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189 visualizzazioni24 pagineEclipse Notes

Jul 04, 2015

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Eclipse Notes

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189 visualizzazioni24 pagineEclipse Notes

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- Nearly all hydrocarbon reservoirs are surrounded by waterbearing rocks called aquifers

- These aquifers may be larger than the oil and gas reservoirs

Chapter 9

Water Influx

- They support the pressure differential as the reservoir

pressure declines because of the hydrocarbon production

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engineers?

pressure decline causes a response from the aquifer to offset

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of:

Active water drive means:

3- Flow regimes

production

4- Flow geometries

and reservoir pressure remain constant

Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate

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Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate

production by using the following derivative terms:

or

ew = QoBo + QgBg + QwBw

ew =

where

where

dN p

dN p

dW p

dWe

= Bo

+ (GOR Rs )

Bg +

Bw

dt

dt

dt

dt

Np = Cumulative oil production, STB, GOR= Current gas oil ratio SCF/STB

dWp/dt = daily water flow rate Qw, STB/day

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Example

of:

stabilized at 3700 psi where

dNp/dt = 25,000 STB/day,

Rs= 750 scf/STB

dWp/dt = 0,

Bo=1.34 bbl/STB,

A- Infinite system indicates that the effect of pressure changes at

GOR=1000 scf/STB

Bg=0.00082 bbl/Scf

Bw=1 bbl/STB

Solution

reservoir pressure.

ew =

dN p

dN p

dW p

dWe

= Bo

+ (GOR Rs )

Bw

Bg +

dt

dt

dt

dt

affected by the water influx into the oil zone, and the pressure at the

ew=(1.34)(25,000)+(1000-750)(25,000)(0.00082)+0=38,625 bbl(day

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1- Degree of pressure maintenance 2-Outer boundary conditions

3-Flow regimes

3-Flow regimes

There are basically three flow regimes to describe the fluid flow

Mathematically,

constant, i. e. the pressure does not change with time.

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Mathematically,

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Note that:

strong aquifer or pressure maintenance operations

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3-Flow regimes

3-Flow regimes

C- Unsteady state: This states that the rate of change of pressure with

respect to time at any location in the reservoir is not zero or constant.

Mathematically,

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

time is a function of both position (i) and time (t).

Note that:

Unsteady state flow=Transient flow

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4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

-Radial flow

-Radial flow:

-Linear flow

- Radial flow is used to characterize

-Edge-water drive

-Bottom- water drive

-Linear-water drive

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4- Flow geometries

- Linear flow:

Linear flow occurs when flow paths are parallel and fluid flows in a

spherical flow. A well that penetrates only a part of the pay zone could

coning problems

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4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

-Edge-water drive:

-Linear-water drive

In linear water drive, the influx is from one flank of the reservoir. The

flow is linear with a constant

cross-sectional area

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10

-Very little information can be obtained during the explorationdevelopment period

-It may be obtained by analogy with nearby producing reservoirs

-Early reservoir performance trends can provide clues

-Low and decreasing rate of pressure decline with increasing

production is an indication of fluid influx.

-If the reservoir pressure is below Pb a low rate of increase of GOR is

also an indication of fluid influx.

-Early water production from edge wells is indicative of water

encroachment. This may be due to fractures, high permeability, thin

formations.

- Calculation of increasing OOIP from successive reservoir pressure

surveys by using the material balance assuming no water influx is also

indicative of fluid influx

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-Water

Influx Models

seldom drills wells into an aquifer to gain information about porosity,

permeability, thickness and fluid properties.

Several Mathematical models have been introduced for estimating water

influx that based on assumptions which describes the aquifer

characteristics:

1- Pot aquifer

2- Schilthuis steady state

3- Hursts modified steady state

4- Van Everdingen- Hurst unsteady-state

-Edge water drive

-Bottom water drive

5- Carter-Tracy Unsteady state

6-Fetkovichs method

-Radial aquifer

-Linear aquifer

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- The simplest model used to estimate the water influx into gas or oil

reservoirs. It is only applicable for small aquifers whose volumes are

nearly equal to reservoir volumes

-It depends on the basic definition of the compressibility. When the

reservoir pressure drops due to the fluid production, this causes the aquifer

water to expand and flow into the reservoir

or

dN p

dN p

dW p

dWe

ew =

= Bo

+ (GOR Rs )

Bg +

Bw

dt

dt

dt

dt

- Calculating Initial volume of water (Wi)

A- If the aquifer shape is radial and from all directions

r 2 re2 h

Wi = a

5.61

h=thickness of aquifer ,ft., = porosity of the aquifer

B- If the aquifer shape is radial and not from all directions (not circular)

V = c V P

Water influx =aquifer compressibility (Initial volume of water) (pressure

drop)

We = (c w + c f ) Wi ( Pi P )

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P )

f =

encroachment angle

=

360 0

360 0

Cf=aquifer rock comp. psi-1, Wi= initial volume of water in aquifer, bbl,

Pi=initial reservoir pressure, psi, P=current reservoir pressure (pressure at O/W Contact), psi

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- Example 1: Calculate the cumulative water influx that results from a pressure drop of

200 psi at the oil-water contact with an encroachment angle of 80. The reservoir

aquifer system is characterized by the following properties

Reservoir

Aquifer

Radius, ft

2600

10,000

Porosity

0.18

0.12

Cf, Psi-1

4x10-6

3x10-6

Cw, Psi-1

5x10-6

4x10-6

h, ft

20

25

- Schilthuis has proposed an aquifer with steady state flow. The flow

behavior can be described and determined by Darcys law

dWe 0.00708 k h

ew =

=

[Pi p]

dt

r

w ln a

re

ew =

dWe

= C [Pi p ]

dt

Answer

Wi = a

= 156.5 MMbbl

=

5.61

5.61

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P ) = ( 4 + 3)10 6 (156.5 * 10 6 (

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)( 200) = 48,689 bbl

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Where:

ew=rate of water influx, bbl/day

K= permeability of the aquifer, md

h=thickness of the aquifer, ft.

ra=radius of the aquifer, ft.

re=radius of reservoir, ft.

t=time, days

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2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

Example 2

ew =

dN p

dN p

dW p

dWe

= Bo

+ (GOR Rs )

Bg +

Bw

dt

dt

dt

dt

ew =

dWe

= C [Pi p ]

dt

Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB

Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0

Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant

dNp

dNp

dWp

dWe

= Bo

+ (GOR Rs )

Bg +

Bw = (1.4)(32,000) + (900 700)(32,000)(0.00082) + (0)

dt

dt

dt

dt

= 50,048bbl/ day

ew =

Although this can only be done when the reservoir pressure stabilizes, once it has been

determined, it can be applied to both stabilized and changing reservoir pressures.

Example 2

dWe

= C [Pi p ]

dt

ew

50,048

C=

=

= 100 bbl / day / psi

[Pi p] (3500 3000)

ew =

Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB

Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0

Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant

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2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

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2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

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2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

Why Hurst? What is the problem with Schilthuis Model?

One of the most associated problem with Schilthuis model is that as the water is

encroached into the reservoir the aquifer radius will increase as the time

increase. Therefore he introduced the dimensionless radius (ra/re) by a time

dependent function (at) where:

ra/re=at

ew =

dWe 0.00708kh ( Pi P)

=

dt

w ln(at )

or

ew =

dWe C ( Pi P)

=

dt

ln(at )

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3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

A plot of (Pi-P)/ew versus ln(t) will be a straight line with a slope of (1/C)

and intercept of (1/C)ln (a)

Example

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Example

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- when an oil well is brought on production at a constant flow rate after a

shut-in period, the pressure behavior is essentially controlled by the

unsteady state condition

- the dimensionless form of the diffusivity equation which designed to

model the transient flow in reservoirs or aquifer is as follow:

-What is the difference between the VanEverdingen-Hurst model and

Carter-Tracy model?

VanEverdingen-Hurst model provides the exact solution for radial

diffusivity equation and considered the correct technique for water influx

calculations. But the superposition needs complex calculations

- Carter-Tracy technique assumes constant water influx rates over each

finite time interval

-Using the Carter-Tracy technique, the cumulative water influx at any

time, tn, can be calculated directly by

Van Everdingen and Hurst proposed solution to following two reservoiraquifer boundary conditions:

-Constant rate (and calculate the pressure)

-Constant Pressure (and calculate the rate)

It is preferred to calculate the flow rate

They introduced their solutions to the following systems:

-Edge water-drive system

-Bottom water drive

-Linear water drive

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6-Fetkovichs Model:

-What is the difference feature of Fetkovich model ?

- Fetkovich model is used for water influx behavior of a finite aquifer for

radial and linear geometries.

-the method does not require the use of superposition, therefore the

application is much simpler

- This technique is often utilized in numerical simulation methods.

- Fetkovich assumption is that the productivity index concept will

describe water influx from a finite aquifer into a hydrocarbon reservoir

-Water influx rate is directly proportional to the pressure drop between

the average aquifer pressure and the pressure at the reservoir/aquifer

boundary

-This method neglects the effects of any transient period.

6-Fetkovichs Model:

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The models available in Eclipse

1-Numerical aquifers

2-Carter-Tracy aquifers

3-Fetkovich aquifers

4-Constant flux aquifers

-Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional row of cells

within the simulation grid.

-The other three types of aquifer, classed as analytic aquifers, are

represented by computed source terms in the reservoir grid cells with which

they connect.

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1-Numerical aquifers

Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional

row of cells within the simulation grid.

-A set of cells in the simulation grid is nominated to

represent the aquifer, which may then connect to specified

faces of the reservoir (using the AQUCON keyword).

-The properties of the aquifer grid blocks (length, crosssectional area, porosity, permeability, initial pressure, depth,

PVT and saturation table numbers) may be declared

explicitly using keyword AQUNUM in the GRID section

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2-Carter-Tracy aquifers

-The Carter-Tracy aquifer model is a simplified approximation to a fully transient

model.

- The method uses a table that supplies a constant terminal rate influence

function. Although the theory has been developed for a radially symmetric

reservoir surrounded by an annular aquifer, the method is applicable to

arbitrarily-shaped reservoirs.

AQUCT Key word (in SOLUTION SECTION): Specifies the property data for

Carter-Tracy aquifers

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3-Fetkovich aquifers

-AQUFET key word (in Solution section) Specification data for

Fetkovich aquifers

-The Fetkovich aquifer model uses a simplified approach based on a

pseudosteady state productivity index and a material balance relationship

between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx.

A constant flux aquifer has its water influx rate specified directly by the user,

instead of being calculated by an analytic aquifer model.

But for the purpose of dimensioning etc., it is classed with the other analytic

aquifer models.

-One use of a constant flux aquifer is to model rainfall influx for environmental

applications.

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4-Constant flux aquifers

-The aquifer should be defined with the AQUFLUX keyword in the SOLUTION

section, and the aquifer connections to one or more faces of the reservoir should

be made via the keyword AQUANCON.

SUMMARY file quantities for the aquifer may be obtained using AAQR (influx

rate) and AAQT (cumulative influx) in the SUMMARY section.

In order to use the facility, the parameters NANAQU (the maximum number of

analytic aquifers) and NCAMAX (the maximum number of grid block connected to

any single analytic aquifer) should be set using the RUNSPEC section keyword

AQUDIMS.

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