the
importationthereofinto,orthe
exportationthereoffromtheUnited
Statesandallterritorysubjecttothe
jurisdictionthereofforbeverage
purposesisherebyprohibited.
Section2.TheCongressandtheseveral
statesshallhaveconcurrentpowerto
enforcethisarticlebyappropriate
legislation.
Section3.Thisarticleshallbe
inoperativeunlessitshallhavebeen
ratifiedasanamendmenttothe
Constitutionbythelegislaturesofthe
severalstates,asprovidedinthe
Constitution,withinsevenyearsfrom
thedateofthesubmissionhereoftothe
statesbytheCongress.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment X1X
PassedbyCongressJune4,1919.RatifiedAugust18,1920.

TherightofcitizensoftheUnitedStates
tovoteshallnotbedeniedorabridged
bytheUnitedStatesorbyanystateon
accountofsex.
Congressshallhavepowertoenforce
thisarticlebyappropriatelegislation.

Amendment XX
PassedbyCongressMarch2,1932.RatifiedJanuary23,1933.

Section1.ThetermsofthePresident
andVicePresidentshallendatnoonon
the20thdayofJanuary,andtheterms
ofSenatorsandRepresentativesatnoon
onthe3rddayofJanuary,oftheyears
inwhichsuchtermswouldhaveended
ifthisarticlehadnotbeenratified;and
thetermsoftheirsuccessorsshallthen
begin.
Section2.TheCongressshallassemble
atleastonceineveryyear,andsuch
meetingshallbeginatnoononthe3d
dayofJanuary,unlesstheyshallbylaw
appointadifferentday.

Section3.If,atthetimefixedforthe
beginningofthetermofthePresident,
thePresidentelectshallhavedied,the
VicePresidentelectshallbecome
President.IfaPresidentshallnothave
beenchosenbeforethetimefixedforthe
beginningofhisterm,orifthePresident
electshallhavefailedtoqualify,then
theVicePresidentelectshallactas
PresidentuntilaPresidentshallhave
qualified;andtheCongressmaybylaw
provideforthecasewhereinneithera
PresidentelectnoraVicePresidentelect
shallhavequalified,declaringwhoshall
thenactasPresident,orthemannerin
whichonewhoistoactshallbe
selected,andsuchpersonshallact
accordinglyuntilaPresidentorVice
Presidentshallhavequalified.
Section4.TheCongressmaybylaw
provideforthecaseofthedeathofany
ofthepersonsfromwhomtheHouseof
RepresentativesmaychooseaPresident
whenevertherightofchoiceshallhave
devolveduponthem,andforthecaseof
thedeathofanyofthepersonsfrom
whomtheSenatemaychooseaVice
Presidentwhenevertherightofchoice
shallhavedevolveduponthem.
Section5.Sections1and2shalltake
effectonthe15thdayofOctober
followingtheratificationofthisarticle.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Section6.Thisarticleshallbe
inoperativeunlessitshallhavebeen
ratifiedasanamendmenttothe
Constitutionbythelegislaturesofthree
fourthsoftheseveralstateswithin
sevenyearsfromthedateofits
submission.

Amendment XX11
PassedbyCongressMarch21,1947.
RatifiedFebruary27,1951.

Section2.Thetransportationor
importationintoanystate,territory,or
possessionoftheUnitedStatesfor
deliveryorusethereinofintoxicating
liquors,inviolationofthelawsthereof,
isherebyprohibited.

Section1.Nopersonshallbeelectedto
theofficeofthePresidentmorethan
twice,andnopersonwhohasheldthe
officeofPresident,oractedasPresident,
formorethantwoyearsofatermto
whichsomeotherpersonwaselected
Presidentshallbeelectedtotheofficeof
thePresidentmorethanonce.Butthis
articleshallnotapplytoanyperson
holdingtheofficeofPresidentwhenthis
articlewasproposedbytheCongress,
andshallnotpreventanypersonwho
maybeholdingtheofficeofPresident,
oractingasPresident,duringtheterm
withinwhichthisarticlebecomes
operativefromholdingtheofficeof
PresidentoractingasPresidentduring
theremainderofsuchterm.

Section3.Thisarticleshallbe
inoperativeunlessitshallhavebeen
ratifiedasanamendmenttothe
Constitutionbyconventionsinthe
severalstates,asprovidedinthe
Constitution,withinsevenyearsfrom
thedateofthesubmissionhereoftothe
statesbytheCongress.

Section2.Thisarticleshallbe
inoperativeunlessitshallhavebeen
ratifiedasanamendmenttothe
Constitutionbythelegislaturesofthree
fourthsoftheseveralstateswithin
sevenyearsfromthedateofits
submissiontothestatesbythe
Congress.

Amendment XX1
PassedbyCongressFebruary20,1933.
RatifiedDecember5,1933.

Section1.Theeighteentharticleof
amendmenttotheConstitutionofthe
UnitedStatesisherebyrepealed.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment XX111

Amendment XX1V

PassedbyCongressJune16,1960.RatifiedMarch29,1961.

PassedbyCongressAugust27,1962.
RatifiedJanuary23,1964.

Section1.TheDistrictconstitutingthe
seatofgovernmentoftheUnitedStates
shallappointinsuchmannerasthe
Congressmaydirect:
AnumberofelectorsofPresidentand
VicePresidentequaltothewhole
numberofSenatorsandRepresentatives
inCongresstowhichtheDistrictwould
beentitledifitwereastate,butinno
eventmorethantheleastpopulous
state;theyshallbeinadditiontothose
appointedbythestates,buttheyshall
beconsidered,forthepurposesofthe
electionofPresidentandVicePresident,
tobeelectorsappointedbyastate;and
theyshallmeetintheDistrictand
performsuchdutiesasprovidedbythe
twelftharticleofamendment.
Section2.TheCongressshallhave
powertoenforcethisarticleby
appropriatelegislation.

Section1.Therightofcitizensofthe
UnitedStatestovoteinanyprimaryor
otherelectionforPresidentorVice
President,forelectorsforPresidentor
VicePresident,orforSenatoror
RepresentativeinCongress,shallnotbe
deniedorabridgedbytheUnitedStates
oranystatebyreasonoffailuretopay
anypolltaxorothertax.
Section2.TheCongressshallhave
powertoenforcethisarticleby
appropriatelegislation.

Amendment XXV
PassedbyCongressJuly6,1965.RatifiedFebruary10,1967.

Section1.Incaseoftheremovalofthe
Presidentfromofficeorofhisdeathor
resignation,theVicePresidentshall
becomePresident.
Section2.Wheneverthereisavacancy
intheofficeoftheVicePresident,the
PresidentshallnominateaVice
Presidentwhoshalltakeofficeupon
confirmationbyamajorityvoteofboth
HousesofCongress.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Section3.WheneverthePresident
transmitstothePresidentprotempore
oftheSenateandtheSpeakerofthe
HouseofRepresentativeshiswritten
declarationthatheisunableto
dischargethepowersanddutiesofhis
office,anduntilhetransmitstothema
writtendeclarationtothecontrary,such
powersanddutiesshallbedischarged
bytheVicePresidentasActing
President.
Section4.WhenevertheVicePresident
andamajorityofeithertheprincipal
officersoftheexecutivedepartmentsor
ofsuchotherbodyasCongressmayby
lawprovide,transmittothePresident
protemporeoftheSenateandthe
SpeakeroftheHouseofRepresentatives
theirwrittendeclarationthatthe
Presidentisunabletodischargethe
powersanddutiesofhisoffice,theVice
Presidentshallimmediatelyassumethe
powersanddutiesoftheofficeas
ActingPresident.

Thereafter,whenthePresident
transmitstothePresidentprotempore
oftheSenateandtheSpeakerofthe
HouseofRepresentativeshiswritten
declarationthatnoinabilityexists,he
shallresumethepowersanddutiesof
hisofficeunlesstheVicePresidentanda
majorityofeithertheprincipalofficers
oftheexecutivedepartmentorofsuch
otherbodyasCongressmaybylaw
provide,transmitwithinfourdaysto
thePresidentprotemporeoftheSenate
andtheSpeakeroftheHouseof
Representativestheirwritten
declarationthatthePresidentisunable
todischargethepowersanddutiesof
hisoffice.ThereuponCongressshall
decidetheissue,assemblingwithin
fortyeighthoursforthatpurposeifnot
insession.IftheCongress,within
twentyonedaysafterreceiptofthe
latterwrittendeclaration,or,ifCongress
isnotinsession,withintwentyone
daysafterCongressisrequiredto
assemble,determinesbytwothirdsvote
ofbothHousesthatthePresidentis
unabletodischargethepowersand
dutiesofhisoffice,theVicePresident
shallcontinuetodischargethesameas
ActingPresident;otherwise,the
Presidentshallresumethepowersand
dutiesofhisoffice.

EducatingYoungPeopleabouttheConstitution

Amendment XXV 1
PassedbyCongressMarch23,1971.RatifiedJuly1,1971.

Section1.Therightofcitizensofthe
UnitedStates,whoare18yearsofageor
older,tovote,shallnotbedeniedor
abridgedbytheUnitedStatesorany
stateonaccountofage.
Section2.TheCongressshallhavethe
powertoenforcethisarticleby
appropriatelegislation.

Amendment XXV 11
OriginallyproposedSept.25,1789.RatifiedMay7,1992.

Nolawvaryingthecompensationfor
theservicesoftheSenatorsand
Representativesshalltakeeffectuntilan
electionofRepresentativesshallhave
intervened.

Valuta