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Calculations

10.1 Introduction

This chapter presents methods for estimating original gas in place,

gas reserves, and recovery factors' for a variety of reservoir drive

mechanisms. The first section discusses volumetric methods, including data requirements, calculation techniques, and limitations

of the methods. This first section includes equations for volumetric dry reservoirs, dry-gas reservoirs with water influx, and volumetric wet-gas and gas-condensate reservoirs. Next, we discuss

analysis techniques based on material-balance concepts. We begin

by deriving an equation for a volumetric gas reservoir in which

gas expansion is the primary source of energy. This equation is

then modified to include other external and internal energy sources

(e.g . water influx, compressibility of connate water, and rock PV)

and the effects of water vaporization and hydrocarbon phase

changes. Applications of both volumetric and material-balance

methods are illustrated with examples.

10.2 Volumetric Methods

Volumetric methods consider the reservoir PV occupied by

hydrocarbons at initial conditions and at later conditions after some

fluid production and associated pressure reduction. The later conditions often are defined as the reservoir pressure at which production is no longer economical. Volumetric methods are used early

in the life of a reservoir before significant development and production. These methods, however, can also be applied later in a

reservoir's life and often are used to confirm estimates from

material-balance calculations. The accuracy of volumetric estimates

depends on the availability of sufficient data to characterize the reservoir's areal extent and variations in net thickness and, ultimately,

to determine the gas-bearing reservoir PV. Obviously, early in the

productive life of a reservoir when few data are available to establish subsurface geologic control, volumetric estimates are least accurate. As more wells are drilled and more data become available,

the accuracy of these estimates improves.

Data used to estimate the gas-bearing reservoir PV include, but

are not limited to, well logs, core analyses, bottomhole pressure

(BHP) and fluid sample information, and well tests. These data typically are used to develop various subsurface maps. Of these maps,

structural and stratigraphic cross-sectional maps help to establish

the reservoir's areal extent and to identify reservoir discontinuities, such as pinchouts, faults, or gas/water contacts. Subsurface

contour maps, usually drawn relative to a known or marker formation, are constructed with lines connecting points of equal elevation and therefore portray the geologic structure. Subsurface

formation thickness. With these maps, the reservoir PV can then

be estimated by planimetering the areas between the isopachous lines

and using an approximate volume calculation technique, such as

the pyramidal or trapezoidal methods. Refs. I and 2 provide additional details for estimating reservoir PV.

After the gas-bearing reservoir PV has been estimated, we can

calculate the original gas in place and, for some abandonment conditions, estimate the gas reserves. The form of the volumetric equations varies according to the drive mechanism and type of gas. In

the following sections, we present equations for dry-gas reservoirs,

dry-gas reservoirs with water influx, and wet-gas reservoirs.

10.1.1 Volumetric Dry-Gas Reservoirs. As the name implies, a

volumetric reservoir is completely enclosed by low-permeability

or completely impermeable barriers and does not receive pressure

support from external sources, such as an encroaching aquifer. In

addition, if the expansion of rock and the connate water are negligible, then the primary source of pressure maintenance is gas expansion resulting from gas production and the subsequent pressure

reduction.

When we usc "dry gas," we are referring to a reservoir gas made

up primarily of methane with some intermediate-weight hydrocarbon molecules. The dry-gas-phase diagram) in Fig. 10.1 indicates

that, because of this composition, dry gases do not undergo phase

changes following a pressure reduction and therefore are solely gases

in the reservoir and at the surface separator eonditions. In this sense,

"dry" does not refer to the absence of water but indicates that no

liquid hydrocarbons form in the reservoir, wellbore, or surface

equipment during production.

Beginning with the real-gas law, the gas volume at initial reservoir conditions is

Vgi

zi nRT

- - ...................................

(10.1)

Pi

Similarly, the gas volume at standard conditions is

Vsc=G=

zscnRTsc

.............................. (10.2)

Psc

Equating the number of moles of gas at initial reservoir conditions to the number at standard conditions and rearranging, we can

solve for the initial volume of gas at standard conditions:

231

Pi Vgi ZSCTSC

G = - - - - . .............................. (10.3)

Zi T

Psc

Assuming that the PV occupied by the gas is constant during the

producing life of the reservoir gives

Vgi =43.56Ahcp(1-Swi)' ................. . ...... (10.4)

G=43.56Ahcp(l-Sw;)

PizscTsc

o..y g ..

. ................. . (l0.5)

PscZi T

If we express the reservoir PV in barrels, Eq. 10.5 becomes

G=

7,758Ahcp(l-Sw;)

.......................... (10.6)

Bgi

5.02z;T

where Bgi

............... (l0.7)

Pi

Tsc =60oP=520oR, and zsc=1.0, also was derived in Chap. 1.

We can estimate the gas reserve or the total cumulative gas production, Gp ' over the life of the reservoir as the difference between

original gas in place, G, and gas in place at some abandonment

conditions, Ga :

In terms of Eq. 10.6, the gas reserve is

7,758Ahcp(l-Swi)

........ (10.9)

Bg; )

, .............. (lO.lD)

Bga

William D. McCain Jr.'s Proper1ies of Petroleum Fluids, Second Edition, Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990 3 ).

5.02(0.860)( 180+460)

1.105 RB/Mscf.

2,500

Pi

is given by Eq. lD.6:

7,758Ahcp(1-Sw;)

G=-----Bg;

(7,758)(1,000)(10)(0.20)(1-0.25)

1.105

10,531 X I03 Mscf=IO.5 Bcr.

Bga

Simple gas expansion is a very efficient drive mechanism. Even

though gas saturations at abandonment can be quite high, ultimate

recoveries of 80% to 90% ofthe original gas in place are routinely

achieved in volumetric gas reservoirs. The percentage of the original

volume of gas in place that can be recovered depends on the abandonment pressure, which usually is determined by economical rather

than technical considerations. Note that we developed Eq. 10.10

with the assumption that the initial connate water saturation does

not change. This assumption is valid in volumetric gas reservoirs

where the initial connate water saturation is immobile.

Example 1O.1-Calculating Original Gas In Place in a Volumetric Dry-Gas Reservoir. The following reservoir data were estimated from subsurface maps, core analysis, well tests, and fluid

samples obtained at several wells. Use these data with the volumetric method to estimate original gas in place. Assume a volumetric dry-gas reservoir.

= 2,500

psia.

1,000 acres.

180F.

cp

20%.

Swi = 25%.

h = lD ft.

zi = 0.860.

Pi

A

T

Solution.

I. First, calculate B gi . Zi was estimated with methods presented

in Chap. 1.

10.2.2 Dry-Gas Reservoirs With Water Influx. Many gas reservoirs are not completely closed but are subjected to some natural

water influx from an aquifer. Water encroachment occurs when

the pressure at the reservoir/aquifer boundary is reduced following gas production from the reservoir. Recall that we derived the

equation for a volumetric reservoir with the assumption that the

reservoir PV occupied by gas remained constant over the reservoir's productive life. However, in gas reservoirs with water influx, this PV decreases by an amount equal to the net volume of

water entering the reservoir and remaining unproduced. Therefore,

if we can estimate both the initial gas saturation and the residual

gas saturation at abandonment (i.e., the endpoint saturations), we

can use volumetric equations to calculate the gas reserves in a gas

reservoir with water influx.

Under these conditions, we consider the initial gas volume and

the remaining gas volume plus the volume of water that has entered the reservoir. Beginning with Eq. 10.8, the equation for the

cumulative gas production in terms of the initial and final water

saturations is

7,758Ahcp(l-Swi)

7, 758Ahcp(l- Swa)

.. .... (10.11)

Bga

In terms of the residual gas saturation, Sg" at abandonment, Eq.

1O.11 becomes

7,758AhcpSgr

........... (10.12)

232

Zi = O.S60.

Swi = 25%.

Pa = 750 psia.

h = 10 ft.

Za = 0.550.

Sgr = 0.35.

<I> = 20%.

T = 180F.

Ev = 100%.

II

Eqs. 10.11 through 10.13 were derived with the implicit assumption that the volumetric sweep efficiency for gas is 100%. In fact,

water may displace gas inefficiently in some cases. Results from

early corellood studies 4 5 suggest that significant gas volumes can

be bypassed and eventually trapped by an advancing water front.

In addition, because of reservoir heterogeneities (i.e., natural fractures and layering) and discontinuities (i.e., sealing faults and lowpermeability shale stringers), the encroaching water does not sweep

some portions of the reservoir effectively, resulting in high residual gas saturations in these unswept areas and higher abandonment

pressures than for volumetric dry-gas reservoirs. To account for

the unswept portions of the reservoir, we introduce a volumetric

sweep efficiency, E v , into the volumetric equation. With Ev, Eq.

10.8 can be rewritten as

Solution.

I. First, calculate the gas FVF at initial and abandonment conditions. The gas FVF at initial conditions, calculated in Example

10.1, is Bgi = 1.105 RB/Mscf. The gas FVF at abandonment is

5.02(0.550)(180+460)

- - - - - - - =2.356 RB/Mscf.

750

2. The gas reserve at an abandonment pressure of 750 psia is

estimated with Eq. 10.16:

Eq. 10.14 can be rewritten in a form similar to Eq. 10.10,

7,758Ah<l>(l-Sw;)

7,758Ah<I>(1-Swa)

Bgi

Bga

Gp = - - - - - - -

7,758Ah<I>(I-Swi)

+(1

.

Bgo Sgi

Ev .

Because gas often is bypassed and trapped by the encroaching

water, recovery factors for gas reservoirs with waterdrive can be

significantly lower than for volumetric reservoirs produced by simple gas expansion. In addition, the presence of reservoir heterogeneities, such as low-permeability stringers or layering, may reduce

gas recovery further. As noted previously, ultimate recoveries of

SO% to 90% are common in volumetric gas reservoirs, while typical recovery factors in waterdrive gas reservoirs can range from

50% to 70%.

Eq. 10. 16 requires estimates of Sgr and E v. Coreflood studies

of representative reservoir samples are the best method for determining residual gas saturations. In the absence of laboratory studies,

Agarwal 6 proposed correlations for estimating this saturation.

Although they are based on laboratory data representing a wide

range of lithologies and petrophysical properties, these correlations,

summarized in Appendix J, may not be accurate for all situations

and should be applied judiciously. We also can use numerical simulation to estimate volumetric sweep efficiencies if sufficient reservoir data are available.

for a Gas Reservoir With Water Influx. Calculate the gas reserve

and the gas recovery factor using the data given in Example 10. I

and assuming that the residual gas saturation is 35 % at an abandonment pressure of 750 psia. Assume that the volumetric sweep

efficiency is 100%.

2,500 psia.

A = 1,000 acres.

=

BgiSgr

(1.105)(0.35)

Bga(l-Sw)

(2.356)(1-0.25)

---"'---"-- = 1- - - - - - - 0.781=78.1%.

F=I

Bgi(Sgr I

l-E v-+

.

Bga Sgi

Ev

................... (10.16)

Pi

(1.105)(0.35)

(2.356)(1-0.25)

1.105

7,758Ah<l>(I- S wi) [

Bgi

[I _

................. (10.15)

Bga

Gp =

= (7 ,75S)(I,000)(l0)(0.20)(I-0.25)

Example lO.3-Calculating Gas Reservoir and Recovery Factor for a Gas Reservoir With Water Influx. Using the same data

from Example 10.2, calculate the gas reserve and the gas recovery

factor if Sgr =35 % at Po =750 psia and Ev=60%.

A

Zi

Swi

Pi

Bgi

h

za

Sgr

Po

Bga

<I>

T

Ev

1,000 acres.

= 0.860.

25%.

2,500 psia.

1.105 RB/Mscf.

to ft.

0.550.

0.35.

750 psia.

2.356 RB/Mscf.

20%.

ISOF.

60%.

Solution.

I. Gp is calculated with Eq. 10.16.

Gp

7,758Ah<l>(l-Swi)

Bgi

t-Ev)l

Bgi (Sgr

I-Ev- - + - Bga Sgi

Ev

(7,75S)(I,000)(1O)(0.20)(1-0.25)

1.105

1.105(0.35 1-0.60)]

x 1 (0.60)-- - - + - - 2.356 0.75

0.60

172x 10 3 Mscf==7.2 Bcf.

233

I. , ., ....Ir

w.,

T.mp..........

William D. McCain Jr.'s Properties of Petroleum Fluids, Second Edition, Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990 3 ).

- +1-E

- -)

Bgi (Sgr

F=l- E v -

Bga

Sgi

Ev

=1-(0.60)-- - - + - - 2.356 0.75

0.60

Fig. 10.3-Phase diagram for a gas-condensate reservoir (after William D. McCain Jr. 's Properties of Petroleum Fluids,

Second Edition, Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990 3 ).

consisting of a high-pressure separator, a low-pressure separator,

and a stock tank, the reservoir gas gravity is estimated from a recombination of the produced well stream,

'Yw=

R1+

+R2+R3

Mo

=0.681

Similarly, for a two-stage separation system consisting of a highpressure separator and stock tank, the reservoir gas gravity is estimated with

=68.1 %.

Like dry gases, the primary composition of a wet gas is methane;

however, unlike dry gases, wet gases have more of the intermediateand heavier-weight hydrocarbon molecules. Because of this composition, formation of a liquid phase in the wellbore and surface

production equipment accompanies pressure and temperature reductions during production. In this context, "wet" does not mean that

a gas is wet with water but refers to the hydrocarbon liquid that

condenses at surface conditions.

The behavior of wet-gas systems is best illustrated with the phase

diagram 3 in Fig. 10.2. The reservoir fluid is classified as a wet

gas if it is single-phase gas at reservoir conditions but surface pressure and temperature conditions fall within the two-phase region. 3

The reservoir pressure path in Fig. 10.2 does not enter the twophase envelope; thus, no liquid hydrocarbons are formed in the

reservoir. The separator conditions, however, lie within the twophase envelope, and some gas condenses at the surface.

For a wet-gas reservoir, the total initial gas in place, G r , which

includes gas and the gaseous equivalent of produced liquid hydrocarbons, is

Gr =

............ (10.18)

133,3161'0

7,758Ahct>(1-S wi )

, ........................ (10.17)

Bgi

where Bgi is defined by Eq. 10.7. Because of the gas condensation at the surface, the surface and reservoir gas properties are different. Consequently, the use of Eq. 10.17 requires knowledge of the

gas properties at reservoir conditions. A laboratory analysis of the

recombined surface fluid production is the most accurate source

of these properties; however, in the absence of such an analysis,

we can estimate these properties using correlations of surface production data. These correlations are recommended for fluids in

which the total nonhydrocarbon components (i.e., CO 2 , H 2 S, and

N 2 ) do not exceed 20%.7

'Yw=

Rl +

.................. (10.19)

133,3161'0

+R3

Mo

If the molecular weight of the stock-tank liquid (i.e., the condensates produced at the surface) is unknown, we can estimate it

using either

5,954

Mo =

............................. (10.20)

or Mo=

42.431' 0

.............................. (10.21)

1.008-1'0

Accurate estimates of gas properties at reservoir conditions require that all surface gas and liquid production be recombined according to Eq. 10.18 or 10.19. However, gas production from

low-pressure separators and stock tanks often is not measured. Gold

et al. 7 developed correlations for estimating the additional gas production from the secondary separator and stock tank, Gpa , and the

vapor equivalent pf the primary separator liquid, Veq' These correlations, express~ in terms of generally available production data,

are presented in Chap. 1 and are used in Eq. 10.22 to estimate the

reservoir gas gravity:

'Yw=

..................... (10.22)

Rl + Veq

After the gas gravity at reservoir conditions is known, we can

use the method established previously to estimate the gas deviation

factor. Using this value, we can estimate the total original gas in

place with Eq. 10.17.

234

Because of condensation, some gas at reservoir conditions is produced as liquids at the surface. The fraction of the total initial gas

in place that will be produced in the gaseous phase at the surface is

fg=

(133,316)(0.76)

59,550+

+415

130.3

Rf

, ......................... (10.23)

=0.77.

132,800yo

Rf +----

Mo

where R f includes gas and condensate production from all separators and the stock tank. The fraction of the original total gas in place,

G r , that will be produced in the gaseous phase is

G=fgGr. .............................. . .... (10.24)

and the original oil (condensate) in place is

3. Using the method presented in Chap. 1, the pseudocritical pressure and temperature are estimated to be Ppe =655 psia and

Tpe =395R, With these pseudocritical values, calculate the pseudo reduced pressure and temperature, respectively:

Pi

5,500

Ppr=- =

Ppe

1.000fgGr

N ----"'---'-. ...... ...................... . (10.25)

288+460

---=1.89.

395

Rf

reservoirs only when the reservoir pressure is above the original

dewpoint pressure, Gas-condensate reservoir fluids also are characteristically rich with intermediate- and heavier-weight hydrocarbon molecules. Because of this composition, a liquid phase forms

not only in the wellbore and surface equipment but also in the

reservoir.

The behavior of a ga~-condensate fluid is illustrated with the phase

diagram 3 in Fig. 10.3. Upon discovery, if the reservoir pressure

is above the dewpoint pressure and if the temperature lies between

the critical temperature and thc cricondentherm, then a single-phase

fluid (i.e., gas) exists in the reservoir. Once the reservoir pressure

falls below the dewpoint pressure, however, liquid hydrocarbons

form in the reservoir, and we cannot use surface production data

to estimate reservoir fluid properties accurately. Under these conditions, accurate estimates of the gas and condensate in place require a laboratory analysis of the reservoir fluid.

Finally, using the method in Chap. 1 to estimate the gas deviation factor at original reservoir conditions gives Zj 1.06.

4. The gas FVF at initial reservoir conditions is

5.20z;T

B gj =---=

Pj

Pi = 5,500 psia.

h=50ft.

T = 288F.

tjJ = 0.21.

A = 1,000 acres.

Swi = 0.32.

(5.02)(1.06)(288+460)

=0.72 RB/Mscf.

5,500

From Eq. 10.17, the total initial gas in place, which includes gas

and the gaseous equivalent of condensates, is

7,758Ah4>(l-Sw;)

Gr = - - - - - Bg;

(7,758)( 1.000)(50)(0.21)(1-0.32)

0.72

=76.9x

Place for a Volumetric Wet-Gas Reservoir. Estimate the total

initial gas in place, the fraction of the total initial gas in place that

will be produced in the gaseous phase, and the initial oil (condensate) in place using the data given below. Table 10.1 gives the initial surface production data.

=8.40

655

10 6

Mscf=76.9 Bcf.

5. The fraction of the total initial gas in place that will be produced in the gaseous phase at the surface is

Rf

132.800yo

Rr+---Mo

where the total producing GOR is

Therefore,

Rf

Solution.

I. First, calculate the properties of the stock-tank oil (i.e., condensate). The specific gravity is

132,800yo

f =

Rf +

Mo

59,965

132,800(0.76)

59,965+----130.3

=0.99.

141.5

141.5

131.5+'YAPI

131.5+54.5

'Yo =

=0.76.

5,954

5,954

G=fgGr=(0.99)(76.9)=76.1 Bcf.

1,000fgGr

N=--""----Rf

130.3 Ibmllbm-mol.

54.5-8.811

2. For a two-stage separation system, use Eq. 10.19 to calculate

the gas gravity at reservoir conditions:

(1,000)(0.99)(76.9 x 10 6 Mscf)

59,965 scf/STB

= 1.3 x 10 6 STH.

Material-balance methods provide a simple. but effective, alternative to volumetric methods for estimating not only original gas in

235

Primary separator

Stock-tank gas

Stock-tank oil

Specific Gravity

of Surface Fluids

Field

Production

0.72

1.230

54.5API

59,550 scflSTB

415 scf/STB

1,050 STBID

material-balance equation is simply a statement of the principle of

conservation of mass, or

(original hydrocarbon mass) -(produced hydrocarbon mass)

=(remaining hydrocarbon mass).

In 1941, Schilthuis 8 presented a general form of the materialbalance equation derived as a volumetric balance based on the simple

assumption that the reservoir PV either remains constant or changes

in a manner that can be predicted as a function of change in reservoir pressure. With this assumption, he equated the cumulative observed surface production (expressed in terms of fluid production

at reservoir conditions) to the expansion of the remaining reservoir fluids resulting from a finite decrease in pressure. We also

can include the effects of water influx, changes in fluid phases, or

PV changes caused by rock and water expansion.

Sometimes called production methods, 9 material-balance

methods are developed in terms of cumulative fluid production and

changes in reservoir pressure and therefore require accurate measurements of both quantities. Unlike volumetric methods, which can

be used early in a reservoir's life, material-balance methods cannot be applied until after some development and production. However, an advantage of material-balance methods is that they estimate

only the gas volumes that are in pressure communication with and

that may be ultimately recovered by the producing wells. ConverseIy, volumetric estimates are based on the total gas volume in place,

part of which may not be recoverable with the existing wells because of unidentified reservoir discontinuities or heterogeneities.

Therefore, comparisons of estimates from both methods can provide a qualitative measure of the degree of reservoir heterogeneity

and allow a more accurate assessment of gas reserves for a given

field-development strategy.

Another advantage of material-balance methods is that, if sufficient production and pressure histories are available, application

of these methods can provide insight into the predominant reservoir drive mechanism, whereas the correct use of volumetric

methods requires a priori knowledge of the primary source of reservoir energy. As we shall see in the next section, a plot of plz vs.

Gp will be a straight line for a volumetric gas reservoir in which

gas expansion is the primary reservoir drive mechanism. However,

consistent deviations from this straight line indicate other internal

or external energy sources.

Once the predominant reservoir drive mechanism has been identified, we can apply the correct material-balance plotting functions

to estimate original gas in place and gas reserves. Like volumetric

methods, the form of the material-balance equation varies depending on the drive mechanism. In the following sections, we present

the material-balance equations for volumetric dry-gas reservoirs,

dry-gas reservoirs with water influx, volumetric geopressured gas

reservoirs, and volumetric gas-condensate reservoirs.

10.3.1 Volumetric Dry-Gas Reservoirs. As stated, volumetric

reservoirs are completely enclosed and receive no external energy

from other sources, such as aquifers. If rock and connate water

expansions are negligible sources of internal energy, then the

dominant drive mechanism is gas expansion as reservoir pressure

decreases. Comparison of typical values of gas and liquid compressibilities shows that gases can be as much as 100 or even 1,000

times more compressible than relatively incompressible liquids, so

simple gas expansion is a very efficient drive mechanism, often

allowing up to 90% of in-place gas to be recovered.

Separator

Conditions

Pressure

Temperature

(psia)

(oF)

200

14.7

14.7

62

60

60

reservoir, we can derive a material-balance equation by equating

the reservoir PV occupied by the gas at initial conditions to that

occupied by the gas at some later conditions following gas production and the associated pressure reduction. Referring to the tanktype model in Fig. 10.4, we write the material-balance equation as

GBgi=(G-Gp)B g , ............................. (10.26)

pressure, res bbl, and (G-Gp)B g = reservoir volume occupied by

gas after gas production at a pressure below the initial reservoir

pressure, res bbl.

We can rewrite Eq. 10.26 as

Gp=G(I- ::). ............................. (10.27)

later conditions, Bg/B g =(ziP)/(zp), into Eq. 10.27, we obtain an

equation in terms of the measurable quantities, surface gas production, and BHP:

ZiP

Gp=G ( 1 - ) , .............................. (10.28)

ZPi

( 1- ZiP).

ZPi

P

Pi (

Gp )

Pi

Pi

Zi

Zi

ZiG

graphical analysis techniques, the form ofEq. 10.29 suggests that,

if the reservoir is volumetric, a plot of plz vs. Gp will be a straight

line, from which we can estimate both original gas in place and

gas reserve at some abandonment conditions.

As stated earlier, if sufficient pressure and production data are

available to define the line fully, we also can determine the dominant

drive mechanism from the shape of the plot. Although consistent

deviations from a straight line suggest other sources of reservoir

energy, errors in pressure and production measurements also can

cause departures from a straight line. Obviously, early in the productive life of a reservoir when few data are available, this plotting

technique may not be accurate. Fig. 10.5 shows typical shapes of

plz plots for selected gas reservoir drive mechanisms.

The same material balance is applicable to wet-gas reservoirs,

but we must base Z and Zi on the reservoir gas gravity and Gp must

include the vapor equivalent of the condensate produced. The original gas in place, G, and the gas reserve to abandonment includes

the vapor equivalent of liquid and must be corrected to determine

dry-gas and gas-condensate reserves,

Example 10.5-Calculating Original Gas in Place Using Material Balance for a Volumetric Dry-Gas Reservoir. Estimate the

original gas in place for the reservoir described below using the

material-balance equation for a volumetric dry-gas reservoir where

236

Gp

Geopressured

WealcWater

Drive

GBgi

Initial Conditions (p =

(G - Gp) Bg

pJ

pJ

G

reservoir showing reservoir PV occupied by gas at initial and

later conditions.

Table 10.2 gives the reservoir pressure and production history.

Solution.

I. First, prepare a plot of plz vs. Gp (Fig. 10.6) using the data

in Table 10.3.

2. Extrapolation of the best-fit line through the data to plz =0

indicates that G=42 MMscf. Note that, if no measurements of initial reservoir pressure are available, we also can estimate Pi from

the extrapolation of the line to Gp =0. For this example, Pi =4,000

psia or P;lZi =5.000 psia.

In addition, the trend of the data (i.e., a straight line) suggests

that the reservoir is volumetric. As mentioned, consistent deviations from a straight line often indicate that gas expansion is not

the predominant reservoir drive mechanism.

surface:

/lVp=We-WpBw' ............................. (10.31)

GBgi=(G-Gp)B g + We - WpBw . ................. (10.32)

where GB$; = reservoir PV occupied by gas at initial reservoir pressure, res bbl; (G-Gp ) = reservoir PV occupied by gas following

gas production at a pressure below the initial pressure, res bbl; and

/l Vp =change in reservoir PV occupied by gas at later conditions

due to water influx, res bbl.

Referring to Fig. 10.7, we can see that the change in reservoir

PV at some reduced pressure is affected not only by the volume

may appear as a straight line initially but eventually will deviate

from the line. The deviation will occur early for a strong waterdrive

and later for a weak aquifer support system. Chierici and Pizzi 12

studied the effects of weak or partial waterdrive systems and concluded that accurate gas-in-place estimates are difficult to obtain,

especially early in the production period or when the aquifer characteristics are unknown. Similarly, Bruns et ai. 13 showed that significant errors in gas-in-place estimates occur ifthe effects of water

encroachment are ignored in the material-balance calculations~

Before the effects of water influx on gas reservoir behavior were

completely understood, early deviations from a straight line on a

plot of plz vs. Gp often were attributed to measurement errors. In

some instances, errors in field pressure measurements can mask

the effects of water influx, especially if a weak waterdrive is present; however, consistent deviations from a straight line suggest that

the reservoir is not volumetric and that additional energy is being

supplied to the reservoir. Bruns et al. studied the effects of water

influx on the shape of the plot of plz vs. Gp and showed that the

shape and direction of the deviation from straight line depend on

the strength of the aquifer support system and on the aquifer properties and the reservoir/aquifer geometry.

If the initial gas in place is known from other sources, such as

volumetric estimates, we can calculate We from Eq. 10.32. In

practice, however, usually both We and G are unknown, and calculation of initial gas in place requires an independent estimate of

water influx. Therefore, in the next section we discuss three methods

for estimating water influx.

Methods/or Estimating Water Influx. Water influx results from

a reduction in reservoir pressure following gas production. Water

influx tends to maintain, either partially or wholly. the reservoir

pressure. In general, both the effectiveness of the pressure support

system and the water influx rates are governed by the aquifer char-

HISTORY, EXAMPLE 10.5

EXAMPLE 10.5

section, we derived a material-balance equation for a volumetric

gas reservoir. A critical assumption in this derivation is that the

reservoir PV occupied by the gas remained constant throughout the

productive life of the reservoir. However, if the reservoir is subjected to water influx from an aquifer, this PV is reduced by an

amount equal to the volume of encroaching water. In addition, the

water entering the reservoir provides an important source of energy (I.e., pressure support) that must be considered in materialbalance calculations.

We can derive a material-balance equation for a waterdrive system by equating the reservoir PV occupied by the gas at initial conditions to that occupied by the gas at later conditions plus the change

in PV resulting from water influx (Fig. 10.7). A general form of

the material-balance equation is

GBgi=(G-Gp)Bg+/lVp ........................ (10.30)

plz

(MMscf)

Gp

(psia)

(MMscf)

(psia)

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

0

2.460

4.920

7.880

11.200

0.80

0.73

0.66

0.60

0.55

0

2.460

4.920

7.880

11.200

5,000

4,795

4,545

4,167

3,636

Pi

Gp

237

6000

'--pi

5000

4000

'R

~

-~

co

3000

"'2000

1000

'"

,..-__............G

vp., Wp

""-

GBgi

~.

,

'"

I'

-----

G=~2IMMscf

Initial Conditions (p

=pU

Later Conditions (p

< pU

30

40

10

20

Cumulative Gas Production,Gp (MMscf)

50

Fig. 10.6-Graphlcal solution to the material-balance equation for a volumetric dry-gas reservoir, Example 10.5.

areal extent, and the pressure history along the original reservoir/aquifer boundary. Note that, in practice, estimating water influx is very uncertain, primarily because of the lack of sufficient

data to characterize the aquifer (especially its geometry and areal

continuity) completely. Because wells are seldom drilled intentionally into an aquifer to gain information, these data must be elther

assumed or inferred from the geologic and reservoir characteristics.

Generally, reservoir/aquifer systems are classified as either edgewater or bottomwater drive. In edgewater-drive systems, water

moves into the reservoir flanks, while bottomwater drive occurs

in reservoirs with large areal extents and gently dipping structures

where the aquifer completely underlies the reservoir. van Everdingen and Hurst's l4 and Carter and Tracy's 15 methods are applicable only to edgewater-drive geometries or for combined geometries

that can be modeled as edgewater-drive systems, while the Fetkovich

method l6 is applicable for all geometries. Refs. 17 and 18 address

the problem of water influx from bottomwater-drive systems and

propose models for these geometries. In this chapter, we discuss

the van Everdingen and Hurst, Carter and Tracy, and Fetkovich

methods.

van Everdingen-Hurst 14 Method. In 1949, van Everdingen and

Hurst presented an unsteady-state model for predicting water influx. As Fig. 10.8 shows, the reservoir/aquifer system is modeled

as two concentric cylinders or sectors of cylinders. The inside cylindrical surface, defined by radius rn represents the reservoir/aquifer boundary, while the outer surface is the aquifer boundary defined

by r a' Radial flow of water from the aquifer to the reservoir is described mathematically with the radial diffusivity equation "

o2po

1 oPo

oPo

oro

ro oro

Olo

WI!

Fig. 10.7-Material-balance model showing reservoir PV occupied by gas at initial and later conditions for a dry-gas reservoir with water influx.

where the dimensionless variables are defined in terms of the aquifer properties. The dimensionless pressure for constant-rate conditions at the reservoir/aquifer boundary is

oJX)708kh( Pi - p)

.. (10.34)

Po=

Pj-P

Po

P;-Pr

ro=r/r" .................................... (10.36).

and for

in days.

0.OO633kt

cPP,Crr~

............................... (10.37)

van Everdingen and Hurst derived solutions to Eq. 10.33 for two

reservoir/aquifer boundary conditions-constant terminal rate and

constant terminal pressure. The water influx rate for the constanttenninal-rate case is assumed constant for a given period, and the

pressure drop at the reservoir/aquifer boundary is calculated. For

the constant-pressure case, the water influx rate is determined for

a constant pressure drop over some finite time period. Reservoir

engineers usually are more interested in determining the water influx than the pressure drop at the reservoir/aquifer boundary, so

~~ .......-=--_:::-1.

~'t

f~

>-

~Ps

-------------

IQ

II.!

ffi

~~ o

Fig. 10.S-Radial geometry for the van Everdlngen-Hurst 14

reservoir/aquifer model.

------------------2

3

TIME PERIODS

AP'

5

In the van Everdingen-Hurst 14 model (after Craft and

Hawkins 2 ).

238

TABLE 10.4-PRESSURE HISTORY AT THE RESERVOIR/

AQUIFER BOUNDARY, EXAMPLE 10.6

Gas

Reservoir

p,

Time

(psia)

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

o

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

Aquifer

EXAMPLE 10.6

Time

(days)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

p

(psia)

0

15.1

30.2

45.3

60.4

75.5

90.6

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

!1Pn

(psi)

0

2.5

9.5

20.0

32.5

34.0

33.0

QeD(tDnl

0

10.1

17.0

23.1

29.0

34.5

40.0

conditions. Ref. 14 gives additional details on the constant-rate solution.

van Everdingen and Hurst derived the constant-pressure solutio~s

in terms of a dimensionless water influx rate defined by

reservoir/aquifer model.

and end of the period. Thus. for an initial aquifer pressure, Pi, the

average pressure during the first time period is PI 1/2 (Pi+Pl)'

Similarly, for the second time period. P2 = '12 ( p, + P2)' In general, for the nth time period, Pn Ih(Pn_1 +Pn)'

We can then calculate the pressure changes between time periods as follows.

Between the initial and first time periods.

t.PO=Pi-P,=Pi

1/2 (Pi+PI)

Ih(Pi-P,),

I1Pl

qD

... (10.38)

0.OO708kMp

I1Pn=Pn-l-Pn

1/2 (P n -2+Pn-l)

'12(Pn_' +Pn)

>'D

,I

p.

)(0.OO633k)I"

0.OO708kht.p

p.clr~

qDdtD

.'

\

1.119clhr~ t.p 0

q dt

W

(i.e., constant-pressure solution), and the cumulative water influx

for n time periods is

n

We(tn)=B

i= 1

cumulative water influx than in influx rate. Therefore. because cumulative water influx. We. is

If the angle subtended by the reservoir is less than 360 0 (Fig.

10.8), then B is adjusted as follows:

We = J qwdt .............. .

. ..... (10040)

B=

1.119clhr~( 3~)'

........................ (10.46)

'ID

QpD= \ qDdtD. ................... (10041)

I1p;=

QpD=

We

l. 1I9c thr~ t. P

Thus, We

.......................... (10.42)

\.l19clhr~t.pQpD'""""'' .(10.43)

ber of pressure reductions or increases, we can use superposition

of the solution givcn by Eq. 10.43 to model the water-influx behavior for a given pressure history. This method assumes that the

pressure history at the original reservoir/aquifer boundary can be

approximated by a series of step-by-step pressure changes. Fig.

shows the modeling of a pressure history.

Referring to Fig. 10.9, we define the average pressure in each

period as the arithmetic average of the pressures at the beginning

ro.9

above, is calculated with

I/Z

and Pi-l =Po =initial pressure. Each I1Pi in Eq. 10.44 is multiplied by the dimensionless cumulative water influx, QpD' evaluated at a dimensionless time corresponding to the time for which I1Pi

has been in effect. For example. I1Pl will have been in effect for

the total productive life of the reservoir. so QpD will be evaluated

at (tl -OlD' In general, I1Pn will have been in effect for the time

period t-tn_I' so QpD that multiplies I1Pn will be evaluated at

(t-tn-1)D'

To simplify calculations, Tables E-4 and E-5 in Appendix E present values for dimensionless cumulative water influx as a function

of time for both infinite-acting and finite aquifers. 19 AlternativeIy, for the special case of infinite-acting aquifers, Edwardson et

al. 20 developed polynomial expressions for calculating QpD' These

expressions, Eqs. 10.48 through 10.50, depend on dimensionless

time:

239

TABLE 10.6-SUMMARY OF FINAL RESULTS,

EXAMPLE 10.6

n

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

AQUIFER BOUNDARY, EXAMPLE 10.7

Time

(days)

We

(psia)

(RB)

0

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

0

11,471

62,898

191,374

436,219

781,237

1,212,890

(days)

p, at Reservoirl

Aquifer Boundary

(psia)

9

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3.709

3,680

3,643

For 'D<O.OI,

QPD(1D)=2~.

tD =

............................. (10.48)

tjlp.clr~

'D=

QpD(tD) =

1.2838tJ' + 1.19328tD +0.269872tJ/2 +0.0085529418

................................ (10.49)

For tD>200,

-4.29881 +2.025661D

tjlp.c l L2

................ (10.50)

for both infinite-acting and finite aquifers.

The van Everdingen and Hurst method also is applicable to linear

flow geometries (Fig. 10.10). For linear flow, we define a dimensionless time in terms of the reservoir length, L, as

0.00633kt

tjlp.c l L2

We<1n) =B

voir/aquifer system given below. Assume an infinite-acting aquifer. The estimated properties of the aquifer are given below; Table'

10.4 summarizes the reservoir/aquifer pressure history.

................................ (l0.51)

tjI

p.

180.

275 md.

6x 10- 6 psia- I .

= 19.2 ft.

rr = 5,807 ft.

Solution.

I. Calculate Busing Eq. 10.46:

= 0.209.

= 0.25 cpo

k

ci

h

i=1

Everdingen-Hurst Method. Calculate the water influx for the reser-

r;

r;

i=1

we find that the cumulative water influx for n time periods is

We(tn)=B

................................ (W.5i.)

water cumulative influx, QpD(tD)' For an infinite-acting aquifer,

we can use Eqs. 10.50 through 10.52, use Klins e1 al. 's21 equations, or read the values directly from Table E-4. For finite aquifers, we must use Klins et ai.'s equations or Table E-5.

5. Calculate the water influx:

In(tD)

tD=

, ............................... (10.37)

0.00633k1

QpD(tD) =

0.00633kt

B=

1.119tj1clhr~(-{}-)

360

Everdingen and Hurst method models all aquifer flow regimes (i.e.,

transient and pseudosteady-state) and is applicable to both infiniteacting and finite aquifers. Example 10.6 illustrates the following

calculation procedure.

l. First, calculate the parameter B for radial flow,

B=1.I19tj1Clhr~C~)

=454.3 RB/psi.

2. For each time period, calculate IIp defined by

ilPn= Ih(Pn-2-Pn)' For example, at n=1

......................... (10.46)

B=0.178tj1c1hL. ............................... (10.53)

period,

IlPi=Ih(Pi-2-Pi), i=I,2 .. .n.

production history. For a radial flow geometry,

IlpI

For n=6,

IlP6 = Ih(P4 -P6)= lh(3,709-3,643)=33.0 psi.

on our schedule. Use the dimensionless time defined by Eq. 10.37

for a radial system:

0.00633k1

'D=---tjlp.clr~

(0.00633)(275)1

0.1651.

(0.209)(0.25)(6 x 10 -6)(5,807)2

240

For example, at t=91.5 days, lD=0.165(91.5)=15.1.

4. For each tD computed in Step 3, calculate a dimensionless cumulative water influx. Because we are assuming an infinite-acting

aquifer, we can use either Eqs. 10.48 through 10.50 or Table E-4.

For this example, we have chosen to use the equations.

The value of tD determines which equation to use. For example, at 91.5 days (n=I), ID=15.1, so we use Eq. 10.49.

i-I

We(IDj)=

I:

qDn(tDn+I-IDn)+

n=O

I:

qDn(tDn+l-tDn)

n=i

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ....... (10.55)

j

or We(tDj)=We(tDi) +

I:.

n=l

QpD(tD) =

1.2838t; + 1.19328tD +0.269872152 +0.00855294tJ

1+0.616599t; +0.04130081D

Using the convolution integral, 14 we also can express the cumulative water up to the jth interval as a function of variable

pressure:

+0.00855294(15.1)2]/[1 +0.616599(15.1) v, +0.0413008(15.1)]

= 10.1.

through 4.

5. Next, calculate We using Eq. lO.44. Note that, although this

calculation procedure assumes equal time intervals, the method also

is applicable for unequal time intervals with slight modifications.

I:

.6.PiQpD(tn- t i-I)D

1=1

For example, at n = 1

I

We(tDl)=B

I:

Il.PiQpD(t1 -ti-l)D

i=1

dil

methods to solve for the cumulative water influx in terms of the

cumulative pressure drop, .6.pn:

Wen=Wen-l +(tDn-tDn-l)

We(tDn)=B

" ID]

W e(IDj) =B \

B.6.Pn-Wen-IpD(tDn)

"

PD{tDn)-tDn-1PD(tDn)

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ (l0.58)

where Band ID are the same variables defined previously for the

van Everdingen-Hurst method. The subscripts nand n-I refer to

the current and previous timesteps, respectively, and

Il.P n =Paq.i -P w .............................. (l0.59)

PD is a function of tD and for an infinite-acting aquifer, can be

=454.3[(2.5)( 10.1)]

370.529tlf

PD(tD)

=1l,471 RB.

Similarly, for n=6,

+ 137.582tD +5.69549152

328.834+265.488t; +45.2157tD+t52

.... (10.60)

approximated by a curve-fit equation, 20

W e(tD6)=B

I:

.6.PiQpD(t6- t l-I)D

PD(tD) =

716.441

'8

+(32.5)(23.1) +(34)( 17.0) + (33)(10.1)1

=

1,212,890 RB.

Carter-Tracy 15 Method. van Everdingen and Hurst's method

was developed from exact solutions to the radial diffusivity equation and therefore provides a rigorously correct technique for calculating water influx. However, because superposition of solutions

is required, their method involves rather tedious calculations. To

reduce the complexity of water influx calculations, Carter and Tracy

proposed a calculation technique that does not require superposition and allows direct calculation of water influx.

If we approximate the water influx process by a series of constantrate influx intervals, then the cumulative water influx during the

jth interval is

............................... (10.61)

Eqs. lO.6O and 10.61 model infinite-acting aquifers; however,

Klins et al. 21 developed similar polynomial approximations for

both infinite and finite aquifers.

We should stress that, unlike the van Everdingen-Hurst technique,

the Carter-Tracy method is not an exact solution to the diffusivity

equation, but is an approximation. Research conducted by Agarwal,6 however, suggests that the Carter-Tracy method is an accurate alternative to the more tedious van Everdingen-Hurst calculation

technique. The primary advantage of the Carter-Tracy method is

the ability to calculate water influx directly without superposition.

The Carter-Tracy method, which also is applicable to infiniteacting and finite aquifers, is illustrated with the following calculation procedure and Example lO. 7.

I. First, calculate the van Everdingen-Hurst parameter B for radial flow,

B=

\.119t/>cchr~

C:) .........................

(10.46)

B=0.178t/>cchL . ............................... (10.53)

j -\

I:

iP

=B[Il.PI QpD(tD6) + .6.P2 QpD(tD5) + Il.P3 QpD{tD4)

+ 270.0381D +71

influx through the ith interval and between the ith and jth intervals:

that correspond to each time period on the production history. For

a radial flow gcometry,

We(tDj)

n=O

241

(days)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

tl.Pn

0

15.1

30.2

45.3

60.4

75.5

90.6

tOn-l

tOn -tOn - 1

(psi)

port On )

Po,(t on )

0

0

15.1

30.2

45.3

60.4

75.5

0

15.1

15.1

15.1

15.1

15.1

15.1

0

5

19

45

84

113

150

0

1.83

2.15

2.34

2.48

2.59

2.67

0

0.0296

0.0155

0.0105

0.0080

0.0064

0.0054

For example, at n

0.OO633kt

(10.37)

<pJ.l.Ctr~

I,

For n=2,

AP2=Paq.;-P2=3,793-3,774

0.00633kt

, ." ............. , .............. (10.51)

tD=

<PJ.l.ctL2

4. For each tD computed in Step 3, calculate a PD and a PD"

For infinite-acting radial aquifer, we can use Eqs, 10.60 and 10.61

to calculate PD and PD' respectively:

370.529t;

PD(tD)

+ 137.582tD+5.69549t612

328.834+265.488t; +45.2157ID+1612

... (10.60)

and PO(ID) =

716.441

+270.038tD+71

0.00633kt

tD=---<pJ.l.c,r;

(0.00633)(275)t

----------=0.165t.

(0.209)(0.25)(6 X 10 -6)(5,807)2

tD =0.165(91.5) = 15.1.

4. Calculate dimensionless pressures and pressure derivatives at

each of the dimensionless times computed in Step 3. The dimensionless pressures are calculated with Eq. 10.60. For example, at

tD= 15.1,

370.529t;

+ I 37.582tD+5.69549t612

328.834+265.488t; +45.2157ID+t612

We also can use Klins et al. '5 21 equations. For finite aquifers,

we must use Klins et ai.'s equations.

5. Calculate the water influx:

328.834+265.488(15.1) 'I! +45.2157(15.1) +(15.1)312

BAPn-Wen-IPO(tDn) ]

Wen=Wen-1 +(tDn-tDn-l) [

19 psi.

on the schedule. Use the dimensionless time defined by Eq. 10.37

for a radial geometry:

I '

PD(tDn)-tDn-IPD(tDn)

................................ (10.58)

1.83.

with Eq. 10.61. For example. at tD=15.1,

pb(tD) =

Method. Calculate the water influx for the reservoir/aquifer system described in Example 10.6 and compare the results with those

from the van Everdingen-Hurst method. Assume an infinite-acting

aquifer. The properties of the aquifer are given below; Table 10.7

summarizes the reservoir/aquifer pressure history.

<p = 0.209.

J.I. = 0.25 cpo

()

180

k 275 md.

e, 6x 10- 6 psia- I .

h = 19.2 ft.

rr = 5,807 ft.

0

Solution.

1. Calculate the parameter Busing Eq. 10.46:

B = 1. 119<pc

thr~

c: )

=454.3 RB/psi.

2. For each time period, calculate Ap,. defined by Eq. 10.59:

APn=Paq,i-Pn'

716.441

+ 270.038tD +71

=[716.441 +46.7984(15.1) 'h +270.038(15.1)

+ 71.0098(15.1)312 ]/[1,296.86(15.1) liz + 1,204.73(15.1)

+618.618(15.1)312 + 538.072(15.1)2 + 142.41 (15.1 )512]

=0.0296.

Table 10.8 summarizes the intermediate results.

5. Calculate the water influx using Eq. 10.58:

Wen-I +(tDn-tDn-l) [

Bt::..Pn

Wen-1PO(tDn)

J,

PD(tDn) -tDn-IPO(tDn)

EXAMPLE 10.7

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

Time

(days)

(psia)

(RB)

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

18,743

84,482

230,461

489,431

819,766

1,245.061

We

242

TABLE 10.l0-AQUIFER PI's

J for Radial Flow

(STB/D-psi)

(STB/D-psi)

0.00708kh(O/360)

J = ----'---'p.[ln(r air ,) - 0.75)

J = 3(0.001127)kwh

Finite, constant

pressure

0.00708kh(O/360)

J=-----p. In(r air r)

0.001127kwh

J""----p.L

Infinite

J=

Type of Outer

Aquifer Boundary

Finite, no flow

p.L

kwh

0.00708kh(O/360)

--r:====p.

InJO.0142ktJ,pp.clr~

J=

---;====1 ,000p.JO.0633ktl,pp.c t

is defined as the initial amount of encroachable water and represents the maximum possible aquifer expansion. After differentiating Eq. 10.64 with respect to time and rearranging, we have

For example, at n = I,

Wei dPaq

=0+(15.1)

454.3(5) -0

Pi

1.83-0

r I JPi I

- - - - I - d t , ......... , ........... (10.67)

\

;aq.i Paq -Pr

0 Wei

= 18,743 RB.

For n=2,

454.3(19)-18,743(0.0155)

=18,743(15.

2.15 -15.1(0.0155)

=84,482 RB.

Fetkovich l6 Method. To simplify water influx calculations further, Fetkovich proposed a model that uses a pseudosteady-state

aquifer PI and an aquifer material balance to represent the system

compressibility. Like the Carter-Tracy method. Fetkovich' s model

eliminates the use of superposition and therefore is much simpler

than van the Everdingen-Hurst method. However, because Fetkovich neglects the early transient time period in these calculations,

the calculated water influx will always be less than the values predicted by the previous two models.

Similar to fluid flow from a reservoir to a well, Fetkovich used

an inflow equation to model water influx from the aquifer to the

reservoir. Assuming constant pressure at the original reservoir/aquifer boundary, the rate of water influx is

qw=

dWe

dt

dt

law, n=l; for fully turbulent flow, n=0.5).

Assuming that the aquifer flow behavior obeys Darcy's law and

is at pseudosteady-state conditions, n = I. Based on an aquifer material balance, the cumulative water influx resulting from aquifer

expansion is

We=ctWi(Paq,i-Paq)' .......................... (10.63)

Eq. 10.63 can be rearranged to yield an expression for the average aquifer pressure,

=Pa q,{ 1-

WeI

PI for various reservoir/aquifer boundary conditions and aquifer

geometries. Note that we must use the aquifer properties to calculate J.

From Eq. 10.67, we can derive an expression for (Paq -Pr) , and

following substitution into Eq. to.68 and rearranging, we have

dWe

(-JPi t )

--=J(Paq.i-Pr)exp - - , ..... , .......... (10.69)

dt

Wei

........ (10.70)

Recall that we derived Eq. 10.70 for constant pressure at the reservoir/aquifer boundary. In reality. this boundary pressure changes

as gas is produced from the reservoir. Rather than using superposition, Fetkovich assumed that, if the reservoir/aquifer boundary

pressure history is divided into a finite number of time intervals,

the incremental water influx during the nth interval is

Wei (JPaq./ltn)]

.1Wen =--(Paq,n-l-Pm) l-exp .

'

Paq,l

WeI

TABLE 10.11-PRESSURE HISTORY AT THE RESERVOIRI

AQUIFER BOUNDARY, EXAMPLE 10.8

t

(days)

0

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

p,

(psia)

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3.643

243

................ (10.72)

and Pm =

Pm-l +Pm

............................ (10.73)

2

Although it was developed for finite aquifers, Fetkovich's method

can be extended to infinite-acting aquifers. For infinite-acting aquifers, the method requires the ratio of water influx rate to pressure

drop to be approximately constant throughout the productive life

of the reservoir. Under these conditions, we must use the aquifer

PI for an infinite-acting aquifer.

The following calculation procedure illustrates this method.

1. Calculate the maximum water volume, Wei' from the aquifer

that could enter the gas reservoir if the reservoir pressure were reduced to zero.

where Wi depends on the reservoir geometry and the PV available

to store water.

2. Calculate J. Note that the equations summarized in Table 10.10

depend on the boundary conditions and aquifer geometry.

3. Calculate the incremental water influx, ~Wen' from the aquifer during the nth time interval.

~Wen =

JPaq,i~tn

Paq.1

We.

................................ (10.71)

4. Calculate Wen:

176.3x 10 6 RB.

2. Calculate J. For radial flow in an aquifer with a finite no-flow

outer boundary, from Table 10.10,

0.00708kh(01360)

J=-----p,[ln(ra/r r) -0.75]

(0.00708)(275)(19.2)(180/360)

0.25[ln(83,26O/5,807) -0.75]

=39.1 STBID-psi.

3. For each time period, calculate the incremental water influx

using Eq. 10.71.

LlWen

where (from Eq. 10.72)

JPaq,i~ln )

We,

Wen-I)

Paq,n-l =Paq.i ( 1- ~ ,

e,

Pm-I +Pm

Pm=---2

For example, at n = I,

Wen =

~Wei'

PaqO=Paq,i(1

i=l

WeO )=3,793(10

6 )=3,793 psi.

Wei

176.254 X 10

Method. Calculate the water influx for the reservoir/aquifer system described below. Assume a finite radial aquifer with an area

of 250,000 acres and having a no-flow outer boundary. The estimated aquifer properties are given below; Table 10.11 summarizes the pressure history at the reservoir/aquifer boundary. Note

that the aquifer is a sector of a cylinder where 0= 180 0

rf>

= 0.209.

rr

p,

k =

0=

c/ =

h =

5,807 ft.

0.25 cpo

275 md.

180.

6xlO-6 psia- l

19.2 ft.

_

Prj

3,793+3,788

-----=3,790.5 psia.

2

PrO+Prl

2

q i~tl

Wei (PaqO-Prl) 1-exp (JPa

LlWel =--.

' .

Paq"

We,

=

176.3 X 10 6

[

(3,793-3,790.5) l-exp

3,793

.

x [- (39.1)(3,793)(91.5)]J

176.3 X 10 6

Solution.

1. Calculate the maximum volume of water from the aquifer,

Wei' that could enter the reservoir if the reservoir pressure were

reduced to zero. Note that the aquifer shape is a sector of a cylinder, so the initial volume of water in the aquifer is

=8,587 RB.

Similarly, at n=2,

Wei)

1f(r5 -r~)hr/>(0/36O)

We;

8,587

176.3 X 10

(43,560)(250,000) (360)

11'

180

_

Pri +Pr2

Pr2=

2

=3,792.8 psi.

3,788+3,774

3,781 psia.

2

=83,260 ft.

Wei Paq.1

LlI

(JPa q,i . 2

We,

Therefore,

11'(83,260 2 - 5,807 2 )(19 .2)(0.209)(180/360)

5.615

where

=7.744x 10 9 RB.

W=------,

5.615

Wi=

)1

176.3x106

[

----(3,792.8-3,781) 13,793

)1

244

(psia)

(psia)

Prn

Paq.n

(psla)

Paq.n-l -Prn

(psia)

3.793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3.680

3.643

3.793.0

3,790.5

3,781.0

3,761.0

3.728.5

3,694.5

3.661.5

3,793

3,792,8

3,791.9

3,789.7

3.785.1

3,778.4

3.769,8

0

2.5

11.8

30.9

61.2

90,6

116.9

Prn

-0n

1

2

3

4

5

6

(39.1)(3.793)(91.5)

expX [ -

176.3x 10 6

=40,630 RB.

4. Calculate the cumulative water influx during each timestep.

For example, at the end of the first timestep,

n=J

WeI =

i=1

timestep is

n=2

We2 =

E

;=1

a Dry-Gas Reservoir With Water Influx. Once the water influx

has been calculated, we can estimate the original gas in place with

material-balance concepts. Recall from Sec, 10.3.2 the general form

of the material-balance equation including water influx:

GBgi=(G-Gp)Bg+We-BwWp ....... , ... ,., ... (10,74)

GpBg + WpBw

We

(Bg-Bg)

(Bg-B gi )

--'.-2.---.!..-=G+

.............. (10.75)

We=Cf(p,t), ......... , ................. , ... ,. (10.76)

0

8.587

40.630

106,399

210,285

311,642

402.060

=G+

(Bg -Bgi )

Cf(p,t)

.1.pn

'I2(P n -2 -Pn)'

For example, at n= 1 (Le., t= 182.5 days),

'h(PO-Pl)

= 0.24.

1.0 cpo

r, = 3,383 ft.

'12(5,392-5,368)

12.0 psi.

.1.ps = 'h(P3 -Ps)= 'h(5,245-5, 147) =49.0 psi.

Use the dimensionless time defined by Eq, 10.37 for a radial geometry.

tD=

0.00633kt

(0.00633)(50)t

<pp.Ctr~

(0.24)(1.0)(6 X iO -6)(3,383)2

=0.019[,

=3.5.

3, For each dimensionless time computed in Step 2, calculate a

dimensionless cumulative water influx. We are assuming an infiniteacting aquifer, so we can use Eq. 10.49.

QpD(tD) =

1.2838t5 + 1, 19328tD +0.269872t612 +0.00855294t5

For example, at n = I,

, .... ,., . . . . , .... 00.77)

(B g -Bgi )

Example 1O.9-Estimating Original Gas In Place With Material Balance for a Dry-Gas Reservoir With Water Influx. Estimate

the original gas in place and water influx constant using the materialbalance equation developed for water influx in a dry-gas reservoir.

Assume an unsteady-state, infinite-acting aquifer. According to

McEwen,22 the volumetric estimate of original gas in place is

200 X 10 6 Mscf. Table 10.13 gives the pressure and production

histories; the estimated aquifer properties are summarized below.

p.

I +0.616599t5 +0.0413008tD

predominant reservoir drive mechanism, then a plot of

[(GpBg)+(WpBw)]/(Bg-Bg;) vs, f(p,I)/(Bg-B g!) will be a

straiglit line with a slope equal to C and an intercept equal to G,

The functional form of f(p.t) varies according to the water influx

model used. Any water influx model, such as steady state, unsteady

state, or pseudosteady state, can be used with Eq. 10.77. Note that,

if the incorrect water influx model is assumed, the data may not

exhibit a straight line, Example 10.9 illustrates the application of

Eq. 10.77 for an unsteady-state water influx model.

<p

0

8,587

49,217

155.616

365.901

677.543

1,079,603

Everdingen and Hurst method, estimate water influx for each

timestep as described below.

I. Calculate .1.Pn , where

GpBg+WpBw

We

(RB)

k = 50 md.

e t = 6xlO-6 psia

(J = 360.

h

20.0 ft.

Bw = 1.0 RB/STB.

.1.Pl

.1.Wei =.1.Wel + .1.We2 =8,587 +40,630=49,217 RB,

AWe

+0.00855294(3.5)2]1[1 +0.616599(3.5) y, +0.0413008(3.5)]

QpD=3.68.

4. Now, estimate the original gas in place and water influx constant using the material-balance plotting method. Calculate the plotTABLE 10.13-PRESSURE AND PRODUCTION HISTORIES,

EXAMPLE 10.9

t

(days)

Gp

Wp

(psia)

(MMscf)

(STB)

0

182.5

365

547.5

730

912.5

1.095

1.2n.5

1,460

1.642.5

1.825

2,007.5

2.190

5.392

5,368

5,292

5.245

5,182

5,147

5.110

5,066

5,006

4,994

4.997

4,990

4,985

0

6n.7

2.952.4

5.199.6

7.132.8

9.196.9

11,171.5

12.999.5

14,769.5

16,317.0

17,868.0

19,416.0

21,524.8

0

3

762

2.054

3.300

4.644

5,945

7,148

8.238

9,289

10,356

11.424

12.911

Bg

-z1.0530

1.0516

1.0470

1.0442

1,0404

1,0383

1.0360

1.0328

1.0285

1.0276

1.0278

1.0273

1.0270

(RB/Mscf)

0.6775

0.6796

0.6864

0.6907

0.6965

0.6999

0.7033

0.7072

0.7127

0.7138

0.7136

0.7142

0.7147

245

t

(days)

0

182.5

365

547.5

730

912.5

1,095

1,277.5

1,460

1,642.5

1,825

2,007.5

2,190

(psia)

3.68

5.82

7.76

9.56

11.21

12.84

14.42

15.91

17.40

18.87

20.26

21.68

0

12.0

50

61.5

55.0

49.0

36.0

40.5

52.0

36.0

4.5

2.0

6.0

3.5

6.9

10.4

13.9

17.3

20.8

24.3

27.7

31.2

34.7

38.1

41.6

21.0

28.5

46.3

55.8

71.0

83.1

93.1

99.1

116.7

136.0

151.7

166.7

219.3

227.7

272.6

260.9

287.6

304.5

309.3

298.8

320.8

352.9

378.3

413.6

(Be.--Bgi) vs. f(p,t)/(Bg-B gi ), where f(p,t)=EilpQpD'

ror example, at n = I the plotting function for the vertical axis,

y, is

(677.7 x 10 3)(0.6796)+(3)(1.0)

(0.6796-0.6775)

=219.3xI06 Mscf=219.3 Bscf.

The plotting function for the horizontal axis, x, is

x=

EilpQpD

(Bg-Bgi)

(l2){3.68)

(0.6796-0.6775)

= 21. 0 x 10 3 psi/RB-Mscf.

5. The material-balance plotting functions, summarized in Table 10.14, are plotted in Fig. 10.11.

6. From the slope of the line through the data points in Fig. 10.11,

e is estimated to be 1195 RB/psi, and the original gas in place estimated from the intercept is G= 197 Bscf = 197 x 10 6 Mscf, which

agrees with the volumetric estimate of G=200x 10 6 Mscf.

The general problem that reservoir engineers face when analyzing gas reservoirs with water influx is simultaneous determination

.....u

'"

~

~

~

....

!:9,

500

400

'")

Slope,

the material-balance equation for a volumetric dry-gas reservoir

assuming that gas expansion was the dominant drive mechanism

and that expansions of rock and water are negligible during the

productive life of the reservoir. These assumptions are valid for

normally pressured reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs with initial pressure

gradients between 0.43 and 0.5 psi/ft) at low to moderate pressures

when the magnitude of gas compressibilities greatly exceeds the

effects of rock and connate water compressibilities. However, for

abnormally or geopressured reservoirs, pressure gradients often approach values equal to the overburden pressure gradient (i.e., "'" 1.0

psi/ ft). In these and other higher-pressure reservoirs, the changes

in rock and water compressibilities may be important and should

be considered in material-balance calculations.

Following, Ramagost et al. 's23 derivation, we begin with Eq~

10.26 for a normally pressured volumetric gas reservoir and include

the effects of changing water volume, il Vw' and formation (rock)

volume, ilVj- As Fig. 10.12 shows, the general form of the

material-balance equation for a volumetric geopressured reservoir is

GBgi=(G-Gp)Bg+ilVw+ilVj' .................. (10.78)

pressure, KH; (G-Gp)Bg = reservoir volume occupied by gas after

gas production at a pressure below the initial reservoir pressure, RB;

il Vw = increase in reservoir PV occupied by connate water and following water expansion at a pressure below the initial reservoir

pressure, RB; and ilVj=increase in reservoir PV occupied by formation (rock) at a pressure below the initial reservoir pressure, RB.

The expansion of the connate water following a finite pressure

decrease can be modeled with isothermal water compressibility:

c= 1,19S~/psi

300

j

200

the relationship between real time, t, and dimensionless time, tD'

Simultaneous determination of these variables that best fit a pressure/production history is a complex problem in regression analysis.

----------I------f---------.-~.-..

(GpBg + WpBw)/(Bg - B gi )

(Bscl)

~Pn

E~PQpO/(B!f3-Bgi)

Q pon

tOn

100

(G - Gp) Bg

-------~--------t-----...--.-~-------.-

~ =197 !iMMMscf !,

!

GBgj

!I'

-----..-T----------l------...--.-,.-..----.......

so

ISO

100

LIlpQpD1(B, - B,i)' MMpsilRB / Mscf

200

Fig. 10.11-Graphlcal solution to the material-balance equation for a dry-gas reservoir with water Influx, Example 10.9.

Fig. 10.12-Materlal-balance model showing reservoir PVoccupled by gas at initial and later conditions for a volumetric

geopressured gas reservoir.

246

TABLE 10.15-PRESSURE AND PRODUCTION HISTORIES,

EXAMPLE 10.10

p

(psla)

9,507

9,292

8,970

8,595

8,332

8,009

7,603

7,406

7,002

6,721

6,535

5,764

4,766

4,295

3,750

3,247

cw= _ _

l

Vw

VW

ap

p/z

(psia)

p/z[1-(c w S w; +

(psia)

0

392.5

1,642.2

3,225.8

4,260.3

5,503.5

7,538.1

8,749.2

10,509.3

11,758.9

12,789.2

17,262.5

22,890.8

28,144.6

32,566.7

36,819.9

6,602

6,553

6,467

6,395

6,331

6,247

6,136

6,081

5,954

5,860

5,799

5,500

4,878

4,628

4,209

3,802

6,602

6,515

6,374

6,239

6,133

5,998

5,825

5,740

5,556

5,424

5,339

4,951

4,261

3,985

3,563

3,167

Gp

(MMscf)

o

392.5

1,642.2

3,225.8

4,260.3

5,503.5

7,538.1

8,749.2

10,509.3

11,758.9

12,789.2

17,262.5

22,890.8

28,144.6

32,566.7

36,819.9

_

T

(MMscf)

Gp

1.440

1.418

1.387

1.344

1.316

1.282

1.239

1.218

1.176

1.147

1.127

1.048

0.977

0.928

0.891

0.854

............... (10.79)

Vwi Ap

water. We can arrange Eq. 10.79 in terms of the change in water

volume,

where cj=average formation compressibility over the finite pressure interval, Ap. In terms of the change in PV. Eq. 10.83 becomes

AVp=CjVpiAP ........................... (10.84)

terms of the original gas in place as

terms of the original gas in place:

Vwi=

SwiGBg,

................................ (10.81)

(l-Sw;)

-Ap=Pi-P yields

AVw=cw(Pj-p)

SwiGBgi

Vpi=

GB g;

................................. (10.85)

(i-Swi)

Substituting Vp; from Eg. 10.85 into Eg. 10.84 and noting that

-AP=Pi-P and AVp = -AVj (the change in rock volume) yields

_

-AVp=Cj(Pi-P)

GB gi

(i-Sw;)

(I-Sw;)

-p)/(1- S w;)]

Substituting Egs. 10.82 and 10.86 into Eq. 10.78, we can now

write a general material-balance equation for a volumetric geopressured reservoir:

Similarly, the decrease in PV, AVI" caused by a finite reduction in pore pressure can be modeled with

Cj= :p

C~

T .............................. (1O.83a)

.. (10.87)

After simplification, Eg. 10.87 becomes

and thus,

_

I AVp

Cj=---' ............................... (l0.83b)

Vp; Ap

GBgi=(G-Gp)Bg+

7000

7000

'"

6000

6000

""'i

5000

4000

1-

3000

2000

'I

~

S

5000

;:;;:

S

_

(CwSwi+Cj) ....... (10.88)

(I-Swi)

''';

""

GBgi(Pi-P)

'il

{""

"

...

4000

3000

2000

1000

1000

0

0

20

80

100

Cumulative Gas Production, G, (Bet)

40

60

120

equation for a volumetric geopressured gas reservoir,

Example 10.10.

'"

~G;=8~.3Bd

N

I

20

40

60

80

100

Cumulative Gas Production, G, (Bet)

120

geopressured gas reservOir, Example 10.10.

247

EXAMPLE 10.11

p

(psi a)

9,507

9,292

8,970

8,595

8,332

8,009

7,603

7,406

7,002

6,721

6,535

5,764

4,766

4,295

3,750

3,247

(MMscf)

1.440

1.418

1.387

1.344

1.316

1.282

1.239

1.218

1.176

1.147

1.127

1.048

0.977

0.928

0.891

0.854

Bg

Gp

ISO

392.5

1,642.2

3,225.8

4,260.3

5,503.5

7,538.1

8,749.2

10,509.3

11,758.9

12,789.2

17,262.5

22,890.8

28,144.6

32,566.7

36,819.9

><

.;;;

100

.!?:

::;'

,

-;r

~

SO

ti

50

:::.

-50

10

12

14

equation for simultaneous estimation of original gas In place

and formation compressibility In volumetric geopressured gas

reservoirs, Example 10.11.

have

Pi Gp

- - - ......... (10.90)

Zi G

Note that, when the effects of rock and water compressibility are

negligible, Eq. 10.90 reduces to the material-balance equation in

which gas expansion is the primary source of reservoir energy (Eq.

10.29). Failure to include the effects of rock and water compressibilities in the analysis of high-pressure reservoirs can result in errors

in both original gas in place and subsequent gas reserve estimates.

We present two analysis techniques based on Eq. 10.90 for volumetric geopressured reservoirs.

Compressibility Is Known. If cf is assumed to be constant with

time, the form of Eq. 10.90 suggests that a plot of

(Fig. 10.14)-G=89.3 Bcf.

The results show that, if we analyze this geopressured reservoir

using techniques for normally pressured reservoirs, we will overestimate the original gas in place by more than 25%. In addition,

note that the data in Fig. 10.14 are beginning to trend downward,

which indicates that a normally pressured analysis of the available

data is not valid.

We developed the material-balance equation for a high-pressure

gas reservoir using a single value for formation compressibility over

the life of the reservoir. In reality, fonnation compressibility may

vary during pressure depletion, especially at the highest pressures.

Further, the previous derivation assumed that values for formation.

compressibility are readily available. However, these values are

very difficult to measure accurately in the laboratory, especially

as a function of changes in pore pressure. Therefore, in the next

section, we present a graphical technique for simultaneously estimating original gas in place and an average value of formation

compressibility .

Simultaneous Determination of A verage Formation Compressibility and Original Gas in Place. Roach 25 developed a materialwill be a straight line with slope equal to -Pi/ZjG and an interceptequal tOPj/Zi' Atp/z=O, Gp=G, so extrapolation of the line

to p/z=O provides an estimate of original gas in place. Example

10.10 illustrates this analysis technique.

balance technique for simultaneously estimating formation compressibility and original gas in place in geopressured reservoirs.

Beginning with Eq. 10.90, Roach presented the material-balance

equation in the following form:

I (Pi

(p,-p)

Example 10.10-Estimating Original Gas in Place With Material Balance for a Volumetric Geopressured Gas Reservoir. For

the following data taken from an abnormally pressured reservoir

(the Anderson "L" sand 24 ) , estimate the original gas in place

using the material-balance equation developed for a high-pressure

gas reservoir. In addition, use the material-balance equation for a

normally pressured gas reservoir, and compare the initial gas estimates from both equations. Table 10.15 gives the pressure and production histories.

Pi

9,501 psia.

= 3.2xlO-6 psi-I.

Swi = 0.24.

Original pressure gradient=0.843 psi/ft.

cI=19.5xlO-6 psi- 1 (assumed constant).

Cw

l)=~[ ~~

PiZ]_ SWi:W+Cf.

G (p, p) PZj

I Swi

PZi

................................ (10.91)

Again, if cf is constant, the form of Eq. 10.91 suggests that a

plot of

Z

(Pi

(Pi-P) pZi

-I)

VS

[~PiZ]

(Pj-p) PZi

will be a straight line with a slope that equals I/G and an intercept

that equals -(Swjcw +cil-Swj). We can then calculate the original gas in place, G, and the average fonnation compressibility, cI'

using the slope and intercept, respectively. Poston and Chen 26 applied this method to the geopressured gas reservoir data presented

in Example 10.10. Their analysis is reproduced in Example 10.11.

Solution.

I. Calculate the geopressured and normally pressured pressure

plotting functions for each data point (Table 10.16).

2. From the two plots, estimate original gas in place from the

intercept with the horizontal axis: high-pressure reservoir analysis

Example 10.ll-Simultaneous Determination of Average Formation Compressibility and Original Gas in Place With Material Balance in a Volumetric Geopressured Gas Reservoir. For

the following data taken from the Anderson "L" sand,24 estimate

248

TABLE 10.18-PLOTTING FUNCTIONS, EXAMPLE 10.11

plz

(psia)

Gp

(MMscf)

1/(p; -p)[(p;zlpz;)-11

10 -6 psi 1

(Mscf/psi)

6,602.1

6,552.9

6,467.2

6.395.1

6,331.3

6,247.3

6.136.4

6,080.5

5,954.1

5,859.6

5,798.6

5,500.0

4,878.2

4,628.2

4.208.8

3.802.1

0

392.5

1,642.2

3,225.8

4,260.3

5,503.5

7,538.1

8,749.2

10.509.3

11,758.9

12,789.2

17,262.5

22.890.8

28.144.6

32,566.7

36.819.9

34.9

38.9

35.5

36.4

37.9

39.9

40.8

43.4

45.4

46.6

53.5

74.5

81.8

98.8

117.6

1,840

3,120

3.650

3.780

3,880

4,260

4,520

4,650

4,760

4,900

5,540

6,530

7.700

8,870

10,210

original gas in place using Eq. 10.91 and an average value for formation compressibility. Table 10.17 gives the pressure and production histories.

intercept of the line, b:

Pi = 9,507 psia.

6

w = 3.2xlO- psi-I.

Original pressure gradient = 0.843 psi/ft.

Swi

0.24.

C

Solution.

1. First, we must generate the plotting functions developed by

Roach.25 Example calculations for Gp =392.5 MMscf=3.925 x

105 Mscf follow. For the variable on the vertical axis, we plot

I

(P;Z 1)

(Pi -p) PZi-

(9,507)(1.418)

------1

(9,507-9,292)

(9,292)(1.440)

=34.9xlO- 6 psi I

For the variable on the horizontal axis, we plot

(3.92 X 10 5)

(9,507)(1.418)

1.84 x 10 3 Mscf/psi.

(0.24)(3.2 x 10 -6)+Cfl

(1-0.24)

line. Poston and Chen 26 concluded that, initially, most ofthe formation resistance to the overburden pressure is provided by the fluids

in the pore spaces. However, as fluids are withdrawn from these

pore spaces, the formation compacts, resulting in more resistance

to the overburden being transferred to the rock matrix. Under these

conditions, the formation compressibility is not a constant but

changes with time, as indicated by the initial nonlinear portion of

the data in Fig. 10.15.

10.3.4 Volumetric Gas-Condensate Reservoirs. In this section, we

develop material-balance equations for a volumetric gas reservoir

with gas condensation during pressure depletion. We also include

the effects of connate water vaporization. Both phenomena are most

prevalent in deep, high-temperature, high-pressure gas reservoirs

and must be included for accurate material-balance calculations.

Depending on whether the pressure is above or below the dewpoint, two or three fluid phases may be present in a gas-condensate

2. Prepare a plot (Fig. 10.15) of the plotting functions summarized in Table 10.18.

3. Estimate the original gas in place and average formation compressibility from Fig. 10.15.

A. The original gas in place, G, is estimated from the slope of

the line, m:

=slope=13.3xIO-6 (MMscf)-I,

G

or G=

Vhcvi

=75,190 MMscf.

place assuming an average value of formation compressibility. while

in this example we calculated the original gas in place and formation compressibility simultaneously. As a result, the two estimates

of gas in place are slightly different.

Later Conditions

V < pJ

occupied by gas and liquid hydrocarbon phases at Initial and

later conditions .or a gas-condensate reservoir.

reservoir. Above the dewpoint, the vapor phase consists of not only

hydrocarbon and inert gases but also water vapor. As the reservoir

pressure declines, the water in the liquid phase continues to vaporize to remain in equilibrium with the existing water vapor, thus

decreasing the saturation of the liquid water in the reservoir and

increasing the PV occupied by the vapor phases. As the reservoir

pressure decl ines further, the amount of water vapor present in the

gas phase may increase significantly. However, as the reservoir

pressure decreases below the dewpoint, the fraction of PV available for the vapor phases decreases as liquids condense from the

hydrocarbon vapor phase.

To develop a material-balance equation that considers the effects

of gas condensation and water vaporization requires that we include

the changes in reservoir PV resulting from these phenomena. We

begin with a material-balance equation for gas-condensate reservoirs. We then extend this equation to include the effects of connate water vaporization. In addition, because changes in formation

compressibilities often are significant in these deep, high-pressure

gas reservoirs. we include geopressured effects.

Gas-Condensate Resenoirs. We derived the material-balance

equations in previous sections for dry gases with the inherent assumption that no changes in hydrocarbon phases occurred during

pressure depletion. Unlike dry-gas reservoirs, gas-condensate reservoirs are characteristically rich with intermediate and heavier

hydrocarbon molecules. At pressures above the dewpoint, gas condensates exist as a single-phase gas; however, as the reservoir pressure decreases below the dewpoint. the gas condenses and forms

a liquid hydrocarbon phase. Often, a significant volume of this condensate is immobile and remains in the reservoir. Therefore, correct application of material-balance concepts requires that we

consider the liquid volume remaining in the reservoir and any liquids produced at the surface.

Assuming that the initial reservoir pressure is above the dewpoint, the reservoir PV is occupied initially by hydrocarbons in the

gascous phase (Fig. 10.16), or

Vpi = Vhvi ' .. . ................................ (10.92)

also can be written as

Vh,'i=GTB gi , ................................ (10.93)

where G T includes gas and the gaseous equivalent of produced condensates and Bgi is defined by Eq. 10.7.

At later conditions following a pressure reduction below the dewpoint, the reservoir PV is now occupied by both gas and liquid

hydrocarbon phases, or

Vp

volume occupied by gaseous hydrocarbons at later conditions, RB;

and VhL reservoir PV occupied by liquid hydrocarbons at later

conditions, RB.

Eq. 10.94 assumes that rock expansion and water vaporization

are negligible. In terms of the condensate saturation, So, we can

write

Vh,.=(l-So)Vp ............................... (10.95)

In addition, the hydrocarbon vapor phase at later conditions is

Vhy=(GT-GpT)Bg' ............................ (10.97)

Equating Eqs. 10.95 and 10.97, the reservoir PV is

(GT-GpT)B g

............................. (10.98)

(1-So)

Substituting Eq. 10.98 into Eq. 10.95 and combining with Eq.

10.97 yields an expression for the reservoir PV at later conditions:

(GT-GpT)B g +

So(GT-GpT)B g

I-So

.................. (10.99)

249

material-balance equation:

So(GT-GpT)B g

GTBgi=(GT-GpT)Bg+--=-------<:..=---....

..... (10.100)

I-So

or, if we substitute BgiIBg=(pz;)/(PiZ) into Eq. 10.100 and rearrange.

p.(

~I

Zi

Ime from which GT can be estimated. Correct appltcation of Eg.

10.101, however. requires estimates of the liquid hydrocarbon

volumes formed as a function of pressure below the dewpoint. The

most accurate source of these estimates is a laboratory analysis of

the reservoir fluid samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analyses of

fluid samples often are not available.

An alternative material-balance technique is

where G TB 2gi =reservoir PV occupied by the total gas, which includes gas and the gaseous equivalent of the produced condensates,

at the initial reservoir pressure above the dewpoint, RB;

(GT-GpT)B2g reservoir PV occupied by hydrocarbon vapor

phase and the vapor equivalent of liquid phase after some production at a pressure below the initial reservoir pressure and dew point

pressure, RB; and B2 i and B 2g = gas FVF's based on two-phase

z factors at initial anJ later conditions, respectively, RB/Mscf.

If we substitute B2giIB2g=(PZ2i)/(PiZ2) into Eq. 10.102 and rearrange, we have

P

Pi

z2i

(I

G pT ), ......................... (10.103)

GT

where Z2i and Z2 = two-phase gas deviation factors evaluated at initial reservoir pressure and at a later pressure, respectively.

The fo~m of Eq. 10.103 sugge?ts that a plot of pIZ2 vs. G pT will

be a straight Ime for a volumetriC gas-condensate reservoir when

two-phase gas deviation factors are used.

Two-phase gas deviation factors account for both gas and liquid

phases in the reservoir. Fig. 10.17 is an example of the relationship between the equilibrium gas (I.e., single-phase gas) and twophase deviation factors for a gas-condensate reservoir. At pressures

above the dewpoint, the single- and two-phase z factors are equal;

at pressures below the dewpoint, however, the two-phase z factors

are lower than those for the single-phase gas.

Ideally, two-phase gas deviation factors are determined from a

laboratory analysis of reservoir fluid samples. Specifically, these

two-phase z factors are measured from a constant-volume depletion study. 27-29 However, in the absence of a laboratory study,

correlations 29 are available for estimating two-phase z factors from

properties of the well-stream fluids.

Gas-Condensate Resenoirs With Water Vaporization. In this

section, we develop a material-balance equation for gas-condensate

reservoirs in which both phase changes and water vaporization

occur. Similar to Humphreys'30 work. we include the effects of

rock and water compressibilities, which are often significant in deep,

high-pressure reservoirs. The reservoir PV is occupied initially by

hydrocarbon and water vapor phases as well as the connate liquid

phase, or

Vpi=VVi+Vwi ................................ (10.104)

water vapors. RB, and Vwi = initial reservoir PV occupied by the

liquid water, RB.

If the reservoir pressure is above the dewpoint, connate water

is the only liquid phase present. From the definition of water saturation. we can write the initial reservoir PV occupied by the liquid

phase as

V wi =SwiVpi' ................................. (10.105)

250

1.0....-----------------,

0.9

OJ

Vwvi

Vwi

i1Vf

OJ

0.'

Fig. 10 .la-Material-balance model showing reservoir PV occupied by hydrocarbons and water at Initial and later conditions for a gas-condensate reservoir with water vaporization.

~+----~----r---~~--~

1000

:lOOO

3000

Pressure, psia

Flg.l0.17-Example of equilibrium and two-phase gas deviation factors for a gas-condensate reservoir. 29

phases as

expression for the hydrocarbon vapor phase in terms of the current reservoir PV:

Vp(l-Sw)(l-yw)' ....................... (10.116)

Vhv

Vhv=(G-Gp)Bg . ............................. (10.117)

PV:

(G-Gp)Bg

that is water vapor as

Ywi = Vwv;lVvi ............................... (10.107)

and the fraction occupied by the hydrocarbon gases as

(i-Ywi)= Vhv;lVvi ............................ (W.WS)

Vhvi = initial reservoir PV occupied by hydrocarbon vapor, RB.

Substituting Eq. 10.106 into Eq. W.WS gives an expression for

the hydrocarbon vapor-phase volume in terms of the initial reservoir PV:

Vhvi=Vpi(l-Swi)(l-Ywi)' ...................... (10.109)

gas in place,

...................... . (10.110)

then VPi=

GB gi

----'--~-.

Like geopressured gas reservoirs, deep, high-pressured gascondensate reservoirs often experience significant changes in PV

during pressure depletion. Therefore, using a method similar to that

presented in the section on geopressured gas reservoirs, we .can

express the change in reservoir formation (rock) volume in terms

of the formation compressibility as

LlVj=

than the initial reservoir pressure depends on the value of the dewpoint. Therefore, we will develop material-balance equations for

depletion at pressures above and below the dewpoint.

DepJetWn at Pressures Above Ihe Dewpoint. Because the reservoir pressure is still above the dewpoint, no hydrocarbon gas has

condensed. However, as the pressure declines, mOre of the liquid

water vaporizes, thus reducing the liquid water saturation. Therefore, the volume of liquid phase becomes (Fig. 10.18)

V w=SwVp- .................................. (10.112)

the volume of the vapor phase is

Vv=(l-SwWp ' .............................. (10.113)

In addition, we define the fraction of the vapor phase that is water

vapor as

Yw=VwvlVv .................................. (10.114)

and the fraction of vapor phase that is hydrocarbon as

(l-yw)= VhvlVv' ............................. (10.115)

Cj(Pi-p)GB gi

........................ (10.119)

(l-Swi)(I-Ywi)

In terms of Eq. 10.119, the material-balance equation for pressures above the dewpoint becomes

(G-Gp)Bg

Cj(p;-p)GB gi

(l-Sw)(l-yw)

(l-Swj)(1-Ywj)

---"'---"'-- +

(l-Swi)(l-Ywi)

............................... (10.120)

....................... (10.111)

(l-Swi)(l-Ywi)

.. ...................... (W.llS)

(l-Sw)(l-yw)

G

-[I-Cj(Pi-P)]=G-Gp ' ... (10.121)

(l-SWi) (l-yw;) Bg

yields

(I-S w ) (i-yw)

_

P Pi

------[I-cj(p;-p)]-=(I-Swi) (I-Ywi)

z Zi

Pi Gp

-Zj G

.. (10.122)

(l-Sw) (l-yw)

p

------[I-Cj(Pi-P)]- vs. Gp

(I-Swi ) (I-Ywi)

z

will be a straight line with a slope equal to -p;lziG and an intercept equal to p/Zj. At plz=O, Gp=G, so extrapolation of the

straight line to plz =0 provides an estimate of original gas in place.

Note that, if the water saturation remains constant during the life

of the reservoir (i.e., Sw=Swi and Yw=Yw;) and when formation

compressibility is negligible, Eq. 10.122 reduces to Eq. 10.29 for

a volumetric dry-gas reservoir.

251

6000

sooo

V hcv

4000

V hcvi

.!!

IS. 3000

Vwvi

2000

L1V,

Initial Conditions

t > pJ

Later Conditions

1000

VJ<

Pd)

Fig. 10.19-Materlal-balance model showing reservoir PV occupied by hydrocarbons and water at Initial and later conditions for a gas-condensate reservoir with water vaporization.

Depletion at Pressures Below the Dewpoint. When reservoir pressures decrease below the dewpoint, the gas phase condenses. In

many gas-condensate reservoirs, the liquid hydrocarbons formed

in the reservoir remain immobile. Therefore, we must modify Eq.

10.120 to include this additional liquid phase (Fig. 10.19).

Adding the liquid phase gives

GBgi

(G-Gp)Bg

-----"---"'--- + --"------"-

(l-Swi)(l-ywi)

(l-Sw-So)(l-yw)

(l-Swi)(l-Ywi)

............................... (10.123)

where So =liquid hydrocarbon phase (i.e., condensate) saturation.

After rearranging Eq. 10.123, we write a material-balance equation similar in form to Eq. 10.122:

(l-Sw-So) (l-yw)

(l-Swi)

(l-Ywi)

Again, the form of Eq. 10.124 suggests that a plot of

(I-Sw-So) (l-yw)

(I-SKi)

(l-Ywi)

will be a straight line with a slope equal to -Pi/ZiG and an intercept equal to p/Zj. Aat p/z=O, Gp=G. so extrapolation of the

straight line to p/z =0 provides an estimate of original gas in place.

Again, the gas deviation factors in Eqs. 10.122 and 10.124 should

be two-phase Z factors representing both gas and liquid hydrocarbon phases in the reservoir. In addition, gas production should include not only production from all separators and the stock tank

but also the gaseous equivalent of the produced condensates.

The water vapor content of a gas has been shown 31 to be dependent on pressure, temperature, and gas composition. Gas composition also has more effect on water vapor content at higher

pressures. Unfortunately, laboratory analyses of gas usually do not

quantify the amount of water vapor; however, as discussed in Chap.

I, empirical methods 32 ,33 are available for estimating the water

vapor content of a gas.

Correct application of Eq. 10.124 also requires estimates of the

liquid hydrocarbon volumes formed at pressures below the dewpoint. The most accurate source of these estimates is a laboratory

analysis ofthe reservoir fluid samples. These liquid saturations are

obtained from a constant-volume depletion study.27,28 Note that

this type of laboratory fluid study assumes that the liquid hydrocarbons formed in the reservoir are immobile. This assumption is valid

for most gas-condensate reservoirs; however, some very rich gascondensate fluids may be characterized by mobile liquid saturations.

For these conditions, compositional simulators are required to model

the multiphase flow and predict future performance accurately.

10.4 Summary

Reading this chapter should prepare you to do the following.

Calculate original gas in place in a volumetric dry-gas reservoir using volumetric methods.

Calculate gas reserves and recovery factor for a gas reservoir

with water influx using volumetric methods.

Calculate original gas in place and condensate in place for a

volumetric wet-gas reservoir using volumetric methods.

State the principle of conservation of mass and derive a general material-balance equation from that principle.

Calculate original gas in place using material balance for a volumetric dry-gas reservoir.

Estimate water influx using the van Everdingen-Hurst, CarterTracy, and Fetkovich methods and state the assumptions and limitations of each method.

Estimate original gas in place using material balance for a drygas reservoir with water influx.

Estimate original gas in place using material balance for a volumetric geopressured gas reservoir .

Determine average formation compressibility and original gas

in place simultaneously using material balance in a volumetric geopressured gas reservoir.

Derive material-balance relationships for volumetric gascondensate reservoirs, gas-condensate reservoirs with water vaporization, gas-condensate reservoirs with depletion at pressures above

the dewpoint, and gas-condensate reservoirs with depletion at pressures below the dewpoint.

1. Your company is planning to drill a wildcat well in an area

believed to have great potential for natural gas. In planning for the

well (and assuming gas is discovered), what data should be gathered?

Why?

2. The well does discover gas. Using information from the discovery well alone, you are asked to estimate reserves and forecast

future production. What methods will you use? What additional data

will you need?

3. Several additional wells are planned. What sort of information should be obtained from these wells? Why?

4. Two years after the discovery well was drilled, the field is

highly developed. You are again asked to estimate reserves and

forecast future production. What methods will you use? What data

will you need?

5. How would your strategy be affected if the reservoir is geopressured? Is a retrograde gas reservoir? Has a waterdrive? Is the

gas cap of a oil reservoir, a fact discovered only much later? How

can you determine whether any of these possibilities is a fact?

6. How would you determine optimal well spacing? Optimal

depletion plan? In answer to both these questions, what data would

you need, and what study methods would you use?

7. What are the potential errors in the volumetric method? The

material-balance method?

252

EXERCISE 10.4

Cumulative Gas

Production

(MMscf)

Pressure

(psia)

factor

0

10

20

30

40

50

2,751

2,381

2,223

2,085

1,940

1,801

0.742

0.739

0.737

0.742

0.747

0.755

....-9=60

Sealing

Fault

Time

(days)

Reservoir/Aquifer Pressure

(psi a)

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

Sealing

Fault

Fig. 10.21-Reservoir configuration for Exercise 10.10.

psia, where Bga =6.45 RB/Mscf.

3.150 psia.

640 acres.

10 ft.

8.882 X 10 6 Mscf.

tf> = 0.22.

Sw; = 0.23.

Bg;

0.947 RB/Mscf.

Pi =

A =

h =

G

Time

(days)

Reservoir/Aquifer Pressure

(psia)

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

3,643

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

10.2 For the reservoir data given below. estimate the gas reserves

and the recovery factor using the volumetric method.

Pi

3,150 psia.

A = 640 acres.

h = 10 ft.

Bg;

Time

(days)

Reservoir/Aquifer Pressure

(psia)

3,793

3,788

3,774

3,748

3,709

3,680

91.5

183.0

274.5

366.0

457.5

549.0

Exercises

For the reservoir data given below, calculate the total cu-

0.947 RB/Mscf.

0.22.

Sw; = 0.23.

Sgr

Bga

= 0040.

1.48 RB/Mscf.

10.3 Using the data given below and the plot of plz vs. Gp in Fig.

10.20, estimate the cumulative gas production at an abandonment pressure of 500 psia. In addition, estimate the recovery factor at the abandonment pressure.

3,643

8. What are typical recovery factors for volumetric gas reservoirs? How may we estimate abandonment pressure to calculate

recovery factor? At what point does abandonment pressure enter

the recovery factor calculation?

9. Compare typical recoveries in waterdrive gas reservoirs with

those from volumetric gas reservoirs and explain the reasons for

the difference.

to. Explain two methods for improving the recovery from

waterdrive gas reservoirs.

11. Describe the different types of aquifer that may be in association with a reservoir.

12. How does the aquifer offset pressure decline in the reservoir?

13. If the time elapsed since production began doubled, do you

think the amount of water influx into a gas reservoir would double? Or would it be more or less than double? Why? If additional

infonnation is required to answer this question, what is that additional information?

10.1

tf>

Pi = 4,000 psia.

Pa

500 psia

Zi = 0.80 psia.

za = 0.94 psia.

lOA

given below, estimate the original gas in place, gas reserves

at P a =500 psia, and the gas recovery factor.

Pi

za

2,751 psia.

= 0.92.

P a = 663 psia.

histories.

10.5 Calculate the water influx at time step n=3 (i.e., 1=274.5

days) for the reservoir/aquifer system described below. Use

the van Everdingen-Hurst method and assume an infiniteacting aquifer.

tf>

= 0.209.

= 0.25 cpo

h

19.2 ft.

() = 180.

JA.

253

Reservoir

Pressure

(psia)

11,444

10,674

10,131

9,253

8,574

7,906

7,380

6,847

6,388

5,827

5,409

5,000

4,500

4,170

Cumulative Gas

Production

0

9,920

28,620

53,600

77,670

101,420

120,360

145,010

160,630

182,340

197,730

215,660

235,740

245,900

plz

(psia)

7,650

7,423

7,252

6,957

6,698

6,428

6,191

5,933

5,693

5,375

5,132

4,840

4,478

4,221

plz!1-(c wS wi

-p)/(1 -Swill

7,650

7,276

7,008

6,561

6,202

5,839

5,539

5,229

4,950

4,594

4,330

4,035

3,674

3,425

Cumulative Gas

Production

(MMscf)

Reservoir

Pressure

(psia)

11,444

10,674

10,131

9,253

8,574

7,906

7,380

6,847

6,388

5,827

5,409

5,000

4,500

4,170

(Mscf/psi)

9,920

28,620

53,600

77,670

101,420

120,360

145,010

160,630

182,340

197,730

215,660

235,740

245,900

k = 275 md.

c r = 6xlO- 6 psia- I .

r, = 5,807 ft.

reservoir-aquifer interface.

10.6 Calculate the water influx at timestep n=3 (i.e., 1=274.5

days) for the reservoir/aquifer system given below. Use the

Carter-Tracy method and assume an infinite-acting aquifer.

4> == 0.209.

I-t

0.25 cpo

h = 19.2 ft.

8

180".

k

275 md.

c/ = 6xlO- 6 psia- I .

r, = 5,807 ft.

Table 10.21 gives the pressure history at the initial

reservoir-aquifer interface.

10.7 Calculate the water influx at timestep n=3 (Le., 1=274.5

days) for the reservoir/aquifer system given below. Use the

Fetkovich method and assume a finite aquifer.

4> = 0.209.

p,

0.25 cpo

h == 19.2 ft.

8

180 0

k

275 md.

c/ = 6x 10- 6 psia

r,

5,807 ft.

A

250,000 acres.

Gp/(Pi -p)(PiPlzz/)

13,300

12,900

26,900

30,900

34,100

36,600

40,700

42,700

46,200

48,800

52,900

58,000

61,300

39.7

41.8

45.4

49.5

53.7

58.0

63.0

68.0

75.4

81.3

90.1

102.0

111.7

Time

(days)

o

10

200

400

500

10.8 For the following gas reservoir offshore Louisiana,23 estimate the original gas in place using the material-balance

method for geopressured reservoirs. Also use the materialbalance method for a normally presS!L~4 gas reservoir, and

compare the initial gas estimates from both equations. The

plotting functions for both material-balance methods are tabulate in Table 10.23.

p, = 11,444 psia.

cf

19.5xlO- 6 psia- I .

Swi

Cw

Table 10.22 gives the pressure history at the initial reservoir/aquifer interface. The cumulative water influx after 183

Reservoir/Aquifer Pressure

(psia)

4,000

3,990

3,900

3,820

3,760

0.22.

3.2xlO- 6 psia- I .

10.9 For the following gas reservoir offshore Louisiana, 23 estimate the original gas in place and formation compressibility

using the material-balance method for geopressured reservoirs. In addition, use the material-balance method presented for a normally pressured gas reservoir, and compare the

initial gas estimates from both equations. The plotting functions are tabulated in Table 10.24.

254

Pr

Cw

Swi

= 11,444 psia.

= 3.2xlO-6 psia- I .

0.22.

influx. The pressure has been measured at the reservoir/aquifer boundary after several time periods, and this pressure

history is given in Table 10.25. The reservoir radius is 1,000

ft and the aquifer radius is 10,000 ft. The aquifer has a porosity of 10%, a permeability of 10 md, and a thickness of 600

ft. The water has a compressibility of I X 10 -5 psia -I and

a viscosity of 0.6323 cpo

A. Calculate B.

B . Calculate the relationship between dimensionless time and

time in days.

C. Calculate I.lPI for 10 days.

D. Calculate I.lP4 for 500 days.

E. Calculate water influx in reservoir barrels after 500 days.

Nomenclature

A = well drainage area, L2, acres

b

intercept

B

van Everdingen-Hurst constant, RB/psi

Bg = gas FVF, RB/Mscf

Bga = gas FVF at reservoir abandonment pressure and

temperature conditions, RB/Mscf

B gi = gas FVF at initial reservoir pressure and

temperature, RB/Mscf

Bw

water FVF, RB/STB

B2g

gas FVF based on two-phase gas deviation factor,

RB/Mscf

B 2gi = gas FVF based on two-phase gas deviation factor at

initial reservoir pressure and temperature,

RB/Mscf

C = water influx constant from material-balance

calculations, RB/psi

cf

in-situ formation compressibility, Lt2/m, pSia- 1

c/ = total aquifer compressibility, cf+cw, Lt2/m, psia- I

C w = water compressibility, Lt2/m, psia- I

E v = volumetric sweep efficiency, fraction

fg = fraction of reservoir gas produced as liquid at

surface, fraction

F = gas recovery factor

G = original gas in place, L3, Mscf

Ga

gas in place at reservoir abandonment, L3, Mscf

Gp = cumulative gas production, L3, Mscf

Gpa = additional gas production from secondary separator

and stock tank, L3 /L3, scf/STB

GpT = cumulative gas production from primary and

secondary separators, stock tank, and the gaseous

equivalent of produced condensates, L3, Mscf

Gp !

cumulative gas production from primary separator,

L3, Mscf

Gp2 = cumulative gas production from secondary separator,

L3, Mscf

Gp3 = cumulative gas production from stock tank, L3, Mscf

G/ = reservoir volume occupied by gas trapped by

encroaching water, L3, Mscf

G T = total initial gas in place, including gas and gaseous

equivalent of produced condensates, L3, Mscf

h = net formation thickness, L, ft

J = aquifer PI, L3t/m, STBID-psi

k = reservoir permeability, L2, md

L = length of linear-shaped reservoir, L, ft

m = slope

Mo = molecular weight of stock tank liquids, m,

Ibm/Ibm-mol

n = number of moles of gas

N = original oil (condensate) in place, L3, STB

Np

P

= cumulative oil

reservoir pressure, m/Lt2, psia

Pa

abandonment pressure, m/Lt 2 , psia

Paq = aquifer pressure, m/Lt 2 , psia

Paq,i = initial aquifer pressure, m/Lt2, psia

Pd = dewpoint pressure of gas-condensate reservoir,

m/Lt2, psia

PD = dimensionless pressure

dimensionless pressure derivative

Pi

initial reservoir pressure, m/Lt2, psia

p" = pressure at time interval n, m/Lt 2 , psia

Pr = pressure at aquifer/reservoir interface, m/Lt2, psia

Psc = pressure at standard conditions, m/Lt2, psia

I.lp = difference between initial aquifer pressure and

pressure at original reservoir/aquifer boundary,

miLt 2, psia

qD

dimensionless water influx rate

q w water influx rate, L3/t, STBID

QpD = dimensionless cumulative water influx

Ta = radius of aquifer, L, ft

Te = outer radius of reservoir, L, ft

T r = radius to aquiferlreservoir interface, L, ft

R = universal gas constant, 10.73 psia-ft 3/lbm-mol- OR

R,

total gas/stock-tank liquid ratio, scf/STB

RI

ratio of high-pressure separator gas volume to stocktank liquid volume, L3 /V, scf/STB

R2 = ratio of low-pressure separator gas volume to stocktank liquid volume, L3 /V, scf/STB

R3 = ratio of stock-tank gas volume to stock-tank liquid

volume, L3 /L3, scf/STB

Sgi = initial gas saturation, fraction

Sgr

residual gas saturation, fraction

So = condensate saturation, fraction

Sw

connate water saturation, fraction

Swa = water saturation at abandonment conditions, fraction

Swi = initial connate water saturation, fraction

t = time, t, days

t D == dimensionless time

T

reservoir temperature, T, OR

Tsc = temperature at standard conditions, T, OR

Veq = vapor equivalent of primary separator liquid, L3 /L 3 ,

scf/STB

V = reservoir formation (rock) volume, L3, res bbl

f

Vgi = gas volume at initial conditions, L3, res bbl

VhL = volume of hydrocarbon liquids, L3, res bbl

Vhv := volume of hydrocarbon vapors, L3, res bbl

VhVi = initial volume of hydrocarbon vapors, L3, res bbl

Vp

reservoir PV, V, res bbl

Vpi

initial reservoir PV, L3, res bbl

Vsc = gas volume at standard conditions, L3, res bbl

Vv = volume of vapor phase. L3, res bbl

V vi = initial volume of vapor phase, L3, res bbl

V w = volume of water, L3, res bbl

Vwi

initial volume of water, L3, res bbl

V.."

volume of water vapor phase, L3, res bbl

V wvi = initial volume of water vapor phase, L3, res bbl

I.lVf = change in reservoir formation (rock) volume, L3,

res bbl

I.l Vw = change in water volume, L 3, res bbl

w

width of linear reservoir, L, ft

We = cumulative water influx volume, L3, res bbl

Wei

initial "encroachable" volume of water in aquifer,

L3, res bbl

Wi

initial volume of water in aquifer, L3, res bbl

Wp = cumulative water production, L3, STB

Yw = fraction of total vapor-phase volume that is water

Ywi = initial fraction of total vapor phase volume that is

water

PD

255

Z ;;

za

Zj ;:

zsc

z2 =

Z2j

l' 0 =

l'w ::::

1'1 =

1'2 =

1'3

6

" =

p.

=

sionless

gas compressibility factor evaluated at initial conditions, dimensionless

gas compressibility factor at standard conditions,

dimensionless

two-phase gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

two-phase gas compressibility factor evaluated at initial conditions, dimensionless

specific gravity of condensate (water = 1.0 g/cm 3 )

specific gravity of reservoir gas at reservoir conditions (air::: 1.0)

specific gravity of high-pressure separator gas

(air = 1.0)

specific gravity of low-pressure separator gas

(air = 1.0)

specific gravity of stock-tank gas (air= 1.0)

angle encompassed by aquifer, degrees

dummy integration variable for Eq. to.57

viscosity, miLt, cp

porosity, fraction

SUbscript

aq = aquifer

Superscript

- = average

References

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7. Gold, D.K., McCain, W.D. Jr., and Jennings, I.W.: "An Improved

Method for the Determination of the Reservoir-Gas Gravity for Retrograde Gases," JPT (July 1989) 747-52; Trans., AIME, 287.

8. Schilthuis, R.J.: "Active Oil and Reservoir Energy," Trans., AIME

(1936) 118, 33-52.

9. Katz, D.L. et al.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959).

10. van Everdingen, A.F., Timmerman, E.H., and McMahon, J.J.: "Application of the Material-Balance Equation to a Partial Water-Drive

Reservoir," Trans., AIME (1953) 198,51.

Equation of a Straight Line," JPT (Aug. [963) 896-900; Trans., AlME,

228.

12. Chierici, G.L. and Pizzi, G.: "Water-Drive Gas Reservoirs: Uncertainty in Reserves Evaluation From Past History," JPT (Feb. 1967)

237-44; Trans., AIME, 240.

13. Bruns, J.R, Fetkovich, M.J., and Meitzen, V.C.: "The Effect of Water

on plz-Cumulative Gas Production Curves, " JPT (March 1965) 287-91.

14. van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: "Application of the Laplace

Transformation to How Problems in Reservoirs," Trans., AIME (1994)

186, 305-24.

15. Carter, R.D. and Tracy, G.W.: "An Improved Method for Calculating Water Influx." JPT (Dec. [960) 415-17; Trans., AIME, 219.

16. Fetkovich, M.J.: "A Simplified Approach to Water Influx

Calculations-Finite Aquifer Systems," JPT (July 1971) 814-28.

17. Allard, D.R. and Chen, S.M.: "Calcu[ation of Water Influx for Bottomwater Drive Reservoirs," SPERE (May 1988) 369-79.

18. Olarewaju, J.S.: "A Mathematical Model of Edgewater and Bottomwater Drives for Water Influx Calculations," paper SPE 18764 presented

at the 1989 SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield. April 5-7.

19. Lee, W.J.: Well Testing, SPE Textbook Series, Richardson, TX (1982)

1.

20. Edwardson, M.J. et ai.: "Calculation of Formation Temperature Disturbances Caused by Mud Circulation," JPT(April 1962) 416-26;

Trans . AIME, 225.

21. Klins, M.A., Bouchard, A.J., and Cable, C.L.: "A Polynomial Approach to the van Everdingen-Hurst Dimensionless Variables for Water

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22. McEwen, C.R.: "Material Balance Calculations With Water Influx in

the Presence of Uncertainty in Pressures," JPT (June 1962) 120-28;

Trans., AIME, 225.

23. Ramagost, B.P. and Farshad, F.F.: "p/z Abnormally Pressured Gas

Reservoirs," paper SPE 10125 presented at the 1981 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Oct. 5-7.

24. Duggan, J.O.: "The Anderson "L"-An Abnormally Pressured Gas

Reservoir in South Texas," JPT (Feb. 1972) 132-38.

25. Roach, R.H.: "Analyzing Geopressured Reservoirs-A MaterialBalance Technique, " paper SPE 9968 available at SPE, Richardson, TX.

26. Poston, S.W. and Chen, H.Y: "Simultaneous Determination of Formation Compressibility and Gas-in-Place in Abnormally Pressured

Reservoirs," paper SPE 16227 presented at the 1987 SPE Production

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27. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

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28. Moses, P.L. and Donohoe, C.W.: Petroleum Engineering Handbook,

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