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B3-G

Signal Processing and Filter Design

Michaelmas Term

Stephen Roberts

B3-G/1

1. High-order Bessel-Thomson low-pass filters have an impulse response that approximates to:

 g(t ) = a ( 1 - cos a t ) for 0 £ t £ 2 p , 2 p a

g(t) = 0 otherwise.

(a) What is the step response of such a filter? (If no simpler method

is obvious, use convolution). Sketch this response.

(b) By taking the Fourier transform of g(t), show that the frequency response of this filter is:

g(t)
t
0
p
2p
a
a

Ê pw

a

ˆ

˜

¯

sin Á

Ë

w

) = e

-j

pw

a

G( j

Ê pw

Á Ë

a

Ï

ˆ Ô

˜ ¯ Ì

Ô Ó

1 - Ê Á

Ë

w

ˆ

˜

a

¯

2

¸ Ô

˝

˛ Ô

cosat

(Hint: You will find it useful to represent

as a sum of exponentials.)

 Evaluate G(jw) for w = 0, 0.5, 0.9, 1.1 (what happens at 1.0?), 2 and 2.5, and sketch it a w against a on both linear and dB:logw scales. 2. Starting from the amplitude-squared response

G (j

w

)

2

=

1

ˆ

˜

1 + Á Ê Ë w

w

c

¯

2 n

show that the poles of a Butterworth low-pass filter are given by:

Ï

Ê p

w

c

exp j Á

Ì

Ó

(

2

k

+

1

)

p

ˆ ¸

˝

˛

˜

2

+

Ë

Hence obtain the transfer function in the form

s =

2

¯

n

(

G s

) =

 1 Ê Á ˆ Ê Á 1 ˜ + Á Ê ˆ n - ˆ n 1 + a 1 s ˜ + + a 1 s s ˜ Ë w c ¯ n - Ë w c ¯ w Ë c ¯

with numerical values for a

1

a

n

-

1

for low pass filters of order 2 and 3.

Find the impulse response of the second- order filter (using the Laplace Transform), and sketch it with reasonable care.

B3-G/2

3. A low-pass filter is required to have zero attenuation (i.e. unity gain) at d.c., and 40 dB

attenuation at 1 kHz. Consider as alternatives to meet this specification:

a) a 4th-order Butterworth filter

b) a 4th-order Chebyshev filter with e = 0.5 (i.e. about 1 dB pass-band ripple) (Hint: check the zero frequency gain)

Find the nominal cut-off frequencies,

which the attenuation is within ±3 dB of the d.c. level. By what factor has the Chebyshev filter the larger pass-band?

f

c

, for each filter, and hence the range of frequencies for

4. A signal s(t) amplitude-modulates a carrier sinusoid cosw c t. At another point in the system,

this modulated carrier, s(t)cosw c t , is demodulated by multiplying it by a ±1 square-wave in phase with cos w c t . A typical resulting waveform is:

s(t )

cos(w t) ¥
square wave

t

Evaluation of the Fourier series for this waveform when s(t) is a constant shows that there is a Fourier component at 2w c rad/s whose peak-to-peak amplitude is 4/3 times the mean value of the

waveform, which is itself 2

s(t ) . Suppose w

c

2 p

p

= 400 Hz; select a Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter

transfer function that will reduce the peak-to-peak 800 Hz component of ripple to 1/60th of the

 2 mean signal, p s(t ) , and yet not delay the s(t) waveform by more than 2 ms.

5. A band-pass filter is required to have a 3 dB bandwidth of 10 kHz centred (on a logarithmic

scale) at 30 kHz. Start with a 3rd-order Butterworth low-pass transfer function, and transform it to a band-pass with centre frequency f n = 30 kHz. For this band-pass filter, derive:

a) the transfer function

b) the pole positions

Show that the attenuation of the band-pass filter at 15 kHz is the same as the attenuation of the prototype low-pass filter at 45 kHz and hence find its value.

B3-G/3

6. A Butterworth low-pass filter with a -3 dB cut-off frequency

least 40 dB attenuation at 1 kHz. Show that a 4th order filter meets this specification.

f c = 300Hz is to have at

The filter is to be realised by cascading two 2nd order sections of the type shown below.

V in

C
R
R

C

R a
R b

V out

Derive appropriate values for the resistors and capacitors for each of the two 2nd order sections. In which order is it preferable to cascade the two circuits?

Show that the overall time delay introduced at a frequency of 0.9 f c by the two cascaded sections is approximately 1.17 times that introduced at 0.1 f c . Comment on this result.

7. A high-pass analogue filter is required to have a pass-band extending upwards from 400 Hz,

and attenuating by 60 dB at 50 Hz. Show that this can be achieved (just) with a high-pass conversion of a 3rd-order Type One Chebyshev low-pass filter, having e = 0.5, for which

(

G s

) =

 1 1 + . 2 5 Ê Á s ˆ ˜ + 2 Ê Á 2 ˆ 2 s ˜ + Ê Á s ˆ ˜ 3 Ë w c ¯ Ë w c ¯ Ë w c ¯

.

Design a suitable active circuit to implement the transfer function.

[ N.B.

2

+

2

x +

2 5

. x

2

+ x

3

=

(

2

+ x

)(

1

+

0 5

. x + x

2

)

]

1.

2.

(a)

1

2 p

(

a

t - sin

a

1, ÷2, 1;

t

)

 for 0 £ t £ 2 p ; constant at 1 thereafter. a

1, 2, 2, 1.

B3-G/4

3. Butterworth: f c = f -3dB 316 Hz,. Chebyshev: f c =415 Hz, f -3dB = 446 Hz. Chebyshev has 41% more bandwidth (to -3 dB).

4.

n = 4;

t = 1.905 ms.

5. (a) Poles at w n 99.59 ; 0.8656w n 94.73

and 1.153w n 94.73 .

(

G s

) =

Ê

Á

ˆ

˜

3

1

s

 27 Á Ë w n ˜ ¯ ˆ ˆ 2 ˆ 3 ˆ 4 ˆ 5 ˆ 6 1 + 2 Ê Á Á Ë 3 w s n ˜ + ˜ ¯ 29 Ê Á Á Ë 9 w s n ˜ ˜ ¯ + 37 Ê Á Á Ë 27 w s n ˜ ˜ ¯ + 29 Ê Á Á Ë 9 w s n ˜ ˜ ¯ + 2 Ê Á Á Ë 3 w s n ˜ ˜ ¯ Ê + Á Á Ë w s n ˜ ˜ ¯

6. K 1 = 1.152;

K 2 = 2.235.

Try C = 100 nF, for example.

If R b1 = R b2 = 10 kW, then R a1 = 1.52 kW, and R a2 = 12.35 kW (to set gains K 1 and K 2 ).