Sei sulla pagina 1di 24

-What are the aquifers?

- Nearly all hydrocarbon reservoirs are surrounded by waterbearing rocks called aquifers

What are the sizes of the aquifers?


- These aquifers may be larger than the oil and gas reservoirs

Chapter 9

and appear infinite in size, or they may be so small as to be

Water Influx

negligible in their effect on reservoir performance

What are the functions of the aquifers?


- They support the pressure differential as the reservoir
pressure declines because of the hydrocarbon production

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-What are the important aquifers for reservoir

What is the aquifer mechanism?

engineers?

As hydrocarbon is produced from the reservoir and the


pressure decline causes a response from the aquifer to offset

Reservoir engineer will focus on those aquifers in which the

the pressure which comes in a form of water influx or also

aquifer size is large enough and the permeability of the rock is

called water encroachment. This is referred to:

high enough that water influx occurs as the reservoir is depleted

-Expansion of water in the aquifer

What are the types of the aquifers?

-Compressibility of the aquifer rock

- Aquifers for natural water drive

-Artesian flow where the water bearing is located

-Aquifers for artificial water drive (water injection)

higher than the pay zone.

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

What are the types of the aquifers?

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

-Aquifers for natural water drive

1- Degree of pressure maintenance

-Aquifers for artificial water drive (water injection)

-Active water drive

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis

-Partial water drive

of:

-Limited water drive

1- Degree of pressure maintenance


Active water drive means:

2- Outer boundary conditions

-The rate of water influx is equal to the reservoir total

3- Flow regimes

production

4- Flow geometries

-Gradual and slow pressure decline i.e the production rate


and reservoir pressure remain constant
Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

Active water drive means:

Active water drive means:

Water influx=Oil flow rate + Free gas flow rate + water production rate

The above equation can be expressed in terms of cumulative


production by using the following derivative terms:

or
ew = QoBo + QgBg + QwBw

ew =

where
where

ew = water influx rate, bbl/day

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt

We = Cumulative water influx, bbl, t =time, day

Qo = Oil flow rate, STB/day

Np = Cumulative oil production, STB, GOR= Current gas oil ratio SCF/STB

Bo = Oil formation volume factor bbl/STB

Rs = Current gas solubility, SCF/STB, Wp = Cumulative water production, STB

Qg = Free gas flow rate, SCF/day

dWe/dt = daily water influx flow rate (ew), STB/day

Bg = Gas formation volume factor, bbl/scf

dNp/dt = daily oil flow rate Qo, STB/day


dWp/dt = daily water flow rate Qw, STB/day

Qw = Water flow rate, STB/day

(GOR-Rs) dNp/dt= dialy free gas flow rate, scf/day

Bw = Water formation volume factor bbl/STB


BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

Active water drive means:

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis

Example

of:

Calculate the water influx rate in a reservoir whose pressure is


stabilized at 3700 psi where
dNp/dt = 25,000 STB/day,
Rs= 750 scf/STB

dWp/dt = 0,
Bo=1.34 bbl/STB,

2-Outer boundary conditions


A- Infinite system indicates that the effect of pressure changes at

GOR=1000 scf/STB

the oil/aquifer boundary can never be felt at the outer boundary.

Bg=0.00082 bbl/Scf

Bw=1 bbl/STB

This outer boundary remain at constant pressure equal to initial

Solution

reservoir pressure.
ew =

B- Finite system indicates that the aquifer outer boundary is

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bw
Bg +
dt
dt
dt
dt

affected by the water influx into the oil zone, and the pressure at the

ew=(1.34)(25,000)+(1000-750)(25,000)(0.00082)+0=38,625 bbl(day

BUE
T.Moawad

1- Degree of pressure maintenance

Reservoir Engineering

outer boundary changes with time

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:


1- Degree of pressure maintenance 2-Outer boundary conditions

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:


3-Flow regimes

3-Flow regimes

B- Pseudosteady state: the pressure at every location in the reservoir

There are basically three flow regimes to describe the fluid flow

change with constant declining rate with time.

behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a function of time:

Mathematically,

A- Steady state: the pressure at every location in the reservoir remains


constant, i. e. the pressure does not change with time.

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Mathematically,

time at any location in the reservoir is constant.

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to

Note that:

time at any location in the reservoir is Zero. In petroleum reservoirs, this

Pseudosteady state=Semisteady state =quasisteady state

condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely supported by


strong aquifer or pressure maintenance operations
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:


3-Flow regimes

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:


3-Flow regimes

C- Unsteady state: This states that the rate of change of pressure with
respect to time at any location in the reservoir is not zero or constant.

Mathematically,

This equation states that the rate of change of pressure with respect to
time is a function of both position (i) and time (t).
Note that:
Unsteady state flow=Transient flow

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

4.1 Reservoir Flow geometries

4.1 Reservoir Flow geometries

-Radial flow

-Radial flow:

-Linear flow

In the absence of severe reservoir heterogeneity, flow into or away from

-Spherical and hemispherical flow

the wellbore will follow radial flow.


- Radial flow is used to characterize

4.2 Reservoir-Aquifer flow geometries

the flow of fluid into the well bore.

-Edge-water drive
-Bottom- water drive
-Linear-water drive

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

of: 4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

4.1 Reservoir Flow geometries

4.1 Reservoir Flow geometries

- Linear flow:

-Spherical and Hemispherical flow:

Linear flow occurs when flow paths are parallel and fluid flows in a

The wellbore completion type controls the spherical or hemispherical

single direction. The cross sectional area to flow must be constant.

flow near the wellbore. A limited perforated interval could give a

A common applications of linear flow equations are some cases in

spherical flow. A well that penetrates only a part of the pay zone could

stratified reservoirs and the vertical fractures.

give hemispherical flow. These conditions are very important in water


coning problems

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of:

-Reservoir-Aquifer systems are classified on the basis of: 4-

4- Flow geometries

4- Flow geometries

4.2 Reservoir-Aquifer flow geometries

4.2 Reservoir-Aquifer flow geometries

-Edge-water drive:

- Bottom- water drive:

In Edge water drive, water moves into

It occurs in reservoirs with large areal extent

the flanks of the reservoir as a result

where the reservoir-water contact completely

of hydrocarbon production and pressure

underlies the reservoir

drop at reservoir aquifer boundaries

-Linear-water drive
In linear water drive, the influx is from one flank of the reservoir. The
flow is linear with a constant
cross-sectional area

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

10

-Indications of Natural Water Influx


-Very little information can be obtained during the explorationdevelopment period
-It may be obtained by analogy with nearby producing reservoirs
-Early reservoir performance trends can provide clues
-Low and decreasing rate of pressure decline with increasing
production is an indication of fluid influx.
-If the reservoir pressure is below Pb a low rate of increase of GOR is
also an indication of fluid influx.
-Early water production from edge wells is indicative of water
encroachment. This may be due to fractures, high permeability, thin
formations.
- Calculation of increasing OOIP from successive reservoir pressure
surveys by using the material balance assuming no water influx is also
indicative of fluid influx
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

-Water

Influx Models

There are more uncertainties attached to aquifer information because one


seldom drills wells into an aquifer to gain information about porosity,
permeability, thickness and fluid properties.
Several Mathematical models have been introduced for estimating water
influx that based on assumptions which describes the aquifer
characteristics:
1- Pot aquifer
2- Schilthuis steady state
3- Hursts modified steady state
4- Van Everdingen- Hurst unsteady-state
-Edge water drive
-Bottom water drive
5- Carter-Tracy Unsteady state
6-Fetkovichs method
-Radial aquifer
-Linear aquifer
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

11

-Water Influx Models

-Water Influx Models

1- Pot aquifer Model:


- The simplest model used to estimate the water influx into gas or oil
reservoirs. It is only applicable for small aquifers whose volumes are
nearly equal to reservoir volumes
-It depends on the basic definition of the compressibility. When the
reservoir pressure drops due to the fluid production, this causes the aquifer
water to expand and flow into the reservoir

or

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
ew =
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt

1- Pot aquifer Model:


- Calculating Initial volume of water (Wi)
A- If the aquifer shape is radial and from all directions

r 2 re2 h
Wi = a

5.61

ra=radius of aquifer, ft. re=radius of reservoir, ft.


h=thickness of aquifer ,ft., = porosity of the aquifer

B- If the aquifer shape is radial and not from all directions (not circular)

V = c V P
Water influx =aquifer compressibility (Initial volume of water) (pressure
drop)
We = (c w + c f ) Wi ( Pi P )

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P )
f =

encroachment angle

=
360 0
360 0

We=cumulative water influx, bbl, Cw=aquifer water compressibility Psi-1


Cf=aquifer rock comp. psi-1, Wi= initial volume of water in aquifer, bbl,
Pi=initial reservoir pressure, psi, P=current reservoir pressure (pressure at O/W Contact), psi
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

12

-Water Influx Models

-Water Influx Models

1- Pot aquifer Model:

2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

- Example 1: Calculate the cumulative water influx that results from a pressure drop of
200 psi at the oil-water contact with an encroachment angle of 80. The reservoir
aquifer system is characterized by the following properties
Reservoir

Aquifer

Radius, ft

2600

10,000

Porosity

0.18

0.12

Cf, Psi-1

4x10-6

3x10-6

Cw, Psi-1

5x10-6

4x10-6

h, ft

20

25

- Schilthuis has proposed an aquifer with steady state flow. The flow
behavior can be described and determined by Darcys law

dWe 0.00708 k h
ew =
=
[Pi p]

dt
r
w ln a

re

ew =

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt

The parameter C is called the water influx constant, bbl/day/psi


Answer

r 2 re2 h 10000 2600 (25) (0.12)


Wi = a
= 156.5 MMbbl
=
5.61
5.61

We = (c w + c f ) Wi f ( Pi P ) = ( 4 + 3)10 6 (156.5 * 10 6 (
BUE
T.Moawad

80
)( 200) = 48,689 bbl
360

Reservoir Engineering

2009

Where:
ew=rate of water influx, bbl/day
K= permeability of the aquifer, md
h=thickness of the aquifer, ft.
ra=radius of the aquifer, ft.
re=radius of reservoir, ft.
t=time, days
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

13

-Water Influx Models

-Water Influx Models


2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:


Example 2

Calculation of parameter C: This can be by equating the two equations,


ew =

dN p
dN p
dW p
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw
dt
dt
dt
dt
ew =

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt

Pi=3500 Psi , P=3000 psi, Qo=32,000 STB/day


Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB
Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0
Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant

dNp
dNp
dWp
dWe
= Bo
+ (GOR Rs )
Bg +
Bw = (1.4)(32,000) + (900 700)(32,000)(0.00082) + (0)
dt
dt
dt
dt
= 50,048bbl/ day

ew =

Although this can only be done when the reservoir pressure stabilizes, once it has been
determined, it can be applied to both stabilized and changing reservoir pressures.
Example 2

dWe
= C [Pi p ]
dt
ew
50,048
C=
=
= 100 bbl / day / psi
[Pi p] (3500 3000)
ew =

Pi=3500 Psi , P=3000 psi, Qo=32,000 STB/day


Bo= 1.4 bbl/stb GOR=900 Scf/STB, Rs=700 scf/STB
Bg=0.00082 bbl/scf, Qw=0
Calculate Schilthuis water influx constant
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

14

-Water Influx Models


2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

-Water Influx Models


2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

15

-Water Influx Models


2- Schilthuis Steady-State Model:

-Water Influx Models


3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:
Why Hurst? What is the problem with Schilthuis Model?
One of the most associated problem with Schilthuis model is that as the water is
encroached into the reservoir the aquifer radius will increase as the time
increase. Therefore he introduced the dimensionless radius (ra/re) by a time
dependent function (at) where:
ra/re=at
ew =

dWe 0.00708kh ( Pi P)
=
dt
w ln(at )

or
ew =

dWe C ( Pi P)
=
dt
ln(at )

in terms of cumulative water influx

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

16

-Water Influx Models


3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:
A plot of (Pi-P)/ew versus ln(t) will be a straight line with a slope of (1/C)
and intercept of (1/C)ln (a)

-Water Influx Models


Example

BUE
T.Moawad

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

Reservoir Engineering

2009

17

-Water Influx Models


Example

BUE
T.Moawad

-Water Influx Models


Example

3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

3- Hursts Modified Steady-State Model:

Reservoir Engineering

2009

18

-Water Influx Models

-Water Influx Models

4-Van Everdingen- Hursts Unsteady-State Model:


- when an oil well is brought on production at a constant flow rate after a
shut-in period, the pressure behavior is essentially controlled by the
unsteady state condition
- the dimensionless form of the diffusivity equation which designed to
model the transient flow in reservoirs or aquifer is as follow:

5-Carter-Tracy water Influx Model:


-What is the difference between the VanEverdingen-Hurst model and
Carter-Tracy model?
VanEverdingen-Hurst model provides the exact solution for radial
diffusivity equation and considered the correct technique for water influx
calculations. But the superposition needs complex calculations
- Carter-Tracy technique assumes constant water influx rates over each
finite time interval
-Using the Carter-Tracy technique, the cumulative water influx at any
time, tn, can be calculated directly by

Van Everdingen and Hurst proposed solution to following two reservoiraquifer boundary conditions:
-Constant rate (and calculate the pressure)
-Constant Pressure (and calculate the rate)
It is preferred to calculate the flow rate
They introduced their solutions to the following systems:
-Edge water-drive system
-Bottom water drive
-Linear water drive
BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

19

-Water Influx Models

-Water Influx Models

6-Fetkovichs Model:
-What is the difference feature of Fetkovich model ?
- Fetkovich model is used for water influx behavior of a finite aquifer for
radial and linear geometries.
-the method does not require the use of superposition, therefore the
application is much simpler
- This technique is often utilized in numerical simulation methods.
- Fetkovich assumption is that the productivity index concept will
describe water influx from a finite aquifer into a hydrocarbon reservoir
-Water influx rate is directly proportional to the pressure drop between
the average aquifer pressure and the pressure at the reservoir/aquifer
boundary
-This method neglects the effects of any transient period.

6-Fetkovichs Model:

BUE
T.Moawad

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

Reservoir Engineering

2009

20

The models available in Eclipse are:


The models available in Eclipse

1-Numerical aquifers
2-Carter-Tracy aquifers
3-Fetkovich aquifers
4-Constant flux aquifers
-Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional row of cells
within the simulation grid.
-The other three types of aquifer, classed as analytic aquifers, are
represented by computed source terms in the reservoir grid cells with which
they connect.

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

21

The models available in Eclipse are:


1-Numerical aquifers
Numerical aquifers are represented by a one-dimensional
row of cells within the simulation grid.
-A set of cells in the simulation grid is nominated to
represent the aquifer, which may then connect to specified
faces of the reservoir (using the AQUCON keyword).
-The properties of the aquifer grid blocks (length, crosssectional area, porosity, permeability, initial pressure, depth,
PVT and saturation table numbers) may be declared
explicitly using keyword AQUNUM in the GRID section

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

The models available in Eclipse are:


2-Carter-Tracy aquifers
-The Carter-Tracy aquifer model is a simplified approximation to a fully transient
model.
- The method uses a table that supplies a constant terminal rate influence
function. Although the theory has been developed for a radially symmetric
reservoir surrounded by an annular aquifer, the method is applicable to
arbitrarily-shaped reservoirs.
AQUCT Key word (in SOLUTION SECTION): Specifies the property data for
Carter-Tracy aquifers

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

22

The models available in Eclipse are:

The models available in Eclipse are:

4-Constant flux aquifers

3-Fetkovich aquifers
-AQUFET key word (in Solution section) Specification data for
Fetkovich aquifers
-The Fetkovich aquifer model uses a simplified approach based on a
pseudosteady state productivity index and a material balance relationship
between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx.

A constant flux aquifer has its water influx rate specified directly by the user,
instead of being calculated by an analytic aquifer model.
But for the purpose of dimensioning etc., it is classed with the other analytic
aquifer models.
-One use of a constant flux aquifer is to model rainfall influx for environmental
applications.

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

23

The models available in Eclipse are:


4-Constant flux aquifers
-The aquifer should be defined with the AQUFLUX keyword in the SOLUTION
section, and the aquifer connections to one or more faces of the reservoir should
be made via the keyword AQUANCON.
SUMMARY file quantities for the aquifer may be obtained using AAQR (influx
rate) and AAQT (cumulative influx) in the SUMMARY section.
In order to use the facility, the parameters NANAQU (the maximum number of
analytic aquifers) and NCAMAX (the maximum number of grid block connected to
any single analytic aquifer) should be set using the RUNSPEC section keyword
AQUDIMS.

BUE
T.Moawad

Reservoir Engineering

2009

24