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CHINESE JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Vol. 24,aNo. *,a2011

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DOI: 10.3901/CJME.2011.**.***, available online at www.cjmenet.com; www.cjmenet.com.cn

Numerical Investigation on Fluid Structure Interaction Considering Rotor Deformation for a Centrifugal Pump

YUAN Shouqi * , PEI Ji, and YUAN Jianping

Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China

Received March 16, 2010; revised March 11, 2011; accepted June, 2011; published electronically June, 2011

Abstract: The existing researches for unsteady flow field and the corresponding flow induced vibration analysis of centrifugal pump are mainly carried out respectively without considering the interaction between fluid and structure. The ignorance of fluid structure interaction (FSI) means that the energy transfer between fluid and structure is neglected. To some extent, the accuracy and reliability of unsteady flow and rotor deflection analysis should be affected by this interaction mechanism. In this paper, a combined calculation between two executables for turbulent flow and vibrating structure was established using two­way coupling method to study the effect of FSI. Pressure distributions, radial forces, rotor deflection and equivalent stress are analyzed. The results show that the FSI effect to pressure distribution in flow field is complex. The pressure distribution is affected not only around impeller outlet where different variation trends of pressure values with and without FSI appear according to different relative positions between blade and cutwater, but also in the diffusion section of volute. Variation trends of peak values of radial force amplitude calculated with and without FSI are nearly same under high flow rate and designed conditions while the peak value with FSI is slightly smaller, and differently, the peak value with FSI is larger with low flow rate. In addition, the effect of FSI on the angle of radial force is quite complex, especially under 0.5Q condition. Fluctuation of radial deflection of the rotor has obvious four periods, of which the extent is relatively small under design condition and is relatively large under off­design condition. Finally, fluctuations of equivalent stress with time are obvious under different conditions, and stress value is small. The proposed research establishes the FSI calculation method for centrifugal pump analysis, and ensures the existing affect by fluid structure interaction.

Key words: centrifugal pump, fluid structure interaction, coupled solution, unsteady turbulent flow, basic theory

1 Introduction *

Centrifugal pump is one of the most important energy conversion device widely used in almost all industrial and agricultural applications: nuclear industry, petroleum, agribusiness, chemistry, as well as cryogenic propellant pumping, etc. The complex inner flow of centrifugal pumps including rotor­stator interaction, cavitation and rotating stall, etc. can generate hydraulic excitation forces and give rise to pressure pulsations. These dynamic pressure components then will lead to mechanical vibrations and alternating stresses in various pump components, called flow­induced vibration problem [1] . The vibrations transmitted to the foundations can spread as solid­borne noise throughout the building, and the vibrating pump structures can also radiate air­borne and fluid­borne noise. To obtain the solution for the problem, not only the analysis

* Corresponding author. E­mail: shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn This project is supported by National Outstanding Young Scientists Founds of China (Grant No. 50825902), Jiangsu Provincial Innovative Scholars “Climbing” Project of China (Grant No. BK 2009006), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50979034), and Jiangsu Provincial Project for Innovative Postgraduates of China (Grant No.

CX10B_262Z)

of unsteady flow field and structural dynamic response of pump component, but also the study on interaction between flow field and pump structure should be developed. The fluid structure interaction (FSI), which can lead to increased potential for flow­induced vibration, structural wear and even structural failure under the worst conditions, exists between complex inner flow and structures of centrifugal pumps. That means hydraulic excitation will change kinetic characteristics of structures and lead to deformation, meanwhile the distribution of pump inner flow field will be affected by the deformation as well. Even in the absence of cavitation and its complications, these fluid structure interaction phenomena can cause serious problems [2] . In the present study, the unsteady flow field to be considered is affected by mainly the rotor­stator interaction (RSI). FSI is a natural effect which is recognized by people from aeroelastic problem in early 19th century. ZIENKIEWICZ, et al [3] , well defined FSI as: Coupled systems and formulations are those applicable to multiple domains and dependent variables which usually describe different physical phenomena and in which neither domain can be solved while separated from the other and neither set of defendant variables can be explicitly eliminated at the

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YYUAN Shouqi, et al: Numerical Investigation on Fluid Structure Interaction Considering Rotor Deformation for a Centrifugal Pump

simultaneously, and interaction between fluid and structure

literatures concerned with FSI in turbomachinery are issued, can be calculated. The calculation models, which are

achieved by Pro/E, are shown in Fig. 1. The grids of fluid domain in impeller and volute were generated by ICEM CFD. Unstructured tetrahedral cells were generated to define the fluid in impeller and volute with 110 517 nodes

experimental methods, he believed that determination of and 526 183 grid elements in total. In the fluid domain of

the rotor oscillations is possible by using numerical codes for the transient flow in the pump and for structure dynamicsoftherotor.KATO,etal [8] , predicted the noise

from a multi­stage centrifugal pump using one­way structure, much less than fluid mesh, are generated by coupling method. LANGTHJEM, et al [9] , investigated ANSYScode. flow­induced noise in a two­dimensional centrifugal pump considering FSI, he believed that the interaction between fluid and rotating impeller blades acts an important role in generating noise.

In this paper, the commercial CFD and FEM solvers, CFX and ANSYS, are employed to establish the combined calculation for turbulent flow and vibrating structure using two­way coupling method for a centrifugal pump. Rotor deformation is considered for the pump structure response; meanwhile the pressure pulsation inside a pump is induced by impeller­volute interaction. The goal of this research was to learn more about the interrelation of the transient flow and the resulting rotor deformation.

impeller, a mesh refinement zone was defined near blades. And in the fluid domain of volute, a mesh refinement zone was defined near the tongue. And 16 457 grids for the rotor

different equation level. In recent years, more and more

in which many of them are concerning about turbines [46] , and a few are about pumps. BENRA, et al [7] , investigated the flow­induced vibrations of a commercial single­blade sewage water pump in detail using numerical and

sewage water pump in detail using numerical and (a) Fluid calculation domain of the pump (b)

(a) Fluid calculation domain of the pump

using numerical and (a) Fluid calculation domain of the pump (b) Structure calculation domain of the

(b) Structure calculation domain of the pump

Fig. 1. Sketch map of the pump model

2 Pump Model

The model is a single­stage single­suction horizontal volute centrifugal pump, of which the inlet diameter of impeller is 75 mm, outlet diameter is 188 mm, and outlet impeller width is 12 mm. The impeller is enclosed type with 4 blades. The rotating speed is 1 450 r/min, with designed flow rate of 25 m 3 /h and head of 10 m. The impeller structure is made of gray cast iron, of which the material characteristic parameters are shown in Table.

The objective of the combined calculation is to analyze the effect of FSI by both comparing flow fields calculated with and without FSI method and studying deformations of the rotor calculated by FSI. The deflection of rotor can be analyzed through center point on the shaft end, shown as the red point in Fig. 1(b). In addition, there are 20 indicator points in the volute around impeller outlet as shown in

Fig. 2 to obtain distribution of static pressure and its variation trends. Both Cartesian coordinate used and the tenth section of volute used for pressure analysis later are also shown in Fig. 2.

Table. Material characteristic parameters

Density r/(kg•m 3 )

Elastic modulus

E/GPa

Poisson ratio

m

7 000

150

0.25

Two calculation domains, fluid calculation domain and structure calculation domain, are involved in the combined calculation for FSI effect of centrifugal pumps. The fluid calculation domain is mainly composed of two parts, the static volute and the rotating impeller. And a sliding interface is used between volute inlet and impeller outlet to simulate unsteady effect of a stationary and a rotating component [10] . In addition, for the structure calculation domain, only the rotor structure, including impeller and pump shaft, is taken into account. Fluid solid interfaces are necessarily used on every fluid wetted impeller surface to establish an effective data transmission between fluid and structure field. As a result, both deformation of impeller and fluid pressure distribution can be considered

fluid and structure field. As a result, both deformation of impeller and fluid pressure distribution can

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Fig. 2. Indicator positions in the volute

3 FSI Calculation Process

When the flow induced deformation of the structure has an impact on the flow behavior in a manner which is not negligible, a two­way coupling of the flow calculation (CFD) and the solid calculation (CSD) is required to capture the complete phenomenon [11] . In this paper, both pressure loads from the flow field acting on the structure and the impact of the impeller deformation on the flow field are taken into consideration, and the system uses iterative coupling where each physics field is solved sequentially. In Fig. 3, a scheme of FSI simulation system is depicted which consists of three loops, time loop, stagger iteration loop and field solution loop. For every time step which is corresponding to a certain impeller position, a stagger iteration loop, including a certain amount of field solution loops, is started. Within the stagger iteration loop, not only the structural dynamics of the rotor are simulated with the FEM method while unsteady flow fields are calculated using FVM method alternately, but also data transfer between two fields are processed. The solution for the computed deformation of the structure is used to establish a new flow mesh, and then a new flow field iteration loop for the fluid dynamics simulation is started. After gaining the solution for the transient flow field with the new mesh, a new distribution of pressure loads, which will be transferred as the boundary condition to another structure field iteration loop for new result of structure deformation if necessary, is obtained. The next stagger iteration then will be started with this new flow field if the loads transferred across physics interfaces cannot converge.

loads transferred across physics interfaces cannot converge. Fig. 3. A scheme of FSI simulation system The

Fig. 3. A scheme of FSI simulation system

The unsteady flow calculation for the centrifugal pump has been accomplished with Navier­Stokes solver CFX 11.0. For closing the basic equations, the turbulence was modeled with a k­w model using SST near wall formulation from Menter [12] . Comparing with the standard k­e model and RNG k­e model, the flow near wall can be predicted more accurate with SST k­w model, and for the calculation

of three­dimensional flow field in centrifugal pump, the model can produce satisfactory results like k­e model. At first, steady simulation ought to be operated to supply initial conditions for the unsteady calculations. The inflow boundary condition is assumed to be normal to the inlet surface and uniformly distributed. The outflow boundary condition allows the fluid to cross the boundary surface in either direction. The structural analysis of the pump rotor which was coupled to the flow calculation was carried out with ANSYS code. The transient dynamic equation of interest is as follows for a linear structure:

Mq&&(t) + Cq&(t) + Kq(t) = Q(t),

(1)

where q&&(t) is nodal acceleration vector, q&(t) is nodal velocity vector, q(t) is nodal displacement vector, M is structural mass matrix, C is structural damping matrix, K is structural stiffness matrix, and Q(t) is applied load vector. Newmark time integration method, using finite difference expansions in the time interval, is employed for the solution of the linear Equation. The same number of time step is set for both simulation of fluid field and dynamic analysis of the structure. For gaining the difference of calculation results with and without FSI at some time points, one time step is corresponding to 18° of the impeller rotation, which means if the contents of one cycle of the impeller need to be understood, 20 time steps of such iteration calculation ought to be done, and no frequency analysis is available here. 7 complete impeller revolutions finally have been done in order to achieve a periodic flow field. In addition, fixed supports are chosen on the bearings for structure dynamic analysis, as shown in Fig. 4.

bearings for structure dynamic analysis, as shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 4. Fixed support for rotor

Fig. 4. Fixed support for rotor structure analysis

4 Results and Discussions

In the FSI simulation process, the convergence results for fluid calculation and for structure dynamic analysis at each time step form final unsteady solutions with FSI, and the solution curves time dependent became almost stable for the seventh calculated rotating cycle. The time of one period is that the impeller rotates one cycle.

4.1 Analysis of pressure distribution

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YYUAN Shouqi, et al: Numerical Investigation on Fluid Structure Interaction Considering Rotor Deformation for a Centrifugal Pump

To analyze the pressure distributions around outlet of different positions relative to the cutwater for each time impeller upon various positions relative to the cutwater and point can be observed. The number of fluctuation periods,

as same as blade quantity, means that non­uniform pressure distributions around impeller outlet are affected clearly by

t 2 for the point of blade passing cutwater and t 3 for the point blade­cutwater interaction. And the highest pressure value

after blade passing cutwater. Fig. 5 shows the comparisons

of pressure distributions around outlet of impeller upon point. In addition, under designed condition, the pressure

different positions relative to the cutwater under designed values for all positions are larger with FSI than without FSI

at t 1 point, the values are slightly larger with FSI than without FSI at t 2 point, and conversely the values are smaller with FSI than without FSI at t 3 point. The FSI effect to the pressure distribution, of which the pattern is quite complicated, is not obvious relatively when the blade is passing cutwater. The pressure distributions on the tenth section of volute with and without FSI for the designated time point under different conditions are shown in Fig. 6.

condition for the three time points.

appears at the nearest position to cutwater for each time

the variation trends with and without FSI, three time points are defined: t 1 for the point before blade passing cutwater,

90 with FSI without FSI 85 80 75 70 0 90 180 270 360 Pressurep/kPa
90
with FSI
without FSI
85
80
75
70
0
90
180
270
360
Pressurep/kPa

Angle a/°

(a) Comparisons of pressure distributions at t 1

100 with FSI without FSI 95 90 85 80 75 0 90 180 270 360
100
with FSI
without FSI
95
90
85
80
75
0 90
180
270
360
Pressure p/kPa

Angle a/

(b) Comparisons of pressure distributions at t 2

95 with FSI without FSI 90 85 80 75 70 65 0 90 180 270
95
with FSI
without FSI
90
85
80
75
70
65
0 90
180
270
360
Pressure p/kPa

Angle a/

75 70 65 0 90 180 270 360 Pressure p/kPa Angle a / (a) Designed condition

(a) Designed condition with FSI (b) Designed condition without FSI

condition with FSI (b) Designed condition without FSI (c) 1.2 Q condition with FSI (d) 1.2

(c) 1.2Q condition with FSI

Designed condition without FSI (c) 1.2 Q condition with FSI (d) 1.2 Q condition without FSI

(d) 1.2Q condition without FSI

1.2 Q condition with FSI (d) 1.2 Q condition without FSI (c) Comparisons of pressure distributions

(c) Comparisons of pressure distributions at t 3

Fig. 5. Comparisons of pressure distributions around outlet of impeller with and without FSI

(e) 0.5Q condition with FSI

(f) 0.5Q condition without FSI

Fig. 6. Pressure distributions on the tenth section of volute with and without FSI (kPa)

In Fig. 5, a represents the angle between indicator and cutwater position along the counter­clockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 2. Four periods pressure fluctuation upon

The designated time is 0.281 52 s when one blade is just passing the cutwater. The same scale legend is used for

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comparing pressure distributions under each condition. And the changes exist for the results calculated with and without FSI. Under designed condition, the area of low pressure zone increased considering FSI, while the area of high pressure zone had no visible change. And under 1.2Q condition, the area of low pressure zone increased with FSI, when the area of high pressure zone decreased. Under 0.5Q condition in particular, the significant change exists, and all pressure values increased sharply with FSI. That means FSI effect on pressure distributions exists not only around impeller outlet, but also in the diffusion section of volute far from the impeller. The effect of FSI, which is extremely complex, should be considered on studying pressure pulsations of inner flow in centrifugal pumps.

4.2 Analysis of unsteady radial force

The unsteady radial force acting on the impeller created by time­dependent pressure distributions at the outlet of a closed impeller must be known in order to calculate bearing loads, shaft stresses and shaft deflection. The transient radial force for every time point were calculated using the method mentioned in Asuaje’s research [13] . The program has been written using LabView software. Both amplitude and angle of force were considered. Amplitudes of radial forces time­dependent with and without FSI under three operating conditions are shown in Fig. 7, and every step represents the value of force amplitude for each time point calculated. The amplitudes are relatively small under designed condition, and are relatively large under off­design conditions in one period rotation. Four obvious peak values of amplitude of radial force are shown under every condition. It means that the rotor­stator interaction is strong, and makes an obvious and dominant impact on amplitude of radial forces. In addition, variation trends of peak values of radial force amplitude calculated with and without FSI are nearly same under high flow rate and design conditions while the peak value with FSI is slightly smaller than without FSI, and differently, the peak value with FSI is larger than without FSI under low flow rate. The variations of radial force angle, represented as b, between x positive axis and radial force vectors along the counter­clockwise direction with and without FSI under three operating conditions are shown in Fig. 8. Four obvious periods of angle value fluctuation can be seen under every operation condition, and the fluctuation is relatively unstable under 0.5Q condition. The radial force vector appears in either the first or the fourth quadrant under designed condition for different time steps, and appears in the first quadrant with large flow rate while the vector appears in the third quadrant with low flow rate for every time point. In addition, change of angles of radial force calculated with and without FSI is not obvious under high flow rate condition, and is relatively obvious under design and low flow rate conditions. The effect of FSI on the angle of radial force is quite complex, especially under

0.5Q condition. It is clear that some calculated angle values with FSI are evidently larger than without FSI, and some aresmaller.

with FSI 20 without FSI 15 10 5 0 Radial force F/N
with FSI
20
without FSI
15
10
5
0
Radial force F/N
0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 Timet/s (a) Designed condition with FSI 50 without FSI 40
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Timet/s
(a) Designed condition
with FSI
50
without FSI
40
30
20
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Time t/s
Radial force F/N

(b) 1.2Q condtion

with FSI without FSI 80 70 60 50 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 Time t/s
with FSI
without FSI
80
70
60
50
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Time t/s
Radial force F/N

(c) 0.5Q condition

Fig. 7. Amplitudes of radial forces with and without FSI

From the analysis above for angle and amplitude of radial forces under different conditions, besides factors with blade passing frequency, factors with other frequencies may exist to make the four periods of angle and amplitude fluctuations of radial force not quite obvious under 0.5Q condition relative to other conditions. That is mainly because complex flow phenomena with other frequencies, like flow separation and flow recirculation etc., are prone to occur under this condition.

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YYUAN Shouqi, et al: Numerical Investigation on Fluid Structure Interaction Considering Rotor Deformation for a Centrifugal Pump

with FSI without FSI 60 0 ­60 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 Time t/s Angle
with FSI
without FSI
60
0
­60
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Time t/s
Angle b/

(a) Designed condition

with FSI 70 without FSI 60 50 40 30 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 Timet/s
with FSI
70
without FSI
60
50
40
30
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Timet/s
Angle b/

(b) 1.2Q condtion

272 with FSI 92 without FSI 268 88 264 84 260 80 0.25 0.26 0.27
272
with FSI
92
without FSI
268
88
264
84
260
80
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Time t/s
Angle b/

(c) 0.5Q condition

Fig. 8. Variations of angle between x positive axis and radial force vectors with and without FSI

4.3 Analysis of rotor deformation and stress

The variations of rotor total deflection in xz direction under five operation conditions are shown in Fig. 9. Deformations of the rotor are relatively large under off­design conditions, and fluctuation of radial deflection of the rotor has obvious four periods, of which the extent is relatively small under design condition and is relatively large under off­design condition. Fluctuations of equivalent stress with time for different operation conditions are shown in Fig. 10. The stress values change periodically and increase with the increase of flow rates. And the larger is flow rate, the more obvious is fluctuation. In addition, equivalent stress values are small in the periodic cycle calculated though, alternating stress can also cause fatigue failure of the impeller which cannot be neglected.

0.010 0.005 0.000 0.5q Q 0.8q Q q Q 1.2q Q 1.5q Q 0.25 0.26
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.5q
Q
0.8q
Q
q
Q
1.2q
Q
1.5q
Q
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
Timet/s
Operation conditions
Deflection S/mm

Fig. 9. Variations of rotor total deflection under five operation conditions

0.5Q 0.8Q 9 1.0Q 1.2Q 8 1.5Q 7 6 5 4 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
0.5Q
0.8Q
9
1.0Q
1.2Q
8
1.5Q
7
6
5
4
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
Equivalent stress s/MPa

Time t/s

Fig. 10. Fluctuations of equivalent stress with time for different operation conditions

5 Conclusions

A combined calculation for turbulent flow and vibrating structure was conducted using two­way coupling method to study the effect of FSI of the impeller on flow field in a centrifugal pump and transient dynamic behavior of the

rotor structure. Conclusions are made as follows. (1) The FSI effect to pressure distribution in flow field is complex. The pressure distribution is affected not only around impeller outlet where different variation trends of pressure values with and without FSI appear according to different relative positions between blade and cutwater, but also in the diffusion section of volute where under 0.5Q condition in particular, the significant change exists, and all pressure values increased sharply with FSI. (2) Variation trends of peak values of radial force amplitude calculated with and without FSI are nearly same under high flow rate and design conditions while the peak value with FSI is slightly smaller, and differently, the peak value with FSI is larger than without FSI under low flow rate. In addition, the effect of FSI on the angle of radial force is quite complex, especially under 0.5Q condition. (3) Fluctuation of radial deflection of the rotor has obvious four periods, of which the extent is relatively small under design condition and is relatively large under off­design condition. In addition, fluctuations of equivalent

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stress with time are obvious under different conditions, and stress value is small.

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Biographical notes

YUAN Shouqi is currently a professor and a PhD candidate supervisor at Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, China. He has received 16 prizes of Science and Technology Advancement at Province or Ministry level. He has published 3 books and more than 240 papers. His research interests include the theory, design and CFD of pumps and fluid machinery. Tel: +86­511­88780007; E­mail: shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn

PEI Ji, born in 1984, is currently a PhD candidate at Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, China. He received his master degree from Jiangsu University, China, in 2009. His research interests include flow induced vibration and fluid­structure interaction in centrifugal pumps. Tel: +86­13776474939; E­mail: peiji1984@163.com

YUAN Jianping is currently an associate professor at Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, China. His research interest is drainage and irrigation machinery. Tel: +86­511­88780280; E­mail: yh@ujs.edu.cn