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Current Developments in

Concrete Construction
S A Reddi
Dy. MD (Retd.) Gammon India Ltd.

Mass Concrete Pours

Typical Structures With Mass


Concrete Pours

General Overview

Definitions & Standards, Thermal Cracking


Temperature Rise
Temperature & Stress Prediction
Factors Affecting Temperature Rise
Cement, Aggregate, Ambient Temp, SCMs,
Placement Techniques
Post-Placement Techniques
Embedded Pipe Cooling
Formwork Insulation
Thermal Expansion Reinforcement

Mass Concrete Defined


Any volume of concrete with dimensions
large enough to require that measures be
taken to cope with the generation of heat
from hydration of the cement and
attendant volume change to minimize
cracking.
(ACI Manual of Concrete Practice)

Mass Concrete Principles


When dimensions are > 1m
Cement Hydration is an exothermic process,
leads to a rise in temp at the core of large
pours; If the surface temperature deviates
greatly from that of the core, thermal
cracking will develop
Codes require a temp differential of less
than 20 deg C - surface to the core
temperature rise should be considered

Apply to large dams, Mass foundations,

bridge piers, thick slabs, nuclear plants,


structural columns, etc

Thermal Cracking

Cement hydration produces a rise in


internal
temperature. The outer surface cools
faster than the core of the section.
By thermal expansion/contraction, the
temp differential induces tensile stresses
at the surface
Stresses > Tensile Strength => Thermal
Cracking

Temperature Rise
Temperature rise varies by many parameters:
Cement composition, fineness, and content
Aggregate content and CTE (Coeff. of Thermal
Expansion)
Section geometry
Placement & ambient temperatures (Mass)
Most temp rise occurs in first 1-3 days after
placement. For thick sections, cooling to
ambient temps may take years.

For thick sections, cooling to ambient


temps may take years.

Factors Affecting Temp. Rise


Cement with a lower fineness will slow
hydration, and reduce temperature rise
Mass Concrete mixes should contain as
low cement content as possible to
achieve the desired strength This lowers
the heat of hydration and temp rise
Coarse Aggregate should be have an
MSA of 150mm if possible.
A higher coarse aggregate content (7085%) can be used to lower the cement
content, reducing temp rise

Factors Affecting Temp. Rise


Fly Ash, and Slag can greatly reduce
heat of hydration
Pozzolans such as FA (class F is best >
slower hydration) and Slag will produce
between 15-50% of the heat of Ordinary
Portland Cement.
Highly reactive SCMs such as Silica
Fume and Metakaolin do not substantially
lower the heat of hydration
Lower cement content + pozzolans
greatly reduces temperature rise!

Factors Affecting Temp. Rise


Placement Temperature

Pouring at lower temperatures will reduce the thermal


stresses in the section.
Slows hydration > lowers heat of hydration, lowers
temperature differential between the core and the
outer surface. Lower ambient temps produce less
temperature rise!
Lower volume:surface ratio produce less temp
rise!
W/C has a large effect on temperature rise.
Most Mass Concrete mixes have a 0-50mm slump.

Placement Techniques

Cool aggregate by flushing with cold water to


reduce placement temperatures.
Replacing mix water with flaked/crushed ice
can greatly reduce the temperature of the mix.
Cooling the aggregate and use ice in mix water
can reduce placement temperatures up to 12 C
For heat transfer calculations, all components
are changed to water equivalents.
Core sample from a large
column with thermal cracks.

Placement Techniques

Flushing the mix is Liquid Nitrogen can


reduce temps.

Post-Placement Techniques

Two schools of thought exist on


post-placement techniques to reduce
thermal cracking:
1) Cool the core of the concrete to
reduce the temperature differential.
2) Insulate the outer surface to
reduce the temperature differential.

Post-Cooling

Post-Cooling utilizes cold water


flowing through pipes embedded into
the concrete
This helps to transfer heat from the
core, and reduce the temperature
differential.

Post-Cooling
Example of embedded
pipe grid
Area cooled by one pipe
-Pipe spacing is judged by
heat transfer principles.
Must be spaced in a
manner which achieved
the desired temperature
differential

Post-Cooling

Instrumentation
is used to monitor
temperature, to
determine flowrates through
cooling pipes
Steel pipes are the
most effective at
extracting heat
from the core

Insulation After Placement


Method to reduce the temp gradient
By limiting the heat loss from surface,
the difference in temperature between
the surface and the core is minimized
Removing formwork too soon can cause
thermal shock to the surface, and
extensive cracking will occur
Metal formwork is very conductive to
heat, so additional insulation needed to
limit heat loss
25mm wood ~500mm of addl concrete

Expansion Reinforcement

Expansion Reinforcement can be used to


lessen thermal cracking.
Must be designed in addition to loads placed
onto the structure.
Expansion reinforcement distributes thermal
stresses to minimize crack widths.
Expansion reinforcement is impractical for
very large pours.

Expansion Reinforcement
General procedure for design.
Determine maximum temperature gradient
Determine section restraint characteristics r)
Determine physical properties of the concrete:
CTE, E, Tensile Strength
Determine the allowable crack width:
Must consider durability and permeability
Determine area of steel required to limit
cracking

Large Volume Pours


Notable Indian Cases

Foundation raft for 500 MW Fast Breeder


Nuclear Reactor at Kalpakkam near
Chennai : Maximum single pour was
5500 m3
Many rafts for chimneys, storage silos
with single pour of more than 2000 m3

Large Volume Pours


Special Attention Required

Concrete Mix proportion


Mineral Admixtures
Concrete supply
Casting sequence
Cold joints
Plastic settlement
Heat of hydration
Early age thermal cracking

Large Volume Pours :Benefits

Savings in cost and time resulting from


the reduction in the number of joints
Joints expensive to form, requiring stop
ends, careful preparation of the concrete
surface when new concrete is cast
Construction joints Delays construction
Labor, material cost in making the joints
Practical difficulties in forming joints
Difficulties in preparing concrete surface

Large Volume Pours


Formation of Sound Construction Joints Impossible

Typically in heavily reinforced foundations


to core shaft tower blocks, formation of
sound construction joints is virtually
impossible because of very congested
reinforcements
Similar conditions are often found in large
sections such as bridge decks, where the
position of void formers, stressing cables,
ducts etc render the installation of
construction joints extremely difficult

Large Volume Pours


Concrete Mix Proportioning

Requirements for strength and


workability
Thermal characteristics minimize risk of
thermal cracking
Delayed stiffening time to avoid cold
joints
Heat evolution
Thermal expansion coefficient
Tensile strain capacity

Large Volume Pours


Composite Cements

Combinations of OPC with either PFA or


GGBS hydrate at slower rate than OPC
and produce a lower temperature rise.
This applies to both PPC, PSC and blends
of OPC and PFA,GGBS produced in a
batching plant
The level of PFA in such blends is up to
40%; up to 75% if GGBS is used.

Large Volume Pours


Measuring Temperature Rise in Conc

Cast an insulated One m3 block using


suitable formwork available at site and
measure the temp. rise at the centre
using thermo couple
A simple plywood form lined with 50mm
thick expanded polystyrene is adequate
to provide comparative results

Cost Reduction By Use


Of Fly Ash
Improvement In Properties Of
Concrete

Fly ash / Fly Ash In Concrete

Pulverized Fuel Ash (Fly Ash) or Fly Ash is


a material produced in thermal power
stations as coal is burnt. It is pozzolanic,
combines with free lime in cement to
form calcium silicate, aluminium
hydrates; categorised as Mineral
Admixture in IS 456 : 2000
Fly Ash conforming to Grade 1 of IS 3812
may be used as part replacement of OPC
provided uniform blending is ensured;

Mineral Admixtures
Fly ash

India produces about 100 million


tonnes, disposal is a problem; can be
partly used as mineral admixtures in
concrete of all grades
Special applications

High Strength Concrete


Roller Compacted concrete
Embankment fills
Reinforced earth fills
Flyash bricks

Mineral Admixtures
Processed Fly Ash

Power station ash does not always meet


the requirement; only some ESP streams
qualify; remaining ash needs processing
before use
As per EN 450 fly ash may before its use
be subject to processing by classification
or selection to increase its fineness and
to improve other properties

Processed Fly Ash Factory

Dirk India ,a German Company, has


installed an Unit in Nashik, with capacity
1000 TPD, (three classification plants)
There are a few agencies supplying fly
ash, but they merely collect fly ash from
power stations and supply in bags; the
product may or may not conform to IS
Specification

Use of PFA From


Power Station
Electrostatic
Precipitators in power
station discharge
usable PFA in separate
streams
Collected and fed
into processing units
for classification as fly
ash suitable for use
with concrete

Typical Fly Ash


Processing Unit
Raw Fly Ash fed into
a classifier
The coarser particles
move down in the
classifier, discarded
Fine particles
collected
through a cyclone,
shown on right

Use of Fly Ash


Ready Mix Concrete Plants

All ready mix concrete plants have


started using varying percentages of
cement replacement by fly ash, with or
without the knowledge of the Purchasers
Indiscriminate, uncontrolled use of non
processed fly ash by some RMC plants
have resulted in quality deficiencies
RMC plants should declare percentage
replacement while supplying concrete

Mineral Admixtures
Blended cements Vs site mixing

As per IS 456 there is no distinction on


technical grounds between blended
cement and site blending. Either method
may be selected.
Advantages of site blending in concrete
o Increased flexibility in proportioning
o Cost-effective; savings up to 20 % compared
to
blended cement
monitoring
of
quality
and
o Effective
percentage of Mineral Admixtures

Mineral Admixtures
Blended cements Vs site mixing

No manufactured blended cement will


be able to satisfy all specifications or
uses. Proportions are set by the
manufacturers and data on percentage
blended not available to the users
Because
of
limited
choice
of
proportions
in
standard
blended
cements, their properties may not lead
to optimum concrete properties for
different purposes.

Mineral Admixtures
Advantages of Site Mixing

Vary proportions to achieve optimum


concrete properties & economical
Savings in transport vs moving Fly Ash
to factory for blending & delivering PPC
Suitable where different percentages of
Fly ash are specified; consistent strength
achieved with low standard deviation 2
MPa with site blending
Suppliers charge same price for OPC ,
PPC; much cheaper if OPC + Fly Ash is
used

Benefits of Fly Ash in Concrete

Improved Workability
Low bleeding
Low heat of hydration
Improved durability
Sulphate resistance
Reduced risk of Alkali Silica Reaction
Reduced Construction Costs

Fly Ash Status in India

Uncertain quality, needs processing


Separate processing facility required
Electricity Boards attitude towards
disposal
Codes, Specifications vs Reality
Govt. policies, attitudes, excise duty
R&D : Processing Requirements
Role of Cement Producers
Role of End Users

Perception About Fly Ash

Fly ash should not be treated as waste


product, but as useful by-product from
Thermal Power Station
Fly Ash is often an essential ingredient
for durability of concrete
As part replacement of cement, Fly Ash
assists in conserving non-renewable
energy sources

Fly Ash What is the Problem ?

Power stations priority : High Thermal


efficiency, emissions secondary
They produce Fly ash, a waste material
having variable carbon content, color,
fineness and density, impurities
Potential users require Fly Ash of uniform
quality and fineness, free of impurities
Fly Ash Processing absent in India,
except at Nashik and one or two other
centres

Fly Ash Property Variations

Quality of Coal
Coal milling operations
Boiler loading
Supplementary fuel used
Operational influences

Fly Ash From Power Stations

Fit and operate ESPs


ESPs arranged in series
Finer particles progressively removed
Use grading facility of ESPs
Separately store raw Fly Ash output
Classify raw Fly Ash for compliance
Offer classified Fly Ash for sale

Process Plant for Fly Ash

Transport fly ash from PS


Transfer to raw material silos
Feed fly ash to production units
Process by air classification units
Transfer to Fly Ash storage silos
Dispatch through tankers

Concrete Made with Fly Ash


Impact On Strength

Concrete made with fly ash will be


slightly lower in strength upto 28 days
than OPC concrete
Equal strength at 28 days, substantially
higher strength within a years time
In concrete without flyash, free lime
remains intact and over time would be
susceptible to the effects of weathering
and loss of strength, durability.

Strength gain properties of pfa


Strength Development with Time

Concrete With Fly Ash Addition


Improved Workability

Fly Ash Increases Conc Workability

Fly ash produces more cementitious


paste; has a lower unit weight;
contributes roughly 30% more volume of
cementitious material per kg of cement.
The greater percentage of fly ash in the
paste, the aggregates are better
lubricated and the concrete flows better
However, IS 456 limits Fly Ash content to
not more than 35% for normal Concrete;
can go upto 50% for Self Compacting
Concrete

Fly Ash Reduces Water Demand

Fly ash reduces water needed to produce


a given slump. The spherical shape of fly
ash particles and its dispersive ability
provide water-reducing characteristics
similar to a water reducing admixture
Water demand of a concrete mix with fly
ash is reduced by 2% to 10%, depending
on a number of factors including the
amount used and class of fly ash.

Fly Ash Reduces Sand Content

Fly ash reduces the sand needed in the


mix to produce workability
It creates more paste, and by dispersive
action makes the paste more slippery
Sand has a much greater surface area
than larger aggregates & therefore
requires more paste
By reducing sand, the paste available can
more efficiently coat the surface area of
the aggregates

Fly Ash Improves Corrosion Protection

By decreasing concrete permeability, fly


ash can reduce the rate of ingress of
water, corrosive chemicals and oxygen
thus protecting steel reinforcement from
corrosion and its subsequent expansive
result
Fly ash concrete is less permeable
because fly ash reduces the amount of
water needed to produce a given slump

Fly Ash Reduces Heat of Hydration


in Concrete

During hydration of cement, heat is


generated quickly, causing concrete
temperature to rise
This rapid heat gain increases the
chances of thermal cracking, leading to
reduced concrete strength and durability
Fly ash generates only 15 - 35 % as
much heat compared to cement at early
ages. Replacing part of cement with fly
ash reduces the damaging effects of
thermal cracking

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456

IS provides for use of fly ash (pulverised


fuel ash) conforming to Grade 1 of IS
3812 as part replacement of Ordinary
Portland Cement provided uniform
blending with cement is ensured
Please note that fly ash may be mixed
with OPC only for making concrete
Some unscrupulous RMC plants /
contractors mix fly ash with PPC not
allowed in the code

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456


Grades Of Concrete

IS 456 , Table 2 specifies three groups of


concrete:
Ordinary Concrete M10, M15, M20
Standard Concrete M25 to M55
High Strength Concrete M60 to
M80
Fly ash may be used for all groups and
grades of concrete; percentage
replacement may vary

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456


Percentage Replacement

For Ordinary and Standard Concrete, fly


ash may replace concrete by upto 35%
based on trial mixes
For High Strength Concrete M60 and
above , percentage replacement may be
increased
For Self Compacting Concrete,
percentage may go upto 50
For concrete roads, desirable to use fly
ash upto 50% replacement

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456


Interpretation Of Fly Ash Quantities

Table 5 specifies minimum cement


content for different exposures ; building
foundations fall under Severe Exposure,
with minimum 320 kg cementitious
material per cubic metre of conc
If for example 25% fly ash replaces
cement, mix will consist of 240kg cement
+ 80kg fly ash
Fly ash % is based on total cementitious
materials used and not on cement only

Economics of Concrete
Site Mixed Fly Ash vs PPC

Assume 25% replacement by fly ash and


320kg cementitious material. Cost of
materials:
OPC 240 kg at say Rs 300 per bag:
Rs 1440
Fly Ash 80 kg at Rs 1000/t
:
Rs
80
Total cost cementitious material :
Rs 1520
In case PPC is used instead of site

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456


Formwork Stripping Time

The stripping time specified in clause


11.3 is applicable where OPC is used
For other cements , stripping time may
be suitably modified
For PPC or where fly ash is blended at
site, due to slow setting time in the early
ages, stripping time needs to be
increased by about 50%

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456


Curing

Exposed surfaces of concrete shall be


kept continuously in a damp or wet
condition by ponding or by covering with
a layer of sacking, canvas, hessian and
constantly kept wet for at least 7 days in
case of OPC
At least 10 days where mineral
admixtures or blended cements are used
Approved curing compounds may be used
in both cases; one time application

Portland Pozzolona Cement


(Fly Ash Based) as per IS 1489 Part 1

The strength properties of PPC at 28 days


are similar to OPC 33 Grade; 28 day
strength of cement is specified as 33 mPa
OPC is available in 3 strength grades
33, 43, 53 mPa at 28 days
Thus PPC can be used only for lower
grades of concrete such as M20, M30 etc
For higher Grades only OPC + fly ash site
mixed is suiteable

Portland Pozzolona Cement


Strength Gradation Attempts By BIS

For several years, the Bureau of Indian


Standards have proposed 3 Grades of
PPC , namely 33, 43, 53 similar to OPC
Some cement manufacturers have agreed
for the gradation
Some others who do not have the
capability to produce higher Grades of
PPC have been opposing the move; the
stalemate continues
As on date (2009) PPC available only in

Portland Pozzolona Cement


As per European (EN)Standards

EN 197 1: 2000 is the reference


document
In Europe PPC is available in 3 Grades viz
32.5, 42.5 and 52.5 ( the numbers
indicate 28 day strength of cement
The combination of fly ash may vary :
Option 1 : 6 to 20% fly ash
Option 2 : 21 to 35% fly ash

Current Status Of Use of PPC In


India

Until the relevant BIS Codes are


revised, PPC can be used only for
lower grades of Concrete
For higher Grades only processed fly
ash may be blended with OPC for
manufacture of concrete

Batching Plant
Separate Silo For Fly Ash

Use Of Fly Ash as per IS 456

Clause 5.2.1.1 fly ash ( Pulverized fuel


ash )
Fly ash conforming to Grade 1 of IS 3812
may be used as part replacement of
Ordinary Portland Cement provided
uniform blending with cement is ensured
Uniform blending is achieved when
concrete is prepared in a batching plant;
separate cement silos are required for
OPC and fly ash

Site Mixing Fly Ash


Bandra Worli Sea Link

Contract specified minimum 400 kg


cementitious material per cubic metre of
concrete
Even for M60 Gr Concrete the contractors
have designed a mix with site blending of
fly ash in concrete, using only 320 kg OPC
plus 80 kg fly ash; project completed
successfully

Characteristic strength
Target strength
Cement
Micro silica
Fly ash
w/c ratio
Admixtures
Slump
28 day strength

Bandra Worli Sea link

60 Mpa
74 Mpa
320 kg
45 kg
80 kg
0.31
10 kg
120 mm
75 Mpa

Self Compacting Concrete


Cement Content

Cement content should be minimized;


powder content composed of mineral
admixtures such as fly-ash, GGBS etc.
SCC in Nuclear Power Projects in India,
cement limited to 250 Kg/m3 ; and flyash also 250 Kg/, m3 for concretes up to
50 MPa
For 80 MPa concrete, mix successfully
designed with cement content not
exceeding 350 Kg/m3

Palais Royale Tower, Mumbai


Brief Description

Height : 320m Tallest in India (2008)


Foundations : Raft, upto 3.5m thick, Grade M40
- Basements, Superstructure
- Columns : SCC M80, M60
- Slabs, Beams : M60 Concrete
- Pre-tensioned flat slabs at lower levels
Basement + 80m height utilized for car parks,
sports facilities, Building Management Systems
(BMS)
Precautions against Fire & Fire Fighting
measures

Palais Royale Tower, Mumbai


Materials for SCC

OPC 53 Grade from selected factory


Processed fly-ash from Nashik
Silica Fume - imported
PC based super plasticizer imported
Coarse aggregates from local quarries
Fine aggregates from Gujarat
Water from local sources

Palais Royale Tower


80 MPa SCC

Cement
: 350 - 400
kg
Silica fume
: 10 %
Water
: 135 litres
Aggregates
: Local
PC based admix
: 0.8 1.0 %
Viscosity Modifier : 0.2 %
Concrete produced at site batch
plant

Thank You
sareddi32@rediffmail.com
09008096246