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469 visualizzazioni16 paginePublished online. — 1965. - 16 p. English. (OCR-слой).
[Original Published: Information & Control. 8, 338-353 (1965)].
[Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California].
A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteristic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union,
intersection, complement, relation, convexity, etc., are extended to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved wiithout requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.
Contents.
Introduction.
Definitions.
Some Properties of U, n, and Complementation.
An Interpretation for Unions and Intersections.
Algebraic Operations on Fuzzy Sets.
Convexity.
References.

© © All Rights Reserved

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Published online. — 1965. - 16 p. English. (OCR-слой).
[Original Published: Information & Control. 8, 338-353 (1965)].
[Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California].
A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteristic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union,
intersection, complement, relation, convexity, etc., are extended to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved wiithout requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.
Contents.
Introduction.
Definitions.
Some Properties of U, n, and Complementation.
An Interpretation for Unions and Intersections.
Algebraic Operations on Fuzzy Sets.
Convexity.
References.

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

469 visualizzazioni16 paginePublished online. — 1965. - 16 p. English. (OCR-слой).
[Original Published: Information & Control. 8, 338-353 (1965)].
[Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California].
A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteristic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union,
intersection, complement, relation, convexity, etc., are extended to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets is proved wiithout requiring that the fuzzy sets be disjoint.
Contents.
Introduction.
Definitions.
Some Properties of U, n, and Complementation.
An Interpretation for Unions and Intersections.
Algebraic Operations on Fuzzy Sets.
Convexity.
References.

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 16

8, 338-353 (1965)

Fuzzy Sets*

L. A.

ZaDEH

Univer.sity of California, Be1keley, California

A fuzzy set is a class of objects with a continuum of grades of

membership. Such a set is characterized by a membership (characteris tic) function which assigns to each object a grade of membership ranging between zero and one. The notions of inclusion, union,

intersection, complement., relation, convexity, etc., are extended

to such sets, and various properties of these notions in the context

of fuzzy sets are established. In particular, a separation theorem for

convex fuzzy sets is proved wiithout requiring t.hat the. fu:~:zy sets be

disjoint .

I. INTRODUCTION

More often than not, the classes of objects encountered in the real

physical world do not have precisely defined criteria of membership.

For example, the class of animals clearly includes dogs, horses, birds,

etc. as its members, and clearly excludes such objects as rocks, fluids,

plants, etc. However, such objects as starfish, bacteria, etc. have an

ambiguous status with respect to the class of animals. The same kind of

ambiguity arises in the case of a number such as 10 in relation to the

"class" of all real numbers which are much greater than 1.

Clearly, the "class of all real numbers which are much greater than

1," or "the class of beautiful women," or "the class of tall men," do not

constitute classes or sets in the usual mathematical sense of these terms.

Yet, ~he fact remains that such imprecisely defined "classes" play an

important role in human t.hinking, particularly in the domains of pattern

recognjtion, commtmication of information, and abstmction.

The purpose of this note is to explore in a preliminary way some of the

basic properties and implications of a concept which may be of use in

*This work was supported in part by the Joint Services Electronics Program

(U.S. Army, U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force) under Grant No. AF-AFOSR-139-64

a.nd by the National Science Foundation under Grant GP-2413.

338

FUZZY SETS

339

d,.aling with "classes" of the type cited above. The concept, in question

hat of a fuzzy set/ t hat is, a "class" with a continuum of grades of

. ,mbership. As will be seen in the sequel, the notion of a fuzzy set

,,rovides a convenient point of departwe for the construction of a coneeptual framework which parallels in many respects the framework

used in the case of ordinary sets, but is more general than the latter and,

potentially, may prove to have a much wider scope of applicability,

particularly in the fields of pattern classification and information processing. Essentially, such a framework provides a natural way of dealing

wit.h problems in which the source of imprecision is the absence of sharply

defined criteria of class membership rather than the presence of random

variables.

We begin the discussion of fuzzy sets with several basic definit-ions.

ll. DEFINlTlONS

A fuzzy set (class) A in X is characterized by a membership (characteristic) fun-etion j,.(x ) which associates with each point 2 in X a real

number in the interval [0, 1],3 with the value of f.t(x) at x representing

the "grade of membership" of x in A. Thus, the nearer the value of

j .. ( x) to un~ty, the higher the grade o( membership of x in A. When A

is a set in t he ordinary sense of the term, its membership function can

take on only two values 0 and 1, with j,.(x) = 1 or 0 according as x

does or does not belong to A . Thus, in this case f,~.(x) reduces to the

familiar characteristic function of a set A. ( When t here is a need to

differentiate between such sets and fuzzy sets, t he sets with t wo-valued

characterist ic functions will be referred to as ordinary sets or simply sets.)

Example. Let X be the real line R1 and let A be a fuzzy set of numbers

1 An application of t his concept

to the formulation of a class of problems in

pattern classification is described in RAND Memorandum RM-4307-PR , "Abstraction and Pattern Classification," by R. Bellman, R . Kalaba and L.A. Zadeh,

October, 1964.

t More generally, the domain of defini tion offA (x) may be restric ted to a subset of X.

1 I n a more general setting, the range

of the membership function can be taken

to be. a s~itabl r uartially ordered set P. For our purposes, it is convenient and

suffici,.,n t tn rf.' :<.rict the range of /to the unit interval. If the va lues of / ... (xrare

iJ,:, -ct.;d as truth values, t he latter case corresponds to a multivalued logic

"an ll continuum of truth values in the interval [0, 1).

340

ZADEH

which are much greater than 1. Then, one can give a precise, albeit

subjective, characterization of A by specifying fA ( x) as a function on R 1.

Representative values of such a function might be:j_4(0) = O;jA(!) = 0;

f.t(5) = 0.01; !.t(IO) = 0.2; jA.(IOO) = 0.95; f.t(500) = I.

It should be noted that, althoJUgh the membership function of a fuzzy

set has some resemblance to a probability function when X is a countable

set (or a probability density function when X is a continuu~), there are

essential differences between these concepts which will become clearer

in the sequel once the rules of combination of membership functions and

their basic properties have been established. In fact, the notion of a

fuzzy set is completely nonstatistical in nature.

We begin with several definitions involving fuzzy sets which are

obvious extensions of the corresponding definitions for ordinary sets.

A fuzzy set is empty if and only if its membership function is identically

zero on X.

Two fuzzy sets A and Bare equal, written as A = B, if and only if

!A(x) = fs(x) for all x in X. (In the sequel, instead of writingf.t(x) =

fs(x) for all x in X, we shall write more simply f.t = is.)

The complement of a fuzzy .set A is denoted by A' and is defined by

fA' = I -fA.

(I)

central role in the case of fuzzy sets. This notion and the related notions

of union and intersection are defined as follows.

Containment. A is contained in B (or, equivalently, A is a subset of B,

or A is smaller than or equal to B) if and only iff_.. ;; f s . In symbols

(2)

Unon. The union of two fuzzy sets A and B with respective membership functions f.t(x) and fs(x) is a fuzzy set C, written as C = A U B,

whose membership function is related to those of A and B by

fc(x)

EX

(3)

(4)

(AU B) U C.

Comment. A more intuitively appealing way of defining the union is

341

FUZZY SE'l'S

both A and B. More precisely, if Dis any fuzzy set which contains both

A and B, then it also contains the union of A and B .

To show that this definition is equivalent to (3), we note, .first, that C

as defined by (3) contains both. A and B, since

Max [fA' is] ~ r~

and

Max [fA , Jsj ~ fs .

Furthermore, if Dis any fuzzy set containing both A and B, then

fn

~fA

fn ~fa

and hence

fn ~Max [fA ,fs]

= fc

The notion of an intersection of fuzzy sets can be defined in an analogous manner. Specifically:

IntersectiOn. The intersection of two fuzzy sets A and B with respective

membership functions fA ( x) and fa( x) is a fuzzy set C, written as C =

A n B, whose membership function is related to those of A and B by

f c(x) = Min [J"'(x), fs(x)],

f.'

fc =f.,

EX,

(5)

,.-

1\

fs-

(6)

Note that n, like U, has the associative property.

The intersect"ion and union of two fuzzy sets in R1 are illustrated in

Fig. 1. The membership function of the union is comprised of curve segments 1 and 2; that of the intersection is comprised of segments 3 and 4

(heavy lines) .

Comment. Note that the notion of "belonging," which plays a ~urida

mental role in the case of ordinary sets, does not have the same. role in

342

ZADEH

X - Y.-'

\{ t\. \_._"'C' "'~t -1."

:

FIG. 1. Illustration of the union and intersection of fuzzy sets in R 1

"belonging" to a fuzzy set A except in the trivial sense of f "-(x) being

positive. Less trivially, one can introduce two levels a and {3 (0 < a < 1,

0 < {3 < 1, a > [3) and agree to say that (1) "x belongs to A" if

fA(x) ~ a; (2) "x does not belong to A" if f"-(x) ;;;:; {3; and (3) "x has

an indeterminate status relative to A" if {3 < fA(x) <a. This leads to a

three-valued logic (Kleene, 1952) with three t ruth values: T

(JA(x) ~a), F (JA(x) ;;;:; [3), and U ([3 < !A(x) <a).

III. SOME P ROPERTIES OF U,

n, AND COMPT...F.MENTATION

defined as in ( 3), ( 5), and ( 1), it is easy to extend many of the basic

identities which hold for ordinary sets to fuzzy sets. As examples, we have

(A U B)'

(A n B)'

C

n (A

C U (A

U B) = (C

= A' n B'}

= A' U B' De Morgan's laws

n .A)

U (C

n B)

Distributive laws.

n B) =- (C U A) n (CUB)

(7)

(S)

(9)

(10)

that the corresponding relations for the membership functions of A, B,

and Care identities. For example, in ,the case of (7) , we have

1- Max(!~. ,fa}= Min [1 - !.~, 1- fo]

(11)

possible cases:f"-(x) > fo(x) andf"-(x) < fs(x).

Similarly, in the case of (10), the corresponding relation in terms of

ft. , fa , and fa is :

FUZZY SETS

343

Max [fc, Min [fA, folJ= Min [Max [fc, fA], Max [fc, fs]]

( 12)

f_t(x)

> fo(x) > fc(x),fA(x) > fc(x) > fo(x),fs(x) > f...(x) > fc(x)

Jo(x)

> fc(x) > f,~(x),fc(x) > !A(x) > fo(x),fc(x) > fo(x) > fA(x).

'

and l (Bi.rkhoff, 1948).

A~ lN'l'ERPRE'l'ATION FOR UNIONS AND INTERSECTIONS

family of sets A1 , , A, , , An through the connectives U and n,

can be represented as a network of switches a 1 , , an, with A, n A;

and A, U A; corresponding, respectively, to series and parallel combinat.ions of a , and a;. In the case of fuzzy sets, one can give an analogous

interpretation in terms of sieves. Specifically, let f ,(x), i = l, , n,

denote the value of the membership function of A, at x. Associate with

f ,(x) a sieve S,(x) whose meshes are of size f,(x). Then, f,(x) v j 1(x)

and f ,(x) A f;(x) correspond, respectively, to parallel and series combinations of S,(x) and S;(x), as shown in Fig. 2.

More generally, a well-formed exp),'ession involving Ar , , A.,., U,

and n corresponds to a network of sieves sl (X)' ... ' Sn (X) which can

be found by the conventional synthesis techniques for switching circuits. As a very simple example,

(13)

Note that the mesh sizes of the sieves in the network depend on x and

that the network as a whole is equivalent to a single sieve whose meshes

are of size fc(x ).

U and

344

ZADEH

1\

f;(x)l v f,(x)

a number of other ways of forming combinations of fuzzy sets and relating them to one another. Among the more important of these are t.he

following.

Algebraic product. The algebraic product of A and B is denoted by AB

and is defined in terms of the membership functions of A and B by the

relation

f~o

=!.do

(14)

Clearly;

AB c

An B.

(15)

and is defined by

+B

(16)

the algebraic product, the algebraic sum is meaningful only when the.

condition f ~ (x) + f o( x) ~ 1 is satisfied for all x .

I A - B l and is defined by

f iA-BI =

I f.~ -

fn

1.

complement of A n B in A U B.

' The dual of the algebraic _product is the sum A $ B = (A 'B')'

(This was pointed out by T. Cover.) Note that for ordinary sets

braic product a~e equivalent operations, as are U and $.

=A

+B -

A B.

345

FUZZY SE').'S

is usually meant a linear combination of f and g of the form

A.f + (1 - >- )g, in which 0 ~ A. ~ l. T his mode of combining f and g

can be generalized to fuzzy sets in the following manner.

Let A, B, and A be arbitrary fuzzy sets. The conve.~ combination of

A, B, and A is denoted by (A, B; A) and is defined by the relation

(A, B; A)

= AA

+ A'B

(17)

functions, ( 17) reads

X

E X.

(18)

by

A

nB ~

(A, B; A)

c A UB

for

all A.

(19)

Min ffA(x), fa(x) ) ~ >-JA(x)

+ (1 -

'A)fa(x)

X

E X

(20)

which hold for all >-in (0, 1]. It is of interest to observe that, given any

fuzzy set C satisfying A n B c C c A U B, one can always find a fuzzy

set A such that C = (A, B; A) . The membership function of this set is

given by

X

E X.

( 21)

that of a function) bas a natural extension to fuzzy sets and plays an

important role in the theory of such sets and their applications- just

as it does in the case of ordinary sets. In the sequel, we shall merely define the notion of a fuzzy relation and touch upon a few related concepts.

Ordinarily, a relation is defined as a set of ordered pairs (Halmos,

1960) ; e.g., th~ set of all ordered pairs of real numbers x and y such that

x ~ y. In the context of fuzzy sets, a fuzzy Telation in X is a fuzzy set in

the product space X X X . For example, the relation denoted by x y,

x, y E R\ may be regarded as a fuzzy set A in R 2 , with the membership

function of A,jA(x, y), having t he following (subjective) representative

values : fA (lO, 5) = O;fA( 100, 10) = 0.7;fA(loo; 1) = 1; etc.

346

ZADEH

set A in the product space X X X X X X. For such relations, the

membership function is of the form f,, (Xi , , x.,), where x, E X,

i = 1, , n .

In t he case of binary fuzzy relations, the composition of two fuzzy relations A and B is denoted by B o A and is defined as a fuzzy relation in X

whose membership function is related to t hose of A and B by

fn.,.(x, y)

A

(B

C) = (A o B)

C.

spaceY. Let B be a fuzzy set in Y with membership functionfs(y).

The inverse mapping F 1 induces a fuzzy set A in X whose membership

func tion is defined by

f.,(x) = f 8 (y),

y E Y

(22)

Consider now a converse problem in which A is a given fuzzy set in X,

and T, aa before, is a mapping from X to Y. The question is: What'- is

the membership function for the fuzzy set B in Y which is induced by

this mapping?

If T is not. one-one, then an ambiguity arises when two or more distinct points in X, say x1 and X2 , with different grades of membership

in A, are mapped into the same pointy in Y. In this case, t he question

is: What grade of membership in B should be assigned toy?

To resolve this ambiguity, we agree to assign t.he larger of t.he two

grades of membership to y. :.viore generally, t.he membership funet.iou

for B will be defined by

yE y

(23)

V. CONVEXITY

extended to fuzzy sets in such a way as to preserve many of the properties which it has in the context of ordinary sets. This notion appears

to be particularly useful in applications involyjng pattern classification,

optimization and related problems.

FUZZY SETS

347

space En.

DEFINITIONS

Convexity. A fuzzy set A is convex if and only if the sets r" defined by

(24)

An alternative and more dixect definition of convexity is the following5: A is convex if and only if

f_,[Axl

+ (I

(25)

for all x1 and x2 in X and all A. in (0, 1]. Note that this definition does not

imply that fA ( x) must be a convex function of x. This is illustrat-ed in

Fig. 4 for n = 1.

To show the equivalence between the above definitions note that if A

is convex in the sense of the fust definition and a = f.._ ( X1) ~ f" (x2),

then X2 . E r a and AXJ + (1 - A)x2 E r a by the convexity of r a Hence

fA [A.xl

+ (1- A)X2]

a = fA (XJ), then p a may be regarded as the Set Of all pointS X2 for which

AX1 + (1 - A)X2, 0 ~ A ~ 1, is also in r a and hence r a is a convex

set. Q.E.D.

A basic property of convex fuzzy sets is expressed by the

TI:IEOREM.

6

Th.is way of expressing convexity was suggested to the writer by his colleague,

E. Berlekamp.

348

ZADJ.o:H

hoof: Let C = A

fc[Xxt

+ (1

n B. Then

- X)xz]

= Min [J..(Xxt

+ (1

( 1 - X)x2]].

(26)

.fA[Xxt

+ (1 -

fB[Xxl

( 1 - X)x2]

(27)

and hence

or equivalently

fc[Xx 1

+ (1 -

X)xz]

~

(20)

and thus

f c[Axt

(x

(1 - X)x2J

Q. E .D.

(30)

If,. (x) ~ al are bounded for all a > 0; that is, for every a > 0 1,bere

If A is a bounded set, then for each E > 0 then exists a hyperplane H

such that fA ( x) ~ E for all x on the side of 11 which does not contain

the origin. For, consider the set r, = {x lfA(x ) 6; Ej. By hypothesis,

this set is contained in a sphere S of radius R( e). Let H be any hyperplane supporting S. Then, all points on the side of 11 which docs not

contain the origin lie outside or on S, and hence for all such points

fA (X) ~

E.

(M will be referred to as the maximal grade in A . ) Then there is at least

one point xo at which M is essentially attained in the sense that, for each

E > 0, every sphmical neighborhood of x0 contains points in the set Q( E) =

{X I fA (X) ~ M - Ej .

Proof. 6 Consider a nested sequence of bounded sets r 1 , r 2 , ,

where r .. = {x lfA(x) ~ lltf- Mj(n + 1)), n = 1, 2, . Note that

LEMM:A .

349

FUZZY SETS

as M = Sup.J.-~(x) . (We assume that M > 0.)

x1 , x2 , , is a sequence of points in a closed botmded set r 1 . By the

Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, this sequence must have at least one

limit p9int, say xo, in r1. Consequently, every spherical neighborhood

of x0 will contain infinitely many points from the sequence x 1 , X2 , ,

and, more particularly, from the subsequence xN+I, xN+2, , where

N if; M/ E. Since the points of this subsequence fall within the set Q( E) =

{x I fA (x) if; M - E), the lemma is proved.

Strict and strong convexity. A fuzzy set A is st1ictly convex if the sets

r a , 0 < a ~ 1 are strictly convex (that is, if the midpoint of any two

distinct points in r" lies in the interior of r a). Note that this definition

reduces to that of strict convexity for ordinary sets when A is such a set.

A fuzzy s.et A is strongly convex if, for any two distinct points x1 and~ ,

and any :\ in the open interval (0, 1)

t..~.[:X.xl

+ (1 -

:\)x2J

>

Note that strong convexity does not imply strict convexity or vice-versa.

Note also that if A and B are bounded, so is their union and intersection.

Similarly, if A and Bare strictly (strongly) convex, their intersection

is strictly (strongly) convex.

Let A be a convex fuzzy set and let M ::: Sup.,fA(x). If A is bounded,

then, as shown above, either M is attained for some x, say x0 , or there

is at least one point xo at which 1vf is essentially attained in the sense

that, for each E > 0, every spherical neighborhood of x 0 contains points

in the set Q( E) = {x llvf - f.{ (x) ~ E}. In particular, if A is strongly

convex and Xo is attained, then Xo is unique. For, if M = f 4 (x 0) and

M = fAxx), .with xx r Xo, then fA(x) > M for x = 0.5x0 + 0.5x1 ,

which contradicts M = Max,JA(x).

More generally, let C(A) be the set of all points in X at which M is

essentially attained. This set will be referred to as the core of A. In the

case of convex fuzzy sets, we can assert the following property of C (A) .

ThEOREM. I! .A is a convex fuzzy set, then its core is a convex set.

Proof: It will suffice to show that if M is essentially attained at x0

and Xx , xx ~ xo , then it is also essentially attained at all x of the form

X =

AXo

(1 - :\)xx , 0 ~ :\ ~ 1.

To the end, let P be a cylinder of radius E with the line passing through

1

Xo and Xl as its"axis. Let Xo be a point in a sphere of radius E "centering

'

350

ZADEH

f,.(:~:o') ~ M - E and f,.(x/) ~ M - E. Then, by the convexity of A,

for any point u on the segment :~:o'x/, we havef,.(t~) ~ M- E. Furthermore, by the convexity of P, all points on x0'x1 ' will lie in P.

Now let x be any point in the segment XoX1 The distance of this point

from the segment x0' x/ must be less than or equal to e, since Xo1x/ lies

in P. Consequently, a sphere of radius e centering on x will contain at

least one point of the segm~>.nt, x0'x/ anrl hence v.rill contain at least one

point, say w, at which f,. ( w) ~ M - e. This establishes that l\II is essentially attained at x and thus proves the theorem.

1

CoROLLARY. If X = E and A is strongly convex, then the point at

which M is essentiaUy attained is unique.

Shadow of a fuzzy set. LeL A be a fuzzy set in E" with membership

function f,.(x) = fA(Xt, , x,.). For notational simplicity, the notion

. of the shadow (projection) of A on a hyperplane H wiU be defined below

for the special case whore H is a coordinate hyperplane, e.g., H =

lx I x1 = 0} .

Specifically, the shadow of A on 11 = lx I x1 = 0} is defined to be a

fuzzy set Su(A) in E"-1 withfss<.t>(x) given by

fss CA)(x)

= fsu(A)(X!,

, Xn)

, x,.).

When A is a convex fuzzy set, the following property of Su(A) is an

immediate consequence of t.he above definition: If A is a convex fuzzy.

set, then its sha.dow on any hyperplane is also a convex fuzzy set.

An interesting property of the shadows of two convex fuzzy sets is

expressed by the following implication

S11(A)

B.

point, say Xo, such thatf,.(Xo) re fs(Xo), then their exists a hyperplane

H such that fsncAJ(Xo*) re !sH 1s>(Xo*), where xo* is the projection of

H.

Suppose tho.tf,.(x0 ) - ex> !B(xo) = {3. Since B is a convex fuzzy set,

the set r.B = lx I fs(x) > fj) is convex, and hence there exist.s a hyper-

Xo 011

orthogonal t.o F, and let x0 * be t.he projection of x0 on II. Then, since

1 This

proof is based on an idea. sugge~ted by G. Dantzig for the case where

A and B a.re ordinary convex sets.

'

Fuzzy SETS

351

fse<A>(xo*) ~ a . Consequently, fse<s>(xo*) ~ fs 11<.A>(xo*), and similarly

f 8(x)

A somewhat more general form of the above assertion is the following:

Let A, but not necessarily B, be a convex fuzzy set, and let Su(A) =

SJJ(B) for all H. Then A = conv B, where conv B is the convex hull of

B, that is, the smallest convex set containing B.lVIore generally, Se(A) =

S8 (B) for all H implies conv A = conv B:

Separation of convex fuzzy sets. The classical separation theorem for

ordinary convex sets states, in essence, that if A and B are disjoint convex sets, then there exists a separating hyperplane H such that A is

on one side of H and B is on the other side.

It is n~tural to inquire if this theorem can be extended to convex fuzzy

sets, with9ut requiring that A and B be disjoint, since the condition of

disjointness is much too restrictive in the case of fuzzy sets. It turns

out, as will be seen in the sequel, that the answer to this question is in

the affirmative.

As a preliminary, we shall have to make a few definitions. Specifically,

let A and B be two bounded fuzzy sets and let H be a hypersurface in

E" defined by an equation h(x) = 0, with all points for which h(x) ~ 0

being on one side of H and all points for which h( x) ~ 0 being on the

other side.s Let Ke be a number dependent on H such tbatj....(x) ~ Ku

on one side of Hand fB(x) ~ Ke on the other side. Let M s be In~ K11 .

The number Do = 1 - Me will be called the deg?ee of separation of A

and B by H.

In general, one is concerned not with a .given hypersurface H, but

with a family of hypersmfaces {H>.}, with A ranging over, say, Em. The

problem, then, is to find a member of this family which realizes the

highest possible degree of separation.

A special case of this problem is one where the H>. are hyperpl~nes in

E ", with ;\ranging over E". In this case, we define the degree of sepambility of A_and B by the relation

D = 1 - 1\1

(31)

(32)

where

=

I nfsM11

8

352

ZADEH

{point)

following stateinent9 is, in effect, an extension of the separation theorem

to convex fuzzy sets.

ThEOREM. Let A and B be bounded convex fuzzy sets in E", with maximal

grades MA and Mo, respectively [M,. = Sup:tf.-~(x), Mo = Sup:tfa(x)].

Let M be the maximal grade far the 'intersection. A n B (M = Sup, Min

[f.-~(x ), fs(x)]). Then D = 1 - M .

Carnrnent. In plain words, the theorem states that the highest degree

of separ~tion of two convex fuzzy sets A and B that can be S:chieved

with a hyperplane in En is one minus the maximal grade in the intersection A n B. This is illustrated in Fig. 5 for n = 1.

Proof: I t is convenient to consider separately the followiu"g two cases :

(1) M = Min (M,., M 8 ) and (2) M <Min (M .. , Ms). Note that the

latter case rules out A c B orB c A .

Case 1. For concreteness, assume that M" < M o , so that M = M .. .

Then, by the property of bounded sets already stated there exists a

hyperplane H such that fo(x) ~ M for all x on one side of H. On the

othersideofH,f..(x) ~ MbecausefA(x) ~ M,. = Mforallx.

It remains to be shown that there do not exist an M' < M and a

hyperplane H' such thatf,.(x) ~ M' on one side of H' andfa(:t) ~ M'

on the other side.

Tllis follows at once from the following observation. Suppose that

-such H' and M' exist, and assume for concreteness that the core of A

(that is, the set of points at which M,. = M is essentially attained) is

on the plus side of H'. This rules out the possibility that f,. ( x) ~ M '

9

FUzzy SETS

353

for all x on the plus side of H', and hence necessitates that f.~ (x) ~ M'

for alJ x on the minus side of H', and /JJ(x) ~ M' for all x on the plus

side of H'. Consequently, over all x on the plus side of H'

Sup., Min [fA (x), fs(x)] ~ M'

and likewise for all x on the minus side of II'. This implies that, over all

x in X, Sup., Min [fA(x).f(x) ] ~ M', which contradicts the assumption

that Sup,. Min [f A(x), f(x) ] = M > M '.

Case 2. Consider the convex sets r ,~ = { x IfA ( x) > Jl!I) and r 11 =

{x If8 ( x) > M). These sets are nonempty and disjoint, for if they \Vere

not there would be a point, say u, such thatf.~(t') > M andf(u) > M,

and hence fA n(u) > M, which contradicts the assumption that 1tf =

Sup.,. f,.n(x).

Since r A and r Bare disjoint, by the separation theorem for ordinary

convex sets there exists a hyperplane H such that r A is on one side of H

(say, the plus side) and r is on the other side (the minus.side). Furthermore, by the definitiOns Of r A and r B 1 fOr all pOints 0U the minUS

side of H,f_.. (x) ~ M, and for all points on the plus side of H,!B (x) ~ M.

Thus, we have shown that there exists a hyperplane H which realizes

1 - M as the degree of separation of A and B. The conclusion that a

higher degree of separation of A and B cannot be realized follows from

the argument given in Case 1. This concludes the proof of the theorem.

T he separation theorem for convex fuzzy sets appears to be of particular relevance to the problem of pattern discrimination. Its application

to this class of problems as well as to problems of optimization will be

explored in subsequent notes on fuzzy sets and their properties.

RECEIVED:

REFERENCES

G. (1948), "Lattice Theory," Am. Math. Soc. Colloq. Pub!., Vol. 2.5,

New York.

BALMOS, P.R. (1960), "Naive Set Theory." Van Nostrand, New York.

K LEENE, S. C. (1952), "Int roduction to Metamathematics," p. 334. Van Nostrand, New York.

Bxms.BOYF,