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Where Value & Innovation Co-exist

QA Training

Where Value & Innovation Co-exist




Test Methodologies & Test Plan

Communication & Documentation

Test Cases & Test Reports

Bugs & Bug Reporting

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Where Value & Innovation Co-exist

Introduction to Software & Software Engineering
SDLC Models


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Introduction to Software & Software Engineering


Computer programs that provide desired features when

Data structures that store and manipulate the information
Documents that describe the usage and operation of the

Software Engineering

The discipline concerned with creating and maintaining

software applications

Software is designed and developed by software engineers

Software is engineered, not manufactured

Software does not exhaust or get tired through overuse

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SDLC Models Waterfall Model

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SDLC Models RAD Model

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SDLC Models Incremental Model

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Is a logical sequence of systematic and documented activities

aimed at improving a process.

Improvements can be effected in two ways:

By improving the process itself and/or

By improving the outcomes of the process.

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Software Quality Via Quality Attributes
QA, QC and Testing
Role of QA in SDLC
Need for Testing
Testing Life Cycle


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Software Quality Via Quality Attributes

Software Quality

Is defined as the bundle of

attributes present in an
application and, where
appropriate, the level of the
attribute for which the enduser holds a positive value
Is high degree or grade of

Quality Attributes














Learn ability

Conformance to


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QA, QC and Testing

Quality Assurance

Purpose To manage and improve quality of process, product

Quality Assurance is a set of processes to be followed to develop, test and
maintain a software. It includes verification, review and monitoring activities
for different stages of software development.
Quality Assurance is a proactive activity, aims at Prevention of defects
Is a function that manages quality, but does not refer the activity of inspecting
the software

Quality Control

Purpose to produce defect free products

Focuses on finding defects in specific deliverables

The operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for


Quality Control is a reactive activity, aims at Detection of defects

Testing is one example of Quality Control, there are others such as inspections


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Benefits of Quality Assurance

Reduced Time to Market

Better Customer Experience at Reduced cost

Lowered Risk

Reduced Rework

Increased Job Satisfaction

Serving as a Differentiator

Efficient Framework for Outsourcing


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Process used to identify the correctness, completeness and quality of the

The technical investigation of the product under controlled conditions
with the intention to find bugs
Testing begins at component level and works towards integrating the
entire system
Cant be performed by developers because one can never find their own
Exhaustive testing is often impossible. Choose best tests and define
when to stop testing
Testing is Dynamic Analysis of the product


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Role of QA in SDLC
Requirements &

Assures that software requirements are complete, testable, and properly

expressed as functional, performance, and interface requirements
Assuring all software requirements are allocated to software Components


Assuring that approved design standards are followed

Assuring the approved design is placed under configuration management
Assuring that results of design inspections are included in the design


Results of coding and design activities including the schedule contained in

the Software Development Plan
Status of all deliverable items
Configuration management activities and the software development library


Assuring readiness for testing of all deliverable items

Assuring that all tests are run according to test plans and procedures and
that any non-conformances are reported and resolved
Assuring that test reports are complete and correct
Certifying that testing is complete and software and documentation are
ready for delivery


Ensure that all deliverable items are ready for delivery


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Need for Testing

Ensure that software is bug free

Ensure that system meets customer requirements and software

Ensure that system meets end user expectations

We dont want customers to find bugs

Fixing the bugs identified after release is expensive


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Testing Life Cycle


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Test Plan


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Testing Methodologies
Software Testing Classification

White Box Testing

Black Box Testing
Different Testing Methodologies
The V Model

Test Plan
Need for Test Plan
Contents of a Test Plan
Test Plan Template
To Conclude


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Testing Methodologies
There are numerous methodologies available for testing a software.
The methodology we choose depends on factors such as the nature
of project, the project schedule, and resource availability

Different applications require different ways of testing

Same testing methodology cannot be implemented at each and
every phase of testing


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Software Testing Classification

Nature of Interaction with the product

Static Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Knowledge of implementation intricacies of the product

White Box

Black Box

Mode of running actual tests on the product



Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to

that of review or inspection, the word Testing is connoted to mean the
dynamic analysis of the product


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Software Testing Classification


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White Box Testing

Definition and the necessity

It is the testing that takes into account the internal mechanism of system or

Process in which an application is tested through the code.

Verification technique that is used to examine if the code works as expected

This is done only for the applications for which the code has been provided for testing.

It is checking the functionality of the module which include checking the module
internals i.e. the coding (the loops and conditional statements) whether the loops are
executed in a proper way.
Also known as structural testing, clear box testing and glass box testing


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White Box Testing

Four main types of white-box testing

Statement Testing: statement testing derives test cases to execute specific

statements , normally to increase statement coverage .statement coverage
is the assessment of the percentage of executable statements.
Loop Testing:

Cause execution of the loop to be skipped completely. (Exception: Repeat


Loop to be executed exactly once

Loop to be executed more than once

Path Testing: Ensures that all independent paths through code module have
been tested

Branch Testing (Conditional Testing): Test method which aims to ensure that
each possible branch from each decision point (e.g. "if" statement) is executed
at least once, thus ensuring that all reachable code is executed


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White Box Testing


Helps in optimizing code

As the knowledge of internal coding structure is pre-requisite, it
becomes very easy to find out which type of input/data can help in
testing the application effectively.
It helps in removing the extra lines of code, which can bring in
hidden defects

Reduction in the amount of debugging.

Improvement in the quality of the released software.


As knowledge of code and internal structure is a prerequisite, a

skilled tester is needed to carry out this type of testing, which
increases the cost.

It is nearly impossible to look into every bit of code to find out

hidden errors, which may create problems, resulting in failure of the


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Black Box Testing

Definition and the necessity

Testing software based on output requirements and without any

knowledge of the internal structure or coding in the program
Process in which an application is not tested through the code.
This is the most widely used testing approach, and is more in case
of web sites.


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Black Box Testing


The test is unbiased because the designer and the tester are independent of
each other.
The tester does not need to acquire knowledge of any specific programming

The test is done from the point of view of the user, not the designer.

Test cases can be designed as soon as the specifications are complete.


The test can be redundant if the software designer has already run a test
The test cases are difficult to design.
Testing every possible input stream is unrealistic because it would take a
inordinate amount of time; therefore, many program paths will go untested.


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Different Testing Methodologies

Unit testing: Unit testing is a development procedure where programmers

create tests as they develop software. The tests are simple short tests that
test functionality of a particular unit or module of their code
Integration testing: Testing in which software components, hardware
components, or both are combined and tested to evaluate the interaction
between them

System testing: Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system in

totality, to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
Provides assurance that the software meets all functional, behavioral, and
performance requirements established during requirements analysis.


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Different Testing Methodologies

Sanity testing: Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to

determine if its basically operational, so that the build can be accepted for further
testing. Only basic tests on major functionalities are performed without bothering
with finer details. Also referred as Smoke testing.
Functionality testing: Checking for the correct functionality of the system i.e.
to check whether desired output is obtained for a given valid input.
Usability testing: is a means for testing/measuring how well people can use the
application/product for its intended purpose
Compatibility testing: Testing whether the system is compatible with other
systems with which it should operate or communicate. To test the functionality
and performance of a software application across multiple platform configurations
like operating systems, browsers, databases, servers, clients, hardware, other
software, previous versions of the software etc.


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Different Testing Methodologies

Performance testing: The process of testing the run time performance of the
software, to see whether the system is performing up to the clients performance
requirements. Some of the aspects includes

Connection time

Response time

Send time

Process time

Transaction time

Load testing: Is to define the maximum amount of work a system can handle without
significant performance degradation.
Stress testing: Is the process of determining the ability of the system to maintain a
certain level of effectiveness under unfavorable conditions. Evaluates the extent to
which a system keeps working when subjected to extreme work loads or when some of
its hardware or software has been compromised


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Acceptance Testing:

Different Testing Methodologies

Is to make sure the software works correctly for intended user(s) in his or her normal
work environment (s).

Alpha test-version of the complete software is tested by customer under the supervision
of the developer at the developer's site. The developer observes the usage of the system,
records usage problems and errors, analyzes the system for bugs to resolve them.
Beta test-version of the complete software is tested by customer (or selected personnel)
at his or her own site without the developer being present. The system is tested using real
data in the real user environment that cannot be controlled by the developer. All problems
encountered by the users would be reported back to the developer at regular intervals.
User Acceptance test-is the final testing process that occurs before a new system is
accepted for operational use by the client. It is to get a confirmation from the client of the
object under test, through trail or review, that the system meets his requirement


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Different Testing Methodologies

Monkey testing: is to test an application with stochastic inputs without any specific
tests in mind.

Tests are not logical and there is no intent of learning the system.

No test cases are used.

Exploratory testing: is to test an application by exploring the application. Learning

and testing goes hand in hand.

Tests are logical with an intent of learning the system.

No test cases are used.

Ad hoc testing: is to test an application based on the acquaintance with that

application functionality.

Tests are logical with familiarity on system functionality.

No test cases are used.


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Different Testing Methodologies

Regression testing

Testing performed to ensure that the changes made to the

application doesnt effect the unchanged part of the application.
Changes may be due to Bug fixes or enhancements.

Retesting is just validating a bug fix and is not regression testing.


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Test Plan

A test plan is a document describing the scope, approach,

resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies
test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do
each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning
It is a systematic approach to testing a system such as a machine or
software. The plan typically contains a detailed understanding of
what the eventual workflow will be.


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Need for Test Plan

The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through

the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software
The completed document will help people outside the test group
understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation
Software companies can not afford to develop and test their systems
on an ad-hoc basis. A well-defined test methodology will help to
ensure that companies develop their products in the most efficient
and cost-effective manner.


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When a project does not identify its overall approach to testing, then
it gives to rise to problems listed below:

No clearly defined roles and responsibilities

No clear test objectives

Ill-defined test documents

No strong feedback loop


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Scope clauses define what features will be tested. An aid to doing
this is to prioritize them using a technique such as MoSCoW

Test Items: The items of software, hardware, and combinations

of these that will be tested.
Features to Be Tested: The parts of the software specification to
be tested.
Features Not to Be Tested: The parts of the software
specification to be excluded from testing.


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Resource clauses give the overall view of the resources to deliver
the tasks.

Environmental Needs: What is needed in the way of testing

software, hardware, offices etc.
Responsibilities: Who has responsibility for delivering the various
parts of the plan.
Staffing And Training Needs: The people and skills needed to
deliver the plan.


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Time clauses specify what tasks are to be undertaken to meet the
quality objectives, and when they will occur.

Testing Tasks: The tasks themselves, their dependencies, the

elapsed time they will take, and the resource required.
Schedule: When the tasks will take place.


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Quality clauses define the standard required from the testing activities.

Introduction: A high level view of the testing standard required, including what
type of testing it is.
Approach: The details of how the testing process will be followed.
Item Pass/Fail Criteria: Defines the pass and failure criteria for an item being
Test Deliverables: Which test documents and other deliverables will be


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Risk clauses define in advance what could go wrong with a plan and the measures
that will be taken to deal with these problems.

Suspension Criteria And Resumption Requirements: This is a particular

risk clause to define under what circumstances testing would stop and restart.
Risks And Contingencies: This defines all other risk events, their likelihood,
impact and counter measures to over come them.


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Test Plan Template

ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983 specifies the following test plan outline:

Test Plan Identifier


Test Items

Features to be Tested

Features Not to Be Tested


Item Pass/Fail Criteria

Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements


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Test Plan Template

Test Deliverables

Testing Tasks

Environmental Needs


Staffing and Training Needs


Risks and Contingencies


Sample Test plan document


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To Conclude
The role of a test plan is to guide all testing activities. It defines what is to be tested
and what is to be overlooked, how the testing is to be performed (described on a
general level) and by whom.

It is therefore a managerial document, not technical one

- in essence; it is a project plan for testing.


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Test cases
Test Reports


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What is a test case?
Why are test cases written?

Contents in the Test Case Document

Characteristics of a good test case
A Sample Test case Document
Sample Test cases
Test report

Importance of test reports

Types of Test Reports
Test results
Sample Test Result document
Test Incident report

Test Summary Report

Contents of a Summary Report
Release Metrics


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What is a test case?

A set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results developed for a
particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify
compliance with a specific requirement.
Documentation specifying inputs, predicted results, and a set of execution conditions
for a test item.
The main goal of designing any test case is to find bugs in the software under test.
Thus, it is important that the tester designs test cases that have the highest likelihood
of finding the most errors with a minimum amount of time and effort.
Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the
requirements or design of an application, since it requires completely thinking through
the operation of the application. For this reason, it's useful to prepare test cases early
in the development cycle if possible.


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Why are test cases written?

To ensure coverage of requirements.

Coverage of all functional requirements

Coverage of all non-functional requirements

Segregates the functional and non functional requirements into

different testing types.
Provides common understanding of requirements among the
Serves as a single point reference during test execution.
Provides metric for percentage of tests executed, streamlines the
testing process.


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Contents in the Test Case Document

Generally, a test case document contains the following sections:

Test Case ID

Test Case Title


Expected Result

Other information that can be included are

Section (Application feature)

Test Type (User interface, functionality)

Priority (Importance of test case)

Pre Conditions

Requirement# etc


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Characteristics of a good test case

Can be categorized under two groups

Design and functionality related


Reasonable (probability of catching a bug)

Realistic (possibility of occurrence)

Feasible (practically possible to execute)

Unique (not redundant)

Documentation and Management related




Well structured individually, well organized as a group


Ease logging test results


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A Sample Test case Document


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Sample Test cases


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Test report

The Software Test Report (STR) is a record of the qualification testing

performed on a software system or subsystem, or other software-related
A document describing the conduct and results of the testing carried out for a
system or system component.
A document produced at the end of the test process summarizing all testing
activities and results is called a test report. It also contains an evaluation of
the test process and lessons learned.
Once testing is completed, testers generate metrics and make final reports on
their test effort and whether or not the software tested is ready for release.


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Importance of test reports

Test Report is important

To measure efficiency of the QA team in finding bugs

To help the acquirer assess the testing and its results

To help decide about the release of the product/application

To list the Known issues during Go Live decision


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Types of Test Reports

Software test reporting happens at two phases:

Reporting while running the tests

Test Log/Test results

Test Incident Reports

Reporting after the completion of testing

Test Summary reports

Release metrics


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Test results
Test result document consists of the result of each test case execution. The
contents of the Test Result document:

Case Summary

Test Environment Details

Test case ID

Test Type

Test Case Title

Expected Result

Actual Result

Test result (Passed/Failed/Skipped)

Bug ID



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Sample Test Result document


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Communication through E Mail
MS Word
MS Excel
MS Power Point
MS Paint

MS Visual Source Safe (VSS)


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Communication through E Mail

Introduction to Communication through E-mail

Anatomy of an E-mail Message: Facets and Structure

Communication through E-mail with Peers

Communication through E-mail with Superiors

Communication through E-mail with Client


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MS Word

To make a text bold, italic, and underlined

Select the text.

Click B, I, and U respectively from the Formatting toolbar .

To create a Hyperlink to a Bookmark

Click Bookmark from the Insert menu to get the Bookmark window.
Enter a name for the bookmark and click the Add button.

Click Hyperlink from the Insert menu to get the Insert Hyperlink
Select Place in This Document to get a list of all of the bookmarks in
the current document.
Select a bookmark and click OK in the Insert Hyperlink window.

To insert a table using the Toolbar, click the Insert Table icon on the


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MS Word

To create a Table of Contents

Apply Heading 1 style to the major headings in your document.

Apply Heading 2 style to sub-headings, Heading 3 style to sub-subheadings etc.

Click where you want the Table of Contents to appear.

Select Insert > Reference > Index and Tables.

Click the Table of Contents tab.

Click OK to get a Table of Contents.

To highlight a word or a sentence

Select that word or sentence.

Click the Highlight icon from the Formatting toolbar.


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MS Word

To insert a page break

Click Break from the Insert menu. Break window appears.

Select Page break from the Break window.

Click OK.

To insert a picture

Select Picture from the Insert menu.

Click Clip Art, or From File, or From Scanner or Camera, or New
Drawing, or AutoShapes, or WordArt, or Organization Chart, or Chart,
and follow the directions and prompts that are given by Microsoft Word.

To check spelling of a text

Select the text.

Click the Spelling and Grammar icon from the Toolbar.


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MS Excel

To find the sum of data

Select the cells containing the data.

Click the AutoSum icon on the Toolbar. The result of the summation
appears in the cell adjacent to the selection.

To insert a comment

Select the cell where you want to insert the comment.

Click Comment from the Insert menu. A comment box appears.

Type your comment inside the comment box.

To create formulas

Click the cell where you want to enter the formula .

Type = (an equal sign).

Click the Function button.

Select the formula you want, and follow the on-screen instructions.


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MS Excel

To insert a chart

Select the data you want to make your chart with.

Click Chart on the Insert menu. Chart Wizard appears.

Select the type of chart you want.

Confirm or change your data range.

Update the Chart Options.

Select whether you want to put the chart in the current worksheet or in a
new worksheet.


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MS Power Point

After you open Microsoft PowerPoint, a screen pops up asking if you would
like to create a New Presentation or Open An Existing Presentation.
AutoContent Wizard creates a new presentation by prompting you for
information about content, purpose, style, handouts, and output. The new
presentation contains sample text that you can replace with your own
information. Follow the directions and prompts that are given by Microsoft
Design Template creates a new presentation based on one of the
PowerPoint design templates supplied by Microsoft. Use what is already
supplied by Microsoft PowerPoint and change the information to your own.

Blank Presentation creates a new, blank presentation using the default

settings for text and colors.


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MS Paint

To add a screen shot to a document

Capture a screen or an active window.

Open Paint.

From File menu, click New. A new work area appears.

From the Edit menu, click Paste. The image of the screen or the active
window gets pasted on the new work area.
Select the entire image or a portion of the image with the help of the
Select tool.
Click Copy or Cut from the Edit menu.
Click Paste in the document where you want the entire image or the
portion of the image to appear.

You can highlight an error or a button with the help of Rectangle or Ellipse


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MS Visual Source Safe (VSS)

It is a Revision Control tool for managing multiple revisions of the same unit
of information.
It is most commonly used in software development to manage ongoing
development of digital documents like application source code and other
critical information that may be worked on by a team.

VSS creates a "virtual library" of files.

Users can read any of the files in the library at any time, but in order to
change them, they must first check out the file.

They are then allowed to modify the file and finally check in it.
Only one user can check out a file at a time.


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Bug Reporting


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What is a bug?

Cost of bug

Importance of bug in testing life cycle

Different states of a bug

Bug reporting

Bug Report

Why Bug Reporting?

Bug report structure

Sample Bug report

Ten tips for good bug report

Bug Life Cycle

Bug severity, likelihood, and priority

Severity and Priority


Bug Tracking tool


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Why do we call a software defects as bug??

First used because a moth flew into a vacuum-tube computer and was a
cause for a system break.

First computer bug was a moth found trapped between points at Relay # 70,
Panel F, of the Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator (a vacuum-tube computer)
while it was being tested at Harvard University, 9 September 1947. The
operators affixed the moth to the computer log, with the entry: "First
actual case of bug being found". They put out the word that they had
"debugged" the machine, thus introducing the term "debugging a computer


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What is a Bug?

Bug (often called as Defect) is:

an unwanted behavior of the system

a mismatch to the functional requirements of the system

unexpected behavior from product end-user point of view

an unexpected item, a diversion from the expected result, a design which is not as
per requirements, a text which is wrong, an incorrect value, a fault in data
validation, a missing line etc

Bug is the out come of software testing, which is the main source to ensure
product stability


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Cost of fixing bugs

The cost of defects found early are less when compared with later stages.

Cost of fixing defects















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Importance of bug in testing life cycle

Bug is the only source to represent the system misbehavior

Bugs/Defects have cost associated with them

It is necessary to identify all the bugs before the product is launched

The high priority bugs should be addressed first and fixed to release the


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Different states of a bug

New: A bug is reported and is yet to be assigned to developer

Open: The test lead approves the bug

Assigned: Assigned to a developer and a fix is in progress

Need more info: When the developer needs information to reproduce the bug
or to fix the bug

Fixed: Bug is fixed and waiting for validation

Closed: The bug is fixed, validated and closed

Rejected: Bug is not genuine

Deferred: Fix will be placed in future builds

Duplicate: Two bugs mention the same concept

Invalid: Not a valid bug

Reopened: Bug still exists even after the bug is fixed by the developer


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Bug reporting

The aim of a bug report is to enable the programmer to see the program
failing in front of them, by giving them careful and detailed instructions on
how to make it fail. If they can make it fail, they will try to gather extra
information until they know the cause. If they can't make it fail, they will
have to ask you to gather that information for them.

A bug report should contain the actual facts

The purpose of reporting the bug is to get the bug fixed.


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Bug Report
To write a fully effective report you must:
- Explain how to reproduce the problem
- Analyze the error so you can describe it in a minimum number of steps.

Write a report that is complete and easy to understand.

Write bug reports immediately; the longer you wait between finding the
problem and reporting it, the more likely it is the description will be
incomplete, the problem not reproducible, or simply forgotten.


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Why Bug Reporting?

Preparing Bug reports is extremely important for the following reasons:

Is to enable the programmer see the program failure, by giving them

careful and detailed instructions on how to make it fail.

Analysis of the build stability can be done by bug reporting

Will help in keeping track of the issues and helps in stabilizing the system


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Bug report structure

Title of the bug - brief description

Steps to reproduce

Accounts used to generate the bug

Release/build in which the bug is identified

Reproducibility frequency


Environment details



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Sample Bug report


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Ten tips for good bug report

Structure: test carefully (Use deliberate, careful approach to testing)

Reproduce: test it again (rule of thumb 3 times)

Isolate: test it differently (Change variables that may alter symptom)

Generalize: test it elsewhere

Does the same failure occur in other modules or locations?
Compare: review results of similar tests
(Same test run against earlier versions)

Summarize: relate test to customers (Put a short tag line on each report)

Condense: trim unnecessary information (Eliminate extraneous words or steps)

Disambiguate: use clear words (Goal: Clear, indisputable statements of fact)

Neutralize: express problem impartially (Deliver bad news gently)

Review: be sure (Peer review)


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Bug Life Cycle




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Bug severity, likelihood, and priority

Every bug would have two attributes

Severity: The impact of a bug on a system or user

Likelihood: The probability of occurrence / frequency

Severity and Likelihood helps in deciding priority.

Bug priority establishes the importance and order in which a bug should be

The urgency of a bug fix is decided in bug triage meetings.

This field is used by maintainers and release coordinators to prioritize
work that still needs to be done.

Changes w.r.t. to the release date,

P4 issue may become P1 in the last build before release.


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Severity and Priority

Submitter of defect chooses severity and likelihood

May later correct if determined to be an exaggeration or in error

Priority is assigned and changed w.r.t. time

Product Owners / Managers / Leads may change the priority using their

Priority is Business; Severity is Technical.

Priority is Relative; Severity is Absolute.


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Be ready to provide extra information if the programmer needs it. If they

didn't need it, they wouldn't be asking for it. They aren't being deliberately
awkward. Have version numbers at your fingertips, because they will probably
be needed.

Write clearly. Say what you mean, and make sure it can't be misinterpreted.

Above all, be precise. Programmers like precision


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Bug Tracking tools

A tool that facilitates the recording and status tracking of incidents (or
issues/bugs) found during testing is a bug tracking/incident tracking tool.
They often have workflow-oriented facilities to track and control the
allocation, correction and re-testing of incidents and provide reporting
Different bug tracking tools :




Test Director



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