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# -What are the aquifers?

- Nearly all hydrocarbon reservoirs are surrounded by waterbearing rocks called aquifers

## What are the sizes of the aquifers?

- These aquifers may be larger than the oil and gas reservoirs

Chapter 9

Water Influx

## What are the functions of the aquifers?

- They support the pressure differential as the reservoir
pressure declines because of the hydrocarbon production

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engineers?

## As hydrocarbon is produced from the reservoir and the

pressure decline causes a response from the aquifer to offset

## higher than the pay zone.

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of:

## 1- Degree of pressure maintenance

Active water drive means:

## -The rate of water influx is equal to the reservoir total

3- Flow regimes

production

4- Flow geometries

## -Gradual and slow pressure decline i.e the production rate

and reservoir pressure remain constant
Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate
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## Active water drive means:

Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate

## The above equation can be expressed in terms of cumulative

production by using the following derivative terms:

or
ew = QoBo + QgBg + QwBw

ew =

where
where

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt

## Qo = Oil flow rate, STB/day

Np = Cumulative oil production, STB, GOR= Current gas oil ratio SCF/STB

## dNp/dt = daily oil flow rate Qo, STB/day

dWp/dt = daily water flow rate Qw, STB/day

## Bw = Water formation volume factor bbl/STB

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Example

of:

## Calculate the water influx rate in a reservoir whose pressure is

stabilized at 3700 psi where
dNp/dt = 25,000 STB/day,
Rs= 750 scf/STB

dWp/dt = 0,
Bo=1.34 bbl/STB,

## 2-Outer boundary conditions

A- Infinite system indicates that the effect of pressure changes at

GOR=1000 scf/STB

## the oil/aquifer boundary can never be felt at the outer boundary.

Bg=0.00082 bbl/Scf

Bw=1 bbl/STB

## This outer boundary remain at constant pressure equal to initial

Solution

reservoir pressure.
ew =

## B- Finite system indicates that the aquifer outer boundary is

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bw
Bg +
dt
dt
dt
dt

affected by the water influx into the oil zone, and the pressure at the

ew=(1.34)(25,000)+(1000-750)(25,000)(0.00082)+0=38,625 bbl(day

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## 1- Degree of pressure maintenance

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## outer boundary changes with time

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## -Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

1- Degree of pressure maintenance 2-Outer boundary conditions

3-Flow regimes

3-Flow regimes

## B- Pseudosteady state: the pressure at every location in the reservoir

There are basically three flow regimes to describe the fluid flow

Mathematically,

## A- Steady state: the pressure at every location in the reservoir remains

constant, i. e. the pressure does not change with time.

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Mathematically,

## time at any location in the reservoir is constant.

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Note that:

## condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely supported by

strong aquifer or pressure maintenance operations
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3-Flow regimes

## -Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

3-Flow regimes

C- Unsteady state: This states that the rate of change of pressure with
respect to time at any location in the reservoir is not zero or constant.

Mathematically,

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to
time is a function of both position (i) and time (t).
Note that:

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## -Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

-Linear flow

## -Spherical and hemispherical flow

- Radial flow is used to characterize

## the flow of fluid into the well bore.

-Edge-water drive
-Bottom- water drive
-Linear-water drive

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## of: 4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

- Linear flow:

## -Spherical and Hemispherical flow:

Linear flow occurs when flow paths are parallel and fluid flows in a

## A common applications of linear flow equations are some cases in

spherical flow. A well that penetrates only a part of the pay zone could

## give hemispherical flow. These conditions are very important in water

coning problems

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## -Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of: 4-

4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

## 4.2 Reservoir-Aquifer flow geometries

-Edge-water drive:

## drop at reservoir aquifer boundaries

-Linear-water drive
In linear water drive, the influx is from one flank of the reservoir. The
flow is linear with a constant
cross-sectional area

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## -Indications of Natural Water Influx

-Very little information can be obtained during the explorationdevelopment period
-It may be obtained by analogy with nearby producing reservoirs
-Early reservoir performance trends can provide clues
-Low and decreasing rate of pressure decline with increasing
production is an indication of fluid influx.
-If the reservoir pressure is below Pb a low rate of increase of GOR is
also an indication of fluid influx.
-Early water production from edge wells is indicative of water
encroachment. This may be due to fractures, high permeability, thin
formations.
- Calculation of increasing OOIP from successive reservoir pressure
surveys by using the material balance assuming no water influx is also
indicative of fluid influx
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-Water

Influx Models

## There are more uncertainties attached to aquifer information because one

seldom drills wells into an aquifer to gain information about porosity,
permeability, thickness and fluid properties.
Several Mathematical models have been introduced for estimating water
influx that based on assumptions which describes the aquifer
characteristics:
1- Pot aquifer
-Edge water drive
-Bottom water drive
6-Fetkovichs method
-Linear aquifer
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## 1- Pot aquifer Model:

- The simplest model used to estimate the water influx into gas or oil
reservoirs. It is only applicable for small aquifers whose volumes are
nearly equal to reservoir volumes
-It depends on the basic definition of the compressibility. When the
reservoir pressure drops due to the fluid production, this causes the aquifer
water to expand and flow into the reservoir

or

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
ew =
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt

## 1- Pot aquifer Model:

- Calculating Initial volume of water (Wi)
A- If the aquifer shape is radial and from all directions

r 2 re2 h
Wi = a

5.61

h=thickness of aquifer ,ft., = porosity of the aquifer

B- If the aquifer shape is radial and not from all directions (not circular)

V = c V P
Water influx =aquifer compressibility (Initial volume of water) (pressure
drop)
We = (c w + c f ) Wi ( Pi P )

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P )
f =

encroachment angle

=
360 0
360 0

## We=cumulative water influx, bbl, Cw=aquifer water compressibility Psi-1

Cf=aquifer rock comp. psi-1, Wi= initial volume of water in aquifer, bbl,
Pi=initial reservoir pressure, psi, P=current reservoir pressure (pressure at O/W Contact), psi
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## 1- Pot aquifer Model:

- Example 1: Calculate the cumulative water influx that results from a pressure drop of
200 psi at the oil-water contact with an encroachment angle of 80. The reservoir
aquifer system is characterized by the following properties
Reservoir

Aquifer

2600

10,000

Porosity

0.18

0.12

Cf, Psi-1

4x10-6

3x10-6

Cw, Psi-1

5x10-6

4x10-6

h, ft

20

25

- Schilthuis has proposed an aquifer with steady state flow. The flow
behavior can be described and determined by Darcys law

dWe 0.00708 k h
ew =
=
[Pi p]

dt
r
w ln a

re

ew =

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt

## r 2 re2 h 10000 2600 (25) (0.12)

Wi = a
= 156.5 MMbbl
=
5.61
5.61

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P ) = ( 4 + 3)10 6 (156.5 * 10 6 (
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80
)( 200) = 48,689 bbl
360

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Where:
ew=rate of water influx, bbl/day
K= permeability of the aquifer, md
h=thickness of the aquifer, ft.
t=time, days
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Example 2

ew =

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt
ew =

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt

## Pi=3500 Psi , P=3000 psi, Qo=32,000 STB/day

Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB
Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0
Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant

dNp
dNp
dWp
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw = (1.4)(32,000) + (900 700)(32,000)(0.00082) + (0)
dt
dt
dt
dt
= 50,048bbl/ day

ew =

Although this can only be done when the reservoir pressure stabilizes, once it has been
determined, it can be applied to both stabilized and changing reservoir pressures.
Example 2

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt
ew
50,048
C=
=
= 100 bbl / day / psi
[Pi p] (3500 3000)
ew =

## Pi=3500 Psi , P=3000 psi, Qo=32,000 STB/day

Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB
Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0
Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant
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## -Water Influx Models

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## -Water Influx Models

Why Hurst? What is the problem with Schilthuis Model?
One of the most associated problem with Schilthuis model is that as the water is
encroached into the reservoir the aquifer radius will increase as the time
increase. Therefore he introduced the dimensionless radius (ra/re) by a time
dependent function (at) where:
ra/re=at
ew =

dWe 0.00708kh ( Pi P)
=
dt
w ln(at )

or
ew =

dWe C ( Pi P)
=
dt
ln(at )

## in terms of cumulative water influx

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## -Water Influx Models

A plot of (Pi-P)/ew versus ln(t) will be a straight line with a slope of (1/C)
and intercept of (1/C)ln (a)

## -Water Influx Models

Example

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## 3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

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Example

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Example

## 3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

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## 3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

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## 4-Van Everdingen- Hursts Unsteady-State Model:

- when an oil well is brought on production at a constant flow rate after a
shut-in period, the pressure behavior is essentially controlled by the
- the dimensionless form of the diffusivity equation which designed to
model the transient flow in reservoirs or aquifer is as follow:

## 5-Carter-Tracy water Influx Model:

-What is the difference between the VanEverdingen-Hurst model and
Carter-Tracy model?
VanEverdingen-Hurst model provides the exact solution for radial
diffusivity equation and considered the correct technique for water influx
calculations. But the superposition needs complex calculations
- Carter-Tracy technique assumes constant water influx rates over each
finite time interval
-Using the Carter-Tracy technique, the cumulative water influx at any
time, tn, can be calculated directly by

Van Everdingen and Hurst proposed solution to following two reservoiraquifer boundary conditions:
-Constant rate (and calculate the pressure)
-Constant Pressure (and calculate the rate)
It is preferred to calculate the flow rate
They introduced their solutions to the following systems:
-Edge water-drive system
-Bottom water drive
-Linear water drive
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## -Water Influx Models

6-Fetkovichs Model:
-What is the difference feature of Fetkovich model ?
- Fetkovich model is used for water influx behavior of a finite aquifer for
-the method does not require the use of superposition, therefore the
application is much simpler
- This technique is often utilized in numerical simulation methods.
- Fetkovich assumption is that the productivity index concept will
describe water influx from a finite aquifer into a hydrocarbon reservoir
-Water influx rate is directly proportional to the pressure drop between
the average aquifer pressure and the pressure at the reservoir/aquifer
boundary
-This method neglects the effects of any transient period.

6-Fetkovichs Model:

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## The models available in Eclipse are:

The models available in Eclipse

1-Numerical aquifers
2-Carter-Tracy aquifers
3-Fetkovich aquifers
4-Constant flux aquifers
-Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional row of cells
within the simulation grid.
-The other three types of aquifer, classed as analytic aquifers, are
represented by computed source terms in the reservoir grid cells with which
they connect.

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## The models available in Eclipse are:

1-Numerical aquifers
Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional
row of cells within the simulation grid.
-A set of cells in the simulation grid is nominated to
represent the aquifer, which may then connect to specified
faces of the reservoir (using the AQUCON keyword).
-The properties of the aquifer grid blocks (length, crosssectional area, porosity, permeability, initial pressure, depth,
PVT and saturation table numbers) may be declared
explicitly using keyword AQUNUM in the GRID section

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## The models available in Eclipse are:

2-Carter-Tracy aquifers
-The Carter-Tracy aquifer model is a simplified approximation to a fully transient
model.
- The method uses a table that supplies a constant terminal rate influence
function. Although the theory has been developed for a radially symmetric
reservoir surrounded by an annular aquifer, the method is applicable to
arbitrarily-shaped reservoirs.
AQUCT Key word (in SOLUTION SECTION): Specifies the property data for
Carter-Tracy aquifers

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## 4-Constant flux aquifers

3-Fetkovich aquifers
-AQUFET key word (in Solution section) Specification data for
Fetkovich aquifers
-The Fetkovich aquifer model uses a simplified approach based on a
pseudosteady state productivity index and a material balance relationship
between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx.

A constant flux aquifer has its water influx rate specified directly by the user,
instead of being calculated by an analytic aquifer model.
But for the purpose of dimensioning etc., it is classed with the other analytic
aquifer models.
-One use of a constant flux aquifer is to model rainfall influx for environmental
applications.

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## The models available in Eclipse are:

4-Constant flux aquifers
-The aquifer should be defined with the AQUFLUX keyword in the SOLUTION
section, and the aquifer connections to one or more faces of the reservoir should
be made via the keyword AQUANCON.
SUMMARY file quantities for the aquifer may be obtained using AAQR (influx
rate) and AAQT (cumulative influx) in the SUMMARY section.
In order to use the facility, the parameters NANAQU (the maximum number of
analytic aquifers) and NCAMAX (the maximum number of grid block connected to
any single analytic aquifer) should be set using the RUNSPEC section keyword
AQUDIMS.

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