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CHEMICAL KINETICS: THE IODINE CLOCK

REACTION

J. CORTEZ
1

COLLEGE OF PUBLIC HEALTH

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, PEDRO GIL ST., ERMITA, MANILA, METRO MANILA,
PHILIPPINES
DATE SUBMITTED: June 29, 2015
DATE PERFORMED: June 23, 2015

ABSTRACT

Chemical kinetics is displayed by different processes in the world. It involves reaction,


the factors which affect its rates, and the mechanisms that explain how it proceeds. This
experiment revealed how concentration, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst
influence the rate at which reactions occur.
Multiple runs of each specifically prepared solution were done to show how different
conditions (varying concentrations of reactants, hot and cold temperature, and addition of a
catalyst) has shorten or prolonged the time of reaction completion. The data obtained for
each specific factor was plugged in a linear regression table, while the temperature used the
Arrhenius equation:

( )( T1 )+ln ( A )

ln ( k ) =

Ea
R

as its linear equation backline. From the

results of the experiment and the graphs that it has generated, it is confirmed that these
factors affect the kinetics of chemical processes.

INTRODUCTION

Chemical Kinetics is the area of chemistry


concerned with the speeds, or rates, at
which a chemical reaction occurs (Chang,

2010). This is being used by different


industries for better productivity and
quality. It is being used in houses to make
cooking and cleaning. Chemical kinetics is
present everywhere. The time it takes for
a reaction to occur is called reaction rate.

Basically, an individual can compute the


rate of a reaction by measuring how

much of a reactant/product is used


up/produced during a period of time
(Chang, 2010). The equation for rate is as
follows (1).

Lastly, the rate is also affected by the


presence of a catalyst. A catalyst is a
substance that increases the rate of a
reaction by lowering the activation energy
(Chang, 2010).
It can be stated that
catalyzed reactions have faster rates than
uncatalyzed reactions (4).

( 4 ) ratecatalyzed > rateuncatalyzed

2 AB
METHODOLOGY

( 1 ) rate=

[B]
1 [ A ]
rate=
2 t
t
Seven solutions were prepared first by
class, these are:

Apart from this, an individual can also


show that reaction can be affected by
controlling the concentrations of reactants
(Skoog, West, Holler, & Crouch, 2004). As
seen in the following equation (2), rate is
affected by the concentrations raised to
their
respected
chemical
coefficient
(theoretical or laboratory-derived). It
should also be noted that rate law
expressions
represent
molar
concentrations at a particular instant and
not necessarily in equilibrium (Skoog,
West, Holler, & Crouch, 2004).

1. 500mL 0.2 M KI
2. 500mL 0.2 M KCl
3. 500 mL 0.1M K2S2O8
4. 500 mL 0.1M K2SO4

5. 500 mL 4.0mM Na2S2O3


6. 20 mL of 1% fresh starch solution
7. 5 mL CuSO4

A +B C+ D

Table1. Concentration of Solutions


x

( 2 ) rate=k [ A ] [B ]

Beaker A

On the other hand, the rate can also be


affected changes in temperature. This is
measured with the use of the Arrhenius
Equation (3) (Chang, 2010).

( 3 ) ln ( k )=ln ( A )

Ea
RT

Ru
n

1
2
3
4
5

0.2
M
KI,
mL
10
5
2.5
5
5

0.2
M
KCl,
mL
0
5
7.5
5
5

Beaker B (+3 drops of


fresh starch)
0.1 M
0.1 M 4 mM
K2S2O K2SO NA2S2O
8,, mL
4,, mL
3,, mL
5
5
5
7.5
10

5
5
5
2.5
0

5
5
5
5
5

Effects
of
Persulfate
and
Iodide
Concentrations on the Reaction Rate
Five solutions were prepared for this test.
Each beaker has different chemical ratio. It
was vital that all the beakers will be under
the same temperature. This was to ensure
that the temperature will not affect the
outcome of each beaker. It is essential
that the process was timed properly for
accurate computation of rate. Proper
timing was done once beaker A and B
were mixed and stopped when mixture
changed its color into blue.
Effect of Temperature on the Reaction
Rate
Run 2 of the preceding test were
duplicated for this analysis. One beaker
was put in a hot bath while another was
placed in an ice bath. This provided the
factor of stress on the chemical process of
both beakers. The hot and cold baths
guarantee
the
large
difference
in
temperature for both runs.

4
5

0.03M

0.04
M
0.04
M

0.04M

6.55 x107

472

8.45 x107

As seen in table 2, the concentration of


S2O8 2- and I- is different for every run.
Apart from this, the recorded time for each
run is also recorded. The rate is also
computed for each with respect to the
fixed concentration of S2O3-2 (which is
8x10-4) over the time for the reaction to
occur. With these results, the researcher
was able to establish the rate law
expression of the reaction (5).

S2 O 8

I
( 5 ) rate=k

Effect of Catalyst on the Reaction Rate


Run 2 of the first test were duplicated
again for this exam. Four drops of CuSO 4
were added to the beaker as an indicator
for the reaction. The reaction was timed
and recorded as soon as the solutions
turned blue.

613

-4
ln(rate)

-13.5
-3.8 -3.6 -3.4 -3.2 -3
-14
f(x) = 1.37x - 9.53
R = 0.97
-14.5
-15
ln [S2O8 2-]

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Figure 1. ln (rate) versus ln [S2O8 2-]
Table 2. Concentration of Reactants, Duration and
Rate of each Reaction per Run

[S2O8
2]
0.02M

0.02M

0.02M

[I- ]
0.08
M
0.04
M
0.02
M

Tim
e (s)
590

Rate
(Ms-1)
6.78x10-7

120
1
215
0

3.33 x107

1.86 x107

As figure 1 has shown, three runs (2, 4, 5)


were included in analyzing the relationship
of rate and [S2O8 2-].
These runs has
shown an increasing value of [S2O8 2-] and
a constant [I-]. The slope generated by the
points is positive. The equation for the line
is y=1.369x-9.526. The order of the
reactant is 1. From here, the researcher
can state that the relationship between
the variables is directly proportional.

-4.5
ln(rate)

-4

-3.5

-3

-13.5
-2.5-14 -2

-14.5
f(x) = 0.94x - 11.84
R = 1
-15

Table 3. Temperature, Rate and Rate constants for


each run.

-15.5
-16
ln [I-]

Varying
Temperatur
e

Ru
n
1

Tem
p (K)
300

328

277

Rate
(Ms-1)
2.02
x10-6
7.27
x10-6
3.83x10

Figure 2. ln (rate) versus ln [I ]

-7

For the relationship between rate and [I ],


runs 1, 2, and 3 are used. The beakers
have a decreasing value of [I-] and a
constant [S2O8 2-]. A positive slope is also
observed for these set of data as in figure
1. The equation for the line is y=0.94211.84. The order of reactant [I -] is 1. The
relationship of [I-] and the rate is directly
proportional.
From these two sets of data, the
researcher can say that altering the
concentration of reactants has affected
the rate of reaction for each run. This
reinforces the concept that concentration
is a factor in chemical kinetics. It should
be noted that as long as thiosulfate is
present in the solution, it will consume any
iodine produced by the reaction. Once all
the thiosulfate is used, the starch will start
to react with the excess iodine (Russel,
2010). The starch (indicator) was used to
form an iodine-iodide-amylose complex.
This means that the starch readily reacts
with the excess I2 to produce the signature
blue color for the reaction (Sidky, 2012).

Catalyzed
Run

301.
15

4.00
x10-5

k
(M-1s-1)
2.53
x10-3
9.09
x10-3
4.78
x10-4
0.05

Table 3 presents another set of beakers


that has been subjected to two different
conditions: high and low temperature and
a catalyst. The hot and cold temperature
of runs 2 and 3 are monitored during the
reaction to guarantee that conditions are
controlled. The fourth run is subjected to a
CuSO4 catalyst to lower its activation
energy.

0
-2 0
ln (k)

-4
-6
-8

f(x) = - 5267.86x + 11.43


R = 0.99

-10
(1/T)

Figure 3. ln (k) versus (1/T)

The relationship of k and T as seen in


figure 3 is also directly proportional. As we
increase the temperature in a reaction,
the
kinetic
energy
of
the
atoms/molecules/particles
increases,
therefore increasing the number of

collisions possible in the reaction (Chang,


2010) (Fogler & Gurmen, 2007). The slope
(Ea/R) is computed at -5267 while the ln
(A) is 11.43. From here, it is now
applicable to compute for the E a and A
using the Arrhenius equation (6) in linear
form.

( 6 ) ln ( k ) =

Ea 1
+ln ( A )
R T

( )

which is comparable

y=mx +b
The Ea of the chemical process is 4.38x10 4
kJ/mol and the A=9.20x104 M-1s-1.
With the case of the catalyzed reaction,
the CuSO4 served as the enhancer for the
reaction. The beaker has displayed a
faster rate compared to the control
beaker. This happens due the ability of the
catalyst to hasten the reaction by lowering
the Ea of the chemical process (Skoog,
West, Holler, & Crouch, 2004). An
alternative pathway is provided for
components to react with a decreased E a.
Usually the catalyst forms an intermediate
in the reaction but is again regenerated in
a succeeding step (Chang, 2010).

CONCLUSION

The different tests done have confirmed


that certain factors affect the rate of
chemical reactions. The iodine clock
reaction is also observed to be a 2 nd order
reaction respectively as both reactants are
1st order.
Concentrations of reactants,
temperature, and the presence of
catalysts are all directly proportional to
the rate of the reaction.

Linear regression of ln (rate) versus


reactant concentrations (figures 1 and 2)
as well as (1/T) versus ln (k) (figure 3)
have all shown R2 values that are close to
1. This means that a good linear
relationship exist between the variables
being observed. Increasing concentration
and temperature increases the rate of the
reaction and k for the iodine clock reaction
(Mendez et al, 2010).
It may be noted that certain inaccuracies
could have affected the observations from
the experiment. Instrument calibrations or
reagent preparations may be inaccurately
measured or estimated. Apart from this,
the researchers reaction time, ability to
see clearly, and involuntary movements
may have also influenced the whole
experimentation process. More trials and
standard solutions are recommended for
better sampling and to decrease the
amount of inaccuracies.

REFERENCES

Chang, R. (2010). Chemistry, 10th Edition.


In R. Chang, Chemistry, 10th Edition (pp.
558, 563-546, 569-571, 582-584, 594595). McGraw-Hill.
Fogler, S., & Gurmen, N. (2007). Rate Law
and Stoichiometry. Retrieved June 27,
2015, from University of Michigan:
http://www.umich.edu/~elements/fogler
%26gurmen/html/03chap/html/collision/in
dex.htm#II
Mendez et al. (2010). Foundations of
Statistical Analysis for the Health Sciences
(pp. 334-335). Department of
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of
Public Health, University of the Philippines
Manila.

Russel, S. (2010, February 11). Chemical


Kinetics: Persulfate-Iodide Clock Reaction.
Retrieved 26 2015, June, from California
State University:
http://science.csustan.edu/CHEM1112_4/C
hemical%20Kinetics'/Persulfate_files/Clock
%20Reaction%20S10.pdf
Sidky, H. (2012, December 12). Kinetics,
Reaction Mechanisms and the Iodine Clock
Reaction. Retrieved June 26, 2015, from
Lab and Theory:
http://www.labandtheory.com/kinetics/kine
tics-reaction-mechanisms-and-the-iodineclock-reaction/

Skoog, D., West, D., Holler, J., & Crouch, S.


(2004). Fundamentals of Analytic
Chemistry (pp. 879-881). In S. Kiselica
(Ed.). Thomson Learning Academic
Resource Center.