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Generic Name

Trade "common"
Common Clinical Utility
name

Acetaminophen

Tylenol

Mechanism of action

Unique Toxicity

antipyretic/analgesic, no antiinflammatory activity, DOC for children


with viral infx

inhibits PG synthesis in CNS


(post. Hypothalamus )

centrilobular hepatic necrosis


(can be countered with Nacetyl cysteine)

anti-hyperuricemic drug

inhibits xanthine oxidase

hypersensitivity reaction, skin


rash

benzo of choice for panic disorders, Tx


of agoraphobia

GABA receptor agonist

addiction (with protracted


withdrawl)

Amino(theo)phylline

Tx of bronchial asthma

PDE inhibitor, results in higher


conc of intracellular cAMP

"narrow therapeutic window"

Amiodarone

Tx of life-threatening supraventricular
and ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Class III antiarrhythmic,


increases AP duration and
refractory period

pulmonary fibrosis, pts may


see halos in periphery d/t
corneal deposits

Amoxicillin

for non-penicillinase producing strains of beta lactam antibiotic which


Strep, Staph, H. flu, E. coli, P. mirabilis, inhibits bacterial cell wall
uncomplicated GC infx, otitis media
synthesis

Amphotericin B

DOC for systemic mycoses

polyene antifungal, binds to


membrane ergosterol to induce
pore formation

nephrotoxicity

anti-inflammatory/antipyretic, DOC for


RA

NSAID, inhibits COX

GI bleeding, Reye's
syndrome

Allopurinol
Alprazolam

Acdetylsalicylic Acid
(ASA)

Xanax

Aspirin

to increase HR and for Tx of


competitive muscarinic receptor insufficient dose may cause
cholinesteraase inhibitor-induced toxicity blocker
paradoxical slowing of HR

Atropine

Azidothymidine (AZT)

Azithromycin

Bleomycin

hypersensitivity reactions

Zidovudine,
Retrovir

nucleoside inhibitor (T analog)


part of highly active antiretroviral therapy
or reverse transcriptase,
bone marrow suppression
(HAART), Tx of HIV/AIDS
terminates viral DNA synthesis
macrolide antibiotic,
antibacterial, DOC or C. trachomatis
bacteriostatic, binds 50s
urethritis, Tx of legionella, Neisseria and
rash in mono (like ampicllin)
ribosomal subunit, blocks
Mycoplasma infx
translocation
antineoplastic agent, expecially for Tx of attacks phosphodiester bonds of
pulmonary fibrosis
testicular tumors
DNA, causing strand breakage

Bromocriptine

anti-Parkinsonism drug, Tx of
hyperprolactinemia

dopamine receptor agonist

exacerbates psychiatric ilness

Captopril/enalapril/lisinop
ril

anti-hypertensive, Tx of CHF, post MI


therapy

ACE inhibitor

dry cough, angioedema, fetal


damage

3rd gen. cephalosporin, betalactam inhibitor of cell wall,


blocks terminal cross-linking of can cause a positive
bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan Coombs' test
ad activates cell wall autolytic
enzymes
antimalarial drug, inhibits
breakdown of heme in the
plasmodial digestive tract

Ceftriaxone

active against G- infx (nosocomial,


Lyme, N. gonorrhoeae) and bacterial
meningitis

Chloroquine

DOC against flaciparum malaria, Tx of


extraintestinal amebiasis (esp hepatic
amebiasis)

Chlorothiazide

antihypertensive, used for CHF,


nephrotic syndrome, hypercalciuria

prototype thiazide diuretic, binds


Cl- channel in DCT, inhibits
hypokalemia
NaCl reabsorption

Chlorpromazine

low potency drug for Tx of


schizophrenia or psychiotic
symptomatology

neuroleptic agent, antagonist at


contraindicated in pts with
a1-adrenergic, dopamine, 5HT
seizure disorders
receptors in CNS

Cholestyramine

Questran

antihyperlipidemic used for type IIa and


IIb hyperlipidemias

Cimetidine/ranitidine

Tagamet

PUD, GERD, Z-E syndrome

anion exchange resin which


binds negatively charged bile
acids and bile salts, dec
enterohepatic recirculation and
inc their excretion
prototype H2 receptor
antagonist, reversibly binds to
gastric parietal cells and inhibits
acid secretion
inhibition of bacterial DNA
gyrase

constipation and impaired


absorption of fat-soluble
vitamins
inhibits cyto p450, increased
conc of other drugs and may
have antiandrogenic effects

Ciprofloxacin

G- infx, gonorrhoeae, UTIs, soft tissue


infx, diarrheal diseases

pediatric Achilles tendon


rupture

Clindamycin, lincosamide

anaerobic bacterial infx (lung abscesses, irreversibly binds 50s subunit,


intra-abdominal infx, orthopedic infx)
interfering with aa transfer

may cause
pseudomembranous
enterocolitis

Clonidine

HTNj, opiate withdrawla, benzo


withdrawal

alpha 2 adrenergic agonist

sexual dysfunction

Clozapine

refractory schizophrenic pts or tardive


dyskinesia

neuroleptic agent with high


affinity for 5HT2 and D4 recept

agranulocytosis

Cocaine

topical anesthetic in the nose and throat

inhibits reuptake of
catecholamines

strong abuse potential,


respiratory depression and
coronary spasm

Colchicine

antineoplastic agent, gout

plant alkaloid, binds tubulin,


causes depolymerization of
microtubules

peripheral neuritis , alopecia

Cromolyn sodium

prophylactic anti-inflammatory in
asthma

inhibits mast cell


degranulation

only minimal systemic toxicity

Cyclophosphamide

alkylating agent, activated by


autoimmune disorders and bone marrow
cyto p450 and then alkylates
transplants
DNA

hemorrhagic cystitis

Cyclosporine

Diazepam

Valium

synthesis IL-2 by activated Tnephrotoxicity


cells

anxiety, skeletal muscle relaxant,


preanesthetic med, status epilepticus

GABA receptor agonist

morning after pill, can be used to


prevent pregnancy when at high doses

Diethylstilbestrol

Digoxin
Diltiazem
Diphenhydramine

immunosuppressant, prevents
rejection of allergenic transplants , tx
of graft vs host disease and selected
autoimmune disorders

Benadryl

CHF, A-V nodal depression, a-fib and


flutter
angina from vasospasm, Tx of
arrhythmias (SVTs) and mild-moderate
HTN
DOC for urticaria and allergic rhinitis,
Tx of insomnia

addiction (with protracted


withdrawl)

rare, clear cell cervical or


vaginal adenocarcinoma
via steroid hormone mechanism among daughters of women
who took it during early
pregnancy
reversibly binds and inhibits
life-threatening cardiac
Na/K ATPase, positive inotropy arrhythmias
Class IV antiarrhythmic drug,
Ca channel blocker

generally safe

1st generation antihistamine (H1


minor abuse potential
receptor blocker)

CHF, promotes inc cardiac output with


little change in myocardial O2 demand

Beta 1 adrenergic receptor


agonist

quite safe in lower doses

antineoplastic agent

anthracycline antibiotic which


intercalates DNA, binds to cell
memb and generates O free
radicals through lipid
peroxidation

cardiotoxicity

Dx of MG

competitive inhibitor of
acetylcholinesterase

only as may relate to brevity


of effect

Epinephrine

DOC for anaphylaxis, used in asthama,


cardiac arrest, enhances effect of local
anesthetics

alpha and beta adrenergic


agonist

excessive dosing may


precipitate hypertensive crisis

Erythromycin

alternative to PCN in allergic pts, 1st


choice for Legionella and M.
pneumoniae, 2nd choice for Syphilis and
Chlamydial

macrolide antibiotic, binds 50s


ribosomal subunit interfering
with protein synthesis, blocks
translocation

sensorineural hearing loss in


large doses, inhibition of cyto
p450

Dobutamine

Doxorubicin

Edrophonium

Estrogen

Finasteride

Tensilon

OCPs, HRT, primary hypogonadism and


hypopituitarism, dysmenorrhea,
via steroid hormone mechanism
dysfunctional uterine bleeding, palliative
Tx for prostatic carcinoma
5-alpha reductase inhibitor,
inhibits conversion of
BPH and male pattern bladness
testosterone to DHT in target
tissues

thromboembolic
phenomena

gynecomastia for Proscar, not


Propecia

Fluoxetine

depression, panic disorder, OCD, PTSD


SSRI
and bulemia nervosa

inhibits cyto p450 ,


potentially fatal 5HT syndrome
when combined with MAOIs

Folic acid

folate defic, dietary supplement for


women of childbearing age to prevent
NTDs

Furosemide

protoype loop diuretic, inhibits


CHF, pulm edema, renal and liver failure, reabsorption of Na, K and Cl in hypokalemia , ototoxicity,
severe HTN, hypercalcemia
ascending thick limb by blocking allergic interstitial nephritis
Na/K/Cl cotransporter

Lasix

cofactor which participates in 1


carbon transfer for DNA and
methionine synthesis

Gentamicin

G- bacteria, for serious infx, topically in irreversibly binds 30s


burns infected with Pseudomonas and
ribosome, inhibiting the initiation ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
ocular infx
of protein synthesis

Haloperidol

psycotic symptoms or schizo, severe


manic or agitated episodes, Tourette's

Haldol

in pts at high risk for thrombosis and


pulm emboli, used to stop ongoing
thrombosis, used in acute phase of MI

Heparin

dopamine receptor antagonist


(esp D2) in mesolimbic and
mesocortical areas

may cause Parkinsonism,


akathisia, dystonia, tardive
dyskinesia,
hyperprolactinemia,

accelerates antithrombin III


binding to thrombin and
antithrombin III, inactivates
thrombin, Ixa, Xa, XIa, XIIa and thrombocytopenia
kallikrein, inhibits clot formation,

does not dissolve clots!


Hydralazine

Ibuprofen

Advil

direct relaxation of vascular


moderate-severe essential HTN, CHF (in
smooth muscle, greater effect
combo with oral nitrates)
on arterioles than venules

lupus-like syndrome with


+ANA (in slow acetylators)

analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic

nephrotoxicity

NSAID, inhibits COX

prototype tricyclic
antimuscarinic effects,
antidepressent, decreases
reuptake of NE and 5HT in the orthostatic hypotension
CNS
inhibits viral protease,
preventing formation of
thrombocytopenia
functional reverse transcriptase

Imipramine

severe major depression

Indinavir sulfate

part of HAART for HIV/AIDS

Indomethacin

closure of PDA, moderate-severe RA,


OA, ankylosing spondylitis, Bartter's
synd, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout,
dysmenorrhea, DOC for Reiter's

NSAID, inhibits PG-forming


COX

IDDM, NIDDM, diabetic ketoacidosis,


hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic
coma

binds tyrosine kinase receptors


on cell surface, promoting
anabolic reactions withing target
hypoglycemia
cells, promotes translocation of
GLUT transporters to plasma
memb

Insulin, regular

blood dyscrasias,
hepatotoxicity, contraindicated
in pregnant women

Isoniazid (INH)

tx and prevention of TB

inhibits mycolic acid synthesis of lupus-like syndrome with


mycobacterial cell wall
+ANA (in slow acetylators)

Isoproteronol

bronchial asthma, bradycardia

beta agonist

sinus tachycardia

Isotretinoin

severe cystic acne that is recalcitrant to


standard therapy

unknown (may inhibit


sebaceous gland size and
function)

teratogenic

Ketoconazole

coccidiomycosis, histo, blasto,


paracoccidio, mucocutaneous
candidiasis

blocks synthesis of fungal cell


membrane ergosterol

suppression of cyto p450


(be careful of any patient
taking Warfarin, etc..)

Levodopa

for Parkinson's disease (usually with


carbidopa)

Levothyroxine

DOC for hypothyroidism

Lidocaine

primary therapy for ventricular


arrhythmias, local anesthetic

Lithium

mania, depression, bipolar disorder

Losartan K+

HTN

dopamine precursor (converted


by dopa decarboxylase)
activation of nuclear non-histone
protein receptors attached to
DNA, increasing trnascription of
mRNA
decreases automaticity in
Purkinje fibers and vent tissue
by blockin inactivated Na+
channels, favoring phase III
repolarization
antidepressent effect - may
decrease supersensitivity of
dopamine receptors, increase
Ach, enhance 5HT activity for
depression; antimania effect - it
may prevent recycling of
phosphoinositides, causing
depletion of IP3 and DAG,
diminishes excess
catecholamines and 5HT
angiotensin II receptor
blocker

hyperkinetic movement
disorders, psychotic behavior
~

cimetidine and propranolol


increase its toxicity

teratogenic, interstitial
nephritis, nephrogenic DI

fetal damage

Lovastatin

Mevacor

Type Iia and Iib hyperlipoproteinemia


and secondary hyperlipoproteinemia

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

elevated liver enzymes,


rhabdomyolysis

Meperidine

Demerol

analgesic

opioid receptor agonist

relative mydriasis

Methotrexate

anti-neoplastic agent, RA, abortion,


ectopic pregnancy, psoriasis

folic acid analogue, blocks DHF


reductase, results in decreased pneumonitis, fatty liver ,
dTMP -> decreased DNA and
myelosuppression
protein synthesis

Methylphenidate

CNS simulant, stimulates mood and


alertness and depresses apetite, Tx of
ADHD

stimulates release of
significant abuse potential in
catecholamines (cross the BBB) non-ADHD subjects

Metoprolol/lopressor

HTN, tachyarrhythmias, heart disease

Beta 1 adrenergic receptor


blocker

Metronidazole

entry into cells of infectious


amebic infx, DOC for trichomoniasis and organism, chemically reduced
giardiasis, Bacteroides fragilis, C. diff,
and products cause death by
Gardnerella vaginalis
interaction with DNA and
interfering with cell division

Morphine

sever pain

Nafcillin

Naloxone

penicillin-resistant Staph and Strep infx

acute opioid overdose

primary activity at opioid mu


receptors
beta-lactam antibiotic, inhibits
bacterial synthesis by
preventing peptidoglycan crosslinking, penicillinase resistant
opioid receptor antagonist with
very high affinity at mu
receptors, can also block kappa
and delta
Ca channel blocker

disulfiram-like reaction with


alcohol consumption, avoid in
pregnant women
contraindicated with sedative
hypnotics, MAOIs and
antipsychotics
acute tubulo-interstitial
nephropathy (ATIN), though
much less than methicillin
~

Nifedipine

mild-moderate HTN, coronary


vasospasm

Nitroglycerine

angina, coronary vasospasm,


Prinzmetal's angina, CHF, short term
management of HTN

Nitroprusside

hypertensive emergencies, acute CHF, directly relxes vascular smooth


sever mitral regurgitation with pulmonary muscle via NO, relaxes both
congestion
arterioles and venules

thiocyanate poisoning

Octreotide

controls excessive horomone secretion


in acromegaly, glucagonemia,
insulinoma

Omeprazole

GERD, PUD, Z-E syndrome

Phentolamine
Phenoxybenzamine

Phenylephrine

Phenytoin
Physostigmine

coronary vasodilation and


systemic venous pooling to
postural hypotension, reflex
reduce preload and vasodilation,
tachycardia
d/t metabolism to NO -> activate
guanylate cyclase -> cGMP

somatostatin analog

irreversibly inhibits the gastric


parietal cell H+/K+ ATPase
competitive and reversibly
hypertensive crisis associated with pheo blocks alpha adrenergic
receptors
irreversibly blocks alpha
pheo, hypertensive crisis secondary to
adrenergic receptors by
MAO OD, prophylaxis for Raynaud's
covalent attachment
nasal decongestant, hypotension, to
alpha 1 adrenergic receptor
prolong local anesthetic, to terminate
agonist
paroxysmal atrial tachycardias, mydriatic
for epilepsy except absence seizures,
inhibits voltage-gated Na
trigeminal neuralgia, limited use as an
channels
antiarrhythmic
glaucoma

Raynaud's phenomenon

cholinesterase inhibitor

~
orthostatic hypotension
inhibits ejaculation , may
cause orthostatic hypotension
tissue necrosis
gingival hyperplasia,
hirsutism
~

Pilocarpine

topically for narrow and open-angle


glaucoma to reduce IOP

KCL

antiarrhythmic Tx of hypoalemia

Praziquantel

DOC for ALL trematode infx, active in


cestode infx

Prednisone

anti-inflammatory and
immunosuppressant agent, when lonterm therapy is needed

Procainamide

atrial and ventricular arrhythmias,


including ventricular ectopic beats

Class IA antiarrhythmic, blocks


Na+ channels, thereby slowing
rate of phase O depolarization
and conduction

lupus-like syndrome with


+ANA

Propranolol

HTN, angina, arrhythmias post-MI

beta adrenergic receptor


antagonist

use with caution in diabetics,


may cause impotence

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

thyrotoxicosis

Quinidine

atrial and ventricular arrhythmias,


including ventricular ectopic beats

Sildenafil citrate

ED

Spironolactone

Streptokinase

Tamoxifen

in combo with K+ losing diuretics to


maintain proper K+ balance, useful in
presence of high aldosteone levels, used
in Dx and Tx of primary
hyperaldosteronism, used in Tx of PCOD
and female hirsutism
Tx of DVTs, PE, unclogging of catheters
and shunts, acute MI, hypersensitivity
reactions, anaphylaxis

direct-acting muscarinic receptor


~
agonist
involved in maintenance of
cellular membrane potential
antihelminthic, increases memb
permeability of susceptible
worms to Ca -> paralysis of
parasite
enters target cells and binds to
cytosolic receptor, complex is
translocated to nucleus,
regulates protein synthesis

inhibits thyroid peroxidasecatalyzed reactions, also inhibits


peripheral deiodination of T4>T3
Class IA antiarrhythmic, blocks
Na+ channels, thereby slowing
rate of phase O depolarization
and conduction, also blocks
muscarinic and alpha 1
receptors
inhibits phosphodiesterase

blocks aldosterone action by


competitively binding to its
receptor

no enzymatic action, forms


complexes with plasminogen,
which can then cleave free
plasminogen into plasmin
competative antagonist to
reduce recurrence of estrogen-receptorestrogen at receptors in the
positive breast cancer, particularly in
breast, partial agonist at other
postmenopausal women
estrogen receptors

death if given too quickly as


bolus, arrhythmias
eosinophilia

exogenous Cushing's
syndrome

maculopapular pruritic rash,


agranulocytosis
patient must be pretreated
with b-blocker, digitalis or Ca
channel blockers to avoid
possible increase in vent
response to atrial flutter, may
cause Torsades and
cinchonism
affects color vision causing
difficulty in blu e /green
discrimination

gynecomastia

hemorrhagic stroke

Terfenadine

prevent or Tx symptoms or allergic


reactions, without causing drowsiness

H1 receptor blocker (2nd


generation antihistomine)

metabolism is easily inhibited


by many hepatic microsomal
enzyme inhibitors, high conc
can cause Torsades

Thalidomide

sedative, immunomodulatory actions,


recently reintroduced for Leprosy, skin
manifestations of lupus

unknown

teratogenic, causes phcomelia

Tranylcypromine

depression, phobias, narcolepsy, panic


attacks

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

avoid tyramine-containing
foods

Trimethoprime/
Sulfamethoxazole

Vancomycin

Vasopressin
Verapamil

Warfarin

Zafirlukast
Zileuton

Coumadin

acts as inhibitor of two


sequential steps in synthesis of
UTIs, shigellosis, salmonellosis, H.flu
folic acid, sulfa inhibits PABA
resp infx, Strep pneumo, PCP, typhoid
incorporation into folic acid,
and paratyphoid fevers, Isospora belli
triemth inhibits the reduction of
DHF to THF
G+ only, for C. diff psudomembranous
inhibits cell wall synthesis by
colitis, MRSA, enterococcal infx in PCN
binding to D-Ala-D-Ala, thus
allergic pts, PCN-resistant pneumococci,
preventin its incorporation into
w/ gentamicin for S. faecalis and S.
peptidoglycan
viridans endocarditis
increases water reabsorption in
the collecting ducts of the
central DI
kidney by binding to ADH
receptor
mild-moderate Htn, SVTs, migraine
Ca channel blocker
headache prophylaxis
derivative of Coumarin,
interferes with synthesis of
simialr to heparin, but not useful for
vitamin K -dependent clotting
rapid anticoagulation
factors (II, VII, IX, X, protein C,
protein S)
leukotriene receptor
asthma
antagonist (LTD4)
asthma

5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, blocks


arachidonic acid -> leukotrienes

Steven-Johnson syndrome ,
blood dyscrasias

rapid infusion may cause


facial and neck erythema ("red
man syndrome"), ototoxicity,
nephrotoxicity
~
significant negative inotrope

warfarin skin necrosis

hepatotoxicity