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50 Activities for Team Building

Volume II

Mike Woodcock

HRD Press, Inc. Amherst Massachusetts

© 1989 by Mike Woodcock

The materials that appear in this book, other than those quoted from prior sources, may be reproduced for educational/training activities. There is no requirement to obtain special permission for such uses. We do, however, ask that the following statement appear on all reproductions:

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Team Building, Volume II, by Mike Woodcock, Amherst, Massachusetts: HRD Press, 1992.

This permission statement is limited to reproduction of materials for educational or training events. Systematic or large-scale reproduction or distribution—or inclusion of items in publications for sale—may be carried out only with prior written permission from the publisher.

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ISBN 0-87425-192-3

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Table of Contents

Preface

v

1. Using the Book

1

2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

9

Activities

1.

Our Team and Its Stage of Development

21

2.

What Makes Teams Effective?

25

3.

Team Rating

29

4.

The Teams in My Working Life

33

5.

Team Mirroring

37

6.

Team Leader Effectiveness

39

7.

Team Leadership Style

43

8.

Characteristics of Personal Effectiveness

47

9.

My Meetings with Others

51

10.

Force Field Analysis

55

11.

Team Effectiveness Action Plan

57

12.

Brainstorming

61

13.

Team Openness Exercise

63

14.

Review and Appraisal Meetings

67

15.

Enlivening Meetings

71

16.

How Good a Coach Are You?

73

17.

Being a Better Coach

79

18.

Counseling to Increase Learning

83

19.

Management Style

91

20.

Discussing Values

99

21.

Team Member Development Needs

101

22.

Who Are You?

105

23.

Intimacy Exercise

107

24.

Highway Code—A Consensus-seeking Activity

113

25.

Is the Team Listening?

121

26.

Cave Rescue

123

27.

Initial Review

133

28.

Prisoners’ Dilemma

137

29.

The Zin Obelisk

141

30.

Cloverleaf

149

31.

Four-Letter Words

151

32.

Team Tasks

153

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

33. Making Meetings More Constructive

155

34. Positive and Negative Feedback

157

35. Improving One-to-One Relationships

161

36. To See Ourselves as Others See Us

163

37. Process Review

165

38. How We Make Decisions

169

39. Team

Self-review

173

40. Silent

Shapes

177

41. Basic Meeting Arrangements

179

42. Decision Making

183

43. Communication Skills Inventory

185

44. Taking Stock

195

45. My Role in the Team

199

46. Devising a Team Vision

209

47. Intergroup Feedback

213

48. Burying the Old Team

219

49. Organizational Types Audit

221

50. Balancing Team Roles

237

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Preface

I have worked closely with Dave Francis and John E. Jones who have helped me to realize the full potential of structured experiences. To them I give my thanks.

Improving the utilization of human resources within organizations involves a comprehensive approach that develops the organization as a system, examines each work group or team, and also enhances individual competence. This book is about improving team performance. Other published works look at other aspects of human resource development (Woodcock and Francis, 1975, 1979, and 1982). Those books have a structure style that is consistent with this. A further book (Woodcock and Francis, 1981) examines the contribution that team building can make to the development of the wider organization. Another book (Jones and Woodcock, 1985) examines the structure of management development and offers general guidance on conducting management development programs. The essence of practical activities is that they prove effective only when they are tried and explored. In this book I encourage you to experiment and enjoy the experience.

Mike Woodcock

References

Francis, D., and M. Woodcock, People at Work—A Practical Guide to Organizational Change, University Associates, La Jolla, CA: 1975.

Jones, J. E., and M. Woodcock, Manual of Management Development, Gower, Aldershot:

1985.

Woodcock, M., Team Development Manual, Gower, Aldershot: 1979.

Woodcock, M., and D. Francis, Organisation Development Through Teambuilding:

Planning a Cost Effective Strategy, Gower, Aldershot: 1981.

Woodcock, M., and D. Francis, The Unblocked Manager: A Practical Guide to Self- development, Gower, Aldershot: 1982.

Woodcock, M., and D. Francis, Unblocking Your Organization, University Associates, San Diego: 1979.

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1. Using the Book

T his book provides practical activities for putting the theory of team development into practice. The activities are linked to the “building blocks” model of effective

teamwork that is outlined in Chapter 2. At the end of Chapter 2, there is a key that links each of the activities to one or more of the building blocks. By using this key, you can quickly identify those activities that will best meet your needs.

A revolution in development in organizations has been taking place. Fifteen years

ago, management training was characterized by managers sitting at desks reading, listening to lectures, taking notes, or discussing somewhat academic case studies. This approach often failed to make an impact on experienced managers. Training courses were perceived as heavy penance to be endured only at the organization’s insistence, or else

participants tried valiantly to turn management development courses into holiday jaunts.

In recent years, innovations in training have increased its relevance, effectiveness,

and even its potential to be enjoyed. More key employees now value training and more of

them clearly see its application to their working lives. Moreover, they continue to be influenced long after the training experience is over. How has this transformation occurred? As with many innovations, those involved in management training questioned their assumptions and developed a new framework of thought. The following principles have emerged:

Intellectual learning has limited value;

Direct experience is the key to learning;

The rate of personal development varies considerably among individuals;

Self-awareness and rigorous review form the basis of development;

Experiment and risk taking are necessary components of effective programs of change;

Distinct skills of problem identification, decision making, and leadership can be identified and learned;

Team development is a continuous process, as new needs emerge and new tasks need to be completed;

Distinct skills of working together can be identified and learned;

Work relationships can often be improved through systematic development of skills and attitudes.

Trainers have come to realize that some of the most significant developments involve a team learning from its own experience rather than simply acquiring new knowledge. Often, insights have far more impact than the acquisition of another technique or piece of knowledge.

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

All this has greatly affected the design and style of training. It has been realized that “one true insight is worth a week in the classroom.” Ways have been found to help teams learn without directly teaching them. Many team development programs now combine the disciplined instruction of the classroom with the self-discovery insight and energy derived from groups of people working together. In recent years trainers have realized that stimulating and effective training programs are only one component in developing genuinely useful new skills and competencies. Learning must be applied to day-to-day working life. Also, real progress can often be made by managers working alone because learning is not an activity that takes place only under the eyes of a skilled trainer. Rather, learning is a continuous process that evolves as people intelligently explore and interact with the real challenges of demanding situations.

The Learning Experience

Learning is more than a matter of absorbing information. Many teams know very well what they should do but fail to practice what their intellect tells them is right. Such behavior can become self-defeating. People begin to expect failure at a particular point, and this further reduces the chances of success by inhibiting energy and reducing confidence and initiative. These barriers to effectiveness are sometimes called “blockages.” Useful development occurs when such blockages are identified and the team experiences the possibility of progressing beyond them. Such experience renews motivation. This book contains fifty practical activities, all of them designed to help teams develop insight, skills, and resourcefulness. Each activity has the same principal function:

to create a learning experience. Learning by experience is powerful because it touches both intellect and emotions. There almost always are three steps in achieving significant learning.

Step 1: Exploring the present

The present situation must be explored as thoroughly as possible. This includes looking at all factors involved, both rational and irrational, positive and negative. This is difficult, but not impossible. Although we tend to see the world and ourselves only from one point of view, other individuals and teams can give us information from different viewpoints, thereby challenging our assumptions. This helps us to explore the present more fully.

Step 2: Visioning the future

Unless a team is to drift from situation to situation at the mercy of circumstance, it is necessary to have clear goals and objectives that are tangible expressions of desires and needs. A vision of the future is a very important tool for assisting change. It provides motivation and increases the will to succeed. Without goals, teams cannot bring their tenacity, drive, and creativity into play. The absence of genuine desire frequently undermines achievement and development.

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1. Using the Book

As teams explore their goals, it also is important that they spend time identifying and considering options. Managers and supervisors frequently devote a great deal of attention to examining their options without realizing that it makes sense to apply the same level of concern to team goals.

Step 3: Bridging the gap

The third step in the process of change bridges the gap between the present situation and what the team wishes to achieve. After goals and targets are identified, resources need to be identified and allocated. The importance and difficulty of the planned change govern the quantity and quality of the resources that need to be mobilized. Important tasks require significant effort, and, as every team knows, there is a greater risk of failure when a team embarks on a program of change with insufficient resources. Planning change is complex because situations rarely are static and new factors constantly intervene that affect existing plans. However, not all deviations are destructive. Sometimes new opportunities arise and it would be foolish to ignore these in pursuit of more limited goals. Each new opportunity or change should be viewed in the context of the broad objectives that have been set. A new problem often can become an opportunity if sufficient creativity is employed. The exercise of initiative and assertiveness is vital to the accomplishment of goals. Learning needs vary according to circumstances and situation. Sometimes new ideas or techniques are needed; at other times the priority is application. A simple model of the learning process (see Figure 1.1) helps to explain this. New ideas are sterile without application, so it is always necessary for teams to use their new learning in their own setting.

Development Idea Idea Application Starting Point
Development
Idea
Idea
Application
Starting
Point

Application

Figure 1.1 A Model of the Learning Process

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Teams are most likely to learn and change when they believe that new behavior is both desirable and possible. This principle has been understood for thousands of years. Gladiators in ancient Rome were trained by a series of testing assignments. Medieval guilds were founded on the principle that only practical achievement teaches skills. Peacetime armies spend much of their time simulating warfare, trying to battle harden soldiers before a real fight. The better the simulation, the more able the soldiers in battle. Learning by experience, despite its cumbersome and unpredictable nature, is a most effective means of facilitating team development. The activities that are contained in this book are all practical ways to explore an aspect of teamwork. Some of these activities can be undertaken without any professional expertise, and guidelines are given so that maximum benefit can be derived. Every activity has the same purpose—to generate an experience from which useful learning points may be extracted. The purpose of each activity is stated so that a relevant team development program can be constructed. All of the activities employ the principle of “learning by doing”—which has proved so important in helping management training and development to become more relevant and practical. Although it is primarily a book to be used by team leaders and trainers, I hope that other people in responsible positions will also be stimulated by the activities and benefit from the learning. Consultants will also be able to adapt the activities to suit their specific needs. The activities employ various techniques that are suitable for achieving their objectives. They provide the tools for increasing team effectiveness. The emphasis is on learning from direct experience, so there are no theoretical papers or intellectual debates. Many of these activities are enjoyable and much of the potential benefit can be lost if they are pursued with grim determination. Humor and vitality are in many of these activities and the team is encouraged to play with them a little. Although the intent is serious, the accomplishment can be invigorating. So enjoy the learning!

Choosing Relevant Activities

Try to begin by identifying objectives that are important to the development of the team. If you are using this book along with the Team Development Manual, use the Building Blocks Questionnaire first; it will guide you to the most relevant activities. When you have identified the areas that you want to work on, use the key to activities (pages 15–18) to help you decide which activities are most relevant to your particular needs. These activities can be used in many different settings by many different types of teams, therefore not every team will find value in every activity. Teams are encouraged to experiment, especially with activities that look straightforward and simple. In learning by experience, the value of an activity becomes apparent when it is tried fully. In addition, if the team feels that it is learning little or finds an activity embarrassing, uncomfortable, or frustrating, its problems may indicate that team members are resisting the learning. It is important in this case to follow each assignment to its end. Devote the full time that is

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1. Using the Book

allocated to each activity selected and resist the impulse to curtail any one of them prematurely. Learning by experience can sometimes be threatening or disturbing. Although all activities in this book have been widely tested and the great majority used over many years, they should be used with care and in an environment that facilitates risk taking. If you are leading a program, the following guidelines can be used to help achieve maximum benefit from the activities:

Undertake only those activities that you feel able to handle.

Do not force or manipulate others to undertake activities against their will.

Read the instructions carefully before beginning any activity.

Allow sufficient time for each section of an activity (in particular, time for review and discussion is essential as this is where most learning often occurs).

If team members are uncertain or concerned about any experience, discuss the experience fully.

After completing an activity, reflect on what has been learned and encourage the team to assess the implications for everyday work.

Encourage the team to continue to work on difficult areas in order to increase the possibility of a breakthrough.

The main ingredients for success when using activities are:

1. Participants should get to know each other and feel relaxed in each other’s company;

2. Objectives should be clarified;

3. Participants should be encouraged to experiment and learn from what happens;

4. Skills to review experiences and critique the results should be developed;

5. Participants should be helped to plan how they can integrate their learning in their work.

All the activities require some preparation and administration. Someone must act as a coordinator or facilitator. This role can be played by a training specialist, consultant, tutor, teacher, or line manager. On rare occasions, someone will be disturbed or upset by participation in an activity. It is unethical to embark on an activity without a mechanism for resolving any subsequent personal difficulties. Attention should be paid to establishing a climate that combines trust, support, and enjoyment with the more harsh qualities of openness, rigorous analysis, and direct feedback. Much of the potential benefit can be lost if the training climate is superficial, excessively cozy, or impossibly harsh.

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

A Checklist for Designing Training Events

Even so-called “experts” often forget to consider the basics of training event design. This checklist will help you to ensure that the essential ingredients of a successful training event design are covered.

1. Assess learning needs Although some needs may emerge as the event progresses, it is important to ensure that as closely as possible content matches perceived needs. Always remember that participants will start from different levels of understanding.

2. List the resources you have available In addition to those that you plan to use during the event, remember that demands might change and you might need to utilize your “backup” resources.

3. Try to achieve a match between the learning styles of instructors and participants People differ in their preferred learning style and so do instructors. A poor match can seriously jeopardize your chances of success.

4. Establish objectives It is always useful to know and to state what you want to achieve. However, do not be too specific. Team building is about changing attitudes and stances and not simply about the development of skills.

5. Select the appropriate training methods for each objective “Talking at” participants is seldom the right way to achieve the development of teamwork. Learning by discovery is generally much more effective although short theoretical inputs can also be used. The activities in this book are based on learning by discovery principles.

6. Prepare an event program Although you will need to be flexible, it is still advisable to create a timed program and to stick to it within reason. Be sure to allocate sufficient time for recreation, etc., and ensure that this is not eroded. Even at intensive training events, participants have other needs and can become frustrated if they are not met.

7. Establish a time frame for primary objectives Primary areas must be covered thoroughly and they should receive special attention in planning overall time constraints.

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1. Using the Book

8. Arrange the event content into subject blocks There should be some logic in the sequence in which activities take place. This will help participants to see a clear road ahead and to relate the significance of different experiences.

9. Assess progress as you proceed Plan to have one or more reviews of the effectiveness of the learning experience as it proceeds. At the very least, plan for a mid-event review and modification in which all participants share.

10. Emphasize the opening and closing sessions These are the most important sessions. The opening should set the standard, largely determine expectations, and enlist participants in the process of managing their own learning. The closing should aim to complete unfinished business and commit everyone to apply the learning after the event.

11. Build in energizers If possible, they should involve physical movement, and it is useful to make them fun and competitive. Consider including them after long sessions or before significant changes of topic.

12. Schedule staff review meetings Although the event should be well planned beforehand, the design should be flexible enough to allow changes as the learning progresses and new needs arise. Staff should regularly consider how the event is going and aim to revise it to meet changing needs and expectations.

13. Review the design before commencement Even with lots of experience, it is possible to forget a basic point or omit an essential activity. Allowing others to critique the design before the course will enable you to make adjustments.

14. Prepare material beforehand Handouts, review sheets, visual aids, etc., should all be prepared in advance. They should also appear professional. Trainers can easily be discredited by using poorly prepared and presented materials.

15. Check expectations Checking the expectations of participants before the event will help you plan to meet their needs. Do not forget that expectations may extend beyond course content.

Following this simple checklist will help to ensure that your team building events are successful.

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2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

A team is “a group of people who share common objectives and who need to work together to achieve them.” Teams can be found on the sports field, in social

organizations, or in business and industry. The primary focus of this book is team building in the working environment, but the concepts and ideas can be applied wherever a group of people share common objectives and need to work together in order to achieve them. They do not need to be “paid employees” to work together. A team is not a social gathering where people meet for the purpose of enjoyment; neither is it an audience of people who are assembled to listen or to learn. Committees are not usually teams because they comprise people who represent different interest groups. Often they share concerns but lack a unified commitment to action. Teams can provide unique opportunities; they can accomplish more and achieve results, such as:

Providing support and help to their members, as a family would.

Coordinating the activities of individuals.

Generating commitment.

Meeting the basic human need to belong.

Identifying training and development needs.

Providing learning opportunities.

Enhancing communication.

Providing a satisfying, stimulating, and enjoyable working environment.

There can be many types of teams in an organization:

Top Teams

They set key objectives and develop the strategy of the organization. Because they have a broad task, they need a broad membership representing all aspects of the organization. Sometimes they may have temporary members who join them to contribute a particular expertise at a particular time.

Management Teams

They set more detailed objectives and coordinate and control the work of others. They provide the day-to-day leadership in organizations. They must be able to relate to the main body of the organization. They allocate resources and plan operations, devise development strategies, and manage the boundaries between different functions.

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Operator Teams

These are the people who get the job done. They may work on machines or assembly lines. They may deliver goods or services. They may serve people in shops, in restaurants, or on airplanes. They are the people who perform the primary tasks of the organization. They transfer inputs into outputs.

Technical Teams

These are the people who set the standards in the organization. They might be technical standards, production standards, or service standards but they ensure that there is a uni- form approach. As organizations become larger, the need for standardization becomes more apparent.

Support Teams

These teams generally exist outside of the normal workflow of the organization. They provide the indirect support that is needed to enable those who get the job done to operate efficiently. Often they enable control to take place. Although it is possible to “go it alone,” the extent of human achievement is limited when people do not work together. One person can have brilliant ideas but may lack the brain power, imagination, or objectivity to capitalize on the ideas. Organizations are essentially about people working together and yet so often they fail to capitalize upon the full potential of this. A team can accomplish much more than the sum of its individual members, yet frequently groups of people are seen to achieve less than could have been accomplished by the individual members working alone. Most organizations have uninspiring meetings and departments that devote more energy to maintaining their own organizational position than to the common good of the organiza- tion as a whole. Teamwork is individuals working together to accomplish more than they could alone, but more than that, it can be exciting, satisfying, and enjoyable. Perhaps the simplest analogy is the football team. Were any of us to be given the task of building up a new national team, we would know that the task involved much more than just obtaining the best players in the nation. The success of the team would depend not only upon indi- vidual skills but on the way those individuals supported and worked with each other. A good football team is much more than a collection of individual skills; it is using these skills in a way to produce a united effort. Similarly, with almost any kind of team, its success, its very existence, depends upon the way in which all play together. In recent years, we have seen many approaches aimed at increasing organizational effectiveness, and organizations today pay more and more attention to the training and development of their people—particularly those who hold managerial positions. Most of that development activity is centered upon the improvement of individual skills, knowl- edge, and experience, but organizations are increasingly finding that this is not enough, that a real key to success is the way in which individuals behave toward each other and the way in which groups of people relate to and work with each other. Teamwork improves these things.

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2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

How then do we recognize where good teamwork and bad teamwork flourish? Perhaps, as with most things, it is easier to start with the bad than the good, so let us look at some of the symptoms of bad teamwork. First, the team can have the wrong balance in its membership. Because essential skills are lacking, tasks are continually not accomplished efficiently. Then there is the symptom of frustration. As organizations get larger, the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often decrease. Too frequently people who work in organizations become frustrated because they can no longer see a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. People lose inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation that are essential ingredients of effective teamwork. In many organizations, the symptoms of grumbling and retaliation are easily seen. Because people cannot express themselves through the system, they do it privately in discussions in the hallways, restrooms, or parking lots. Often this chatter is a better indicator of organizational health than the most elaborate attitude surveys. The organizations that experience poor teamwork also seem to spend a lot of time on recriminations. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvement but as excuses for punishing those who make the mistakes, and they do this in the many and varied ways in which organizations are able to hand out punishments. Unhealthy competition is another indicator of poor teamwork. Competition is the lifeblood of many organizations, but there is a great difference between an organization with healthy competition, where people can enjoy the just rewards of their deserved suc- cess and others can accept that the best person, system, or policy succeeded, and an organization where backbiting, “dirty tricks,” and politics are the everyday pastimes of managers. Similarly, great differences in rivalry between departments can be found. Many organizations owe much of their success to the naturally competitive spirit and pride of team membership that departmentalization often encourages, but many others have departments that are at constant war with each other, each jockeying for superior organizational position, influence, or perks. One particular organization was character- ized for many years by the constant bickering and “dirty tricks” of its department heads, each taking advantage over the others whenever possible. Not only did that lead to missed opportunities for the organization as a whole, but many more junior employees found that although they wanted to work with others, organizational barriers had been erected between them and their counterparts in other departments. Another sound indicator of poor teamwork is simply the facial expressions of employees. Effective teamwork breeds happiness, and by observing employees, the unin- formed visitor can often get an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether being “killed in the rush” at “clocking out” time is a risk. Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place; it can so easily be a truly rewarding place where people love to be. To many who have studied organizations, openness and honesty are the key indica- tors of organizational health. Unfortunately, some people seem to try honesty only when everything else has failed. Many managers particularly seem to go to enormous lengths to avoid telling the truth. There are, of course, occasions in every organization where

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

something other than total openness is necessary, but where good teamwork exists, there is generally no need for locks on drawers, dishonest statements to employees, and “bargaining” under false pretenses. Meetings are another key indicator of teamwork. The main reason for having meetings is to utilize the collective skills of a group of people while working on common problems or opportunities. Too often, however, we experience meetings that in no way use these skills; meetings where only one or a few people contribute, and meetings where many managers seem to use the occasion as an opportunity to lay down the rules rather than utilize the resources of the team. The quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get-togethers. In many organizations, the quality of the relationship between managers and those they manage is so low that effective teamwork cannot get off the ground. Where people cannot confide in or trust their manager, where they are fearful, or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level, real teamwork is unlikely to exist. Good teamwork engenders high quality relationships. Another danger sign is when the leader becomes increasingly isolated from the team, failing to represent their view while they do not subscribe to his or hers. The effective team leader needs to be very much a part of the team, and low quality relationships make this virtually impossible. People just not developing is another sure sign of ineffective teamwork. If a team is to be effective, it needs to be continually developing itself. This in part means constantly facilitating individual as well as team development. Often development does not happen because:

There are perceived or real time pressures;

It is seen as the job of the personnel department or training officer;

Conflict exists between the team’s culture and that of the organization;

Team leaders lack the skills or willingness to make it happen;

There is fear of the consequences of development.

Sometimes poor teamwork results in jobs getting done twice or not at all because no clear understanding of roles within and between teams exists. Sometimes, although common problems exist, people are just not able or willing to get together and work on them. Then there is the attitude that teams and individual members have toward the possibility of external help. The ineffective team will usually either reject offers of help because it fears the consequences of outsiders finding out what the team is really like, or will seize all offers of help because it lacks any coherent view of how to proceed and is content to hand over its problems to someone else. The effective team will use external help constructively, recognizing its unique contribution and viewpoint, but always maintain ownership of its own problems and its own destiny. Creativity is a delicate flower that only flourishes in the right conditions, mainly conditions of personal freedom and support—freedom to experiment with fresh ideas and concepts, and support from those who listen, evaluate, and offer help. A dearth of new

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2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

ideas generally goes with poor teamwork because it is within teams that the conditions for creativity can most easily be produced. The degree to which people help and are receptive to each other is another indicator. Where effective teamwork does not exist, people tend to work in isolation and neither offer nor receive the help of their colleagues. All of us need that help in order to perform at our optimum level. The conditions described above are indicative of an unhealthy organization and all of them can be significantly improved by effective teamwork. What then are the characteristics of effective teamwork? Very simply, they are the opposites of what is described above. The team has the right balance of skills, abilities, and aspirations. People can and do express themselves honestly and openly. Conversation about work is the same both inside and outside the organization. Mistakes are faced openly and used as vehicles for learning, and difficult situations are confronted. Helpful competition and conflict of ideas are used constructively and team members take pride in the success of their team. Unhelpful competition and conflict have been eliminated. Good relationships exist with other teams and departments. Each values and respects the other and their respective leaders themselves comprise an effective team. Personal relationships are characterized by support and trust, with people helping each other whenever possible. Meetings are productive and stimulating, with everyone participating and feeling responsible for what results from the decisions made. New ideas abound and their use enables the team to stay ahead. Boss-subordinate relationships are sound, each helping the other to perform their roles better, and the team feels that it is being led in an appropriate way. Personal and individual development is highly rated, and opportunities for making development happen are constantly sought. There is clear agreement about and understanding of objectives and of the roles that the team and its individual members will play in achieving them. External help will be welcomed and used where appropriate. The team regularly reviews where it is going, why it needs to go there, and how it is getting there. If necessary, it alters its practices in the light of that review. Finally, communication as a whole is effective—up, down, and across the organization and with the outside world. All of this means that “work” is a happy place to be; people enjoy themselves wherever possible, but this enjoyment is conducive to achievement, not a barrier to it. People get satisfaction from their working lives, for work is one of the places where they can have their needs met and fulfill their aspirations. These characteristics can be seen as the raw materials of effective teamwork. I like to see them as “building blocks” because they are what we can use in a very practical way to build effective teams. Stated as simply as possible, they are:

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50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and

Balanced roles

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and
50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and
50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and

Clear objectives and mutual goals

Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation
Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation
Volume II Balanced roles Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation

Openness and confrontation

Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures
Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures
Clear objectives and mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures

Support and trust

mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate
mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate
mutual goals Openness and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate

Cooperation and conflict

and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review
and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review
and confrontation Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review

Sound procedures

Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development
Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development
Support and trust Cooperation and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development

Appropriate leadership

and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup
and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup
and conflict Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup

Regular review

Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good
Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good
Sound procedures Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good

Individual development

Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full
Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full
Appropriate leadership Regular review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full

Sound intergroup relations

review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full description of each bui lding
review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full description of each bui lding
review Individual development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full description of each bui lding

Good communications

development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full description of each bui lding block is contained
development Sound intergroup relations Good communications A full description of each bui lding block is contained

A full description of each building block is contained in the companion volume, Team Development Manual. This book contains fifty activities that can help you to utilize the building blocks of effective teamwork in your organization. The following key will guide you to those activities that correspond to the building blocks. Most activities relate to more than one building block.

14

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

Quick Reference Key to Activities

CommunicationsGood

                         

Relations

               

       

IntergroupSound

DevelopmentIndividual

   

   

ReviewRegular

 

       

         

LeadershipAppropriate

         

       

 

ProceduresSound

             

     

Conflict

                         

andCooperation

TrustandSupport

                         

Confrontation

     

             

andOpenness

GoalsMutual

                   

 

andObjectivesClear

RolesBalanced

             

         

No.Page

21

25

29

33

37

39

43

47

51

55

57

61

63

Activity Title

Our Team and Its Stage of Development

What Makes Teams Effective?

Team Rating

The Teams in My Working Life

Team Mirroring

Team Leader Effectiveness

Team Leadership Style

Characteristics of Personal Effectiveness

My Meetings with Others

Force Field Analysis

Team Effectiveness Action Plan

Brainstorming

Team Openness Exercise

No.Activity

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

15

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Quick Reference Key to Activities (continued)

CommunicationsGood

                         

Relations

               

       

IntergroupSound

DevelopmentIndividual

     

 

         

ReviewRegular

   

                   

LeadershipAppropriate

 

 

           

ProceduresSound

       

       

 

Conflict

                         

andCooperation

TrustandSupport

         

       

 

Confrontation

       

 

 

andOpenness

GoalsMutual

                         

andObjectivesClear

RolesBalanced

   

                   

No.Page

67

71

73

79

83

91

99

101

105

107

113

121

123

Activity Title

Review and Appraisal Meetings

Enlivening Meetings

How Good a Coach Are You?

Being a Better Coach

Counseling to Increase Learning

Management Style

Discussing Values

Team Member Development Needs

Who Are You?

Intimacy Exercise

Highway Code

Is the Team Listening?

Cave Rescue

No.Activity

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

16

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

2. The Building Blocks of Effective Teamwork

Quick Reference Key to Activities (continued)

CommunicationsGood

                         

Relations

             

         

IntergroupSound

DevelopmentIndividual

 

 

     

ReviewRegular

                 

 

LeadershipAppropriate

     

       

 

ProceduresSound

 

                   

Conflict

                         

andCooperation

TrustandSupport

                         

Confrontation

 

   

     

andOpenness

GoalsMutual

                         

andObjectivesClear

RolesBalanced

                   

 

No.Page

133

137

141

149

151

153

155

157

161

163

165

169

173

Activity Title

Initial Review

Prisoner's Dilemma

The Zin Obelisk

Cloverleaf

Four-Letter Words

Team Tasks

Making Meetings More Constructive

Positive and Negative Feedback

Improving One-to-One Relationships

To See Ourselves as Others See Us

Process Review

How We Make Decisions

Team Self-Review

No.Activity

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

17

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Quick Reference Key to Activities (concluded)

CommunicationsGood

                 

 

Relations

     

           

IntergroupSound

DevelopmentIndividual

         

         

ReviewRegular

             

   

LeadershipAppropriate

   

   

   

   

ProceduresSound

 

       

       

Conflict

     

 

 

andCooperation

TrustandSupport

                   

Confrontation

             

   

andOpenness

GoalsMutual

                     

andObjectivesClear

RolesBalanced

                     

No.Page

177

179

183

185

195

199

209

213

219

221

237

Activity Title

Silent Shapes

Basic Meeting Arrangements

Decision-Making

Communication Skills Inventory

Taking Stock

My Role in the Team

Devising a Team Vision

Intergroup Feedback

Burying the Old Team

Organizational Types Audit

Balancing Team Roles

No.Activity

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

18

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

Activities Symbol: Handout

Activities

Symbol:

Activities Symbol: Handout

Handout

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 1 Our Team and Its Stage of Development

i v i t y 1 Our Team and Its Stage of Development P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

To provide a simple, structured way in which team members can consider the performance and stage of development of their own teams.

METHOD:

1. Provide an overview of the stages of team development.

2. Distribute the Rating Sheet (Handout 1.1) and ask participants to consider the main characteristics of the four principal stages of development and mark the rating scale where they consider their team to be.

3. Lead the group in a discussion that aims to:

Achieve consensus on the stage of development

Formulate a mutual statement about the development needs of the team

NOTES AND

1. The activity may also be used to consider the stage of development of other teams from an outsider’s viewpoint.

VARIATIONS:

2. Completion of the activity by outsiders can be used to provide additional data for consideration by the team.

3. The activity can be used repeatedly throughout a planned program of development to check progress and reassess needs.

4. The activity is particularly useful in bridging the gap between a consideration of theory and a commitment to action.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

21

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Handout 1.1

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Handout 1.1 Rating Sheet: Our Team and Its Stage

Rating Sheet:

Our Team and Its Stage of Development

Stage 1 Characteristics

Stage 2 Characteristics

Stage 3 Characteristics*

Stage 4 Characteristics**

1. Feelings not dealt with

Experimentation

Methodical working

High flexibility

Risky issues and

Mutual procedures

Appropriate leadership determined by situation

2. The workplace is for work only

wider options debated

Personal feelings

Established ground rules

3. Established line

raised

Maximum use of energy and ability

prevails

More inward looking

 

4. No “rocking the boat”

Greater listening

Basic principles considered, agreed to, and reviewed

5. Poor listening

6. Weaknesses

More concern for others

Needs of all members met

covered up

Sometimes

uncomfortable

Development a

7. Unclear objectives

priority

8. Low involvement in planning

9. Bureaucracy

10. Boss makes most decisions

* Stage 2 with a more systematic approach ** Stages 2 and 3 characteristics added

RATING SCALE

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

23

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 2 What Makes Teams Effective?

A c t i v i t y 2 What Makes Teams Effective? P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

To promote understanding of and agreement about “the characteristics of effective teams.”

METHOD:

Distribute Handout 2.1 and explain that the team task is to rank the statements in order of importance by placing a “1” next to the most important, a “2” next to the second most important, etc., so that “11” appears next to the least important statement.

NOTES AND

1. Participants may first be asked to individually rank the statements before team ranking takes place.

VARIATIONS:

2. The essential feature of the activity is the discussion that clarifies and aids the understanding of each characteristic.

3. Participants may also be invited to add to the list of characteristics.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

25

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Handout 2.1

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Handout 2.1 Rating Sheet: Characteristics of Effective Teams RANKING

Rating Sheet:

Characteristics of Effective Teams

RANKING

1 = Most Important

11 = Least Important

The team has an optimum mix of skills and abilities.

The team is clear about what it wants to achieve.

Issues are always confronted and dealt with in an open way.

Members show support for each other and there is a high level of trust

between them.

Both cooperation and conflict are used to get the best results.

There are sound and understood procedures for decision making.

Team leadership, where required, is of a high standard and in appropriate

hands.

The team regularly reviews the way it operates and learns from the

experience.

Individual and team development needs are regularly reviewed.

Relations with other groups are sound.

Our internal and external communications are good.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

27

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 3 Team Rating

Volume II A c t i v i t y 3 Team Rating P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

To compare teams by assessing them against the characteristics that are commonly associated with success, to help identify those teams most in need of development and provide a basis for helping them.

METHOD:

Note: This activity can be undertaken by an individual, by a group representing a number of teams, or by a group who are not members of the teams being rated.

1. Provide sufficient copies of the Score Sheet (Handout 3.1). The Score Sheet lists eleven characteristics that successful teams usually display. For each team reviewed, assign a score out of a scale from 1 to 10 for performance against each characteristic.

2. Compare results between teams and between criteria, asking:

Does this activity tell us anything about which teams are in need of development?

Are there any criteria requiring attention and that are common to some/all teams reviewed?

NOTES AND

1. Clearly, the results will only be as valid as the perception of those taking part, and care must be taken not to read too much into the results. This is a good activity for starting a discussion and helping decide where to begin. However, other indicators of performance should also be considered before any program of action is undertaken.

2. The scale can also be used within a team to compare the views of individual members.

VARIATIONS:

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

29

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Handout 3.1

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Handout 3.1 Team Rating Score Sheet Team A Team

Team Rating Score Sheet

Team A Team B Team C Team D Team E Total Balanced roles Clear objectives
Team A
Team B
Team C
Team D
Team E
Total
Balanced roles
Clear objectives and
mutual goals
Openness and
confrontation
Support and trust
Cooperation and conflict
Sound procedures
Appropriate leadership
Regular review
Individual development
Sound intergroup
relations
Good communications
Total

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

31

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 4 The Teams in My Working Life

A c t i v i t y 4 The Teams in My Working Life P

PURPOSE:

To identify the various groups of teams to which we belong in our working lives and examine why some are more effective than others.

METHOD:

1. Consider four teams to which you belong and list them on a sheet of paper. Assign a letter, A through D, to each team. Do this before continuing with the next page of the activity.

2. Continue by completing a Check Sheet (Handout 4.1) for each team. Write the appropriate team letter on each sheet.

3. When you have completed the check sheet, look at the answers and record the letters that score:

1

or 2 on question 1

   

5

or 6 on question 2

 

1

or 2 on question 3

 

5

or 6 on question 4

 

1

or 2 on question 5

 

5

or 6 on question 6

 

1

or 2 on question 7

 

5

or 6 on question 8

 

Does this conform to your own experience of them?

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

33

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Check Sheet—Team

Handout 4.1

(Write the appropriate letter)

Sheet—Team Handout 4.1 (Write the appropriate letter) Directions: Circle the number that reflects your answer.

Directions: Circle the number that reflects your answer.

1. The group is effective at getting things done.

2. Membership is vague and easy to achieve.

3. The group has clear

standards of behavior.

4. There is no clear difference of roles.

5. There are close personal relationships within the group.

6. People have a low understanding of group purpose.

7. People feel a strong sense of personal commitment to the group.

8. Communication with others is poor.

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

Now answer the following questions:

1. Which groups appear most often?

2. Which groups appear least often?

3. Which do you think are the most developed?

4. What has contributed to their development?

5. How could the least developed be helpful?

The group is ineffective at getting things done.

Membership is defined and difficult to achieve.

The group has little influence on behavior of its members.

Individuals have clearly different roles in the group.

Relationships are mainly impersonal.

People share a clear concept of the purpose of the group.

There is little personal commitment to the group.

The group communicates well with all the rest of the organization.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

35

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 5 Team Mirroring

Volume II A c t i v i t y 5 Team Mirroring P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

To see ourselves and our team as others see us. All of us form views of other groups of people. Sometimes these views are accurate, but often they act as a barrier to working together effectively. This barrier can sometimes be removed if we understand what we think about others and know what they think about us.

METHOD:

This activity needs two separate teams who normally work with or alongside each other. The process has been used successfully with such groups as top and middle managers, sales and production people, supervisors and staff, teachers and students, and nurses and patients. It can be threatening and it is important to ensure that each team is willing to undertake the activity.

1. Introduce the activity to both teams with a short explanation of what is about to happen. Then, separate the two groups and ask each to prepare a list of 24 adjectives, 12 positive and 12 nega- tive, that best describe the other group. Choose a representative from each group to record the list of adjectives on a flipchart.

2. After 45 minutes, reunite both groups and have their representatives display and read their lists, and sum up their position by drawing attention to the key words. Everyone then considers the lists in silence for two minutes.

3. Divide participants into subgroups of four each, two from each team. Each subgroup takes approximately an hour to discuss how people see each other. In the last 10 minutes, each person writes on a sheet of paper what he or she has learned from the exchange of views. These sheets, which remain anonymous, are collected and shared by the entire group.

4. Consider whether the activity has raised important issues that remain unresolved. If so, plan to undertake other activities that will resolve and terminate the open issues.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

37

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Activity 5: Team Mirroring (concluded) N OTES AND 1.

Activity 5: Team Mirroring (concluded)

NOTES AND

1. Two, three, or four groups can be used with each group receiving a list of adjectives from each of the other groups.

VARIATIONS:

2. Make the point that, whether accurate or not, other people’s perceptions are important and can act as real barriers to inter- group relationships.

3. Take care when using boss/subordinate groups, since feedback is often more negative from subordinate groups.

4. When teams from separate departments are used, the feedback can be potentially threatening to department managers and care should be taken to “pick up” the issues and turn them to productive use.

5. Activity 36 is similar in concept and more suitable for use as part of a training event.

38

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 6 Team Leader Effectiveness

II A c t i v i t y 6 Team Leader Effectiveness P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

To enable team leaders to conduct a self-appraisal of their own effectiveness.

METHOD:

1. Have the team leader(s) assess their own effectiveness using Handout 6.1.

2. Next, have team leader(s) disclose the assessment to one or more members of the team, who comment on it.

3. Then, have the team leader(s) assess their effectiveness in light of comments received.

4. Repeat the cycle.

NOTES AND

This activity can be used as part of an appraisal process or as an aid in a coaching relationship.

VARIATIONS:

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

39

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Handout 6.1

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Handout 6.1 Team Leader Effectiveness Directions: Using a scale

Team Leader Effectiveness

Directions: Using a scale from 1 to 100 (with 60 indicating satisfactory performance), rate yourself on the following items in terms of your effectiveness.

I am authentic and true to myself.

RATING

I am clear about the standards I wish to achieve.

I give and receive trust and loyalty.

I maintain the integrity and position of my team.

I am receptive to people’s hopes, needs, and dignity.

I use delegation as an aid to achievement and development.

I face facts honestly and directly.

I encourage and assist personal and team development.

I establish and maintain sound working procedures.

I try to make work a happy and rewarding place.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

41

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 7 Team Leadership Style

II A c t i v i t y 7 Team Leadership Style P URPOSE :

PURPOSE:

Almost more than anything else, the way in which a team is led can affect the contribution and performance of those who work in it. This activity enables a team and its leader(s) to examine their assumptions about people and about management style. Based on McGregor’s “Theory X and Theory Y” approach, it helps reveal what attitudes influence the team so that, brought into the open, these attitudes can be dealt with more effectively.

METHOD:

1. Ask the whole of the team to complete the Leadership Style Questionnaire (Handout 7.1).

2. Ask for the questionnaires to be returned anonymously to a particular person by a certain date. The selected person then analyzes the questionnaires and produces a chart showing the average leadership style that the team sees as prevailing (A), and the average preferred leadership style (B).

3. Show the chart at a meeting of those who completed the questionnaire and discuss the leadership styles, both perceived and preferred. Then identify the action that could improve leadership practice to the benefit of the whole team.

NOTES AND

1. The activity can be conducted within a regular meeting or training event.

VARIATIONS:

2. An input on McGregor’s “Theory X and Theory Y” model can be given before or after completion.

3. The cooperation of the team leader(s) should always be forthcoming before trying this activity.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

43

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Handout 7.1

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II Handout 7.1 Leadership Style Questionnaire Directions: This questionnaire is

Leadership Style Questionnaire

Directions: This questionnaire is designed to identify the present leadership style in your team and your preferred leadership style. Read each question and place the letter “A” over the number that most nearly represents the leadership attitudes that you feel are most commonly displayed. Then consider what you feel the attitude ought to be and indicate this with the letter “B.”

The average person inherently dislikes work and will avoid it when possible.

People must be coaxed and made to work.

People will avoid responsi- bility if they can.

Most people do not care

about career advancement.

Most people are basically dull and lack creativity most of the time.

People see money as the principal reason for working.

People do not want to improve the quality of their own working life.

Objectives are straight- jackets that tie people down.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Work is as natural as rest or play.

People can and do exer- cise discretion and self- control in their work.

People welcome and enjoy real responsibility.

People are interested in the quality and advance- ment of their working lives.

Most people have great potential, imagination, and creativity that are untapped.

Money is only one of the benefits of work.

People are prepared to put effort into improving the quality of their working life.

Objectives give people incentives and freedom.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

45

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

Activity 8 Characteristics of Personal Effectiveness

v i t y 8 Characteristics of Personal Effectiveness P URPOSE : Developed and successful individuals

PURPOSE:

Developed and successful individuals the world over display a set of fairly common characteristics. Others, however, continually display a set of characteristics regularly associated with being less successful. This activity is designed to help you see where you stand in relation to the two types of behaviors.

METHOD:

1. On the left side of the Characteristics sheet (Handout 8.1) are printed the successful characteristics and on the right side unsuccessful characteristics. They are deliberately presented as opposites and between the two is a scale. Mark on the scale where you think you are.

2. Check your own perception with the views of others. This can either be done in a dialogue situation or by asking others to rate you using the characteristics sheet.

Reproduced from 50 Activities for Teambuilding, Volume II Mike Woodcock, Gower, Aldershot, 1988

47

50 Activities for Team Building: Volume II

I am active.

I seek challenge.

I continually seek self-

knowledge and insight.

I use time and energy well.

I am in touch with my feelings.

I continually show

concern for others.

I am always relaxed.

I am always open and honest.

I continually try to stretch myself.

I am clear about my personal values.

I set high personal standards.

I welcome feedback.

I always see things through.

I use opposing views.

I use conflict.

I give freedom to others.

I am basically happy with my life.

Handout 8.1

to others. I am basically happy with my life. Handout 8.1 Characteristics I am passive. I

Characteristics