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Components of a Force

Forces acting at some angle from the coordinate axes can be


resolved into mutually perpendicular forces called components.
The component of a force parallel to the x-axis is called the xcomponent, parallel to y-axis the y-component, and so on.

Components of a Force in XY Plane

Given the slope of the line of


action of the force as v/h (see
figure to the right)
,

Components of a Force in 3D Space


Given the direction cosines of
the force:

Given the coordinates of


any two points along the
line of action of the force (in
reference to the figure
shown, one of the points is
the origin):
Let d = distance OB

Vector Notation of a Force (Also called Rectangular


Representation of a Force)
Where is a unit vector. There are two cases in determining ; by
direction cosines and by the coordinates of any two points on the
line of action of the force.
Given the direction cosines:

Given any two points P1(x1, y1) and P2(x2, y2) on the line of action of
the force:

Where i, j, and k are unit vectors in the direction of x, y and z


respectively.

Note:

Also note the following:


Fx F cos x F

dy
dx
d
, Fy F cos y F
, FZ F cos Z F Z
d
d
d

Thus,

In simplest term

Problem 001
Determine the x and y
components of the forces shown
below in Fig P-001

Solution 001

Rectangular Representation

From the above vector notation of forces, F x is the coefficient


of i and Fy is the coefficient of j.
Problem 002
Compute the x and y
components of each of the four
forces shown in Fig. P-002.

Solution 002

Rectangular Representation

The coefficients of i and j from the vector notations are the


respective x and y components of each force.
Problem 003
Which of the following correctly
defines the 500 N force that passes
from A(4, 0, 3) to B(0, 6, 0)?
A. 256i - 384j + 192k N
B. -256i + 384j - 192k N
C. -384i + 192j - 256k N
D. 384i - 192j + 256k N
Solution 003
From the figure
Unit vector from A to B:

Rectangular representation of F:

Answer: B
Problem 004
Referring to Fig. 1.4,
determine the angle between
vector A and the y-axis.
A. 65.7
B. 73.1
C. 67.5
D. 71.3

Solution 004

Answer: D

Problem 005
Find the components in the x, y,
u and v directions of the force P
= 10 kN shown in Fig. P-005

Solution 005

Problem 006
The force P of magnitude 50 kN is acting at 215 from the xaxis. Find the components of P in u 157 from x, and v
negative 69 from x.
Solution 006
From the figure:

Check:
(okay!)

By Sine Law:

answer
answer

Problem 007
A block is resting on an incline of slope 5:12
as shown in Fig. P-007. It is subjected to a
force F = 500 N on a slope of 3:4. Determine
the components of F parallel and
perpendicular to the incline.

Solution 007

answer
answer
Problem 008
A force P = 800 N is shown in Fig. P-008.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Find the y-component of P with respect to x and y axis.


Find the y'-component of P with respect to x' and y' axis.
Find the y-component of P with respect to x' and y axis.
Find the y'-component of P with respect to x and y' axis.

Solution 008
Part (a)

y-component of P with respect to x


and y axis
answer

Part (b)
y'-component of P with respect to x'
and y' axis

Part (c)
y-component of P with respect to x'
and y axis
The figure formed is in the shape
of equilateral triangle. Thus,
answer

Part (d)
y'-component of P with respect
to x and y' axis
By Sine Law

answer

Problem 009
The body on the 30 incline in Fig. P-009 is acted upon by a force
P inclined at 20 with the horizontal. If P is resolved into
components parallel and perpendicular to incline and the value of
the parallel component is 1800 kg, compute the value of the
perpendicular component and that of P.

Solution 009
Click here to show or hide the solution

Perpendicular component

answer
Value of P

answer
Problem 010
The triangular block shown
in Fig. P-010 is subjected to the
loads P = 1600 lb and F = 600
lb. If AB = 8 in. and BC = 6 in.,
resolve each load into
components normal and
tangential to AC.

Solution 010

Problem 011
The magnitude of vertical
force F shown in Fig. P016 is 8000 N. Resolve F
into components parallel
to the bars AB and AC.

Solution 011
By Sine Law:
answer

answer

Problem 012
If the force F shown in Fig.
P-017 is resolved into
components parallel to the
bars AB and BC, the
magnitude of the
component parallel to bar
BC is 4 kN. What are
the magnitudes of F and its
component parallel to AB?
Solution 012

By Sine law

answer

answer