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Unit 2
Lesson 6
1.

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2.

You have two separate choices to make: first, regarding toothpaste, and then,
regarding a toothbrush. The first choice can be made with one of the six different
types of toothpaste. The second can be made with one of the five different styles
of toothbrush. The total number of possible ways that the toothpaste and a
toothbrush can be chosen is:

6 5 = 30

3.

Since the number must be even, there are only three possibilities for the last digit,
{2, 4, 6}. Once the last digit has been chosen, there are only five possibilities left
for the first digit. After that, there are only four possibilities left for the second
digit, and then three possibilities remaining for the third digit. Therefore, the total
number of possible four-digit numbers is:

5 4 3 3 = 180

4.

a) There are eight options to choose from for each of the three positions in the
ordered triple, so the number of ordered triples is:

b) You can choose from all eight letters for the first position, but only from seven
letters for the second position. For the third position, you can choose from all
eight letters, so the number of ordered triples is:

5.

a) You can think of the question as asking how many different ordered 9-tuples
there are in the set of nine letters {A, R, T, I, C, H, O, K, E}. There are nine
different ways to choose the first letter in the arrangement, eight different ways
to choose the second letter, seven different ways for the third, and so on. Thus,
the total number of arrangements of the letters of the word ARTICHOKE is:

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8 8 8 = 512

8 7 8 = 448

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 362 880
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b) There are four vowels in the word ARTICHOKE. The first letter has to be a
vowel, so there are only four ways to select the first letter in the arrangement.
There are five consonants, so there are five possibilities for the second position.
Now there are seven letters left to choose from for the third position, six for the
fourth, and so on.

Thus, the total number of arrangements of the letters of the word


ARTICHOKE with the first letter being a vowel and the second letter being a
consonant is:

4 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 100 800

c) The overall answer is the same as (b) above since, in both cases, one of the
letters must be a vowel and another letter must be a consonant. All that
changes is the order in which they are multiplied, since the five consonants are
put into the 8th position instead of the 2nd position.

6.

a) There are 26 letters in the alphabet, so you can choose each letter in 26
different ways. Each number can be chosen in 10 different ways using the
numbers 0 to 9. So, the total number of licence plates possible is:

b) If no letters can be repeated, you can choose the first letter in 26 ways, the
second letter in 25 ways, and the third letter in 24 ways. The three numbers
can still be chosen in 10 different ways each, since repetition is allowed for
the numbers. The total number of licence plates possible if no letter can be
repeated is:

7.

Starting from the left, you can choose the first digit in nine ways since you cant
start with 0 (because you ignore a zero in the first position unless it is after a
decimal point). You can choose the second digit in 10 ways, the third in 10, and the
last in 10, so the total number of four-digit numbers is 9 10 10 10 = 9000.

8.

This is similar to the previous question. The first digit cant be 0, so you have nine
choices for the first digit and 10 choices for each of the following digits. So, the
number of possible seven-digit telephone numbers is

9 10 10 10 10 10 10 = 9 000 000

9.

a) 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 5 4 = 20
3 2 1
3!
b) (n + 1)! = (n + 1) n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 1 = n + 1
n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 1
n!

4 7 6 5 4 3 2 5 1 = 100 800

26 26 26 10 10 10 = 17 576 000

26 25 24 10 10 10 = 15 600 000

c) (n + 3)! = (n + 3) (n + 2) (n + 1) n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 1 = (n + 3) (n + 2) (n + 1) n
(n 1) (n 2) . . . 1
(n 1)!
+ 1) n (n 1) (n 2) . . . 1
= (n + 3) (n + 2) (n + 1)

n
(n 2) . . . 1

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10. (n + 1)! = (n + 1) n (n 1) (n 2) (n 3) (n 4) . . . 1 = (n + 1)n


(n 1) . . . 2 1
(n 1)!

The equation becomes:

n(n + 1) = 132

n2 + n 132 = 0

This is a quadratic formula with a = 1, b = 1, and c = 132. Solving for n using the
quadratic formula gives:

1 (1)2 4(1)(132)
2
1 529
=
2
1 23
=
2
24
22
= 12 and
= 11. Since n must be positive, then n = 11.
The two values are
2
2
n2 + n 132 = 0 can be solved by factoring since n is a positive integer.

(n 11)(n + 12) = 0

n = 11 or n = 12

n = 11

7!
7!
=
= 7 6 = 42
(7 2)! 5!
4!
4!
= =4
b) P(4,1) =
(4 1)! 3!
c) P(12,2) = 12! = 12! = 12 11 = 132
(12 2)! 10!
d) P(11,4) = 11! = 11! = 11 10 9 8 = 7920
(11 4)! 7!

11. a) P(7,2) =



12.

a) There are five choices for each of the two numbers in the ordered pair, so there are:

b) This is the same as asking for the number of arrangements of two elements
chosen from the five elements or the number of permutations of two elements
from a set of 5.

13.

a) This question is asking for the number of arrangements of three elements from
a set of 10.

5 5 = 25 ordered pairs

The answer is:


5!
5!
P(5,2) =
= = 5 4 = 20
(5 2)! 3!

10!
10!
=
= 10 9 8 = 720
(10 3)! 7!
b) You have three positions to fill. You have 10 ways to fill the first position, nine
ways for the second position, and eight ways for the last one.

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P(10,3) =

Thus, the total is 10 9 8 = 720, which is the same as found in part (a).
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n=

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14.

This is the same as finding the number of permutations of four items chosen from
5!
5!
= = 120 .
five items or P(5,4) =
(5 4)! 1!

Therefore, 120 four-letter words can be formed from HORSE with no repetition.

15.

a) This is the same as finding the number of permutations of five items chosen
from six.

b) Since two of the letters must be kept together, you can think of them as one
letter. Therefore, there are five remaining letters to be arranged in
P(5,5) = 5! = 120 ways.

P(6,5) =

6!
= 6! = 720
(6 5)!

The two letters that must remain together can be arranged in two ways (TU
and UT). Therefore, the total number of words that can be formed is
120 2 = 240.

Lesson 7
16.

a) C(20,5)

P(20,5)
5!
20 19 18 17 16
=
= 15 504
5 4 3 2 1

b)

15

C3

P(15,3)
3!
15 14 13
=
= 455
3 2 1

c) C(6,6)

d) C(4,0)

P(6,6) 6!
= =1
6!
6!

17.

P(4,0) 1
4!
4!
= = 1, because P(4,0) =
= =1
0!
1
(4 0)! 4!
a) C(10,3) = C(10,7)

Calculate the left- and right-hand sides of the equation and show that the
answers are the same.

The left-hand side:

C(10,3) =

10 9 8
= 120
3 2 1

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The right-hand side:


10 9 8 7 6 5 4
C(10,7) =
= 120
7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Both sides are equal.

b) 15 + 15 = 16
2 3 3

You should expand the left-hand side of the equality and simplify. Then, do the
same with the right-hand side and show that the answers are the same.

Step 1: Left-hand side

Remember that the brackets are just another way to say C(n,r), so

= 105 + 455 = 560

Step 2: Right-hand side

16 16 15 14
3 = 3 2 1 = 560

Both sides are equal.

18.

The question does not ask you to distinguish between the members of the
committee in any way. This is a combination type question, since order does not
matter.

The number of combinations is:


C(9,6) =


19.



20.

Because you want to select three cards from 10 cards, you are making an unordered
selection of three out of 10 items. This means that you want to count the number of
possible combinations of three of the 10 items. The number of such combinations is:
P(10,3) 10 9 8
=
= 120
3!
3 2 1
So, there are 120 ways to select three cards out of the 10.
C(10,3) =

Since the order is irrelevant, this means that you can arrange the cards youre
holding in any order and its still considered to be the same hand. So, the total
number of possible hands is the number of combinations of five objects chosen
from 52.
C(52,5) =

P(9,6) 9 8 7 6 5 4
=
= 84
6!
6 5 4 3 2 1

P(52,5) 52 51 50 49 48
=
= 2 598 960
5!
5 4 3 2 1

The answer in factorial form is:


52!
C(52,5) =
(52 5)!5!

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15 15 15 14 15 14 13
2 + 3 = 2 1 + 3 2 1

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21.

You need to choose three out of the four aces in the deck, which can be done in
C(4,3) ways. Next, you need to choose two other cards by choosing two of the
remaining 48 non-aces in the deck. This can be done in C(48,2) ways. So, the total
number of ways to construct such a hand is:

C(4,3) C(48,2)

22.

a) The order of the selected marbles makes no difference, so the number of ways
to select four marbles from 10 is:
P(10,4)

C(10,4) =
4!

= 10 9 8 7 = 210
4 3 2 1

There are 210 ways to select four marbles from the jar.

4 3 2 48 47

= 4 512
3 2 1
2 1

b) You can select the red marble in C(4,1) ways, the two yellow marbles in C(4,2)
ways, and the two orange marbles in C(2,2) ways.

Thus, the marbles can be chosen in:

C(4,1) C(4,2) C(2,2) =

23.

Remember that you can write:

n (n 1) n 2 n
=
2
2 1
n2 n
= 66 , so n2 n = 132, so n2 n 132 = 0
So, if C(n,2) = 66, you have
2

P(4,1) P(4,2) P(2,2)

1!
2!
2!

4 4 3 2 1

= 24 ways
1 2 1 2 1

C(n,2) =

This is a quadratic equation, which can be solved using the quadratic formula:

x=

So, n =

b b 2 4ac , with x = n, b = 1, a = 1, and c = 132


2a

(1) (1)2 4(1)(132)


2
1 529 1 23
=
=
2
2

The two solutions are n = 12 and n = 11. Since n must be positive, you have n = 12.

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Lesson 8
24.

25.

There are 10 letters in the word STATISTICS, which include three Ts, three Ss,
and two Is. The number of arrangements is:
10!
= 50 400 different arrangements
3! 3! 2!
Remember, there are two red 7s and 13 clubs in a deck of cards. The desired
outcomes are mutually exclusive, since you are interested in either a red 7 or a card
of clubs. So, you can use the additive counting principle to find the number of ways
to choose a red 7 or a card of clubs, which is:

(Number of ways to choose a red 7) + (number of ways to choose a card of clubs) =

C(2,1) + C(13,1) = 2 + 13 = 15

So, there are 15 ways.

26.

You are looking for two outcomes, but you are not sure if they are mutually
exclusive. You can start by listing all of the outcomes of rolling two dice, and the
sum you get.

Here is a table of possible outcomes where the top row of the table is the value of
the first die and the first column on the left is the value of the second die.
1

10

10

11

10

11

12

From the table, you can see that its not possible to get a 3 on one die and still get
a total of 10 for both of them (the maximum is 9). So, these are mutually exclusive
outcomes. Therefore, you can apply the additive counting principle.

From the table, you can also see that there is a total of 12 outcomes when one die is
a 3 (these are shown in bold, that is, 3&1, 3&2, 3&3, 3&4, 3&5, 3&6, 1&3, 2&3, 3&3,
4&3, 5&3, 6&3), and that there are only three ways that you can get a sum greater
than 10 (that is, two 11s and one 12).

Therefore, the total number of ways to get one of the two desired outcomes is
12 + 3 = 15.

27.

You are being asked to find the number of ways that two events can occur together,
not just one or the other way. Because both events have to occur, this question can
be solved using the multiplicative counting principle.

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Number of ways to roll an odd number and toss a tail =

(Number of ways to roll an odd number) (number of ways to toss a tail)

=31=3

So, there are three ways.

28.

a) Direct approach:

The condition is satisfied if there are three adults in the group, four adults in
the group, five adults in the group, or six adults in the group.

A group with three adults will have three children, so the number of ways in
which a group can be chosen with three adults and three children is:
P(6,3) P(12,3)
C(6,3) C(12,3) =

= 4400
3!
3!
A group with four adults will have two children, so the number of ways in
which a group can be chosen with four adults and two children is:
P(6,4) P(12,2)
C(6,4) C(12,2) =

= 15 66 = 990
4!
2!
A group with five adults will have one child, so the number of ways in which a
group can be chosen with five adults and one child is:
P(6,5) P(12,1)
C(6,5) C(12,1) =

= 72
5!
1!
A group with six adults will have no children, so the number of ways in which
a group can be chosen with six adults and no children is:
P(6,6) P(12,0)
C(6,6) C(12,0) =

=1
6!
0!
The total number of ways in which a group with at least three adults can be
chosen is:

b) Indirect approach:

4400 + 990 + 72 + 1= 5463


Subtract the number of groups that does not include at least three adults from
the total number of any six-member group from 18 people (six adults and 12
children)
= C(18,6) [C(6,0) C(12,6)] [C(6,1) C(12,5)] + [C(6,2) C(12,4)]
=

P(18,6) P(6,0) P(12,6) P(6,1) P(12,5) P(6,2) P(12,4)

0!
6!
6! 1!
5! 2!
4!

= 18 564 (1 924) (6 792) (15 495)

= 5463 ways

29.

P(11,3)
= 165 ways.
3!
b) If you try to use the direct approach, you will have to find the sum of the
number of ways of choosing one man, two men, three men, and so on. In
this case, its easier to use the indirect approach and subtract the undesired
outcomes (that is, no men at all) from the number of ways of choosing a team
of three from 11.

a) The coach can select three competitors in C(11,3) =

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Therefore, the number of ways of choosing at least one man is:

C(11,3) C(7,0) C(4,3)


P(7,0) P(4,3)

161 ways
= 165

= 165 4 = 164
0!
3!

c) The coach can choose a team with exactly one woman in C(4,1) C(7,2) =
4 21 = 84 ways.
The sum of money can be the result of combining one bill, two bills, three bills, or
four bills.

The number of sums with one bill is equal to the number of ways of choosing one
bill from four:
P(4,1) 4
= C(4,1) =
= =4
1!
1

The number of sums with two bills is equal to the number of ways of choosing two
bills from 4:
P(4,2) 4 3
C(4,2) =
=
=6
2!
2 1
The number of sums with three bills is equal to the number of ways of choosing
three bills from 4:
C(4,3) =

P(4,3) 4 3 2 1
=
=4
3!
3 2 1

The number of sums with four bills is equal to the number of ways of choosing four
bills from 4:
P(4,4)
C(4,4) =
=1
4!

Therefore, there is a total of 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 = 15 possible sums.

31.

You can use the inclusion-exclusion principle to solve this problem. Let set B
represent the basketball players, and set V represent the volleyball players.

n(B V) = n(B) + n(V) n(B V)

You know that 20 members play at least one of the two sports, so n(B V) = 20.
This simplifies the equation to:

20 = 15 + 10 n(B V)

n(B V) = 15 + 10 20

n(B V) = 5

There are five members who play on both teams.

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30.

10

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32.

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a) Draw a Venn diagram like the following one.


S

C
9

34

6
8

15

10

17

Let S (the universal set) represent all of the students in first-year science. Let M
represent the students taking math, P the students taking physics, and C the
students taking chemistry.

You were given that n(M P C) = 15, so you could begin by placing the
number 15 in the small region that is the intersection of the three sets. Next,
you were given that n(M C) = 23, so you know that altogether, there must be
23 students who lie inside both circles M and C. But M C corresponds to two
regions of the diagram. Since you know that one of them is 15, you can write 8
in the region of the intersection that is not also common to P.

Similarly, the 6 was placed because you know that the two regions making up
P C must add up to 21, and that one of them is 15. The 10 was placed where it
is because you know that the two regions making up M P must add up to 25.
The 9 can be placed in C because you know that the four regions making up C
must add up to 38 and youve already got 29 in there (that is, 15 + 8 + 6 = 29).
Finally, the remaining regions can be filled in because you know the totals for
P and M.

Therefore, the total number of students who got an A in at least one of the
three subjects is:

17 + 10 + 8 + 15 + 6 + 34 + 9 = 99

b) The number of students who did not get As in any of the three subjects is
400 99 = 301.

33.

There are three main sets of participants. Let set W represent the number of
women, O the number over 25, and B the number of brown-eyed participants. You
are asked to find the number of participants in the union of these three sets, which
can be denoted as n(W B O). You use the inclusion-exclusion formula to solve for
the union of three sets:

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n(W B O) = n(W) + n(B) + n(O) n(W B) n(W O) n(B O) + n(W B O)

You may find it easier to follow using words to describe each category:

n(women or brown-eyed or over 25) =

n(women) + n(brown-eyed) + n(over 25) n(women and brown-eyed) n(women


and over 25) n(brown-eyed and over 25) + n(women and brown-eyed and over
25)

= 18 + 18 + 13 8 6 5 + 2

= 32

There are 32 participants who are women or are brown-eyed, or are over 25 years of
age.

34.

To find rows 7 and 8 of Pascals Triangle, you write out the triangle up to the
required rows, using the rule of Pascals Identity.
row 0

row 1

row 2

row 3

row 4

row 5
row 6

row 7
row 8

1
1

5
6
28

10

21

15

7
8

4
10

20
35

56

1
5
15

35
70

1
1
6
21

56

1
7

28

1
8

35.

You use Pascals Identity to solve this question. The leading element of the row is
always 1. The next element is in position 1 and is the sum of the two values above it,
so it equals:

1 + 15 = 16

The next element is 15 + 105 = 120, and so on.


row 15
row 16

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15
16

105
120

455
560

1365
1820

3005
4370

5005
8010

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Lesson 9

11

12

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36.

Every row in the triangle adds up to a power of 2. Thus, you know that 2n = 2048
where n is the row number. A quick way to find n is to use a scientific calculators yx
function to calculate various powers of 2, until you find the match. Doing this, you
will find that 2048 = 211. So, 2048 is the sum of row 11.

37.

To solve this, you need to find the different combinations of all of the different sizes
that can be formed from a set of four items. You can use the property that the sum
of the elements of row number n is 2n, which is the sum of all of the combinations
except the combination with no elements. Since you have four elements, the
number of different sums of money that can be obtained is 24 1 = 15.

38.

a) One of the possible paths is shown here.


Bus Stop

N
W

E
S

House

You can write this path as W, S, S, W, W, W, S, W. Finding the number of paths


is equivalent to finding the number of ways that three Ss (or the number of
five Ws) can be placed in eight spots, which is the same as saying 8 choose 3
(or 8 choose 5). The calculation for the C(8,3) case is:
P(8,3) 8 7 6
=
= 56
3!
3 2 1
You get the same answer if you calculate C(8,5), but usually it is easier to work
with the one with smaller numbers.
C(8,3) =

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13

Bus Stop

b)

N
W

Store
E

You break this problem down into two steps and use the multiplicative
principle.

Will can walk from the bus stop to the store in C(3,1) ways and from the store
to his house in C(5,2) ways. So, the total number of ways that he can walk
home and visit the store is:

C(3,1) C(5,2) = 3

House

P(5,2)
54
= 3
= 30 ways
2!
2 1

39.

E
1

U
1

L
4

C
3

10

10

The number of ways to spell EUCLID is:

1 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 32

Notice also that you can get the same answer without having to draw the triangle.
The word EUCLID is six letters long. This means that you want to find the sum
of the 5th row in Pascals Triangle, which is 2n or in this case, 25 = 32

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40.

1
2

1
3

3
8

5
13

13

The number of paths to the X in the bottom left-hand corner of the board is 13.

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