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INDIAN MACHINE TOOLS INDUSTRY

BACKGROUND & HISTORICAL TRENDS

The Machine Tools industry in India dates back to the Second World War.
Due to non-availability of imported machine tools, a few British owned
general engineering firms took up their manufacture in India. This was
followed by the start of industrialization in a series of five-year plans. The
process of planning in the economy resulted in a second phase of machine
tools manufacturing with public sector investment in machine tools (HMT
Ltd. 1953). These two initial phases of development of the Indian machine
tools industry saw the production of general purpose machine tools most of
which were produced under technical assistance from foreign Collaborators
(Oerlikon, Louden, Ward, Herbert, Jones & Shipman,etc.).

The 1960s marked the third phase of the machine tools industry. During this
phase,the range of products witnessed rapid growth and various types of
machine tools including SPMs were manufactured. (Multi spindle Automats,
Gear Cutting Machines, SPMs, Broaching Machines, Presses, etc.).

The Fourth Phase began in the mid 1980s which saw the entry of Japanese
machine tools makers in the Indian market through licensing arrangements
(Mori-Seiki, Mitsubishi, Hitachi-seiki, NachiFuji-Koshi, Murata, etc.).

The fifth and current phase began in the early nineties after the liberalization
of the Indian economy. With market share of the bigger companies
expanding and the public sector giants shrinking and those of the smaller
companies rising, in-house design capability, entrepreneurial spirit, greater
technology friendliness, operational flexibility and lean management,
combined to give a greater competitive edge to the smaller companies set up
by technocrats, resulting in a significant shift in machine tools production to
these medium sized companies. However, these companies produce
sophisticated machines and machines of higher capacity either singly, or in
small numbers.

Indian Machine Tool Industry ...Shaping the


Future

Machine tools – a strategic industry, forms the backbone of many if not


most of the major sectors of industrial activity in a country in the traditional
manufacturing context. Therefore, a country such as India which is on the
threshold of becoming a major global industrial and economic power must
have a strong, well-developed, robust and modern machine tool industry to
support and assist its manufacturing sector.

The machine tool industry in India has played and will continue to play a
key role in enhancing competitiveness and enabling development of quality
and excellence in the output of the manufacturing industry and of the Indian
economy as a whole. In India, the machine tool industry supports the
strategic development and growth of the automotive, the white and brown
goods, the capital goods industries as well as strategic sectors such as
defence, railways, aerospace, etc. Machine tools also contribute to the
vibrancy of small and medium scale manufacturing industries, in particular,
the millions of job shops in the country.
In India, the Rs. 17 billion machine tool industry supports more than Rs.
2,000 billion manufacturing sector in the country. The Indian machine tool
industry predominantly comprises manufacturers from the small and
medium-sized enterprises. There are about 150 major manufacturers in the
organised sector. About three-quarters of total machine tool production in
the country comes out of ISO certified companies that are involved in
manufacturing of metalworking machine tools, manufacturing solutions,
accessories, and cutting tools & tooling systems. India-wide, the sector
employs some 65,000 skilled and unskilled persons.

5 – Axis VMC

• Effective for die and mould, aerospace, medical implantation, power generation, transmission,
automobile, and general engineering
• Rapid traverse 48 m/min
• Axes acceleration above 0.5 G
• 30 tools
• 15,000 rpm spindle
• HSK A63 tool interface
• Smooth chip management

Double column VMC

• Heavy duty roughing and precision finishing of large components


• Air through spindle
• Mobile MPG
• Hyd. counter balance system
• CNC rotary table
• Tool magazine side door
• Linear glass scale
• Oil skimmer
• Scraper conveyor
• Auto head changer

Airavat serious heavy duty

• High pressure, high volume coolant system


• Shower stream for component and pallet wash using integrated flushing system
• Pneumatic cleaning system for spindle and tool changer
• Complete machine enclosure
• Linear glass scale feedback on all axes
• 1° x 360 positions, servo-driven index table
• 40-tool magazine
• Centralised automatic oil lubrication for linear motion guide ways and ball-screws
• Ring coolant
• Integrated flushing system based shower stream for component and pallet
• Side mounted, servo driven tool magazine
• Linear motion guide ways on all axes
• Coolant system with chip conveyor and chip trolley
• Rigid tapping
• Hydraulic power pack for machine functions
• Spindle drive through gearbox

Shakti serious

• Integral spindle
• Spindle taper HSK 63A
• Spindle chiller unit
• Index table 360 x 1 deg.
• 180 deg. swing type auto pallet changer
• 40 tool ATC
• Absolute encoder feedback
• Basic coolant system
• Chip conveyor with chip trolley
• Chip tray inside machine
• Hydraulic power pack
• AC for electrical cabinet
• Four tier patrol lamp
• Installation accessories
• Safety guards
• Maintenance tool kit
• Instruction manual
• Coolant gun
• Machine lamp

Vega series

• LM guides for all axes


• Ballscrews for axes drive
• Direct drive for spindle
• Direct drive for X and Z axes
• Belt drive for Y axis
• 20 tool ATC
• NC rotary table 360000 x 0.001º with ±15 arc sec indexing accuracy
• Coolant gun
• Chip disposal - rear side
• Automatic lubrication system
• Telescopic covers with scissors for guideways
• Electronic counter balance for vertical axis
• Absolute encoder for all axes
• Machine lamp/ mobile MPG
• RS 232C port interface
• Levelling accessories
• Basic coolant system with bed wash & flood coolant
• Hydraulic power pack with air blast cooler
• Rigid tapping
• Maintenance tool kit, instruction manual
• Jacket cooling for spindle

Unicorn

• Excellent rigidity and thermal stability


• Stable dynamics
• Efficient chip disposal
• High stiffness-to-weight ratio of key components

Orion Series heavy duty

• 1,144 Nm high torque spindle


• 120 tools
• 4,000 kg safe load capacity
• 40 m/min rapid traverse Automatic twin pallet changer
• Centralised automatic oil lubrication for linear motion guide ways and ball-screws
• Ring coolant
• Integrated flushing system based shower stream for component and pallet
• Side mounted, servo driven tool magazine
• High pressure, high volume coolant system
• Total machine enclosure
• Twin ball-screws on Y and Z axes
• Linear glass scale feedback on all axes
• Linear motion guide ways
• Coolant system with chip conveyor and chip trolley
• Rigid tapping
• Hydraulic power pack for machine functions
The Seven Elements
The McKinsey 7S model involves seven interdependent factors which are categorized as
either "hard" or "soft" elements:

Hard Elements Soft Elements


Strategy Shared Values

Structure Skills

Systems Style

Staff

"Hard" elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence
them: These are strategy statements; organization charts and reporting lines; and formal
processes and IT systems.

"Soft" elements, on the other hand, can be more difficult to describe, and are less tangible
and more influenced by culture. However, these soft elements are as important as the
hard elements if the organization is going to be successful.

The way the model is presented in Figure 1 below depicts the interdependency of the
elements and indicates how a change in one affects all the others.

Placing Shared Values in the middle of the model emphasizes that these values are
central to the development of all the other critical elements. The company's structure,
strategy, systems, style, staff and skills all stem from why the organization was originally
created, and what it stands for. The original vision of the company was formed from the
values of the creators. As the values change, so do all the other elements.

Let's look at each of the elements specifically:

• Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the
competition.
• Structure: the way the organization is structured and who reports to whom.
• Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get
the job done.
• Shared Values: called "superordinate goals" when the model was first developed,
these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate
culture and the general work ethic.
• Style: the style of leadership adopted.
• Staff: the employees and their general capabilities.
• Skills: the actual skills and competencies of the employees working for the
company.

Description of 7 Ss

Strategy: Strategy is the plan of action an organisation prepares in response to, or anticipation
of, changes in its external environment. Strategy is differentiated by tactics or operational actions
by its nature of being premeditated, well thought through and often practically rehearsed. It deals
with essentially three questions (as shown in figure 2): 1) where the organisation is at this
moment in time, 2) where the organisation wants to be in a particular length of time and 3) how to
get there. Thus, strategy is designed to transform the firm from the present position to the new
position described by objectives, subject to constraints of the capabilities or the potential (Ansoff,
1965).

Structure: Business needs to be organised in a specific form of shape that is generally referred
to as organisational structure. Organisations are structured in a variety of ways, dependent on
their objectives and culture. The structure of the company often dictates the way it operates and
performs (Waterman et al., 1980). Traditionally, the businesses have been structured in a
hierarchical way with several divisions and departments, each responsible for a specific task such
as human resources management, production or marketing. Many layers of management
controlled the operations, with each answerable to the upper layer of management. Although this
is still the most widely used organisational structure, the recent trend is increasingly towards a flat
structure where the work is done in teams of specialists rather than fixed departments. The idea
is to make the organisation more flexible and devolve the power by empowering the employees
and eliminate the middle management layers (Boyle, 2007).

Systems: Every organisation has some systems or internal processes to support and implement
the strategy and run day-to-day affairs. For example, a company may follow a particular process
for recruitment. These processes are normally strictly followed and are designed to achieve
maximum effectiveness. Traditionally the organisations have been following a bureaucratic-style
process model where most decisions are taken at the higher management level and there are
various and sometimes unnecessary requirements for a specific decision (e.g. procurement of
daily use goods) to be taken. Increasingly, the organisations are simplifying and modernising their
process by innovation and use of new technology to make the decision-making process quicker.
Special emphasis is on the customers with the intention to make the processes that involve
customers as user friendly as possible (Lynch, 2005).

Style/Culture: All organisations have their own distinct culture and management style. It includes
the dominant values, beliefs and norms which develop over time and become relatively enduring
features of the organisational life. It also entails the way managers interact with the employees
and the way they spend their time. The businesses have traditionally been influenced by the
military style of management and culture where strict adherence to the upper management and
procedures was expected from the lower-rank employees. However, there have been extensive
efforts in the past couple of decades to change to culture to a more open, innovative and friendly
environment with fewer hierarchies and smaller chain of command. Culture remains an important
consideration in the implementation of any strategy in the organisation (Martins and Terblanche,
2003).

Staff: Organisations are made up of humans and it's the people who make the real difference to
the success of the organisation in the increasingly knowledge-based society. The importance of
human resources has thus got the central position in the strategy of the organisation, away from
the traditional model of capital and land. All leading organisations such as IBM, Microsoft, Cisco,
etc put extraordinary emphasis on hiring the best staff, providing them with rigorous training and
mentoring support, and pushing their staff to limits in achieving professional excellence, and this
forms the basis of these organisations' strategy and competitive advantage over their
competitors. It is also important for the organisation to instil confidence among the employees
about their future in the organisation and future career growth as an incentive for hard work
(Purcell and Boxal, 2003).

Shared Values/Superordinate Goals: All members of the organisation share some common
fundamental ideas or guiding concepts around which the business is built. This may be to make
money or to achieve excellence in a particular field. These values and common goals keep the
employees working towards a common destination as a coherent team and are important to keep
the team spirit alive. The organisations with weak values and common goals often find their
employees following their own personal goals that may be different or even in conflict with those
of the organisation or their fellow colleagues (Martins and Terblanche, 2003).

The McKinsey 7S model was named after a consulting company, McKinsey and Company, which
has conducted applied research in business and industry (Pascale & Athos, 1981; Peters &
Waterman, 1982). All of the authors worked as consultants at McKinsey and Company; in the
1980s, they used the model to analyse over 70 large organisations. The McKinsey 7S Framework
was created as a recognisable and easily remembered model in business. The seven variables,
which the authors term "levers", all begin with the letter "S":

Participative or Democratic Leaders

The democratic leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown, such as
leader gives instruction after consulting the group.

They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and
positively. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat
because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them

Participative Leadership (Democratic)

Lewin’s study found that participative (democratic) leadership is generally the most effective
leadership style. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also
participate in the group and allow input from other group members. In Lewin’s study, children
in this group were less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their
contributions were of a much higher quality.

Participative leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the
decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated
and creative.
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It
involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the
internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that
objective. The technique is credited to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at
Stanford University in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies.

• Strengths: attributes of the person or company that are helpful to


achieving the objective.
• Weaknesses: attributes of the person or company that are harmful
to achieving the objective.
• Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the
objective.
• Threats: external conditions which could do damage to the
objective.